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自编名词性从句之宾语从句The Object Clause


名词性从句 Noun Clauses
宾 语 从 句 The Object Clause
英语句子类型分为: 简单句 Simple sentences, 并列句 Compound sentence 和复合句 (Complex Sentence) 。并列句是并列连词:and、or、but 连接;复合句由一个主句(Principal Clause) 和一个或一个以上的从句(Subordinate Clause)构成。 主句是全句的主体, 通常可以独立存在; 从句则是一个句子的某种成分,不能独立存在。从句虽不能单独成句,但它也有主语部分 和谓语部分,就像一个句子一样。所不同在于,从句须由一个关联词(connective)引导。 根据引导从句属性的不同大致可分为: ①名词性从句 The Noun Clause, (主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句) ,这四种 从句分别在主句中分别起主语、表语、宾语和同位语作用。从句的属性归属名词性从句。 ②定语从句 The Attributive Clause,从句的属性归属形容词性从句。 【本次不讨论】 ③状语从句 The Adverbial Clause。从句的属性归属于副词类从句。时间状语从句、地点状 语从句、原因状语从句、条件状语从句、目的状语从句、让步状语从句、比较状语从句、 方式状语从句、结果状语从句。 【本次不讨论】 Where the girl lives is still unknown. 主语从句

The question is where the girl lives now. 表语从句 I don’t know where the girl lives. 宾语从句 I have no idea where her mother lives. 同位语从句 This is the place where the girl lives. 定语从句

We have learnt quite a lot about it since we came here. 状语从句—时间状语从句 The girl lives where her mother lives. 状语从句—地点状语从句 We got up early this morning so that we could catch the first bus to the railway station.目的状语 My friends dislike me because I’m handsome and successful. 原因状语 We’ll start our project if the president agrees. 条件状语。 其他状语从句不再例举.
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一,宾语从句
The Object Clause
宾语从句的概念:宾语从句在复合句中作主句的宾语。 宾语从句的结构:主句 +连词(引导词)+ 宾语从句 1.作动词或动词短语的宾语 I heard (that) he joined the army. She did not know what had happened. I wonder whether you can change this note for me. She told me that she would accept my invitation. Make sure that there are no mistakes in your papers before you turn them in. 2. 作介词的宾语。 Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate (合作) with one another. 3. 作形容词的宾语。在主句为动词 be 加某些形容词(如 sorry, sure, afraid, glad,certain, pleased,happy,satisfied,surprised 等)作表语时,后面所跟的省略 that 的从句也可算是宾 语从句。 I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake. I am sure (that) he will win the game. I’m sorry (that) I don’t know . We’re sure (that) our team will win . I’m afraid (that) he won’t pass the exam . 4. it 可以作为形式宾语。 We thought it good news that the fog had finally gone. I have made it a rule that I keep diaries. We all find it important that we (should) make a quick decision about this mater.
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二,宾语从句使用时的注意事项: 一,关于语序:从句部分的语序必须用陈述语序:连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分
★宾语从句的连接词有: 从属连词(that,if,whether) 、 连接代词(who,whom ,whose ,what ,whoever ,whomever ,whosever,whatever, whichever)—替代从句的主语、宾语、定语、表语。可以是人;也可以是物。 连接副词(when,where,why,how,whenever,wherever,however)等。—缺时间状 语,用 when;缺地点状语,用 where;缺原因状语,用 why;缺方式状语,用 how。换 言之,在从句中做状语成分。那些加 ever 和不加 ever 的区别在于,不加的是特指,加的 是泛指,需要根据句子意思确定是特指或泛指。 ★以上这些连接主句和从句部分的连接词中: ①that 引导表示陈述句的宾语从句 (包括肯定、 否定) ;②if 和 whether 引导表示“是否”的一般疑问句;当宾语从句是特殊疑问句时,由连 接代词或连接副词引导。 但 what, whatever 除了指疑问外,也可以指陈述。 比如: The book will show you what the best CEOs know.以下示例为宾语从句中从句部分错误和正确的两种语序: 举例:错误:His brother asks when will he go to the library . 正确:His brother asks when he will go to the library . 错误:I don’t know what does he want to buy . 正确:I don’t know what he wants to buy . 错误:Can you tell me who are we going to meet ? 正确:Can you tell me who we are going to meet ? 错误:We want to know if/whether does he know French. 正确:We want to know if/whether he knows French . 错误:They’ re not sure if /whether will they go to Canada in summer . 正确:They’ re not sure if /whether they will go to Canada in summer .
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二,关于时态:
①第一种情况:如果主句是现在的时态 (包括一般现在时 ,现在进行时,现在完成时) , 从句的时态可根据实际情况而定, (包括一般现在时,一般过去时,一般将来时,现在完成 时等) ,例如: I know he lives here. I know he lived here ten years ago . I have heard that he will come tomorrow . ②第二种情况:如果主句是过去的时态(包括一般过去时,过去进行时) ,那么从句的时态 一定要用相对应的过去的某种时态(包括一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时, 过去完 成时) ,例如: I know (that) he studies English every day. I know (that) he studied English last term. I know (that) he will study English next year. I know (that) he has studied English since 1998. 请注意以下两种情况: ★could / would 是委婉语气, 而不是过去式, 因此宾语从句的时态根据实际情况用不同时态。 Could you please tell me where we show our tickets ? Could you tell us which gate we have to go to ? Would you like to know when he will come back ? ★当从句是客观真理,定义,公理,定理时不受主句时态的影响,而用一般现在时。

