2013 年初三丰台二模 C Are you listening to pop songs but not learning to play a musical instrument? The idea of practicing the piano or violin every day under your parents’ watchful eye is bad enough, not to mention all the playtime you’ll lose. But you would change your mind if you knew that musical training could make you smarter, especially if you start young, according to The New York Times. In fact, the study of the benefits (益处) of music has been going on for years. Back in 1993, Nature magazine reported an experiment showing that college students who listened to 10 minutes of Mozart music before taking an IQ test scored better. This is what’s now known as the ―Mozart effect‖. Although scientists later found that it wasn’t IQ that had been improved, but temporary (短时 的) reasoning ability, this study still got them thinking – if simply listening to music can bring good effects, what would actually playing an instrument do to brain development? Now researchers at Northwestern University, US, have got the answer. They studied a group of college students – some of them had received musical training in their school years while others had not. Looking at their brain waves, researchers discovered that they responded differently when hearing complex sounds – those who had learned music before were better at picking out single pitches (音高) from a noisy background. And this was true even if the lessons had ended years ago. This ability to single out certain sounds is connected to language-based learning – for example, reading. ―To learn to read, you need to have good working memory, the ability to disambiguate (分辨) speech sounds, make sound-to-meaning connections,‖ professor Nina Kraus from Northwestern University told The New York Times. ―Each one of these things really seems to be strengthened ... [when] playing a musical instrument.‖ But the researchers also said that there is no one best way to apply these findings. Different instruments, different teaching methods, different schedules – parents need to find what works best for the child, and children should try to enjoy themselves and their lessons. After all, music is about pleasure, instead of being just a tool. 53. Musical training can improve the ability to ______. A. enjoy the noisy background B. make different speech sounds C. learn language-based learning D. connect sounds with the pictures 54. We can infer from the passage that ______. A. listening to Mozart’s music can improve one’s IQ temporarily B. musical training at a young age can bring us a great advantage C. students who can play musical instruments are better at reasoning D. we must learn the skill of playing a musical instrument nowadays 55. The article is mainly about ______.
A. the connection between musical training and getting good grades B. the effects of musical training on the development of human brain C. a new discovery about the longtime benefits of early music lessons D. the efforts at making full use of the brain through musical training D Diet drinks may taste good, but they might not bring happiness. A new study finds that people who drink diet sodas or fruit drinks are more likely to be diagnosed (诊断) with depression. The study doesn’t show that diet drinks cause depression and the researchers stress their findings don’t provide an explanation. They looked at more than 263,900 U.S. adults ages 50 to 71 who answered questions about their beverage （饮料） consumption （摄入量） between the years 1995 and 1996. About 10 years later (from 2004 to 2006), the same people were asked if a doctor had diagnosed them with depression since the year 2000. People who regularly drank four or more cans of any type of soda a day were 30 percent more likely to have received a diagnosis of depression than people who did not drink soda, said Dr. Honglei Chen of the National Institutes of Health, who led the study. The risk of depression was especially high for people who drank diet soda — a 31 percent increased risk compared to a 22 percent increased risk for those who drank regular soda, the researchers said. Those who drank four or more cans of diet fruit drinks were 51 percent more likely to be diagnosed with depression compared to those who did not drink diet fruit drinks. By contrast, people who drank four or more cups of coffee a day were 10 percent less likely to have been diagnosed with depression compared to non-coffee drinkers. The study only found an association, and did not determine （确定） whether diet soda or fruit drinks caused depression. Although the researchers took into account factors that could affect the results, such as age, sex, education, smoking status, physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and energy intake, it’s possible other circumstances, such as a family history of depression or stressful life events, could explain the association. A family history of depression and stressful life events are some of the biggest predictors of depression, said Emma Robertson-Blackmore, assistant professor of psychiatry at the University of Rochester Medical Center, who was not involved in the study. In addition, older people are more likely to experience stressful life events, including the death of a loved one, job changes or illnesses, Robertson-Blackmore said. However, the findings agree with those of a few previous studies that found a link between frequent consumption of sweetened beverages and a higher prevalence (流行程度) of depression, the researchers said. (Diet sodas and fruit drinks are sweetened, but their sweeteners contain no calories.) ―More research is needed to confirm these findings, and people with depression should continue to take depression medications prescribed by their doctors,‖said Chen. 56. People who drink four or more _______ every day are the most likely to feel depressed. A. cups of coffee B. cans of fruit drinks
C. cans of diet soda D. cans of regular soda 57. The underlined phrase ―took into account‖ means ___________. A. checked out B. went through C. drew a conclusion D. paid attention to 58. What can we learn from Dr. Honglei Chen’s study? A. Diet drinks taste good but they don’t always bring happiness. B. Drinking a lot of diet drinks regularly will lead to depression. C. There is a close connection between diet drinks and depression. D. Stressful life events can explain why people may feel depressed. 59. What is the purpose of the writer writing the article? A. To find out why diet drinking leads to depression. B. To present findings on diet drinking and depression. C. To warn us against drinking diet soda or fruit drinks. D. To suggest a healthy way of drinking for a better life.
