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(2013年秋)高中英语 Unit1 Art 第2课时 Reading课件 新人教版选修6


Ⅰ.词汇
1.________(n.) 信任;信心;信念 →________ (adj.) 忠诚的;忠实的→________(adv.) 2.________ (n.) 目标;瞄准→________ (adj.)无目的 的→________ (adv.) 无目的地 3.________ (adj.) 常规的;传统的→________ (n.) 常 规;惯例 4.________ (adj.) 明显的;明白的→________ (n.)证

据;证明;证词

5.________ (vt.) 采用;采纳;收养→________(n.) 采
用;采纳;收养 6.________ (vt.) 拥有;具有;支配 →________ (n.) 所有;财产 7 . ________(adj.) 荒谬的;可笑的 → ________(adv.) 荒谬地;荒唐地 8.________ (v.) 预言;预告→________ (n.) 预言;预 报

答 案 : 1.faith; faithful; faithfully
aimlessly 3 . conventional; convention 5.adopt; adoption ridiculously 8.predict; prediction

2.aim; aimless;

4.evident; evidence 7.ridiculous;

6.possess; possession

Ⅱ.短语
1.concentrate...________ 集中??于?? 2.________ coincidence 巧合地 3.a great ________ 大量 4.break away ________ 挣脱;脱离;背离 5.scores ________许多;大量 6.________ the other hand 另一方面 答案:1.on 2.by 3.deal 4.from 5.of 6.on

Ⅲ.课文导读
1)根据课文内容完成下列时间流程图。

答案:1.religious paints 9.realistic

2.humanistic 6.light

3.perspective

4.oil

5.Impressionism

7.shadow

8.abstract

2)Read the text carefully and then do the following exercises. 1 . What themes did the main aim of painters represent during the Middle Ages? A.Nature. C.Religious. B.People. D.Perspective.

答案:C

2 . It can be inferred from the text that classical
Roman and Greek ideas were ________. A.imaginary C.impressionistic 答案:D B.perspective D.realistic

3 . Which of the following statements about the
Impressionism is TRUE? A.Painting became an easy task because it was less detailed. B . Painters focused more on light and color than detail. C.Painters moved from the countryside to Paris and worked outdoors.

D.Painters had to paint quickly because of the high
pace of the industrial society. 答案:B

4.Which of the following are the styles of paintings
about Modern Art? A.Abstract and realistic. B.Abstract and natural. C.Religious and natural. D.People and objects. 答案:A

1.faith (n.) 1)[U]~(in sb/sth) 信任;相信;信心 ①He has great talent, but he has lost his faith. 他很有天赋,但是他已经丧失了信心。 ②I haven't much faith in this medicine. 我对这种药没有多大信心。

2)[U & sing.] 宗教信仰
①People of every faith attended the mayor's funeral. 信仰不同宗教的人士出席了市长的葬礼。 ②My religious faith has seen me through my grief. 我的宗教信仰已帮助我克服了极度的悲痛。

【知识拓展】
1)have faith in相信, 信任 We have faith in ourselves, and faith in our principles. 我们对自己有信心,对我们的政策有信心。 2)break keep/faith with sb 对某人(不)守信用;(不)忠 诚于某人 I kept faith with him. 我信守了对他的诺言。

3)lose faith in失去对??的信念; 不再信任??
He told us not to lose faith in ourselves. 他让我们不要对自己失去信心。 4)put faith in相信, 信任 He always puts his faith in the future. 他对未来总是抱有信心。

5)shake one's faith动摇某人的信心
Her faith has been shaken by this new evidence. 这一新证据动摇了她的信心。 6)in good faith 真诚;诚心诚意 When I recommended Simon for the job, I did it in good faith. I didn't realize that he had been in trouble with the police. 当初推荐西蒙做这份工作的时候,我是出于好心。我

不知道他曾犯过案。

【词语辨析】
faith, belief, confidence, trust 这些名词都有“相信,信任”之意。 1)faith 语气较强,指“认为有确凿证据或道理而完全 相信”。通常指充满感情的信任。 I have faith in his ability to succeed. 我相信他有成功的能力。 2)belief普通用词,指主观上的相信,不着重这种相信

是否有根据。
He has great belief in his doctor. 他对那位医生无比信赖。

3)confidence淡化了感情,指“在有证据的基础上,对
某人某事有充分信心,断定不会使人失望,因而给予信 任”。也常指“自信”、“有把握”。 She has great confidence in her success. 她对自己的成功充满信心。 4)trust指“信赖”、“信任”,含有“坚定的信念” 的意思。强调相信、信任的完全可靠。 The new President said he would try to justify the trust

the electorate had placed in him.
新总统说他将尽力证明选民们所给予他的信任。

【知识运用】
采用faith, belief, confidence或trust的适当形式填空: ① My father hadn't much________in doctors of traditional Chinese medicine. ②A good marriage is based on________. ③He ought not to break________with her. ④He lacks________in himself.