三,关于语气: 在表示“坚持” 、 “命令” 、 “建议” 、 “要求”等后的宾语从句要用虚拟语气。 这类动词归纳为“一个坚持 (insist)、两个命令(order, command)、三个建议(advise, suggest, propose)、四个要求(demand,
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require, request, ask)” ,这类虚拟语气由“should+动词原形”构成,其中的 should 在美国英语中 通常可以省略。如: I insist that she (should) do her work alone. He ordered that it (should) be sent back. 他命令把它送回去。 The doctor advised/suggested that he (should) not smoke. 医生建议他不要抽烟。 ★ 对于从句是否使用虚拟语气的问题,需要特别注意的两点是: 第一点:It was proposed that this matter be discussed next time. 有人提议这事下次再讨 论。 解读:动词 insist 后接宾语从句时,除可用虚拟语气外,也可用陈述语气,两者的区别是: 若谓语动词所表示的动作尚未发生,或尚未成为事实,则用虚拟语气;若谓语动词所表示 的动作已经发生,或已经成为事实,则要用陈述语气。比较: He insisted that I had read his letter. 他坚持说我看过他的信。 He insisted that I should read his letter. 他坚持要我看他的信。 第二点:与动词 insist 相似,动词 suggest 后接宾语从句时,除可用虚拟语气外,也可用陈 述语气,两者的区别也是:若谓语动词所表示的情况尚未成为事实,则用虚拟语气,此时 s uggest 通常译为“建议”;若谓语动词所表示的情况为既成事实,则要用陈述语气,此时的 s uggest 通常译为“表明”、“认为”。比较并体会: He suggested that we (should) stay for dinner. 他建议我们留下吃饭。 What he said suggested that he was a cheat. 他说的话表明他是个骗子。 I suggested that you had a secret understanding with him. 我觉得你与他心照不宣。