53. C 56. C
54. B 57. D
55. C 58. C
2013 年昌平二模 C In North America if you are 16 or 17, living away from home without money, you may be able to get social assistance under the OW program. This kind of assistance is short-term help for your day-to-day needs. It helps pay for things like food, clothing and medicine. You may have to show that your parents will not let you live at home, or that, it is harmful for you to live there. The OW worker must be sure that your parents can not or will not take care of you financially. You must also be going to school or training program provided by OW (unless a serious medical condition or other problem makes this impossible). Even if you are a single parent of 16 or 17 years old, these requirements are necessary when you ask for this social assistance. If you are under 16 years of age, you are not allowed to get social assistance on your own. Keep in touch with the OW office near where you live. You have the right to ask for the assistance even if you are told that you may not be allowed. An OW worker will plan to meet with you. If possible, take at least one piece of identification(鉴定) to show the worker, and a report that shows you are in school or a training program. The OW worker will probably meet with your parents. If your parents have hurt your body, like head or arms, they should not be visited. Tell the worker that you have reason to fear your parents, and why. If your parents say they are willing to let you live with them, you have to show why this is not a good idea. If you can, get a letter from a social worker explaining why you should not live at home. The OW worker may require a family assessment (评估) before deciding whether you can get the assistance. If you are afraid that meeting with your parents will place you in danger, tell the worker. If you have reason to be afraid, the OW worker may meet you and your parents in different times. If the worker wants to see where you live, you will not get the assistance if you refuse his or her visit.
53. What does the underlined word ―assistance‖ mean in Paragraph 1? A. Help. B. Money. C. Education. D. Advice. 54. Which of the following might get social assistance from OW program? A. A 15-year-old boy, whose parents never give him money. B. An 18-year-old girl, who left home because her parents drank too much. C. A 17-year-old girl, whose parents won’t let her in because she has a baby. D. A 16-year-old boy, who left home because his parents wanted him to be in school. 55. What’s the passage mainly about? A. What the OW Program is and who’s it for. B. Why and how the social assistance is set. C. Who can get the social assistance and how to get it D. What the social assistance is and how to get it. D Most people feel lonely sometimes, but it usually only lasts between a few minutes and a few hours. This kind of loneliness is not serious. In fact, it is quite normal. For some people, though, loneliness can last for years. Now researchers say there are three different types of loneliness. The first kind of loneliness is temporary. This is the most common type. It usually disappears quickly and does not require any special attention. The second kind situational loneliness is a natural result of a particular situation. For example, a family problem, the death of a loved one, or moving to a new place. Although this kind of loneliness can cause physical problems, such as headaches and sleeplessness, it usually does not last for more than a year. The third kind of loneliness is the most severe. Unlike the second type chronic（长期的）loneliness usually lasts more than two years and has no specific cause. People who experience habitual loneliness have problems socializing and becoming close to others. Unfortunately, many chronically lonely people think there is little or nothing they can do to improve their condition. Psychologists agree that one important factor in loneliness is a person’s social contacts, e.g. friends, family members, co-workers, etc. We depend on various people for different reasons. For instance, our families give us emotional support, our parents and teachers give us guidance, and our friends share similar interests and activities. However, psychologists have found that, though lonely people may have many social contacts, they sometimes feel they should have more. They question their popularity. Psychologists are trying to find ways to help habitually lonely people for two reasons：they are unhappy and unable to socialize and there is a connection between chronic loneliness and serious illness such as heart disease. While temporary and situational loneliness can be a normal, healthy part of life, chronic loneliness can be a very sad, and sometimes dangerous condition. 56. Where can people probably read the passage? A. In a diary. B. In a dictionary. C. In a magazine. 57. “it‖ in the second paragraph refers to ______. A. temporary loneliness C. a new place B. situational loneliness D. sleeplessness 58. The topic of the 3rd paragraph is that______. A. one problem of loneliness is a person’s social contacts