答案:①belief本题题意:我父亲不太相信中医。
②trust本题题意:美满的婚姻是建立在互相信任的基 础上的。 ③faith本题题意:他不应对她失信。 ④confidence本题题意:他缺少自信。

2.aim
1)n. (1)[C] 目的;目标 What's your aim in life? 你的人生目的是什么? (2)[U] 瞄准 Take careful aim(at the target)before firing. 开火之前仔细瞄准(目标)。

2)v.
(1)~(at doing sth)|~(at/for sth)|~ to do sth 力求达到; 力争做到 They are aiming to reduce unemployment by 50%. 他们正力求使失业人数下降50%。 (2)(be aimed at) 目的是;旨在 These measures are aimed at preventing violent crime. 这些措施旨在防止暴力犯罪。

(3)~(sth)(at sb/sth)|~(for sb/sth) 瞄准;对准
He aimed(his gun)at the target, fired and missed it. 他(用枪)瞄准目标开火, 却未打中。 (4)~sth at sb 针对;对象是 My remarks were not aimed at you. 我的话不是针对你的。

【知识拓展】
1)take aim(at)瞄准 The hunter aimed at the lion and fired. 猎人瞄准了狮子开火。 2)with the aim/purpose of 为了?? She went to London with the aim of finding a job. 她去伦敦是为了找工作。 3)aim high 胸怀大志; 力争上游

He has always aimed high.
他总是心气很高。

【词语辨析】
aim, goal, purpose, target, object 这些名词均有“目标;目的”之意。 1)aim 本义从“靶子”引申而来,侧重比较具体而明 确的目标,但常指短期目标。 It is now our aim to set up a factory. 我们现在的目的是创办一座工厂。

2)goal 指经过考虑和选择,需经坚持不懈的努力奋斗
才能达到的最终目标。 The company has set itself some high production goals for this year. 公司今年定下很高的生产指标。 3)purpose普通用词,既指以坚决、审慎的行动去达到 的目的,又指心中渴望要实现的目标。 Getting rich seems to be her only purpose in life.

她生活的唯一目的似乎是发财。

4)target指射击的靶,军事攻击目标。引申义指被攻击、
批评或嘲笑的目标。 His proposal became the target of criticism. 他的建议成了批评的目标。 5)object强调个人或需求而决定的目标、目的。 His one object/purpose in life is to earn as much money as possible. 他生活的目标就是尽可能多挣钱。

【知识运用】
(1)This A.at C.on 答案: A 对??”。 anti-smoking campaign is mainly aimed________young teenagers. B.in D.for 本题题意:这场反吸烟运动主要是针对青

少年的。be aimed at 表示“以??为目标;旨在??;针

(2)When the smart hunter found________aim in the distance, he took________aim at it immediately. A.a; a C.an; / B.a; / D.an; an

答案: C

本题题意:发现远处的目标后,那位聪明

的猎人立即瞄准了目标。 aim 表示“目标”,为可数名词, 在第一次提到而非特指某人或某物的单数可数名词前面必

须采用不定冠词 a/an。动词短语take aim at表示“瞄准”。

3.typical (adj.)
1)~(of sb/sth) 典型的;有代表性的 This painting is typical of his early work. 这幅画是他早期的代表作。 2)一贯的;平常的 A typical working day for me begins at 7?30. 我的工作日一般在7?30开始。 3)~(of sb/sth) 不出所料;特有的

It was typical of her to forget.
她这个人就是爱忘事。

【知识运用】
(1)(2008江西-33) Jack is late again. It is________of him to keep others waiting. A.normal C.common 答案: D B.ordinary D.typical 本题题意:杰克又迟到了。他这个人就是

爱让别人等他。typical表示“不出所料;特有的”。

(2)It is typical________him to forget to bring a present.
A.of C.on 答案: A B.for D.with 本题题意:忘记带礼物来正是他的特点。

typical 表示“不出所料;特有的”,与介词of连用。

4.adopt(v.) 1)收养;领养 There are many people eager to adopt a baby. 许多人想要收养婴儿。

2)采用(某方法);采取(某态度)
All three teams adopted different approaches to the problem.

三个队处理这个问题的方式各不相同。
3)正式通过;表决采纳(建议、政策等) After much deliberation, the president decided to adopt her suggestion. 总经理再三考虑之后,决定采纳她的建议。

【知识拓展】
1)adopted (adj.) 收养的;领养的 He's not our natural son; we adopted him when he was three. 他不是我们的亲儿子——他三岁时我们领养的。 2)adoptive (adj.) 收养的;有收养关系的 He was brought up by adoptive parents in London. 他由家住伦敦的养父母抚养大。

【知识运用】
(1)Paul's mother had him________because she couldn't look after him herself. A.adopted B.adoptive C.adjusted D.adapted 答案: A 本题题意:保罗的母亲因为自己无力抚养 他, 便将他送给别人收养了。have sb adopted 表示“将某 人交与??收养”。

(2)(2008上海春-41) The story of the homeless orphan
has________sympathy from the public. A.aroused C.defended 答案: A B.attracted D.adopted

本题题意:这个无家可归的孤儿的故事引

起了公众的同情。arouse表示“激起、引起(感情、态度)”。

5.possess (v.)
1)有;拥有 He never possessed much money, but he always possessed good friends. 他从来就没有多少钱,但他一直有一些好朋友。 2)具有(特质) Does he possess the necessary patience and tact to do the job well?

