.增补(Addition) in addition 另外, furthermor e 此外, again, also, besides, moreover 此外 , similarly, finally 最后 2.比较(Comparison) in the same way, likewise 同样地, similarly, equally, in comparison 比较起来, just as 同样地 3.对照(Contrast) whereas 然而 , in contrast 与此相反 , on the other hand, instead 同样 , however 然而 , nevertheless 然而, unlike, even though 即使, on the contrary, while 4.因果(Cause and effect) because, because of, for, since, due to, owing to, thanks to, as a result(of), accordingly, hence, so, thus 5.强调(Emphasis) certainly, above all, indeed, of course, surely, actually, as a matter of fact, chiefly, especially, primarily, in particular, undoubtedly, absolutely, most imprtant 6.让步(Concession) although, though, after all, in spite of, nevertheless, still, provided, while it is true.... 7.例证(Exemplification) for example, for instance, that is, namely, such as, in other words, in this case, by way of illustration. 8.总结(Conclusion) to sum up, to conclude, in a word, in short, in brief, all in all, in all, to put it in a nutshell, in summary 9.推断(Inference) therefore, as a result(of), consequently, accordingly, so, otherwise 10.时间和空间(Time and space) afterward, after, first, later, then, soon, outside, near, beyound, above, below, on the right(left), in the middle, opposite, in front of 11.启承转合 1)、启 A proverb says...... At present....... As the proverb says.... Currently..... Generally speaking, .... Now,.... In general, ..... On the Whole.... It is clear that.... Recently..... It is often said that.... Without doubt, ....... 2)、承 First(of all), ...... Moreover, ......... Firstly, ............ No one can deny that.... In the first place, ......... Obviously..... To begin with, ......... Of course, ......... Also, ....... Similarly,......... At the same time...... Therefore, we should realize that..... Certainly...... There is no doubt that....... In addition,..... What`s more, .......... In fact........ It can be easily proved that...
Meanwhile...... 3)、转 But... Still, ...... But the problem is not so simple... There is a certain amount of truth in this, but we still have a problem with regard to....... However, ....... To our surprise,.......... Nevertheless, ........ Unfortunately....... On the other hand, ....... Yet difference will be found and that is why I feel that........ Others may find this to be true, but I do not. I think..... 4)、合 Above all, In brief, ........ Accordingly, ..... In conclusion, ........ All in all, ....... In other words, it is hard to escape the conclusion that........ As a consequence, ......... In short, ......... As I have shown/said/stated/.... In sum, ........ In summary, ....... As has been noted, .... Obviously, ......... By so doing, ..... On the whole, ..... Consequently, ........ Presumably, ....... Eventually, ......... To conclude, ...... Finally, ........ To sum up, ..... In a word, ...... To summarize, ...... 在英语作文中必备的替换精髓词汇（全面提高你四，六级托福，雅思作文水平） 1. important =crucial (extremely important),significant(amount or effect large enough to be important) 2.common=universal, ubiquitous(if something is ubiquitous, it seems to be everywhere) 3.abundant=ample(enough and usually extra), plentiful(enough for people's needs and wants)1 4.stick=adhere, cling(hold on something tightly)1 5.neglect=ignore.(difference: neglect means someone has not paid enough attention to something; ignore means no attention.) 6.near=adjacent(twothings next to each other), adjoin(the same as adjacent)' 7.pursue=woo(man woos woman, old-fashioned), seek(if you seek sth, you try to obtain it. FORMAL) 8.accurate=precise(precise is exact and accurate in all details), exact(correct in every detail) 9.vague=obscure(unknown or known by only a few people) 10.top=peak, summit 11.competitor=rival, opponent(especially in sports and politics)1 12.blame=condemn(if you condemn something, you say it is very bad and unacceptable) 13.opinon=perspective, standpoint(means looking at an event or situation in a particular way)
14.fame=prestige(describe those who are admired), reputation 15.build=erect(you can erect something as buildings, FORMAL), establish 16.insult=humiliate(do something or say something which makes people feel ashamed or stupid) 17.complain=grumble (complain something in a bad-tempered way) 18.primary=radical (very important and great in degree), fundamental 19.relieve=alleviate (alleviate means you make pain or sufferings less intense or severe) 20.force=coerces into(coerce means you make someone do something s/he does not want to),compel 21.enlarge=magnify(magnify means make something larger than it really is) 22.complex=intricate(if something is intricate, it often has many small parts and details) 23. Lonely=solitary (if someone is solitary, there is no one near him/her 24.small=minuscule(very small), minute, V. A. B8 Q6 w, p$ S 25.praise=extol(stronger than praise), compliment(polite and political) 26.hard-working=assiduous(someone who is assiduous works hard or does things very thoroughly 27.difficult=arduous (if something is arduous, it is difficult and tiring, and involves a lot of efforts) 28.poor(soil)=barren, infertile(used to describe the soil is so poor that plants cannot be planted on it) 29.fragile=brittle, vulnerable(someone who is vulnerable is easily hurt emotionally or physically)+ 30.show=demonstrate (to demonstrate a fact means tp make it clear to people.) 