写作必背单 写作必背单词和短语 1. counterproductive adj.产生相反效果（结果）的 产生相反效果（ 产生相反效果 结果） e.g. It is counterproductive to be too tough: it just makes the staff resentful. e.g. Although the speaker overlooks certain circumstances in which undue skepticism might be counterproductive, and even harmful, on balance I agree that we should not passively accept whatever is passed off as fact; otherwise, human knowledge would never advance. 2. seminal adj.萌芽的，潜在的；开创性的；有重大影响的 萌芽的， 萌芽的 潜在的；开创性的； e.g. in the seminal state （在萌芽状态）|| seminal thoughts || seminal principle（基本原则） e.g. a seminal book/poet || This experiment was to have a seminal influence on his own political development. 3. forgo v.放弃 放弃 e.g.The choice to forgo his security is always available, although it might carry unpleasant consequence. 4. intuition n.直觉 直觉 e.g.I will trust my strong intuition that free will is an essential part of our being as humans. 5. satisfy v.证明是正当的，公证的；为…寻找正当理由 证明是正当的， 证明是正当的 公证的； 寻找正当理由 e.g. Such action can be satisfied on the grounds of greater efficiency. e.g. In the final analysis, government cannot philosophically satisfy assisting large cities for the purpose of either promoting or preserving the nation's cultural traditions; nor is government assistance necessary toward these ends. 6. resort to … 诉诸 诉诸… e.g.there is no necessity to resort to violent actions such as demonstration, riot or rebel. 7. hinge on … 以…为转移，靠…转动 为转移， 为转移 转动 e.g. The claim that society’s destiny hinges on how children are socialized, while appealing in some respects, is an over-statement at best. 8. at best 最多，充其量；以最乐观的观点来看 最多，充其量； 9. collaborate to … e.g. For example, scientists, researchers, and even computer programmers must collaborate to establish common goals, coordinate efforts, and meet time lines. 10. lend some credence to … 提供支持 e.g. While our everyday experience might lend credence to this assertion. e.g. Recent advances in molecular biology and genetics lend some credence to this position, by suggesting that these determining physical forces include our own individual genetic makeup. 11. dimension n.大小；体积；程度；范围 大小； 大小 体积；程度； e.g. a creature of huge dimensions. || I did not realize the dimensions of the problem. e.g. There is a dimension to the problem that we have not discussed. || various dimensions of human experience. 12. detractor n.损毁者；贬低者 损毁者； 损毁者 13. amount to … 相当于；等于 相当于； e.g. What you say amounts to a direct accusation. e.g. Even where a fiction work amounts to pure fantasy, with no historical context, it can still hold more lasting significance than a factual account. 14. fruition n.享用 结果实 成就 实现 享用, 享用 结果实, 成就, e.g. It is the famous few that provide vision of the future, visions which groups then bring to fruition. e.g. bring one's plans to fruition || After years of hard work, his hopes came to fruition. reap v.收获；收割 收获； 收获 e.g.The consumer reaps rich rewards from this competitive spirit. 15. inspire v.激励或鼓舞 激励或鼓舞 e.g. To begin with, learning about key historical figures inspires us to achieve great things ourselves --far more so than learning about the conditions of groups of people. 16. provide necessary impetus for … 给与 动力 给与…动力 e.g. It is almost always a key individual who provide the necessary imputes for what otherwise might be a group effort, as discussed below. 17. favor v.赐予；给与 赐予； 赐予 e.g. He was favored with great intelligence. || adduce facts to favor one’s contention. 18. paradigm n.样式；典范；范例 样式； 样式 典范； e.g. educational paradigms 19. obscure v.使阴暗；使朦胧 使阴暗； 使阴暗
e.g. Generally speaking, then, undue attention to the efforts and contributions of various groups tends to obscure the cause and effect relationship with which the study of history is chiefly concerned. 20. take steps to … 采取措施 采取措施… e.g.take step to help alleviate social problems 21. serve useful purposes for … 有益于 有益于… e.g. I agree insofar as some common core curriculum would serve useful purposes for any nation e.g. immediate disclosure would have served no useful purpose and might even have resulted in mass hysteria. 22. nascent adj.初生的 初生的 e.g.in a nascent condition/stage/state || a nascent industry/ literature/art 23. reach a （fully informed） consensus as to … 对于 达成共识 对于…达成共识 ） 24. unfettered adj.除去脚镣的；自由而不受约束的 除去脚镣的； 除去脚镣的 25. irrespective of whether … 无论如何 e.g. While we must invest in research irrespective of whether the results might be controversial. 26. draw a distinction between … 区分 区分… e.g.One useful approach is to draw a distinction between personal morality and public morality. 27. catalyst n.催化剂；刺激因素 催化剂； 催化剂 e.g. circumstance often serves as a catalyst for heroism. 28. account for …解释原因 解释原因 e.g. This combination of very high density of population, goods and services, and machines, all increasing with almost brutal speed, does account for some really antisocial tendencies in modern urban growth. 