他有做好这项工作必备的耐性和应变能力吗?

3)(感觉、情绪等)攫住;支配;控制
She seemed to be possessed by the devil. 她好像着了魔似的。 4)(用于否定句或疑问句)使言语失常 What possessed him to say such a thing? 他着了什么魔,竟说出这种话来?

【知识知展】
1)be possessed by /with 被(鬼怪、思想等)缠住;迷住 She was possessed by the desire to be rich. 她被致富的欲望所支配。 2)be possessed of 拥有;占有;具有;享有 She is possessed of a wonderfully calm temperament. 她性情非常文静。 3)possess sb of sth使某人有/拥有某物; 使某人熟悉某


He is said to possess a fortune of more than two thousand million dollars.

据说他的财产价值超过20亿美元。

4)possess oneself of 取得;获得;把??占为已有
She possessed herself of the unclaimed goods. 她把那些没人认领的货物占为己有。

【词语辨析】
possess, hold, own, keep, enjoy 这些动词均有“有,具有,持有”之意。 1)possess较正式,指拥有或占有并能加以控制与支配, 强调其归属;也指具有某种品质、才能、特点或性能等。 I'm afraid that he doesn't possess a sense of humor. 恐怕他没有什么幽默感。

2)hold 指拥有并保持财产及持有见解等,暗示不让别
人拿走或占有。 Mr. Jones holds an important position at work. 琼斯先生在工作上据有重要职位。 3)own 不及 possess 正式,多指所属关系,强调所有权, 不管所属物是否在物主手中。 Who owns this house? 谁拥有这座房子?

4)keep指长时间地保有,保存某物,防止别人占去,
强调安全和感情上的依附。 We received a tempting offer for the house but decided to keep it. 我们得到一个很有诱惑力的开价,但还是决定不卖这 座房子。 5)enjoy指享有某种权利或长处,带有欣赏或喜爱的情 感。

Men and women should enjoy equal rights.
男女应当享有平等权利。

【知识运用】
(1)He is possessed________the idea that he is being followed. A.with C.for 答案: A B.of D.on 本题题意:他老是觉得有人跟踪他 。 be

possessed by/with表示“被(鬼怪、思想等)缠住;迷住”。

(2)What________you to do that?
A.demanded C.possessed 答案: C B.kept D.made

本题题意:是什么驱使你做出那种事的?

possess表示“(用于否定句或疑问句)使言语失常”。

(3)采用possess, hold, keep或enjoy的适当形式填空:
①They are entitled to________many advantages and privileges. ②She was a blue-eyed blonde, ________ of graceful manners. ③She________the world record for the long jump. ④Please________the watch for me while I go swimming.

⑤She has now________the post of Prime Minister
longer than anyone else this century. ⑥The country________rich mineral deposits.

答案:
①enjoy 止很优雅。 ③holds/keeps 译文:她保持着跳远世界纪录。 ④keep 译文:我去游泳,请代我保管这表。 ⑤ held 所未有的。 译文:她现在当首相任期之长在本世纪是前 译文:他们有资格享有许多优惠和特权。 译文:她是一位蓝眼睛的金发女郎,举 ②possessed

⑥possesses

译文:这个国家拥有丰富矿藏。

6.coincidence (n.)
1)[C &U](令人吃惊的)巧合,巧事 ① That's the most incredible coincidence I've ever heard of! 那是我听说过的最难以置信的巧合! ② It was a coincidence that he was born on his mother's birthday. 他在他母亲生日那天出生,真是巧事。

2)[U](意见等的)相同,相符,一致

①Is there any coincidence between his opinions and
your own? 他的意见与你自己的意见有没有一致之处? ②There remains the question of the coincidence of social and economic interests. 社会利益与经济利益是否一致的问题仍存在。

【知识拓展】
by coincidence碰巧,由于巧合 ①By coincidence, we arrived here at the same time. 我们凑巧一同到达这儿。 ②She and I both arrived at the same time by pure coincidence. 我和她同时到达纯属巧合。

【知识运用】
(1)It can't a(n)________that four jewelry stores were robbed in one night. A.coincidence C.incident 答案: A 巧事”。 B.accident D.chance

本题题意:四家珠宝店在同一天晚上遭到

抢窃,这并非偶然。 coincidence 表示“ ( 令人吃惊的 ) 巧合,

(2)________a strange coincidence we happened to be
travelling on the same train. A.On C.By 答案:C B.In D.For 本题题意:巧得出奇, 我们正好坐同一列

火车。 coincidence 表示“ ( 令人吃惊的 ) 巧合,巧事”,常 常和介词by连用。

7.shadow (n.)
1)[C] 阴影;影子 ① The shadows of the trees grew longer as the afternoon went on. 随着下午时光的延续,树影会越来越长。 ②The shadow of a greater economic crisis loom large in most of the developed countries in the world. 一场更大的经济危机的阴影笼罩着世界上大多数发达

国家。

2)[U& pl.] 昏暗处;背光处;阴暗处 ①Her face was in deep shadow. 她的脸部在一片很暗的阴影中。 ②I thought I saw a figure standing in the shadows. 我好像看见阴暗处站着一个人。

3)[sing.]~(of sth)(坏)影响
①The new leader wants to escape from the shadow of his predecessor.

