(10.6)Passage One The time is 9 o'clock and this is Marian Snow with the news.The German authorities are sending investigators to discover the cause of the plane crash late yesterday on the island of Tenerife.The plane, a Boeing 737, taking German holiday makers to the island,crashed into a hillside as it circled while preparing to land.The plane was carrying 180 passengers.It's thought there are no survivors. Rescue workers are at the scene.The British industrialist James Louis,held by kidnappers in central Africa for the past 8 months,was released unharmed yesterday.The kidnappers had been demanding 1 million pounds for the release of Mr. Louis.The London Bank and their agents who had been negotiating with the kidnappers have not said whether any amount of money has been paid.The 500 UK motors workers who had been on strike in High Town for the past three weeks went back to work this morning.This follows successful talks between management and union
representatives,which resulted in a new agreement on working hours and conditions.A spokesman for the management said that they'd hoped they could now get back to producing cars,and that they'd lost a lot of money and orders over this dispute.And finally the weather. After a cold start,most of the country should be warm and sunny.But towards late afternoon, rain will spread from Scotland to cover most parts by midnight. Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard. 26. What does the news say about the Boeing 737 plane? 27. What happened to British industrialist James Louis? 28. How did the three-week strike in High Town end? 29. What kind of weather will be expected by midnight in most parts of the country?
Juan Louis, a junior geology major,decided to give an informative speech about how earthquakes occur.From his audience and analysis he learned that only 2 or 3 of his classmates knew much of anything about geology.Juan realized then that he must present his speech at an elementary level and with a minimum of scientific language.As he prepared the speech, Juan kept asking himself,"How can I make this clear and meaningful to someonewho knows nothing about earthquakes or geological principles?"Since he was speaking in the Midwest,he decided to begin by notingthat the most severe earthquake in American history took place not in California or Alaska but at New Madrid,Missouri in 1811. If such an earthquake happened today,it would be felt from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean and would flatten most of the cities in the Mississippi valley.That, he figured, should get his classmates' attention.Throughout the body of the speech,Juan dealt only with the basic mechanics of earthquakes and carefully avoided technical terms.He also prepared visual aids, diagramming fault line,so his classmates wouldn't get confused.To be absolutely safe, Juan asked his roommate,who was not a geology major, to listen to the speech."Stop me," he said,"any time I say something you don't understand."Juan's roommate stopped him four times.And at each spot,Juan worked out a way to make his point more clearly.Finally, he had a speech that was interesting and perfectly understandable to his audience.Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.30. What did Juan Louis learn from the analysis of his audience? 31. How did Juan Louis start his speech? 32. What did Juan ask his roommate to do when he was making his trial speech?
Esperanto is an artificial language,designed to serve internationally as an auxiliary means of communication among speakers of different languages.It was created by Ludwig Lazar Zamenhof,a Polish Jewish doctor specialized in eye diseases.Esperanto was first presented in 1887.An international movement was launched to promote its use.Despite arguments and disagreements,the movement has continued to flourish and has members in more than 80 countries.Esperanto is used internationally across language boundaries by at least 1 million people,particularly in specialized fields.It is used in personal contacts,on radio broadcasts and in a number of publications as well as in translations of both modern works and classics.Its popularity has spread from Europe, both East and West,to such countries as Brazil and Japan.It is, however,in China that Esperanto has had its greatest impact.It is taught in universities and used in many translations(often in scientific or technological works).El Popola Cinio, which means from People's China,is a monthly magazine in Esperanto and is read worldwide.Radio Beijing's Esperanto program is the most popular program in Esperanto in the world.Esperanto's vocabulary is drawn primarily from Latin,the Romance languages,English and German. Spelling is completely regular.A simple and consistent set of endings indicates grammatical functions of words.Thus, for example, every noun ends in "o",every adjective in "a",and the basic form of every verb in "i".Esperanto also has a highly productive system of constructing new words from old ones.Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard. 33. What does the speaker tell us about Esperanto? 34. What is said about the international movement to promote the use of Esperanto? 35. What does the speaker say about Esperanto in China?
