阅读下列短文，从每题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中，选出最佳选项。 【深圳市 2014 高考英语 综合能力测试题（4） 】A When you look at yourself in the mirror, do you ever wonder why you look the way you do? Do you also wonder what biological processes were at work to shape your face, which is as individual and unique as a fingerprint? The answer is in a little piece of your DNA called a gene enhancer(增强片段),according to scientists at Berkeley Lab. These little pieces6 of DNA help switch on or boost the expression of specific genes, that control the development of the face and head before birth. W hat's interesting about these little influential bits of DNA is that a gene enhancer doesn't have to be found anywhere close to the genes and, i n some cases, doesn't even have to be located on the same chromosome. Of course, there are a number of hereditary(遗传) factors which help determine appearance, for example, a child resembles a parent. The researchers, who outlined their findings in the journal Science, said the gene enhancer adjusts the genes to give your face its final unique look. Even with identical twins, there are subtle differences in appearance. Identical twins Linda and Terry Jamison look similar but are not exactly the same in appearance. "Our results suggest that there are thousands of enhancers in the human genome that are involved in facial development," said Axel Visel, a geneticist with Berkeley Lab's Genomics Division, who led the research. "We don't know yet what all of these enhancers do, but we do know that they are out there and they are important for facial development." Scientists have previously been able to identify some of the genetic faults that can cause birth defects, such as a cleft lip(兔唇), but haven't bee n able to fully understand what genetic factors are responsible for subtle differences in appearance. 26. The author put forward two questions at the beginning of the passage to ________. A. expect readers to answer them B. carry out a survey among readers C. start a discussion among readers D. draw readers attention to the topic 27. From Paragraph 3, we know that________.
A. iden tical twins look similar but not exactly the same B. hereditary factors determine our appearance completely C. a child resembles a parent because of afterbirth factors D. the gene enhancer is something useless and unimportant 28. The underlined word "subtle" in Paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to"___________". A. not a little C. not small B. not a bit D. not obvious
29. According to the passage, which statement is NOT true? A. A cleft lip is a kind of birth defects whic h are caused by genetic faults. B. Genetic faults can not be identified and fully understood with today's technology. C. Gene enhancers have something to do with the facial development according to the research D. The relation between genetic factors and subtle differences in appearance remains a mystery. 30. Which part of a website is the passage probably taken from? A. Culture. C. Science. B. Opinion. D. Business.
你照镜子的时候，曾想过为什么会是这个样子吗？你还想过什么生物过程在起作用使你的脸 像指纹一样与众不同吗？ 26. D。作者意图题。通读全文及第一段可知答案。27. A。细节理解题。从第三段最后两句 Even with identical twins, there are subtle differences in appearance. Identical twins Linda and Terry Jamison look similar but are not exactly the same in appearance.可知答案。 28. D。 词义猜测题。 从第三段最后一句 Identical twins Linda and Terry Jamison look similar but are not exactly the same in appearance.可知即便是十分相像的双胞胎，外貌上也是有很细微的差别 的。 29. B。细节理解题。从最后一段的 Scientists have previously been able to identify...but haven’t been able to fully understand...可知答案。 30. C。推理判断题。该短文是科普文章，故要到网站的科学信息部分才能读到。
Grown- ups are often surprised by how well they remember something they learned as children but have never practiced ever since. A man who has not had a chance to go swimming for years can still swim as well as ever when he gets back in the water. He can get on a bicycle after many years and still ride away. He can play catch and hit a ball as well as his son. A mother who has not thought about the words for years can teach her daughter the poem that begins “Twinkle, twinkle, little star” or remember the story of Cinderella or Goldilocks and the Three Bears.
One explanation is the law of overlearning, which can be stated as follows: Once we have learned something, additional learning trials increase the length of time we will remember it.
In childhood we usually continue to practice such skills as swimming, bicycle riding, and playing baseball long after we have learned them. We continue to listen to and remind ourselves of words such as “Twinkle, twinkle, little star”and childhood tales such as Cinderella and Goldilocks. We not only learn but overlearn. The multiplication tables (乘法口诀表) are an exception to the general rule that we forget rather quickly the things that we learn in school, because they are another of the things we overlearn in childhood. The l aw of overlearning explains why cramming (突击学习) for an examination, though it may result in a passing grade, is not a satisfactory way to learn a college course. By cramming, a student may learn the subject well enough to get by on the examination, but he is likely soon to forget almost everything he learned. A little overlearning, on the other hand, is really necessary for one’s future development.
1. What is the main idea of Paragraph 1?
A. People remember well what they learned in childhood.
B. Children have a better memory than grown- ups.
C. Poem reading is a good way to learn words.
D. Stories for children are easy to remember.
2. The author explains the law of overlearning by
A. presenting research findings
B. setting down general rules
C. making a comparison
D. using examples
3. According to the author, being able to use multiplication tables is
A. a result of overlearning
B. a special case of cramming
C. a skill to deal with math problems
D. a basic step towards advanced studies
4. What is the author’s opinion on cramming?
A. It leads to failure in college exams.
B. It’s helpful only in a limited way.
C. It’s possible to result in poor memory.
D. It increases students’learning in terest.
I believe that my country, Poland, is a perfect example for a place where food is particularly important. When we were little children, we began to understand how much a loaf of bread meant to our parents—to some it might sound silly but for me the custom of kissing bread before you started cutting it was simply amazing. It's not so common nowadays to treat food that way, since you hardly ever bake your own bread. Besides, everyone would call you crazy if you tried to kiss every bread roll before you ate them! But though we no longer make our food from scratch (起点), some customs have been kept--that's why I feel so sorry every time I have to throw any food away—even though I no longer live with my parents and nobody would blame me for this anymore! Many people of our nation are still working as farmers, eating what they grow and harvest and therefore enjoying everything more. It's widely known that you value more anything that needs your effort in the first place. In most homes in Poland, especially those of farmers, the whole family would try and have their meals together--extremely difficult now, but so rewarding (值得) ! You can share other members' troubles and successes, give your children some attention, or just sit down for a moment instead of rushing through life aimlessly. Furthermore, your body, and stomach in particular will be very grateful (感激) for such a time! In Poland, a wedding, Christmas or even a birthday is celebrated with a great meal. Women in the house get together and cook, sometimes for a few days before the event, and the extremely good or unusual food will be remembered and widely talked about.