新任领导想要摆脱前任的影响。
②These people have been living for years under the shadow of fear. 这些人多年来一直生活在恐怖的阴影中。

【知识拓展】
1)in the shadow/shadows 在阴暗处 I could just make out a figure in the shadows. 我只能隐约辨认出暗处有一个人影。 2)in/under the shadow of (1)在??的附近;与??很接近 The new market is in the shadow of the City Hall. 新市场紧挨着市政厅。

(2)被﹙某人的光彩﹚所掩盖;在??的盛名之下
Most of her childhood had been spent in the shadow of her elder sister. 她童年的大部分时间都生活在姐姐的光环之下。 3)cast/make/produce/throw shadows on/upon投下影子; 形成影子 The tree casts a shadow on the ground. 树的影子映在地上。

【词语辨析】
shadow, shade 这两个名词均有“荫,荫凉处”之意。 1)shadow常指光线被物体挡住所产生的阴影,影子, 有明显的轮廓。 The candles on the table threw huge flickering shadows against the wall. 桌子上的蜡烛在墙上投下巨大的跳动的影子。

2)shade指阳光被遮挡后出现的荫凉处,如树荫等,无
一定的轮廓或边界。 Keep in the shade; it's cooler. 你就在阴凉处呆着吧,那儿比较凉快。 图解shadow, shade:

在本质上, shadow 指一个平面, shade 指一个立体空 间。

【知识运用】
采用shadow或shade的适当形式填空: ①Store the bottle of medicine in the________. ②He walked along in the________hoping no one would recognize him. ③So dark are the________that a man standing there could not be seen. ④The new player really puts the rest of the team in

the________.

答案:
①shade 认出他来。 ③shadows 见。 ④ shade 译文:这位新选手确实令其他队员黯然失 色。(put sb/sth in the shade 使某人/某事物相形失色) 译文:阴影很暗, 人站在里面不会被看 译文:把这瓶药放在阴凉处。 译文:他走在暗处, 希望没有人 ②shadow/shadows

8.attempt
1)(v.)~sth|~to do sth 努力;尝试;试图 ①He attempted the exam but failed. 他试图通过考试, 但失败了。 ②He attempted to get in touch with them but without success. 他试图和他们联系, 但未成功。

2)n.
(1)[C & U]~(to do sth)|~(at sth/at doing sth) 企图; 试图;尝试 ①She has made no attempt to contact her mother. 她没有尝试和母亲取得联系。 ②He made an attempt at a joke/at joking. 他试图说笑话。

(2)[C]~(on sth)(为超越某事物的)尝试,努力
①After repeated attempts they finally succeeded. 经过反复尝试, 他们终于成功了。 ②He made an attempt on the world record. 他试图打破世界纪录。

【知识拓展】
attempted (adj.) (犯罪等)未遂的 ①The attempted bank robbery took place at 9 this morning. 这个未遂的银行抢案发生在今天上午9点。 ②He was charged with attempted robbery. 他被控以意图抢劫罪。

【词语辨析】 attempt, try 这两个动词均含有“试图,努力,力图”之意。 1)attempt较正式用词,侧重已经开始,且希望完成, 但常隐含着不一定有预期的结果。

They are attempting(to climb)the steepest part of the
mountain. 他们努力攀登这座山的最陡的部分。

2)try 普通用词,可与 attempt 换用,但强调努力或尝
试,后跟不定式表示努力或争取;后跟动名词表示尝试。 If you can't do it the first time, try again. 要是你第一次做不成, 就再试一下。

【知识运用】
(1)A man is being questioned B.attended D.admitted in relation to the________murder last night. A.advised C.attempted 答案: C

本题题意:与昨晚未遂谋杀案有关的一位

男子正在接受讯问。attempted表示 “未遂的”。

(2)The boys________to leave for camping but were
stopped by their parents. A.attended C.managed 答案: B B.attempted D.endured

本题题意:男孩子们想去野营但被他们的

父母们拦住了。attempt表示“努力;尝试;试图”,后接 名词或不定式 ( 短语 ) 担任宾语,侧重已经开始,且希望完 成,但常隐含着不一定有预期的结果。

9.predict (v.) 预言;预告;预报
① The tomorrow. 天气预报预测明天天晴。 ②I predicted their getting into trouble. 我料到他们会倒霉。 ③They predicted/It was predicted that there would be an earthquake. weather forecast predicts sunshine for

他们预言会有地震。

④We can predict from this information what is likely
to happen next. 我们可以从这一信息中预言接下来可能发生什么事。 ⑤It is impossible to predict who will win. 要预测出谁将获胜是不可能的。 ⑥I cannot predict when to meet her again. 我无法预测什么时候会再见到她。

【词语辨析】
predict, foresee, forecast, foretell 这些动词均含“预言;预示;预告”之意。 1)predict 正式用词,通常用于人。指根据事实或自然 规律进行推断后作出预告,隐含有科学的准确性。 She predicted that the improvement would continue. 她预测情况将继续好转。

2)foresee 指提前、预先料到将要发生的事或指对未发
生的事情形成一种概念或判断。 He foresaw that his journey would be delayed by bad weather. 他预知自己的旅程会被恶劣天气耽搁。 3)forecast指对未来事件的预报、推测或设想,侧重最 终可能出现的结果。 Such events may forecast war.