(09.12)Passage One Wilma Subra had no intention of becoming a public speaker.After graduating from college with degrees in chemistry and microbiology,she went to work at Gulf South Research Institute in Louisiana.As part of her job,she conducted field research on toxic substances in the environment,often in minority communities located near large industrial polluters.She found many families were being exposed to high,sometimes deadly levels of chemicals and other toxic substances.But she was not allowed to make her information public.Frustrated by these restrictions,Subra left her job in 1981,created her own company and has devoted the past two decades to helping people fight back against giant industrial polluters.She works with families and community groups to conduct environmental tests, interpret test results,and organize for change.Because of her efforts,dozens of toxic sites across the country have been cleaned up.And one chemical industry spokesperson calls her "a top gun"for the environmental movement.How has Subra achieved all this?Partly through her scientific training,partly through her commitment to environmental justice.But just as important is her ability to communicate with people through public speaking."Public speaking," she says,"is the primary vehicle I use for reaching people."If you had asked Subra before 1981,"do you see yourself as a major public speaker?"She would have laughed at the idea.Yet today she gives more than 100 presentations a year.Along the way, she's lectured at Harvard,testified before congress,and addressed audiences in 40 states,as well as in Mexico, Canada, and Japan. Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard. 26. What did Wilma Subra do as part of her jobon working at Gulf South Research Institute? 27. Why did Wilma Subra leave her job in 1981?
28. What results have Wilma Subra's efforts had in the past two decades? 29. What does the speaker say has contributed to Wilma Subra's success? Passage Two One of the biggest challenges facing employers and educators today is the rapid advance of globalization.The market place is no longer national or regional,but extends to all corners of the world.And this requires a global-ready workforce.Universities have a large part to play in preparing students for the 21st century labor market by promoting international educational experiences.The most obvious way universities can help develop a global workforce is by encouraging students to study abroad as part of their course.Students who have experienced another culture firsthand are more likely to be global-ready when they graduate.Global workforce development doesn't always have to involve travel abroad, however.If students learn another language and study other cultures,they will be more global-ready when they graduate.It is important to point out that students also need to have a deep understanding of their own culture before they can begin to observe,analyze and evaluate other cultures.In multi-cultural societies,people can study each other's cultures to develop intercultural competencies,such as critical and reflective thinking and intellectual flexibility.This can be done both through the curriculum and through activities on campus outside of the classroom,such as art exhibitions and lectures from international experts.Many universities are already embracing this challenge and providing opportunities for students to become global citizens.Students themselves, however,may not realize that when they graduate,they will be competing in a global labor market.And universities need to raise awareness of these issues amongst
undergraduates.Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard. 30. What is one of the biggest challenges facing employers and educators today?
31. What should students do first before they can really understand other cultures? 32. What should college students realize according to the speaker? Passage Three To see if hair color affects a person's chances of getting a job,researchers at California State University asked 136 college students to review the resume and photograph of a female applicant for a job as an accountant.Each student was given the same resume but the applicant's picture was altered so that in some photos,her hair was golden, in some red and in some brown.The result-with brown hair,the woman was rated more capable and she was offered a higher salary than when she had a golden or red hair.Other studies have found similar results.Many respondents rate women with golden hair as less intelligent than other people and red hair as more temperamental.Women with red or golden hair are victims of the common practice of stereotyping.A stereotype is a simplistic or exaggerated image that humans carry in their minds about groups of people.For example, lawyers are shrewd and dishonest is a popular stereotype.Stereotyping can occur in public speaking classes when trying to choose a speech topic.Some males think that women are uninterested in how to repair cars or some females think that men are uninterested in creative hobbies,such as knitting a needlepoint.We should reject stereotypes because they force all people in a group into the same simple pattern.They fail to account for individual differences and the wide range of characteristics among members of any group.Some lawyers are dishonest,yes, but many are not.Some women are uninterested in repairing cars,yes, but some are enthusiastic mechanics. Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard. 33. What did researchers at California State University find? 34. What is the popular stereotype of lawyers?