D. In an instruction manual.
B. we depend on various people for different reasons C. lonely people don’t have many social problems D. lonely people don’t have many friends 59. What is the best title for the passage? A. Loneliness and Diseases. B. Loneliness and Social Contacts. C. Chronic Loneliness. D. Three Kinds of Loneliness. 53-55 ACD 56-59 CCAD 2013 朝阳二模 C On the morning of the day when he left Compton High School in Los Angeles, 18-year-old Allan Guei asked seven of his classmates to come together. Guei, a star on the basketball team, expressed he was giving away the $ 40,000 he’d won in a competition and was dividing it among them. The room filled with shouts and cheers. ―Everyone went mad with excitement,‖ he says. ―They were surprised that I would do something like that for them.‖ In November 2000, Guei’s family moved from the Ivory Coast to the United States, and he immediately took up basketball. ―When I first came to California, the Lakers were winning: it was Kobe Bryant, Shaquille O’Neal era (时代),‖ he recalls. ―I just fell in love with the game.‖ A few years later, he was playing for the school. Then, in March, he entered a free-throw competition at the school, and the town saw just how big a team player Guei really is—both on and off the court (球场). In the first round, each of the eight contestants (竞争者) took ten shots, and the top four shooters advanced. ―I was one of the final four, but I really didn’t shoot that well,‖ Guei says. ―I was nervous!‖ In the second round, however, he took the winning shot. He went home with the prize of $ 40,000. A few months before Guei left school, he was offered a full scholarship (奖学金) to California State University, and he had an idea. ―I could have kept the prize money, but I was already going to college for free,‖ Guei says. ―I knew the others were going to have a lot of difficulty paying for school. They needed it for their futures, so I just decided to give it away.‖ Now wearing No. 25 on Northridge’s Matadors basketball team, Guei has little time for anything but training and studying, though he keeps in touch with most of his classmates. ―I know those kids. Whatever they decide to do in life is going to be something good,‖ he says. ―It was just
the right thing to do.‖ As for his own future, Guei is still learning. ―I work really hard at everything I do,‖ he says. ―But whatever happens in my future, I’m just happy that I was able to help somebody else along the way.‖ 53. When did the things described in the first paragraph happen? A. As soon as the competition was over. C. As soon as Guei got the scholarship. B. When Guei just finished high school. D. When Guei already went to college.
54. What does the writer mean by how big a team player Guei is off the court? A. He works hard at his lessons. C. He doesn’t like money at all. B. He is good at making friends. D. He’s set a good example in life.
55. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage? A. The Most Valuable Player C. The Greatest Prize Winner D It took 13 years of international effort to map the human biological blueprint of all the genes (基因) that make us different people. The first rough draft (草图) was made in 2000. The last of our 23 chromosomes (染色体) was clearly described in 2006. Ever since then, the age of personal genetic testing has been upon us. Since that time, a growing number of private companies have come on the market mostly through the Internet, offering to scan (扫描) your personal DNA and compare it to some disease markers of the blueprint, called DTC genetic tests. But over the last five years the medical world has been discussing excitedly about whether these DTC tests are helpful or harmful, scientifically believable or completely useless. One of the usual criticisms (批评) is that the science is so new that no one really knows yet how to explain the information. ―At present they largely remain in the period of research studies,‖ notes Dr Greg Feero, special advisor to the director of genomic medicine at the US National Human Genome Research Institute. Feero says there are two reasons. ―The first is that when they offer a test, are they really checking what they should check? And then the next is that even if it is believable, does what the test is checking really mean anything to your health?‖ Other worries include the privacy of the results and how your personal genetic information might be used by insurance (保险) companies to refuse your insurance or your boss to dismiss you. Or you could learn information with a huge social or personal impact (冲击), such as finding out that genetically you cannot possibly be the father of your child. It can also give you risks (风险) B. The Most Hopeful Star D. The Best Friend of Ours
that may break your life, such as whether you are at high risk of cancer, Parkinson or other terrible diseases. Criticisms over the tests are such that some countries, such as Germany, have banned (禁止) them. In 2011, some scientists advised the US government that most tests should be done under the guidance of medical professionals (专家). The UK government also expressed its worries about DTC genetic tests and in August 2010 made a set of rules to guide the development of genetic tests. In 2011, three medical researchers published a review article in the International Journal of Clinical Practice, saying that such tests offered more risks than benefits. The most important reason is that the tests might create worries or unreal results or drive unnecessary medical treatments. They also noted some of the genetic information the tests are based on at present is far from being perfect. 56. When did the research of human genes begin? A. In 1987. B. In 1993. C. In 2000. D. In 2006.
57. What is the result of the medical world’s discussion about genetic tests? A. They are both good and bad for people. C. They still remain the period of research. B. They are useful for some companies. D. They have caused a lot of criticisms.
58. The most important fact that causes the worries about genetic tests is that ______. A. people are too weak to receive social or personal impact B. we are afraid to face the bad news that will break our life C. doing these tests is against the laws in a lot of countries D. little is known about genes and the information they carry 59. What can we infer from the passage? A. Something must be done to stop genetic tests. B. Discussion about genetic tests is needed among people. C. More research work needs to be done about genetic tests. D. With the help of the government, genetic tests can develop fast. （C）53. B 54. D 57. C 55. A 58. D C There were smiling children all the way. Clearly they knew at what time the train passed their homes and they made it their business to stand along the railway, wave（挥手）to complete strangers and cheer them up as they rushed towards Penang. Often whole families stood outside 59. C
（D）56. B 2013 年石景山二模
their homes and waved and smiled as if those on the trains were their favorite relatives. This is the simple village people of Malaysia. I was moved. I had always traveled to Malaysia by plane or car, so this was the first time I was on a train. I did not relish the long train journey and had brought along many magazines to read and reread. I looked about the train. There was not one familiar face. I sat down and started to read magazines. It was not long before the train was across the Causeway and in Malaysia. Johore Baru was just another city like Singapore, so I was tired of looking at the crowds of people as they hurried past. As we went beyond the city, I watched the straight rows of rubber trees and miles and miles of green. Then the first village came into sight. Immediately I came alive, I decided to wave back. From then on my journey became interesting. I threw my magazines into the waste basket and decided to join in Malaysian life. Then everything came alive. The mountains seemed to speak to me. Even the trees were smiling. I stared at everything as if I was looking at it for the first time. The day passed fast and I even forgot to have my lunch until I felt hungry. I looked at my watch and was surprised that it was 3:00 pm. Soon the train pulled up at Butterworth. When my uncle arrived, I threw my arms around him to give him a warm hug（拥抱）. I had never done this before. He seemed surprised and then his face warmed up with a huge smile. We walked arm in arm to his car. I looked forward to the return journey. 