29. proviso n.限制性条款；（附带）条件 限制性条款；（附带） 限制性条款；（附带 e.g. The carpenter agreed to do the work, with the proviso that he was paid in advance. e.g. Aside from the two forgoing provisos, however, I fundamentally disagree with the speaker’s claim. 30. conversely adv.相反的 相反的 e.g. hold converse opinions. || Without knowledge, we can hardly survive through abominable conditions, depending solely on the admiration of the beings derived from imagination. Conversely, without imagination, we can as well not possible to get through due to the impediment of knowledge and the depletion of spiritual asylums. 31. core values upon which any ( democratic ) society depends to thrive. 一个社会赖以繁荣的价值 核心 32. be superior (in …) to … 比更好，更优秀 比更好， e.g. this engine is superior in every respect to that. || whenever moving images are central to an event the video camera is superior to a written word. 33. proceeding n.行动 进行 会议录 学报 行动, 会议录, 行动 进行,会议录 e.g. legal proceeding || governmental proceedings 34. thwart v.反对；妨碍；挫败 反对；妨碍； 反对 e.g. the government’s strategies for thwarting specific plans of an international terrorist or a drug trafficker. 35. public panic 公众恐慌 36. unprecedented adj.空前的，史无前例的 空前的， 空前的 e.g.the society is changing at a speed which is quite unprecedented. 37. inexorable adj. 不可阻挡的；坚持不懈的；无情的 不可阻挡的；坚持不懈的； e.g.Facts are inexorable || the inexorable march of science 38. Science is on the march. || the march of science/events/time 39. make great effort 努力； make every effort 尽一切努力； 努力； 尽一切努力； overcome a myriad of political impediments 克服政治障碍 40. a myriad of 无数，数不清 无数， e.g.Each galaxy contains a myriad of stars. 41. take precedence over … 居先于 优先于 居先于…;优先于 优先于… e.g. This interest might take precedence over the historic value of an old structure that stands in the way of a parking structure. 42. strike a balance among competing interest 43. serve as a substitute for …取代 取代… 取代 be superceded by 代替；取代 代替； e.g. Pragmatic behavior guarantees survival, whereas idealistic views tend to be superceded by simpler, more immediate options.
44. 源自于： 源自于： emerge from … （in every age and culture some worthwhile art and literature emerges from the mediocrity.） stem from … （prevailing attitudes about sexual morality stem from the ideas of key religious leaders） spring from… (this desire to identify oneself with an exclusive social group seems to spring from some innate psychological need to define one's self through one's personal associations.) 45. 坏影响；负面影响： 坏影响；负面影响： detrimental effects of … （In politics, the detrimental effects of competition are blatant.） negative/adverse effects on/to … 46. 名人 notable figures celebrity elite personality （television personalities） 47. 普遍；普及 普遍； prevailing adj.普遍的； 流行的；占优势的 （the prevailing view in Western corporate culture || 普遍的； 流行的； 普遍的 prevailing principle） popular adj. prevalent adj. （The habit of traveling by aircraft is becoming more prevalent each year.） 48. 灌输；教育 灌输； instill v. （Courtesy must be instilled in childhood || Morality may be instilled into their minds） inculcate v. （inculcate the young with a sense of duty.） impart v. （A good teacher imparts wisdom to his pupils.） foster v.养育 抚育, 培养, 鼓励（Frequent cultural exchange will certainly help foster friendly 养育, 抚育 培养 鼓励 养育 relations between our two universities. || detect and foster artistic talent. || to foster an interest in music） nurture v.养育 给与营养物 教养 （While the speaker might overlook the benefits of nurturing 养育, 养育 给与营养物, certain emotions and feels, on balance I agree that …） 49. 充满；装满 充满； be laden with … （History is laden with unusual claims || be laden with responsibility） be replete with … （Modern politics is replete with examples of what most people would consider personal ethical fallings） be fraught with … (a complex issue that is fraught with the problems of defining ethics, morality, and successful leadership） 50. 癖性；偏好 癖性； idiosyncratic adj.特性的；癖性的 （Given a choice they will pursue their own idiosyncratic area of 特性的； 特性的 interest.） inclination n. （follow one's own inclination || I have no inclination to be a doctor.） 51. 若干重；若干刃 若干重； a double-edged sword 双刃剑 e.g. This type of advertisement can be a doubt-edged sword, when the product does not make the person “be like” the person in the advertisement, there can be disappointment and disillusionment with the product. a two-edged weapon 双重武器 e.g. As is so often pointed out, knowledge is a two-edged weapon which can be used equally for good or evil. twofold/threefold/manifold adj.双重 三重 多种 双重/三重 双重 三重/多种 e.g. We have to ask ourselves very seriously what will happen is this twofold use of knowledge, with its ever-increasing power, continues. e.g. The City Council has a manifold plan to beautify the city. 52. have little bearing on …与…无关 与 无关 e.g. Moreover, assisting large cities would have little bearing on our distinct cultural traditions, which abide elsewhere. with respect to… 关于 e.g. Personal economic success might be due either to one's investment strategy or to one's work or career. With respect to the former, non-conformists with enough risk tolerance and patience invariably achieve more success than conformists. With respect to the latter, while non-conformists are more