35. Why does the speaker say we should reject stereotypes? (0906)Passage One Getting behind the wheel of a car can be an exciting new step in a teen's life.But along with that excitement comes a new responsibility-understanding the need for common sense and maturity to avoid accidents.In an effort to spread awareness to teens across the nation,the Allstate Foundation sponsored a Keep-The-Drive Summit at Sunset Station on January 23rd.Students from Kennedy and Alamo Heights High schools participated in the summit which was held here for the first time.The goal of the year-long effort is to educate teens on the rules of safe driving and the severe consequences that can result if those rules are not followed,and then have them communicate that information to their peers.The students watched videos that told them about the numbers of teenage driving injuries and deaths.They listened to the videos as students from other cities shared their stories of how their reckless driving affected not only their lives but also those of their passengers."We are trying to create awareness in high schools across the country,"said Westerman, an Allstate representative."We focus on changing how teens think behind the
wheel."According to the presentation,more teens die in automobile crashes in the United States each year than from drugs, violence, smoking and suicide.An average of 16 teens die every day in motor vehicle crashes and nearly 40% of those are caused by speeding.Texas is the state with the most teen driving deaths according to the presentation.Students agreed that the statistics were amazing and made them think twice about how they drive.Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard. 26. For what purpose did the Allstate Foundation sponsor the Keep-The-Drive Summit? 27. What causes the greatest number of deaths among American teens according to the presentation?
28. What can we conclude about the Keep-The-Drive Summit? Passage Two Dr. Alan Hirsch designs smells for businesses.He says that it doesn't take a whole lot of smell to affect you.Store owners can lure you to the candy aisle-even if you don't realize you're smelling candy!This idea scares a lot of people.Groups that protect the rights of shoppers are upset.They say the stores are using a kind of brainwashing,which they call "smell-washing.""It's pretty dishonest," says Mark Silbergeld.He runs an organization that checks out products for consumers.The scientists hired to design the scents disagree."There's soft background music.There's special lighting.There are all sorts of bells being used," says Dr. Hirsch."Why not smells?""One reason why not," says Silbergeld,"is that some people are allergic to certain scentspumped into products or stores."But there's a whole other side to this debate.Do the smells really work?So far, there is little proof one way or the other.But Dr. Hirsch has run some interesting experiments.In one of Hirsch's experiments,31 volunteers were led into a shoe store that smelled slightly like flowers.Later, another group shopped in the same store,but with no flower odor.Dr. Hirsch found that 84 percent of the shoppers were more likely to buy the shoes in the flower-scented room.But Hirsch found out something even stranger."Whether the volunteers liked the flower scent or not didn't matter," Hirsch says."Some reported that they hated the smell.But they still were more likely to buy the shoes in the scented room." Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard. 29. Why are some people against the use of smells to attract customers? 30. What is Dr. Hirsch's attitude to the use of smells for business? 31. What did Hirsch's experiment show? Passage Three
This is Ray McCarthy with the news.Reports are coming in of a major train crash in Japan.A passenger train carrying hundreds of workers home from the center of Tokyo is reported to have hit an oncoming goods train.Both were traveling at high speed.Figures are not yet available but it is believed that the death toll could be as high as 300,with hundreds more injured.Emergency and rescue services rushed to the scene.But our reporter says it will take days to clear the track and to establish the numbers of the dead and injured.There was a similar accident on the same stretch of track four years ago.There was another bomb scare in a large London store last night during late night shopping.Following a telephone call to the police from an anonymous caller,hundreds of shoppers were shepherded out of the store while roads in the area were sealed off.Police dogs spent hours searching the store for a bag which the caller claimed contained 50 pounds of explosives.Nothing was found and the store was given the all-clear by opening time this morning.A police spokesman said that this was the third bomb scare within a week and that we should all be on our guard.And finally, the motoring organizations have issued a warning to drivers following the recent falls of snow in many parts of the country.Although the falls may be slight,they say extra care is needed. Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard. 32. What accident happened recently in Japan? 33. What do the reports say about the recent accident in Japan? 34. Why did people have to leave the London store last night? 35. What did motoring organizations advise drivers to do? (0812)Passage One To find out what the weather is going to be,most people go straight to the radio, television,or newspaper to get an expert weather forecast.But if you know what to look