这类事件可能是战争的预兆。

4)foretell 一般的通俗用语,往往指根据客观因素做出
的预告,强调预先要发生的事。 She could foretell what his reaction would be. 她能预先说出他会有什么反应。

【知识运用】
(1)According to the weather________it will rain tomorrow. A.forecast C.predict 答案:A B.foretell D.foresee 本 题 题 意 : 天 气 预 报 说 明 天 有 雨 。 the

weather forecast表示“天气预报”,为固定表达。

(2)It is not possible to________with any certainty what
effect this will have. A.prohibit C.predict 答案: C B.postpone D.preserve 本题题意:要准确地预言这会有什么影响

是不可能的。predict表示“预言;预告;预报”。

1.a great/good deal 大量 ①I have learned a great deal from you. 我向你学到了许多东西。 ②It has rained a great deal recently. 最近雨水很多。

【知识拓展】
1)a great deal of+(不可数名词)许多;大量 We've put a great deal of time and effort into this project. 我们为这一项目付出了大量的时间和精力。 2)a large amount of +(不可数名词)大量 A large amount of money is spent on advertisements every year.

每年都要花费大量金钱在广告上。

3)a large number of+(可数名词复数)许多,若干
A large number of books have been stolen from the library. 图书馆遗失了很多书。 4)a large quantity of/quantities of+(可数名词复数或 不可数名词)大量,许多 Police found a large quantity of illegal drugs. 警察查获了大量的非法毒品。

5)masses of/a mass of+(可数名词复数或不可数名词)
大量的 There were masses of dark clouds in the sky. 天上有朵朵乌云。 6)a great /good many 许多;大量 He made a great many mistakes. 他犯了许多的错误。

【知识运用】
(1)(2008安徽-21) The two girls are getting on very well and share________with each other. A.little C.some 答案: B B.much D.none 本题题意:这两位女孩相处融洽,她们无

话不谈。 much 用作代词,表示“许多;大量”。例如: “Did you pay much for that old bicycle?” “No, not

much.” “你买这辆旧自行车花了好多钱吗?”“没有,
没花多少。”

(2)(2008陕西-12) He doesn't have________furniture
in his room——just an old desk. A.any C.some 答案:D B.many D.much 本题题意:他的房间里没有多少家具 —— 只

有一张旧书桌。 furniture 表示“ ( 可移动的 ) 家具”,为不 可数名词。much用于否定句,表示“不多”。而any用于 否定句,则表示完全否定。例如:I didn't eat any meat.我

一点儿肉都没吃。

(3)(2006 浙 江 - 15) We always keep________spare
paper, in case we ran out. A.too much C.plenty of B.a number of D.a good many

答案:C

本题题意:我们的备用纸张总是很充足,

以防纸张耗尽。plenty of sth表示“大量的;众多的;充足 的”,其后既可以接可数名词的复数形式,也可以接不可 数名词。例如:There's plenty of room for everyone inside. 里面有的是地方,大家都可以进来。too much表示“太多 的;过多地”,含有“超过必要的意思”;例如:She spends too much time(in)dressing herself. 她用太多的时间 装扮自己。a number of 和a good many只能跟可数名词的

复数形式连用;例如:I have a good many/a number of
things to do today. 我今天有很多事要做。

(4)(2006辽宁-23)I hear________boys in your school
like playing football in their spare time, though others prefer basketball. A.quite a lot C.quite a bit 答案: B B.quite a few D.quite a little

本题题意:我听说在你们学校,虽然部分

男孩子比较喜欢打篮球,但相当多的男孩喜欢闲暇时候踢 足球。quite a few表示“相当多,不少”,后接可数名词

的复数。

(5)The young dancers looked so charming in their
beautiful clothes that we took________pictures of them. A.many of C.the number of 答案: B B.masses of D.a large amount of

本题题意:身着美丽的服装,这些年青的

舞蹈演员看起来非常迷人,我们为她们拍了大量的照片。 masses of表示“大量的”;其后既可接可数名词也可接不 可数名词。

(6)I don't know________about politics. A.a good many C.a few 答案: B B.a great deal D.too much 本题题意:我不太懂政治。 a great/good

deal表示“大量”,在句中担任状语,表示程度。

(7)I've had________disappointments in my time.
A.too much C.a great deal of 答案: D B.a large amount of D.a good many

本题题意:我一生中经历了许多令人失望

的事。a great/good many表示“许多;大量”,后接可数 名词的复数形式。

2.lead to 1)导致;造成(结果) ①This will lead to great trouble. 这将导致极大的麻烦。 ② Too much work and too little rest often lead to

illness.
过量的工作和过少的休息会引起疾病。 2)通向;通往

①The path leads to the village.
这条小路通到那个村庄。 ②Where does this road lead to? 这路通向哪里?