53. The writer expected the train trip to be ______. A. dangerous A. Choose. B. pleasant B. Enjoy. C. exciting C. Prepare for. D. boring D. Carry on. 54. What’s the meaning of the underlined word ―relish‖ in Paragraph 2? 55. What can be the best title for the passage? A. Pleasure of living in the country. B. Reading gives people happiness. C. Comfort in traveling by train. D. Smiles brighten people up. D Easter is still a great day for worship（敬拜）, candy in baskets and running around the yard finding eggs, but every year it gets quite a bit worse for rabbits. And no, not because the kids like to pull their ears. The point is because of weather change, and some researchers found that rising temperatures are having harmful effects on at least five kinds of rabbits in the US. Take the Lower Keys Marsh rabbit as an example. It lives on the islands, but it is seriously affected（影响）now by rising sea levels. According to the Center for Biological Diversity, an ocean level rise of 0.9-meter would destroy their living place completely. The snowshoe hare, on the other hand, has a color problem. Most of these rabbits change their fur color from white in the wintertime to brown in the summer, which gives them better cover from predators (捕食者) . As the number of days with snow becoming less, more and more rabbits are being left in white fur during the days of both fall and spring, making them an easier mark for predators.
American pikas or rock rabbits might be the first of these species to go die out because of the weather change. Pikas live high in the cool, damp mountains. As global temperatures rise, they would naturally move to higher ground – but they already live on the mountaintops. They can’t go any higher. The National Wildlife Federation reports that they might not be able to stand the new temperatures as their living place heats up. The volcano rabbit has the same problem. Recent studies have shown that their lower living place has already moved upward about 700 meters, but there are not right plants for them to move higher, so they have to stay in the middle. Native to the US, pygmy rabbits weigh less than 1 pound and live in the American West. They are believed to be the smallest rabbits in the world. Their living places have been destroyed by development. They also live on winter cover, but lesser snowfall is leaving them unprotected. All of these give new meaning to dressing up in a huge rabbit costume（服装）this Easter. 56. Why does the writer mention Easter at the beginning of the passage? A. To raise the problem about rabbits. B. To remind people of Easter traditions. C. To show the importance of Easter Day. D. To discuss the relationship between Easter and rabbits. 57. Why can some rabbits be easily discovered by predators now? A. Because they have moved to the places with fewer plants. B. Because they can hardly live on color cover as before. C. Because they can’t change their color into white. D. Because they are left to more skillful hunters. 58. What is the problem faced by rock rabbits and volcano rabbits? A. They are both affected by less snow. B. Neither of them can find enough food. C. Neither of them can move to higher place. D. They are both affected by rising sea levels. 59. What can you infer from the passage? A. Predators are more skillful than before. B. The weather is getting much hotter now. C. There will be no rabbit costume for Easter soon. D. People should care more about the rabbit problem. 53. D 54. B 55. D 56. A 57. B 58. C 59. D
C Once there was a little girl who lived in a small, very simple, poor house on a hill. From there she could see across the valley to a wonderful house high on the hill on the other side. This house had golden windows, so golden and shining that the little girl would dream of how magic it would be to grow up and live in a house with golden windows instead of an ordinary house like hers. She wanted to live in such a