四,宾语从句的从句部分是陈述句中的肯定句,需要掌握的是: 当宾语从句是陈述句中的肯定句时,连词由 that 引导,因为 that 在从句中不作任何成分, 也没有任何具体意思,因此 that 在口语或非正式文体中常省略。 五,关于使用引导词 that 时,that 能否省略的问题: 宾语从句中,以下十二种情况 that 不可省略。 ★第一种:如果从句是并列句时,第二个分句前的 that 不可省。换句话说宾语从句本身又是
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复合句,that 不可以省略。例如: He said (that) the meeting was very important and that we should take part in it. 点评:上面整个是一个含有宾语从句的复合句,而构成宾语部分的从句不是一个简单的句 子, 而是由两个简单的句子共同构成:the meeting was very important 是一句; we should take part in it 又是一个句子,两句成并列关系,因此连接主句和整个从句的第一个 that 可省略, 而构成从句的第二个 that 不可省。 I hope (that) I can get a good mark and that(不可省) I can go to collage. He said (that) the book was very interesting and that(不可省) all the children like to read it. The teacher told the students (that) they should hand in their homework the next day and that( 不 可省) the homework must be signed names by their parents. 老师告诉学生他们要在第二天交上作业,并且作业必须由家长签名。 ★ 第二种:当 that 引导的宾语从句的主语是非谓语动词或是主语从句时,that 不可省略。 I am satisfied that what should be done has already done. 解读:what should be done has already done 这个从句做形容词 satisfied 的宾语,而 what should be done 又在宾语从句中做了主语成分,它是一个主语型的从句—宾语从句里有主语 从句,因此宾语从句本身又是复合句,that 不可省略。再例如: The doctor said that taking exercise was the best way of losing weight. 医生说运动是最好的减肥方式。 The old lady then explained that what she was looking for was a pair of gloves for a girl. 老太太然后说她寻找的是一双女孩子戴的手套。 ★第三种:当主句的状语部分位于 that 宾语从句之前时,that 不宜省略。例如: Jane realized at once that she must do with it herself. 珍立刻意识到她必须亲自处理那件事。 (如省略 that ,at once 也可能修饰从句,是表示 “立刻意识到 ……”,还是表示“立刻去处 理……”,较为含糊)
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★第四种:当 that 宾语从句中的状语部分位于从句的前部时,that 不宜省略。例如: Tom promised that if he could earn as much as 500 dollars in this month, he would buy a computer for his brother. 汤姆许下诺言,如果他在这个月里能够赚到 500 美元,他就给他的弟弟买台电脑。 ★第五种:在主句和宾语从句之间插入了一个时间状语或其他短语时,that 不可以省略。 例如:I don’t doubt, in any case, that he will succeed. Little Alice didn't know, I'm sure, that her sister was going to America. 我确信,小艾丽斯不知道她的姐姐很快就要去美国了。 We hope, on the contrary, that he will stay at home with us. 恰恰相反,我们希望他和我们呆在家里。 I think, first of all, that we must believe in ourselves. 我认为,尤其重要的是,我们必须对自己有信心。 He said, in his opinion, that Lei Feng was a good example of serving the people heart and soul. 他说,按照他的看法,雷锋是一个全心全意为人民服务的榜样。 ★第六种:在简短回答中,宾语从句中 that 不可以省略。 ---What did you tell him yesterday? ---That I would go abroad.