for,you can use your own senses to make weather predictions.There are many signs that can help you.For example, in fair weather the air pressure is generally high,the air is still and often full of dust,and far away objects may look vague.But when the storm is brewing,the pressure drops,and you are often able to see things more clearly.Sailors took note of this long ago,and came up with the saying,"The farther the sight, the nearer the rain."Your sense of smell can also help you detect weather changes.Just before it rains, odors become stronger,this is because odors are repressed in a fair high pressure center.When a bad weather low moves in,air pressure lessens and odors are released.You can also hear an approaching storm.Sounds bounce off heavy storm clouds and return to earth with increased force.An old saying describes it this way,"Sounds traveling far and wide,a stormy day will be tied".And don't laugh at your grandmother if she says she can feel a storm coming.It is commonly known that many people feel pains in their bones or joints when the humidity rises, the pressure drops,and bad weather is on the way. Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard. 26. Why does the speaker say we can see far away objects more clearly as a storm is approaching? 27. What does the speaker want to show by quoting a couple of old sayings? 28. What does the passage mainly talk about?
Passage Two Many days seem to bring numerous tasks and responsibilities,all of which apparently must be tackled right away.You spend a day putting out fires,but by the end of the day,you haven't accomplished any of the really important things you set out to do.In desperation, you draft a "to-do" list.But most days, you can make little progress with it.When you look
at the list each morning,a big fat cloud of doom is right at the top-those difficult, complex, important tasks that are so crucial to get done and so easy to avoid.Plenty of us create a "to-do" list to address feelings of being overwhelmed,but we rarely use these tools to their best effect.They wind up being guilt-provoking reminders of the fact that we are over-committed,and losing control of our priorities.According to Timothy Pikle,a professor of psychology at Carlton University in Ottawa,people often draw up a "to-do" list and then that's it.The list itself becomes the day's achievement,allowing us to feel we've done something useful without taking on any real work.In fact, drawing up the list becomes a way of avoiding the work itself."Too often, the list is seen as the accomplishment for the day,reducing the immediate guilt of not working on the tasks at hand by investing energy in the list,"says Pikle, "when a list is used like this,it's simply another way in which we lie to ourselves." Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard. 29. What is the problem that troubles many people nowadays according to the speaker? 30. According to the speaker,what do many people do to cope with their daily tasks? 31. According to psychologist Timothy Pikle,what do people find by the end of the day?
Passage Three In many stressful situations the body's responses can improve our performance.We become more energetic, more alert,better able to take effective action.But when stress is encountered continually,the body's reactions are more likely to be harmful than helpful to us.The continual speeding up of bodily reactions and the production of stress-related hormones seem to make people more susceptible to heart disease.And stress reactions can reduce the disease-fighting effectiveness of the body's immune system,thereby increasing
susceptibility to illnesses,ranging from colds to cancer.Stress may also contribute to disease in less direct ways by influencing moods and behavior.People under stress,may become anxious or depressed and as a result may eat too much or too little,have sleep difficulties, or fail to exercise.These behavioral changes may in turn be harmful to their health.In addition, people are more likely to pay attention to certain bodily sensations such as aches and pains when they are under stress and to think that they are sick.If the person were not under stress,he same bodily sensations might not be perceived as symptoms and the person might continue to feel well.Some researchers have suggested that assuming the role of a sick person is one way in which certain people try to cope with stress.Instead of dealing with the stressful situation directly,these people fall sick.After all, it is often more acceptable in our society to be sick and to seek medical help than it is to admit that one can not cope with the stresses of life. Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard. 32. What does the speaker say about people who encounter stress once in a while? 33. What does the speaker say frequent stress reactions may lead to? 34. What are people more likely to do when they are under stress? 35. What does the passage mainly talk about? (0806)Passage One Water scooters are water vehicles hat look very much like motorcycles.Nowadays speedy colorful water scooters are gaining in popularity.They can travel anywhere a small boat can and are typically popular with young people.The rising popularity of the craft has raised a question of water scooter regulation.In this case,the argument for strict regulation is compelling.Water scooters are a particularly deadly form of water recreation.For example, two women were vacationing in Longboat Key.While they were floating on a