golden house and dreamed all day about how wonderful and exciting it must feel to live there. When she got to an age and got enough skill and sensibility to go outside, she asked her mother if she could go for a ride outside the gate and down the lane. After pleading with her, her mother finally allowed her to go, insisting that she should keep close to the house and not wander too far. The day was beautiful and the little girl knew exactly where she was heading! Down the lane and across the valley, she got to the gate of the golden house across on the other hill. As she arrived, she focused on the path that led to the house and then on the house itself. She was so disappointed as she realized all the windows were ordinary and rather dirty, reflecting(反映出) nothing other than the sad neglect of the house that was derelict(废弃的). So sad she didn't go any further and turned, and heart broken. As she glanced up she saw a sight to amaze her. There across the way on her side of the valley was a little house and its windows glistened golden as the sun shone on her little home. She realized that she had been living in her golden house and all the love and care she found there was what made her home the ―golden house‖. Everything she dreamed was right there in front of her nose! 53. Which sentence is true according to the passage? A. The girl’s mother finally allowed her to go to the golden house alone. B. The golden house was on the hill where the girl lived. C. What disappointed the little girl was that the house was locked. D. Actually, the windows of the golden house were common and covered with dirt. 54. What can we infer from the passage ? A. The girl didn’t love or care for her parents B. The girl had no idea where she was heading after leaving home C. The mother thought that she needn’t keep an eye on her daughter D. The girl made up her mind to go to the golden house at the beginning 55. The passage is intended to tell us that_____. A. not all dreams will come true B. girls often have amazing imagination C. what we dream of may be just around us D. nothing is impossible to a willing heart D One summer vacation in my college, my roommate Ted asked to me to work on his father’s farm in Argentina. The idea was exciting. Then I had second thoughts. I had never been far from New England, and I had been homesick my first few weeks at college. What about the language? The more I thought about it, the more the idea worried me. Finally, I turned down the invitation. Then I realized I had turned down something I wanted to do because I was scared and felt depressed(沮丧). That experience taught me a valuable lesson and I developed a rule for myself: do what makes you
anxious(焦虑); don’t do what makes you depressed. In my senior year, I wanted to be a writer. But my professor wanted me to teach. I hesitated. The idea of writing was much scarier than spending a summer in Argentina. Back and forth I went, making my decision, unmaking it. Suddenly I realized that every time I gave up the idea of writing, that downhearted feeling went through me. Giving up writing really depressed me. Then I learned another lesson. To avoid the depression meant having to bear much worry and concern. When I first began writing articles, I often interviewed big names. Before each interview I would get butterflies in the stomach. One of them was the great composer Duke Ellington. On the stage and on television, he seemed very confident. Then I learned Ellington still got stage fright（害怕）. If Ellington still had anxiety attacks, how could I avoid them? I went on doing those frightening interviews. Little by little, I was even looking forward to the interviews. Where were those butterflies? In truth, they were still there, but fewer of them. I had learned from a process psychologists（心理学家） call “extinction”. If you put an individual in an anxious situation often, finally there isn’t anything to be worried about, which brings me to a conclusion: you’ll never get rid of anxiety by avoiding the things that caused it. The point is that the new, the different, is definitely scary. But each time you try something, you learn, and as the learning piles up, the world opens to you. 56. We can infer from the passage that the author________. A. finds it difficult to make decision B. has found out what causes anxiety C. was encouraged by Duke Ellington’s stage fright D. no longer feels anxious about new experiences 57. What does the word “extinction” in Paragraph 6 means? A. a person’s loss of confidence little by little B. the natural development of a child’s abilities C. the inborn ability to avoid anxious situations D. the process of losing fear by keeping facing anxiety 58. Which of the following opinions does the writer probably accept? A. Anxiety can be a positive drive B. Hesitation leads to depression. C. Avoiding anxiety reduces depression. D. Depression is a signal that one is growing up. 59. What's the best title for the passage? A. Confidence: Key to Success B. Anxiety: Challenge by Another Name C. Depression: A Psychological Appearance D. Success: A Trip Through Anxiety and Depression 53-55 DDC 13 年房山二模
