成都新东方国内考试部: 成都新东方国内考试部:吴笛 2011.1.22 修订 (1) Also, union spokesmen emphasize that the benefit of the increased production and lower costs made possible by automation should be shared by workers in the form of higher wages, more leisure, and improved living standard.

(2) It is emphasized that since the employer involved in such a plan has a direct financial interest in preventing unemployment, he will have a strong drive for planning new installations so as to cause the least possible problems in jobs and job assignment.

(3) And when fifty years ago “being employed” meant working as a factory laborer or as a farmhand, the employee of today is increasingly a middle-class person with a substantial formal education, holding a professional or management job requiring intellectual and technical skills.

(4) Indeed, two things have characterized American society during these fifty years: middle-class and upper-class employees have been the fastest-growing groups in our working population—— growing so fast that the industrial worker, that oldest child of the Industrial Revolution, has been losing in numerical importance despite the expansion of industrial production.

(5) Certainly more people fail because they do not know the requirements of being an employee than because they do not adequately possess the skills of their trade; the higher you climb the ladder, the more you get into administrative of executive work, the greater the emphasis on ability to work within the organization rather than on technical abilities or professional knowledge.

(6) the position in which the life preserver will support a person who jumps or falls into the water

is most important, as is its

tendency to turn the wearer in the water from a face-down position to an upright or slightly backward position, with his face clear of the water, even when the wearer is exhausted or unconscious.

(7) It is generally accepted that nobody should be excluded from the wealth Western industrialized countries, a system of insurance has been introduced which guarantees everyone a minimum of subsistence in case of unemployment, sickness and old age

(8) The recognition of the importance of green spaces in the urban environment is a first step on the right way, this does not mean, however, that sufficient details are known about the functions of green space in towns and about the way in which the inhabitants are using these spaces.

(9) The theoretical separation of living, working, traffic and recreation which for many years has been used in town-and –country planning, has in my opinion resulted in disproportionate attention for improvement of recreative possibilities in the direct neighborhood of the home.

(10) The very best standard of living is nothing if it is not possible to take a pleasant walk in the district, if the children cannot be allowed to play in the street, because the risks of traffic are too great, if during shopping you can nowhere find a spot for enjoying for a moment the nice weather, in short, if you only feel yourself at home after the street-door of your house is closed after you.

(11) Protests at the use of animals in research have taken a new and fearful character in Britain with the attempted murder of two British scientists by the terrorist technique of the pre-planted car-bomb.

(12) There are several steps that can be taken, of which the chief one is to demand of all the organizations that exist with the declared objectives of safeguarding the interests of animals that they should declare clearly where they stand on violence towards people.

(13) These people should also undertake that it will be a test of continuing membership in their organizations that members and would-be-members should declare that they will take no part in acts of violence against human beings.

(14) But at least they would distinguish the organizations entitled to a continuing voice in the dialogue with the research community about the rights of animals in research from the organizations that deserve no say.

(15) These suburbs, spread out along a railroad line, were discontinuous and properly spaced; and without the aid of legislation they were limited in population as well as area; for the biggest rarely held as many as ten thousand people, and under five thousand was more usual.

(16) Through its spaced station stops, the railroad suburb was at first kept from spreading or excessively increasing in numbers, for a natural greenbelt, often still under cultivation as park, gardens, remained between the suburbs and increased the available recreation areas.

(17) Occasionally, in a few happy areas like Westchester, between 1915 and 1935 a parkway, like the Bronx River parkway, accompanied by continuous strip of park for pedestrian use, not yet overrun by a constant stream of urban traffic, added to the perfection of the whole suburban pattern.

(18) There’s also the nonsense of so many friendly hotel night porters having been gradually with drawn from service in the interests of ‘efficiency’( i.e. profits ) and replaced by coin-eating machines which supply everything from beer o medicine, not to mention the creeping threat of the tea-making set in your room: a kettle with teabags, milk bags sugar.

(19) Most of the citizens of earlier generations knew little or noting about the complicated and delicate system that runs all through nature, and which means that as in a living body, an unhealthy condition of one part will sooner or later be harmful to all the others.

(20) Fifty years ago nature study was not part of the school work; scientific forestry was a new idea; timber was still cheap because it could be brought in any quantity from distant woodlands; soil destruction and river floods were not national problems; nobody had yet studied long-terms climatic cycles in relation to proper land use; even the word “conservation” had nothing of the meaning that it has for us today.

(21) Thus, for those individuals who are interested in preserving both the quality and quantity of life, personal health choices should reflect those behaviors that are associated with a statistical probability of increased vitality and longevity.

(22) A national council reports these findings; though unemployed longer when seeking work, older women job-hunt harder, hold a job longer with less absenteeism, perform as well or better, are more reliable, and are more willing to learn than men or younger women.

(23) At least by middle adulthood, the women who were involved in a combination of roles—marriages, motherhood, and employment were the highest in well-being, despite warnings about stress and strain.

(24) Berger suggests several methods for reducing uncertainties about others: watching, without being notice, a person interacting with others, particularly with others who are known to you so you can compare the observed person’s behavior with the known others’ behavior; observing a person in a situation where social behavior is relatively unrestrained or where a wide variety of behavioral responses are called for ; deliberately structuring the physical or social environment so as to observe the person’s responses to specific stimuli; asking people who have had or have frequent contract with the person about him or her; and using various strategies in face-to-face interaction to uncover information about another person——questions, self-disclosures, and so on.