You cannot over-value the importance of food in the country. What's more, almost everyone in Poland will be as interested in the topic as I am. 56. When the writer was a child, he / she ________. A. found people were crazy about bread C. thought that cutting bread was amazing bread 57. The writer feels very sorry when he/she has to throw away any food because A. he/she makes food from scratch C. some customs still have effect on him/her as farmers B. his/her parents would blame him/her D. many people are still working hard B. began to realize the importance of food D. learned people hardly baked their own
58. From the text, we can learn that, in Poland, ________. A. most meals can be interesting topics for a long time B. the whole family often have meals together nowadays C. it's common for women to get together to cook for a few days D. family members can know more. about each other by having meals together
【参考答案】56.B 57.C 58.D
阅读理解--- --A------ (2011· 全国卷，B) For those who study the development of intelligence (智力) in the animal world， selfawareness is an important measurement. An animal that is aware ( 意识 ) of itself has a high level of intelligence. Awareness can be tested by studying whether the animal recognizes itself in the mirror, that is, its own reflected image (反射出的影像). Many animals fail this exercise bitterly, paying very little attention to the reflected image. Only humans，and some intelligent animals like apes and dolphins， have been shown to recognize that the image in the mirror is of themselves. Now another animal has joined the club. In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers report that an Asian elephant has passed the mirror selfreflection test. “We thought that elephants were the next important animal，”said Diana Reiss of the Wildlife Conservation Society, an author of the study with Joshua M. Plotnik and Fans B. M. de Waal of Emory University. With their large brains，Reiss said, elephants “seemed like cousins to apes and dolphins.” The researchers tested Happy. Maxine and Patty, three elephants at the Bronx Zoo. They put an 8footsquare mirror on a wall of the animals' play area (out of the sight of zoo visitors) and recorded what happened with cameras, including one built in the mirror. The elephants used their long noses to find what was behind it，and to examine parts of their bodies. Of the three, Happy then passed the test，in which a clear mark was painted on one side of her face. She could tell the mark was there by looking in the mirror, and she used the mirror to touch the mark with her long nose. Diana Reiss said，“We knew elephants were intelligent, but now we can talk about their intelligence in a better way.” 文章通过实验说明能意识到自身形象的动物具有高智商。 1. What can mirror tests tell us about animals?
A. Whether they have large brains. C. Whether they enjoy outdoor exercises.
B. Whether they have selfawareness. D. Whether they enjoy playing with mirrors.
答案：B。细节理解题。由文章第二段第一句话“Awareness can be tested by...”可知 B 项正 确。 2. Why does the author mention apes and dolphins in the text? A. They are most familiar to readers. B. They are big favorites with zoo visitors. C. They are included in the study by Reiss. D. They are already known to be intelligent. 答案：D。推理判断题。由第二段最后一句可知人们已经知道 apes 和 dolphins 是聪明的。 3. What made Happy different from Maxine and Patty? A. She used her nose to search behind the mirror. B. She recognized her own image in the mirror. C. She painted a mark on her own face. D. She found the hidden camera. 答案：B。推理判断题。由倒数第二段可推出 Happy 能辨别出自己在镜子中的形象。
阅读理解-----1 It is often necessary to release a fish, that is , set it free after catching, because it is too small, or you just don’t want to take it home to eat. In some cases, releasing fish is a good measure that will help keep fish variety and build their population size. The Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (DGIF) encourages fishermen who practice catch-and-release fishing to use a few simple skills when doing so. The advice provided below will help make sure that the fish you release will survive (存活) to bite again another day. —When catching a fish, play it quickly and keep the fish in the water as much as possible. Don’t use a net in landing the fish and release it quickly to prevent it from dying. —Hold the fish gently. Do not put your fingers in its eyes. Don’t wip e the scales (鱼鳞) off the fish because it might cause it to develop a disease and reduce its chance of survival. —Remove your hook (鱼钩) quickly. If the hook is too deep or hooked in the stomach, cut the line and leave the hook in. The hook left inside will cause no serious problem to the fish. —Take good care of the fish by moving it gently in water . Release the fish when it begins
to struggle and is able to swim. —Do not hold fish in a bucket or some other containers and later decide to release it. If you are going to release a fish, do so right away. With a little care and by following the suggestions given above, you can give the released fish a better chance of survival. 64. People sometimes set a fish free after catching it because they _________ A. don’t want it to die C. don’t want to have it as food B. hope it will grow quickly D. want to practice their fishing skills
65. Which of the following will probably make a fish ill? A. Taking the hook off it. B. Removing its scales. C. Touching its eves D. Holding it in your hand. 66. A proper way to release a fish is to _________. A .move it in water till it can swim C. keep it in a bucket for some time 67. What is the purpose of the text? A. To show how to enjoy fishing. C. To encourage people to set fish free. B. To persuade people to fish less often. D. To give advice on how to release fish. B. take the hook out of its stomach D. let it struggle a little in your hand
1. 64.C 65.B 66.A