【知识拓展】
1)result in导致;造成??结果 ①The accident resulted in the death of two passengers. 这场事故造成两名乘客死亡。 ②The flood resulted in a considerable reduction in production. 这次水灾造成相当大的减产。

2)result from由??引起;由??产生
①Success results from hard work. 成功来自于努力工作。 ②His illness resulted from bad food. 他的病是由于吃了变质的食物引起的。 3)bring about 产生;导致;促成 ① The accident was brought about by John's carelessness.

这场事故是由于约翰的粗心造成的。
②The heavy spring rains brought about the flood. 特大的春雨造成了这场水灾。

4)bring on使发展;导致(通常指坏事)
①The sudden cold weather brought on his fever again. 因天气骤冷, 他发起烧来。 ②The rain helped to bring on the crops. 这场雨有助于农作物的生长。

【知识运用】
(1)(2007 浙江- 11)We firmly believe that war never settles anything. It only________violence. A.runs into C.leads to 答案: C 果 )” 。 B.comes from D.begins with

本题题意:我们坚信战争解决不了任何问

题。它只会引发暴力问题。 lead to 表示“导致,造成 ( 后

(2)This kind of discussion will certainly________still
greater differences between the two parties. A.lead to C.result from 答案: A B.run into D.bring into 本题题意:这样的讨论,必将导致双方更

大的分歧。lead to表示“导致,造成(后果)”。

3.break away(from)
1)突然挣脱;逃脱 The prisoner broke away from his guards. 犯人挣脱了看守。 2)脱离;背叛(政党、国家等,尤指再组建新的) The people of the province wished to break away and form a new state. 该省人民希望分离成立一个新国家。

3)(尤指赛跑)抢跑;甩掉
She broke away from the pack and opened up a two second lead. 她甩掉其他参赛者,以两秒领先。

【知识运用】
(1)We must________convention( 常 规 )and adopt as many advanced techniques as possible. A.hold back from 答案: C B.keep out of C.break away from D.get rid of 本题题意:我们必须打破常规,尽量采用 先进技术。break away from表示“放弃;解除”。

(2)采用适当的介词或副词填空:
①Fighting broke________in the prison cells. ②The meeting broke________at eleven o'clock. ③Our car broke________on the motorway. ④At last, those physicians and specialists broke________in their fight against heart disease. ⑤Don't break______when your teacher is speaking. ⑥As the President's car drew up, the crowd

broke________loud applaud.
⑦Fortunately, he broke________from the lawless group years ago.

答案:①out 译文:牢房里发生斗殴。
②up 译文:会议在十一点钟散会。 译文:我们的汽车在高速公路上抛锚了。 译文:那些内科医生和专家们终于在同 ③down

④ through

心脏病的斗争中取得了突破。 ⑤in 译文:当你的老师说话的时候不要插嘴。 ⑥ into 烈的掌声。 译文:总统的坐车停下时,人群中爆发出热

⑦away
团。

译文:幸亏他在数年前就脱离了那个非法集

4.on the other hand (可是)另一方面 ①Father and mother wanted to go for a ride, and on the other hand,the children wanted to stay home and play with their friends. 父母想开车出去兜风,而孩子们却想在家里与朋友们 一道玩。 ②I am very willing,but he, on the other hand,is reluctant. 我很愿意,他却不愿意。 ③Bert is extremely intelligent;on the other hand, he is a very lazy student and therefore gets low grades. 彼尔特非常聪明,可他是个懒学生,因此他成绩不高。

【知识拓展】
on the one hand...on the other(hand)常引出不同的, 尤指对立的观点、思想等,译作“一方面??,另一方 面??”。for one thing用以引出两个以上的理由之一,表 示“一来;一方面”,常常与for another(thing)或besides 相呼应,表示“一则??,再则??”;此外,for one thing陈述两方面的情况一致。例如:

①I want to go to the party, but on the other hand I
ought to be studying. 我想去参加聚会,但从另一方面来说,我应该留下来 学习。 ②On the one hand, they'd love to have kids but on the other, they don't want to give up freedom. 一方面,他们想要孩子,但另一方面,他们又不想放 弃自由自在的生活。

③For one thing, people now enjoy a higher standard
of living. 第一,现在人们的生活水平提高了。 ④For one thing, I haven't any money; for another/and for another I'm too busy. 一则我没钱, 再则我太忙。

【知识运用】
(1)(2006浙江-11) I would like a job which pays more, but________I enjoy the work I'm doing at the moment. A.in other words C.for one thing 答案: B B.on the other hand D.as a matter of fact

本题题意:我想找一份薪水更高的工作,

但另一方面, 我也很喜欢目前的这份工作。on the other hand表示“另一方面”,不但含有转折含义,而且包含上

下文对比的含义。

(2)The teacher said,“You get a low mark because,
________,you did not do your homework.” A.What's more C.on the other hand 答案: B B.for one thing D.After all

本题题意:老师说:“你的分数很低,其

原因之一是因为你没有做作业。”for one thing 用以引出 两个以上的理由之一,表示“一来;一方面”。

1.They tried to paint people and nature as they really were. 他们力争如实地画出人物和自然。 【知识剖析】 as they really were为连词as 引导的方式状语从句,as 相当于in the way(that), 表示“照??的方式”。例如:

①Do as I say and sit down.
照我说的, 坐下。 ②Leave the table as it is. 那桌子就那样吧(不要动上面的东西)。 ③Why didn't you catch the last bus as I told you to? 你怎么不听我的话赶乘末班公共汽车呢? ④The trousers are rather long, but I'll take them just as they are.