★第七种:宾语从句后如有宾补,要用形式宾语 it 来代替,而把宾语从句移至宾补之后。 解读: it 不仅可以作为形式主语替代句子真正的逻辑主语, 例如: It is very kind of you to give me a hand in time.(不定式做逻辑主语) ,还可以作为形式宾语,而真正的宾语 that 从句则 放在句尾,特别是在带复合宾语中宾语补足语的句子中。这类动词有: find,feel,consider,make,believe 等后面有宾语补足语的时候。这时候,我们需要用 it 做形式 宾语而将 that 宾语从句后置。例如: I think that it necessary that you should learn English well. We thought it good news that the fog had finally gone.
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I think it necessary that we should increase our awareness of environmental protection . 我认为增加我们的环保意识是有必要的。 We have made it clear that we will learn to deal with various difficult problems. 我们已经表明,我们将学会处理各种难题 We took it for granted that they would accept the proposal. 我们想当然地以为他们会接受这个建议的。 I think it necessary that he should stay here. 我们认为他有必要留在这里。 ★第八种:当 that 引导的宾语从句是复合宾语的双宾语中的直接宾语时,能够形成双宾语 的这类动词主要有:hate,take,owe,have,see to.award,lend.hand,mail,offer,pass,pay,post,read, return,show,teach,tell……这时候 that 一般不宜省略。例如: I will never tell anyone that you have ever been there. 我绝对不会告诉别人你曾经去过那儿。 (tell sb. sth.) I can’t tell him that his mother died. ★第九种:只做 except, in, but 这三个介词的宾语。in that(因为),except that(除了),but that(只 是)已构成固定搭配,其他介词后一般不接 that 引导的宾语从句。 例如: I know little about him except that he is an English teacher. This article is well-written except that it is a bit too long. ★第十种:当 when, who, what ,where ,why ,how 等引导的从句与 that 引导的从句作主句谓 语动词的并列宾语时。 如: I know what the time is and that the wind remains low. 我知道现在是什么时候,且风仍然不大。 I’m sure where he lives and that he is living a happy life. 我非常清楚他住在什么地方,而且他生活得很幸福。 ★第十一种:当 that 引导的宾语从句后紧接着作主语的 that (this )时,常不可省略。如:
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He thought that that was a good chance for him to go to visit the famous scientist. 他认为那可能是他拜访这个著名科学家的一个好机会。 He said that this was not his book, but his sister’s. 他说这不是他的书,而是他姐姐的书 ★ 第十二种:当主句中的谓语动词是固定词组时,其宾语 that 从句中的 that 不宜省略。 常见的动词短语有:make sure 确保 make up one’s mind 下决心 keep in mind 牢记。例: Mary has made up her mind that she will study hard for the scholarship, so she can have the chance to go abroad for further study. 玛丽下定决心努力学习以获得奖学金资格,这样她就有机会出国深造了。

六,宾语从句的从句部分是陈述句中的否定句,需要掌握的是: 关于陈述句中的否定表达问题,换言之,否定的转移:当主句的主语是第一人称,谓语动 词为 think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine, suspect 等,而其后的宾语 从句若含有否定意义或表达否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上,从句谓语用肯 定式。例如: I don’t think the dress fits you well. 我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。

★请注意:否定转移后,如何进行反义疑问。 正常情况下,疑问部分的主语和谓语一般应与陈述部分主句的主、谓语保持对应关系。如: Tim told you that there wasn’t anyone in the room at that time, didn’t he? 但是当主句第一人称,从句的否定需要转移到主句,但是反义句应该与和从句中的主语和 谓语保持对应关系,也就是说,实质从句是否定,反义应该肯定。 I don’t suppose he cares,does he? 我想他不在意,是吗? I don’t suppose anyone will volunteer, will they?

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七,关于宾语从句的连接词使用 whether 还是 if 的问题: 宾语从句由连词 whether 或 if 引导 (口语中常用 if) 的时候, 因为 if/whether 翻译成: “是否”, 具有一定的意义,所以不能省略。例如: Lily wanted to know if /whether her grandma liked the handbag . Let’s see if /whether we can find out some information about that city . She asked me if /whether she could borrow these books .

八,whether 与 if ★whether + or not

均为 “是否” 的意思。但下列情况下,只能用 whether,不能用 if

I can’t say whether or not thet can come on time. ★介词 + whether I’m not interested in whether they’ll go or not. It depends on whether we have got enough money. I’m thinking of whether we should go to see the film. ★whether + to do 或者说直接跟不定式连用 I can’t decide whether to stay. ★ 宾语从句提前,例如: Whether this is true or not, I can’t say. ★ discuss/ wonder/ doubt/ have no idea/ don’t know + whether 例如: We discussed whether we would have a sports meeting next week.

九,在下列情况下,只能用 if 不用 whether: ★引导否定概念的宾语从句时。 He asked me if I hadn’t finished my homework.
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He asked if I didn’t come to school yesterday. ★引导条件状语从句,if 意为“如果”时。 We’ll go hiking if it doesn’t rain tomorrow. The students will go on a picnic if it is sunny. ★引导让步状语从句 even if(即使)和引导方式状语从句 as if(好象)时。 例句:He talks as if he has known all about it.