(25) Ironically , those things that keep us from knowing another person too well (e.g. secrets and deceptions) may be just as important to the development of satisfying relationship as those things that enable us to obtain accurate knowledge about a person.(e.g. disclosure and truthful statement.)

(26) Even the folk knowledge in social systems on which ordinary life is based in earning, spending, organizing, marrying, taking part in political activities, fighting and so on, is not very dissimilar from the more sophisticated images of the social system derived from the social sciences, even though it is built upon the very imperfect samples of personal experience.

(27) Our image of the astronomical universe is the least secure of all simply because we observe such a fantastically small sample of it and its record-keeping is trivial as compared with the rich the social systems, or even the limited records of biological systems.

(28) No one looking ahead 20 years possibly could have foreseen the ways in which a single invention, the chip, would transform our world thanks to its applications in personal computers, digital communications and factory robots.

(29) Most of these books, as well as several chapters, mainly in , but not limited to, journalism and broadcasting handbooks and reporting texts, stress the “how to ” aspects of journalistic interviewing rather than the conceptual aspects of the interview, its context, and implications.

(30) Early industrialization began the process of transferring some production processes ( e.g. cloth making, sewing ,and canning foods) from the home to the marketplace.

(31) Soon, the more important second stage was evident—the marketplace began producing goods and services that had never been produced by the home economy and the home economy was unable to produce them ( e.g. electricity and electrical appliances, the automobile, advanced education, sophisticated medical care ).

(32) Just as the appearance of the automobile made the use of the horse-drawn carriage illegal and then impractical, and the appearance of television changed the radio from a source of entertainment to a source of background music, so most of the fruits of economic growth did not increase the options available to the home economy to either produce the goods or services or purchase them in the market.

(33) Through the study of instruments, as well preserved Paintings, written documents, and so on, we can explore the movements of music from the Near East to China over a thousand years ago, or we can outline the spread of Near eastern influence to Europe that results in the development of most of the instruments on the symphony orchestra.

(34) Sheet music or printed music, too, is material culture. Scholars once defined folk music-cultures as those in which people learn and sing music by ear rather than from print, but research show mutual influence among oral and written sources during the past few centuries in Europe, Britain, and America, printed versions limit variety because they tend to standardize any song, yet they stimulate people to create new and different songs.

(35) Conflict, defined as opposition among social entities directed against one another is distinguished from competition, defined as opposition among social entities independently striving for some thing which is in inadequate supply.

(36) We will be faced with a situation where many of the users of these dictionaries will at the very least have distinct socio-cultural perspectives and may have world views which are totally opposed and even hostile to those of the West.

(37) Advanced learners from this kind of background will not only evaluate a dictionary on how user-friendly it is but will also have

definite views about the scope and appropriateness of the various socio-cultural entries.

(38) And this separation the detective feels between himself and the rest of the world is deepened by the simple mindedness—as he sees it —of citizens, social workers, doctors, law-makers, and judges, who, instead of elimination crime punish the criminals less severely in the hope that this will make them reform.

(39) The explosion of the Challenger space shuttle and the Russian nuclear accident at Chernobyl drive home the human quality of technology; they provide cases in which well-planned systems suddenly went haywire and there was no ready hand to set them right.

(40) It is the capacity of the computer for solving problem and making decisions that represents its greatest potential and that pees the greatest difficulties in predicting the impact on society.

(41) John Dewey has said in all seriousness that the part played by custom in shaping the behavior of the individual as over against any way in which he can affect traditional custom, is as the proportion of the total vocabulary of his mother tongue over against those words of his own baby talk that are taken up into the language of his family.

(42) By the time he can talk, he is the little creature of his culture, and by the time he is grown and able to take part in its activities, its habits are his habits, its beliefs his beliefs, its impossibilities his impossibilities.

(43) Unlike other lawbreakers, who must leave the country, commit suicide, or go to jail, computer criminals sometimes escape punishment, demanding not only that they not be charged but that they be given good recommendations and perhaps other benefits.

(44) It is said that the public and Congressional concern about deceptive packaging rumpus started because Senator Hart discovered that the boxes of cereals consumed by him, Mrs. Hart, and their children were becoming higher and narrower, with a decline of net weight from 12 to 10.5 ounces, without any reduction in price.

(45) A study of drugstore and supermarket shelves will convince any observer that all possible size and shapes of boxes, jars, bottles, and tins are in use at the same time and, as the package journals show, week by week, there is never any hesitation in introducing a new size, and shape of box or bottle when it aids in product differentiation.

(46) The producers of packaged products argue strongly against changing sizes of packages to contain even weights and volumes, but no one in the trade comments unfavorably on the huge costs incurred by endless changes of package sizes, materials, shape, art work, and net weights that are used for improving a product’s market position.

(47) And the limited investments that are made in training workers are also much more narrowly focused on the specific skills necessary to do the next job rather than on the basic background skills that make it possible to absorb new technologies.

(48) More time is required before equipment is up and running at capacity, and the need for extensive retraining generates costs and creates bottlenecks that limit the speed with which new equipment can be employed.

(49) Just how critical this eye maneuvering is to the maintenance of conversational flow becomes evidence when two speakers are wearing dark glasses: there may be a sort of traffic jam of words caused by interruption, false starts, and unpredictable pauses.

(50) Home schoolers, opposed the system because they have strong convictions that their approach to education-whether fueled by religious enthusiasm or the individual child’s interests and natural pace-is best.



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