likely to succeed in newer industries where markets and technology are in constant flux, conformists are more likely to succeed in traditional service industries ensconced in systems and regulations. 先天的， 先天的，天生的 innate adj.先天的 天生的 （Correct ideas are not innate in the mind, but come from social practice.） 先天的, 先天的 [O] acquired adj.后天习得的 后天习得的 inborn adj.天生的 （an inborn sense of the appropriate || inborn intelligence） 天生的 利用； 利用；有益于 conduce to 有助于 e.g. encouraging students to question and criticize is conducing to the development of democratic spirits. be beneficial to … e.g. A national core curriculum would be beneficial to a nation in a number of respects. harness v.利用 利用 e.g. The dilemma facing leaders in all areas of life is how to best assess these individuals to determine how to best harness their capabilities to reach their ultimate productive capabilities. take advantage of … make its contribution to … 消除； 消除；减轻 eliminate v. 排除，消除 （eliminate the false and retain the true || eliminate the possibility of= 排除， preclude the possibility of） diminish v. 使减小，使变少 （diminish one’s reputation || diminish the cost of production） 使减小， undermine v.破坏，削弱 （formal study of the present culture at the expanse of studying past cultures 破坏， 破坏 can undermine the function of higher education, and ultimately provide a disservice to students and to society.） 恶化； 恶化；加剧 exacerbate v. 恶化 增剧 激怒 使加剧 使烦恼 恶化, 增剧, 激怒, 使加剧, e.g. The problems would only be exacerbated were these decisions left exclusively to federal regulators. e.g. a speech that exacerbated racial tensions || a heavy rainfall that exacerbated the flood problems. aggravate v. 过度； 过度；过分 exorbitant adj.过度的；过高的 （exorbitant rents || exorbitantly expensive || exorbitant amount of 过度的； 过度的 money） undue adj.过度的；过分的 （apply undue pressure to make s.b. change his mind） 过度的； 过度的 overemphasize v. 导致、 导致、造成 pose 引起某事物，造成，提出 引起某事物，造成， e.g. Winter poses particular difficulties for the elderly. e.g. However, a common curriculum that is also an exclusive one would pose certain problems. render v.致使，造成 致使， 致使 e.g. Your action has rendered our contract invalid. e.g. This trend renders a society’s members more vulnerable to demagoguery. breed v.导致；造成 导致； 导致 e.g. The speaker unfairly suggests that large cities serve as the primary breeding ground and sanctuaries for a nation’s cultural traditions. e.g. Dirt breeds disease. || Unemployment breeds social unrest. ( 社会不安定 ) . burgeon v.迅速发展；发芽 （burgeoning cities || burgeoning Internet commerce） 迅速发展； 迅速发展 outgrowth n.长出 派出, 结果, 副产物 长出, 派出 结果 长出 e.g. A third uniquely contemporary problem is an outgrowth of the inexorable advancement of scientific knowledge. e.g. Inflation is an outgrowth of war. 探求、努力： 探求、努力： seek to …探求，寻求 探求， 探求 e.g. One compelling argument in favor of a global university has to do with the fact that its faculty and students would bring diverse cultural and educational perspectives to the problems they seek to solve. strive to …努力 努力 e.g. students should strive to excel in the specific requirements of their major course of study
probe v./n.探求，探查 探求， 探求 e.g. probe a matter to the bottom 寻根究底 e.g. Does his/her cultural background allows him/her to freely probe the intricacy of the work? 资助、赞助： 资助、赞助： subsidize v.资助 津贴 （Subsidizing cultural traditions is not a proper role of government.） 资助, 资助 patron n.资助人；赞助人 （cultural patron） 资助人； 资助人 on the patronage of … e.g. culture has always depended primarily on the patronage of private individuals and businesses. under the auspices of … e.g. During this period, significant scientific advances occurred under the auspices of the government. 增强、 增强、提高 escalate v.增强 提高 升级 （the escalating cost of addressing these problems） 增强,提高 增强 提高,升级 enhance/promote/augment/elevate v. (elevate notion about …） 方法、途径： 方法、途径： avenue n.大街 方法 途径 路 （an avenue to success） 大街, 大街 方法, 途径, approach n. ostensible adj.表面上的 表面上的 e.g. His ostensible frankness covered a devious scheme. 获得；达到 acquire/gain/attain/achieve 获得； 角度； 角度；方面 angles/aspect/facet/side/respect 短暂/长远 transient, ephemeral/enduring, permanent 短暂 长远 危险； 危险；危害 menace, jeopardize, imperil, endanger allocate/distribute/assign 分配 最后地；最终地 最后地； eventually/ultimately