十,带 how 的词组也都可以引导宾语从句 Could you tell us how much it costs to fly to Hainan ? Could you tell us how often you go abroad for a holiday ? Could you tell us how long the meeting will last ? I don’t know how far it is to the cinema . Please tell us how many students there are in your school ? Can you tell us how old his brother is ? Please tell us how soon you will be ready . 十一,宾语从句的特殊形式 1. 复合连接代词在宾语从句中的使用。如: Sarah hopes to become a friend of whoever shares her interest. (whoever= anyone who / any person who) These wild flowers are so special I would do whatever I can to save them. (whatever= anything that) It is generally considered unwise to give a child whatever he or she wants. 解读: whatever 在此处是泛指, 不可被 what 替代。 而“I can’t remember at the moment who has said the words.”中的 who 表特定的某人,不可以改成 whoever。
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三, 简单概括
附历年高考对名词性从句中宾语从句考核的简要对照型说明

①语序:从句语序用陈述, ②时态: 主句现在, 从句实况定; 主句过去, 从句除客观真理用一般, 都用过去; 主句 could, would 表委婉,从句实况定。 ③一坚持、两命令、三建议、四要求,已发生用陈述,未发生用虚拟,should+动原,should 可省 ④主句第一人称,从句否定需转移。 ⑤that 以下情况不可省:⑴从句继续复杂化(表并列前省后不省,含复句) ;⑵主状从句前; ⑶宾状从句前;⑷主从句间有插入;⑸省略主句的简单回答;⑹形式宾语 it;⑺引导双宾 中直宾;⑻整个宾语为双宾;⑼介词 except, in, but 后;⑽主句谓语为固定词组;⑾主语最后 为 this that; ⑥只用 whether 不用 if:⑴whether+or not; ⑵whether 前有介词;⑶whether+to do; ⑷宾语提 前;⑸discuss/ wonder/ doubt/ have no idea/ don’t know + whether ⑦特指对人来说用 who,泛指使用 whoever= anyone who / any person who; 特指物用 what,泛指使用 whatever= anything that

强调:1,上面将宾语从句所有的注意事项全部说尽,高考绝对不会这么细致,每年高考
的题目对于作者所想表达的真实含义最为重要!也就是说,首先选用哪个选项意思会不同, 哪种意思是作者想表达的,哪种意思是符合正常人思维的是我们首先需要考虑的,随后才 是语法知识对于整句的束缚,其实高考考的是句子的架构而不是拐弯抹角,犄角旮旯的偏 门语法知识点。
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2,对于从句而言,首先应该将引导词,放于从句中,重新按照主谓宾顺序排序,这样依据 从句中“缺什么补什么”的原则,结合上下文可知道自己所选的连词是否恰当。

综合上述 1、2 两点,将提供 4 个选项的中文意思放进,经过重新排序的从句顺序,结
合缺什么补什么的原则,基本可以判断。

1,Cindy shut the door heavily and burst into tears. No one in the office knew so angry. A. where 答案 D 考点:考查宾语从句。—缺什么补什么 B. whether C. that D. why

she was

解析:该空引导宾语从句,根据句意“办公室中没人知道她为什么如此生气”可判断选 D 项。

2, (10 天津 14)As a new graduate, he doesn’t know A. how 答案: B 考点:考查名词性从句。—缺什么补什么 B. what C. When D. which

it takes to start a business here.

句意:作为一名新毕业生,他不知道需要什么才能在这里开始经营。 解析:空格后的从句中 takes 是动词,其后缺少宾语,所以引导该宾语从句的连接词要用 what。

3, (10 山东 26) Before the sales start, I make a list of ______ my kids will need for the coming season. A. why B. what C. how D. which
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答案:B 考点:本题考查宾语从句的引导词。—缺什么补什么 解析:句意应为“在大甩卖开始前,我把孩子们在下个季节里要用到的东西列 了一个清单。 ”分析句式结构可知,空格处在句中引导宾语从句且在从句中充 当 need 的宾语,所以 B 项结构正确。which 引导名词性从句时多表示疑问且 要有一个明确的范围。