31.big=massive(large in size, quantity, or extent), colossal(use this word, you emphasize something’s large), tremendous(INFORMAL)+ 32.avoid=shun(if someone shuns something, s/he deliberately avoid that something or keep away from it.)% [- ?0 B/ X: V 33.fair=impartial(someone who is impartial is able to give a fair opinion or decision on something.)0 U! V0 e/ a" h0 L8 ~ 34.attack=assault (physically attack someone), assail (attack violently 35.dislike=abhor(abhor means you hate something to a extreme extent for moral reasons), loathe(dislike very much)! 36.ruin=devastate (it means damage something very badly, or utterly destroy it.) 39.always=invariably(the same as always, but better than always)4 40.forever=perpetual(a perpetual state never changes), immutable(something immutable will never change or be changed) 41.surprise=startle(it means surprise you slightly), astound(surprise you to a large degree),astonish(the same as astound) 42.enthusiasm=zeal (a great enthusiasm), fervency (sincere and enthusiasm)# 43.quiet=tranquil(calm and peaceful), serene(calm and quiet)! 44.expensive=exorbitant(it means too expensive that it should be) 45.luxurious=lavish(impressive and very expensive), sumptuous(grand and very expensive 46.boring=tedious(if you describe something tedious, you mean it is boring and frustrating) 47.respect=esteem(if you esteem someone, you respect and admire him/her. FORMAL) 48.worry=fret(if you fret about something, you worry about it) 49.cold=chilly(unpleasantly cold), icy(extremely cold) 50.hot=boiling(very hot)
51.dangerous=perilous(very dangerous, hazardous(dangerous, especially to people's safety and health) 52.nowadays=currently 53.only=unique(the only one of its kind), distinctive; 54.stop=cease(if something ceases, it stops happening or existing) 55.part=component(the components of something are the parts that it is made of)( h 56.result=consequence(the results or effects of something) 57.obvious=apparent, manifest 58.basedon=derived fromcan see or notice them very easily) 60.quite=fairly 61.pathetic=lamentable(very uncomfortable and disappointing) 62.field=domain(a particular field of thought, activities or interest) 63.appear=emerge(come into existence) 64.whole=entire(the whole of something)8 65.wet=moist(slightly wet), damp(slightly wet), humid(very damp and hot)! 66.wrong=erroneous(incorrect or partly correct) 67.difficult=formidable 68.change=convert(change into another form) 69.typical=quintessential(this word means represent a typical example of something) 70.careful=cautious(very careful in order to avoid danger), prudent(careful and sensible) 71.ability=capacity, capability(the same as ability) 72.strange=eccentric(if some one is eccentric, s/he behaves in a strange way, or his/her opinion is different from most people) 73.rich=affluent(if you are affluent, you have a lot of money) 74.use= utilize (the same as use) 75.dubious=skeptical(if you are skeptical about something, you have doubts on it.) 76.satisfy=gratify (if you are gratified by something, it gives you pleasure and satisfaction) 77.short=fleeting, ephemeral(if something is ephemeral, it lasts a short time) 78.scholarship=fellowship 79.angry=enraged(extremely angry) 80.smelly=malodorous(used to describe an unpleasant smell) 81.ugly=hideous(if something is hideous, it is very ugly or unattractive)# 82.attractive=appealing(pleasing and attractive), absorbing(something absorbing can attract you a great deal) 83.diverse=miscellaneous(a miscellaneous groups consists of many different kinds of things) 84.disorder=disarray, chaos 85.crazily=frantically(used to describe someone who behaves in a wild and uncontrolled way) 86.rapid=meteoric(ATTENTION: meteoric is only used to describe someone achieves success quickly) 87.ordinary=mundane(very ordinary and not at interesting or unusual)
88.despite=notwithstanding(FORMAL) 89.best=optimal(used to describe the best level something can achieve)/ 90.sharp=acute(severe and intense) 91.unbelievable=inconceivable(ifyou deem something inconceivable, you think it very unlike to happen ^ 92.puzzle=perplex(something perplex someone means it confuses and worries him/her because he/she does not understand it) 93.method=avenue(away of getting something done) 94.famous=distinguished(used to describe people who are successful in their career) 95.ancient=archaic(extremely old and extremely old-fashioned) 96.decorate=embellish(embellish means make something look more attractive via decorating it with something else)/ 97.possible=feasible(if something is feasible, it can be done, made or achieved) 98.so=consequently, accordingly 99.rare=infrequent (doesn’t happen often 100.greedy=rapacious(greedy and selfish)