这条裤子有点儿长,但我还是要了吧。

【知识拓展】
1) 方式状语从句通常是由 as, (in) the way(that) 或 as if/though引导。 ①You ought to do as Paul tells you. 你应按照保罗吩咐的做。 ②The work is not so difficult as you imagine. 这工作不像你想像的那么困难。 ③She spoke to me as if she knew me.

她和我说话的神情,好像她早就认识我似的。

④She treats him as if he were a stranger.
她待他如陌生人。 ⑤She's behaving(in)the same way that her elder sister used to. 她的举止和她姐姐过去一模一样。 ⑥This steak is cooked just the way I like it. 这牛排正是按照我喜欢的那样做的。

2)as作为连词的其它用法:
(1)(引导时间状语从句)当??时;随着 As the sun rose the fog disappeared. 太阳一出来,雾随之消失。 (2)(引导原因状语从句)因为;由于 We didn't know what to do as we were just visiting there. 我们不知道该怎么办,因为当时我们仅仅在那里作访

问。

(3)(引导让步状语从句)
Tired as he was, he sat up late. 他虽然疲倦,可仍然很晚才睡。 (4)(引导比较状语从句 ) 和??一样的;相同的;同样 的 I love you as much as she(does). 我和她一样爱你。

3)as作为关系代词的用法:
(1)(与such, the same, as等连用,引导定语从句) 表示 “与??相同的事物(或人)”。 ①He has earned as much money as I have. 他赚的钱和我赚的一样多。 ②She felt just the same as he did. 她和他的感受相同。 ③There is a general rise in prices such as occurred in

the late 60's.
物价普遍上涨,跟六十年代末一样。

(2)(引导非限制性定语从句,对前述内容作补充 ) 表示
“正如,如同;本情况,该事实”。 ①She has married again, as was expected. 她已再婚,这是意料中的事。 ②We are tired, as anyone can see. 我们累了,这是有目共睹的。

【知识运用】
(1)Living________I do so remote from town, I rarely have visitors. A.so C.if B.as D.while

答案:B 本题题意:像我住得离城镇这么远,所以 罕有访客。as引导方式状语从句

(2)They
problems. A.when C.as 答案: B

rushed

in________we
B.while D.until

were

discussing

本题题意:当我们正在讨论问题时,他们

冲了进来。while引导的时间状语从句的谓语动作必须采用 延续性动词,并强调主句和从句的动作同时发生,常译为 “与??同时,在??期间”。侧重于主句动作和从句动

作相对比,但含有“一个动作在另一个动作或状态发生的
过程中发生”的意思。例如:He fell asleep while (he was) doing his homework. 他做着做着功课就睡着了。

(3)________he
A.When C.While 答案:B

grew

older,
B.As

he

lost

interest

in

everything except gardening. D.After 本题题意:他年纪越来越大, 除了喜欢园

艺以外, 对一切都失去了兴趣。as引导的时间状语从句的 谓语动词多采用延续性动词,偶尔也可用于瞬间性动作。 多用于主句和从句动作同时发生,含有“一边??,一

边??”的含义。

(4)He was working at the table________I went in.
A.when C.while 答案: A B.as D.after 本题题意:当我进去的时候,他正在桌旁

工作。when所引导的时间状语从句可以采用延续性动词, 也可以采用瞬间性动词。可用于主句和从句动作同时发生 或从句动作先于主句动作。

(5)________it was getting dark, we soon turned back.
A.As C.For 答案: A B.With D.While 本题题意:因为天色逐渐变暗,我们不久

就回去了。as引导原因状语从句。 (6)Young________he was, it is not strange that he should have acted so foolishly. A.while B.when

C.as
答案: C

D.although
本题题意:因为他年轻,难怪他举动会那

样愚蠢。as引导让步状语从句。

(7)The origin of universities________we know them is
commonly traced back to the twelfth century. A.till C.which 答案: B B.as D.before 本题题意:据我们所知,大学之最早兴办

一般可追溯到十二世纪。 as作为关系代词,引导定语从句。

2.One of the most important discoveries during this
period was how to draw things in perspective. 在此期间,最主要的发现之一就是如何用透视法来画 出事物。

【知识剖析】
how to draw things in perspective属于“疑问词+不定 式”结构,在句中担任了表语。疑问代词who, what, which 或疑问副词when, where, how, why, whether(不包含if)和不 定式连用,构成一种不定式的复合结构。这种结构在句中 可以担任主语、宾语、表语等成分,用作宾语较多,尤其 是用在动词ask, consider, discuss, decide, discover, explain, find out, forget, know, learn, remember, see(=understand),

show + 宾 语 , tell, think, understand, want to know,
wonder 等后面。例如:

①He discovered how to open the safe.
他发现了打开保险柜的方法。 ②I found out where to buy fruit cheaply. 我找到了买便宜水果的地方。 ③When to hold the meeting has not decided yet. 何时举行会议还没有决定下来。 ④My question was how to get so many books? 我的问题是怎样得到这么多书?