4, (10 上海 37) When changing lanes, a driver should use his turning signal to let other drivers know A. he is entering which lane C. is he entering which lane 答案:B 考点:本题考查宾语从句。—宾语从句的从句语序 解析:which 引导的句子做 know 的宾语,句子用陈述语序。 . B. which lane he is entering D. which lane is he entering

5, (10 四川 14)How much one enjoys himself travelling depends largely on with,whether his friends or relatives. A.what 答案:B 考点:考查介词后的宾语从句。—缺什么补什么 B.who C.how D.why

he goes

解析:根据句末的 whether his friends or relatives 可知应是和谁去,宾语从句中 who 既可以 作主语又可作宾语,而 whom 只能做宾语,故选 B。句意为“一个人旅游多么享受很大程度 上取决于他和谁去,无论是他的朋友还是亲戚。”

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6, (10 全国Ⅰ33) We haven’t discussed yet ______ we are going to place our new furniture. A. that 答案:D 句意:我们还没有讨论把我们的新家具放在哪里。——缺什么补什么 解答:根据选项此题考察从句。题干中空格划在动词 discuss 的后面,因此考察宾语从句, 根据句意在宾语从句中缺少地点状语,因此选择 D。 B. which C. what D. where

7, (10 全国Ⅱ10)—Have you finished the book? —No,I’ve read up to_________the children discover the secret cave. A.which B.what C.that D.where

【答案】D————缺什么补什么 【解析】考查宾语从句。Up to 为介词结构,后接宾语从句从句;而句意是“读到孩子们发 现秘密洞穴的地方”,故用 where 引导这个宾语从句最合适。

8,(08 湖南 29)When asked important and loved. A.what B.why C.whom

they needed most,the kids said they wanted to feel

D.which

答案 A—缺什么补什么 解析 句意为:当被问到他们最需要什么时,孩子们说他们想让别人觉得他们是重要的,

希望被爱。what 引导宾语从句,且 what 在从句中作 needed 的宾语。

9, (2009 北京﹚At first he hated the new job but decided to give himself a few months to see_____it got any better. A. when B. how C. why D. if
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【答案】D 【考点】考查宾语从句。 【解析】句意为:起先他讨厌这个新工作, 但决定给自己几个月时间看看是否能感觉好点。

10, (2009 全国 I﹚Could I speak to A. who 【答案】C B. what C. whoever

is in charge of International Sales please? D. whatever

【考点】考查宾语从句中的特指还是泛指的连接代词。特指对人来说用 who ,泛指使用 whoever= anyone who / any person who;特指物用 what,泛指使用 whatever= anything that 【解析】我能够和负责国际业务的人谈谈吗?whoever 既作了 to 的宾语, 又作 is in charge of International Sales please?的主语。 “whoever”作代词, /any person who/the person who/ “任何人” 、 “无论谁” 、 “……的人” 。

11, The how to book can be of help to A. who 【答案】D B. whomever

wants to do the job. C. no matter who D. whoever

【考点】考查宾语从句中的特指还是泛指的连接代词。特指对人来说用 who ,泛指使用 whoever= anyone who / any person who;特指物用 what,泛指使用 whatever= anything that 【解析】此处从做介词 to 的宾语, 是名词性从句, 引导词做从句的主语, 指人, 意思是:无 论是谁, 选 D

12, (2009 江苏﹚Many young people in the West are expected to leave s most important decision—marriage—almost entirely up to luck. A. as B. that C. which D. what

could be life’

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【答案】D 【考点】考查宾语从句。 【解析】 预计许多西方年轻人会把可能是人生中最重要的抉择-婚姻, 几乎完全交由幸运之 神掌握。“__ 因此用 what。 could be life’ s most important decision”是 leave 的宾语从句, 从句缺少主语,

13, (2007 湖南﹚Having checked the doors were closed, and boy opened the door to his bedroom. A.why 【答案】B 【考点】考查宾语从句。 B.that C.when D.where

all the lights were off, the

【解析】 句意为: 确保门关上了, 且所有的灯都关上了之后, 那个男孩打开门进了他的卧室。 checked 后跟了两个宾语从句, 第一个从句的引导词 that 省略了。

14, (2007 江苏﹚Choosing the right dictionary depends on A.what 【答案】A 【考点】考查宾语从句。 B.why C.how D.whether

you want to use it for.