Why play games? Because they are fun, and a lot more besides. Following the rules… planning your next move…acting as a team member…these are all ―game‖ ideas that you will come across throughout your life. Think about some of the games you played as a young child, such as rope-jumping and hide-and-seek. Such games are entertaining and fun. But perhaps more importantly, they translate life into exciting dreams that teach children some of the basic rules they will be expected to follow the rest of their lives, such an talking turns and cooperating (合作). Many children’s games have a practical side. Children around the world play games that prepare them for work they will do as grown-ups. For instance, some Saudi Arabian children play a game called bones, which sharpens the hand-eye coordination（协调）needed in hunting. Many sports encourage national or local pride. The most famous games of all, the Olympic Games, bring athletes from around the world together to take part in friendly competition. People who watch the event wave flags, knowing that a gold medal is a win for an entire country, not just the athlete who carried it. For countries experiencing natural disasters or war, an Olympic win can mean so much. Sports are also an event that unites people. Soccer is the most popular sport in the world. People on all continents play it—some for fun and some for a living. Nicolette Iribarne, a Californian soccer player, has discovered a way to spread hope through soccer. He created a foundation to provide poor children with not only soccer balls but also a promising future. Next time you play your favorite game or sport, think about why you enjoy it, what skills are needed, and whether these skills will help you in other aspects of your life. 53. Which of the following is true according to the whole passage? A. All young children enjoy rope-jumping and hide and seek games. B. children prepare themselves for work while playing games. C. An Olympic gold medal is only a win for an athlete. D. People on all continents play soccer just for fun. 54. The underlined part in Paragraph 2 most probably means that games can ________. A. describe life in an exciting way B. turn real-life experiences into a play C. make learning life skills more interesting D. change people’s views of sporting events 55. What can be inferred from the passage? A. Games benefit people all their lives. B. Sports can get all athletes together. C. People are advised to play games for fun. D. Sports increase a country’s competitiveness. D Next time a customer comes to your office, offer him a cup of coffee. And when you’re doing your holiday shopping online, make sure you’re holding a large glass of iced tea. The physical sensation of warmth encourages emotional warmth, while a cold drink in hand prevents you from making unwise decisions — those are the practical lesson being drawn from recent research by psychologist (心理学家)John A. Bargh. Psychologists have known that one person’s perception (感知) of another’s “warmth” is a powerful determiner (决定因素) in social relationships. Judging someone to be either “warm” or “cold” is a primary consideration, even trumping evidence that a “cold” person may be more capable. Much of this is rooted in very early childhood experiences, Bargh argues, when babies’ conceptual （概念化的）sense of the world around them is shaped by physical sensations, particularly warmth and coldness. Classic studies by Harry Harlow, published in 1958, showed
monkeys preferred to stay close to a cloth ―mother‖ rather than one made of wire, even when the wire ―mother‖ carried a food bottle. Harlow’s work and later studies have led psychologists to stress the need for warm physical contact from caregivers to help young children grow into healthy adults with normal social skills. Feelings of “warmth” and “coldness” in social judgments appear to be universal. Although no worldwide study has been done, Bargh says that describing people as “warm” or ， “cold” is common to many cultures, and studies have found those perceptions influence judgment in dozens of countries. To test the relationship between physical and psychological warmth, Bargh conducted an experiment which involved 41 college students. A research assistant who was unaware of the study’s hypotheses (假设) , handed the students either a hot cup of coffee, or a cold drink, to hold while the researcher filled out a short information form. The drink was then handed back. After that, the students were asked to rate the personality of ―Person A‖ based on a particular description. Those who had briefly held the warm drink regarded Person A as warmer than those who had held the iced drink. “We are grounded in (基于，依赖于) our physical experiences even when we think abstractly， says Bargh. ” 56. According to Paragraph 1, a person’s emotion may be affected or influenced by________. A. the visitors to his office B. the psychology lessons he has D. the things he has bought online D. his physical feeling of coldness 57. Harlow’ s experiment shows that________. A. adults should develop social skills B. babies need warm physical contact C. caregivers should be healthy adults D. monkeys have social relationships 58. We can infer from the passage that________. A. abstract thinking does not come from physical experiences B. feelings of warmth and coldness are studied worldwide C. physical temperature affects how we see others D. capable persons are often cold to others 59. What would be the best title for the passage? A. Drinking for Better Social Relationships B. Experiments of Personality Evaluation C. Developing Better Drinking Habits D. Physical Sensations and Emotions 13 年东城二模