【知识运用】
(1)(2010辽宁-34) —It's no use having ideas only. —Don't worry. Peter can show you ________ to turn an idea into an act. A. how C. what 答案:A B. who D. where 本题题意:“光有想法没用。” “不用担

心,皮特可以教你如何把想法付诸行动。” 在及物动词

tell, advise, show, teach, learn, decide等之后,常接“疑问
词+不定式”结构担任宾语。句意和“方式”有关,选用 how.

(2)I've worked with children before, so I know
what________in my new job. A.expected C.to be expecting 答案: B B.to expect D.expects

本题题意:我有辅导孩子的经验,因此我

知道孩子们对我的新工作有什么样的期待。本题考查“疑 问词+不定式”结构在句中作动词know的宾语;注意:在 本结构中,不定式均采用一般式,不能采用进行式或被动

式。

(3)There're so many kinds of tape-recorder on sale
that I can't make up my mind________to buy. A.what C.how 答案: B B.which D.where 本题题意:磁带录音机的种类如此繁多,

以至于我无法决定买哪一款。本题考查“疑问词+不定式” 结构在句中担任make up one's mind的宾语。当限定选择 范围时,用which不用what.

(4)When

and

where

to

build

the

new

factory________yet. A.is not decided C.has not decided 答案: A B.are not decided D.have not decided

本题题意:何时何地建造新工厂没有决定

下来。本题考查“疑问词+不定式”结构在句中作主语, 由于概念一致,谓语动词用单数。谓语部分采用 has not been decided也可以。

(5)Last summer I took a course on________.
A.how to make dresses B.how dresses be made C.how to be made dresses D.how dresses to be made 答案: A 词on的宾语。 本题题意:去年夏天,我学习了一门服装 制作课程。本题考查“疑问词+不定式”结构在句中作介

3.The Impressionists were the first painters to work
outdoors. 印象派画家是第一批室外写景的艺术家。

【知识剖析】
不定式短语to work outdoors担任后置定语,修饰the first painters。不定式可用于 the first, the second等如此类 推及 the last, the only之后,有时也可用于最高级之后。例 如: ①He loves parties; he is always the first to come and the last to leave. 他喜欢参加社交聚会,总是头一个来,最后一个走。

②He is the best man to do the job.
他是这份工作的最佳人选。

【知识拓展】
不定式担任定语的其他用法: 1)不定式及其短语作定语与所修饰的名词在逻辑上存 在主谓关系。 She was the only one to survive the crash. 她是这次事故中唯一的幸存者。 2)不定式及其短语作定语与所修饰的名词在逻辑上存 在动宾关系。

The new play to be put on tonight will be very
interesting. 今晚要上演的新剧将十分有趣。

3)作定语的不定式如果由不及物动词转化而成,必须
加上相应的介词。 They need a garden to play in. 他们需要有一个可供玩耍的花园。 4)作定语的不定式如果与其所修饰的名词或代词之间 存在逻辑上的“动宾”关系,其逻辑主语是句子的主语时, 采用主动形式表被动含义。 I've got an essay to write.

我有一篇作文要写。

5)部分名词后常跟不定式作定语,此类词常见的有:
need , right , chance , movement , courage , force , reason , effort , drive , determination , decision , wish 等。 Their offer to rebuild the town was not taken seriously. 他们重新修建城镇的提议没有得到重视。

【知识运用】
(1)(2010山东-23) I have a lot of readings ________ before the end of this term. A. completing C. completed 答案: B B. to complete D. being completed

本题题意:我有许多阅读材料需要在学期

结束前读完。不定式短语to complete担任后置定语,修饰 名词 readings ,表示“将来”时间概念。时间状语 before

the end of this term起到了暗示作用。

(2)(2010 上海秋- 40) That is the only way we can
imagine ________ the overuse of water in students' bathrooms. A. reducing C. reduced 答案: B B. to reduce D. reduce 本题题意:这是我们可以想到的唯一能够

减少学生卫生间过度用水的方法。不定式短语 to reduce the overuse of water in students' bathrooms担任后置定语,

与定语从句 (that) we can imagine共同修饰名词the way.

(3)(2007 全国 1 - 25) —The last one________pays the
meal. —Agreed! A.arrived C.to arrive 答案:C B.arrives D.arriving 本题题意:“最后来的一个人买

单。”“同意!”本题考查不定式 ( 短语 ) 作后置定语,相 当于定语从句 who is to arrive.注意,名词或代词前有形容

词的最高级或序数词修饰时,只能采用不定式 ( 短语 ) 担任
后置定语。


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