【解析】 what 引导的名词性从句作介词 on 的宾语, what 在从句中又充当介词 for 的宾语, 其 他选项为副词或连词, 无此作用。

15, (2006 全国Ⅱ﹚—What did your parents think about your decision? —They always let me do A.when B.that I think I should. C.how D.what
17

【答案】D 【考点】考查宾语从句。 【解析】what 可以在宾语从句中作主语、宾语或表语。在本题中作动词 do 的宾语。

16, (2006 北京﹚— Could you do me a favor? — It depends on A.which 【答案】C 【考点】考查宾语从句。 【解析】疑问词+ever 引导让步状语从句或名词性从句, 但句意为:要看帮什么忙了。所以 whatever 不合适。 it is. B.whichever C.what D.whatever

17, (2005 全国Ⅰ﹚Mary wrote an article on A.why 【答案】A 【考点】考查宾语从句。 B.what C.who

the team had failed to win the game. D.that

【解析】介词 on 后是一个句子结构, 可判知该句为宾语从句, 因从句中不缺少主语、宾语, 所以 what、who 不对;that 引导名词性从句时, 不在从句中作任何成分, 也不表达任何意义, 所以不合题意;why 在此引导宾语从句, 并且在从句中作原因状语。句意为:玛丽写了一篇 关于该队为什么没有赢得比赛的文章。

18, (2005 天津﹚Elephants have their own way to tell the shape of an object and rough or smooth. A./ B.whether C.how D.what

it is

18

【答案】B 【考点】考查宾语从句。 【解析】从语法上分析, and 后面的部分也应是 tell 的宾语, 所以要填一个宾语从句引导词。 what 在从句中无成分可作, 所以不合适;how 则意义不对;而 whether 正合句意。

19, (2011 山东卷﹚We’ve offered her the job, but I don’t know______ she’ll accept it. A. where 【答案】C 【考点】此题考查宾语从句的引导词。 【解析】根据句意“我们提供给她了这份工作,但我不知道她是否会接受” 。whether “是否“, where “哪里“what “什么” ,which “哪个“。 B. what C. whether D. which

20, (2014 福建卷)Pick yourself up. Courage is doing A. that 【答案】B 【考点】考察名词性从句 B. what C. how D. whether

you're afraid to do.

【解析】本句是名词性从句中的宾语从句。What 在句中充当引导词,同时也是动词 do 的 宾语。句义:站起来!有了勇气,你才可以去做你不敢做的事情。ACD 都不能在句中做宾 语。故 B 正确。 【举一反三】He thought confidence and practice. A.Why 【答案】B 【解析】考查宾语从句的连接词。此处 what 作宾语从句的主语。句意:他认为提高英语口
19

mattered most in improving your spoken English was enough

B.What

C.Which

D.That

语的关键是有足够的信心和练习。

21. Someone is ringing the doorbell. Go and see ______. A. who is he C. who is it B. who he is D. who it is

【分析】此题最佳答案为 D.首先可以排除 A 和 C,因为空格处实为一个宾语从句,所以 不能用疑问句词序。另一方面,但按英语习惯,当用于指代身份不明的人时,要用代词 it, 而不用 he 或 she 等。比较以下两句: Mr Smith is at the door. He wants to see you. 史密斯先生在门口,他想见你。 Someone is at the door. It may be the postman. 有个人在门口,可能是邮递员。 第一句因前面指明了是 Mr Smith,所以后面用代词 he;而第二句因前面用的是不定代 词 someone,说明此人身份尚不明确,故其后用了代词 it 来指代。

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