rubber boat along the shore,a water scooter crashed into them and killed them.Also, water scooter operators have been killed and seriously injured in collisions with other watercraft.Others have been stranded at sea when their scooters either failed or sank far from shore.Many water scooter operators are inexperienced and ignorant of navigational rules,which increases the potential for accidents.The increasing popularity of the scooter has aggravated the problem,providing more water vehicles to compete for the same space.Crowded water ways are simply an open invitation to disaster.In addition to the inherent operational hazards of water scooters,they are proven to be an environmental nuisance.Beach residents complain of the noise of the scooters.The Pacific Whale Foundation on the west coast expressed the concern that the scooters are frightening away an endangered species of whale that migrates to Hawaii for breeding.Regulations, such as minimum operating age,restricted operating areas,and compulsory classes in water safety are essential.Without such regulations,tragedies involving water scooters are sure to multiply,which makes many beaches unsafe for recreation. Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard. 26. What does the speaker say about water scooters? 27. What is mentioned as one of the causes of water accidents? 28. In what way are water scooters said to be an environmental nuisance? 29. What does the speaker propose to ensure the safety of beaches for recreation?
Passage Two It seems to me that neighbors are going out of style in America.The friend next door from whom you borrowed four eggs or a ladder has moved and the people in there now are strangers.Some of the traditional stories of neighborliness are impractical or silly,and it
may be just as well that our relations with our neighbors are changing.The saying in the Bible "Love Thy Neighbor" was probably a poor translation of what must have originally been "Respect Thy Neighbor."Love can't be called up on order.Fewer than half the people in the United States live in the same house they lived in five years ago,so there's no reason to love the people who live next door to you just because they happened to wander into a real estate office that listed the place next door to yours.The only thing neighbors have in common,to begin with, is proximity,and unless something more develops,that isn't reason enough to be best friends.It sometimes happens naturally,but the chances are very small that your neighbors will be your choice as friends.Or that you will be theirs, either.The best relationship with neighbors is one of friendly distance.You say hello, you small-talk if you see them in the yard,you discuss problems as they arise and you help each other in an emergency.The driveway or the fence between you is not really a cold shoulder,but a clear boundary.We all like clearly-defined boundaries for ourselves. Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard. 30. What does the speaker say about the relations among neighbors nowadays? 31. Why does the speaker say it may be difficult for people to love their neighbors? 32. What should neighbors do in the speaker's opinion?
Passage Three Articles in magazines and newspapers and special reports on radio and television reflect the concern of many Americans about the increasing dropout rate in our junior and senior high schools.Coupled with this fact is the warning that soon we will no longer have workforce to fill the many jobs that require properly-educated personnel.The high student dropout rate is not a recent development.Ten years ago, many urban schools were
reporting dropout rates between 35 and 50 percent.Some administrators maintain that dropouts remain the single greatest problem in their schools.Consequently, much effort has been spent on identifying students with problems in order to give them more attention before they become failures.Since the dropout problem doesn't start in senior high school,special programs in junior high school focus on students who show promise but have a record of truancy,that is, staying away from school without permission.Under the guidance of counselors,these students are placed in classes with teachers who have had success in working with similar young people.Strategies to motivate students in high school include rewarding academic excellence by designating scholars of the month,or by issuing articles of clothing such as school letter jackets formally given only to athletes.No one working with these students claims to know how to keep all students in school.Counselors, teachers, and administrators are in the frontlines of what seems at times to be a losing battle.Actually, this problem should be everyone's concern,since uneducated, unemployed citizens affect us all. Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard. 33. Why are many Americans concerned with the increasing dropout rate in school? 34. What do we learn about the student dropout problem in America? 35. What is mentioned as one of the strategies used to motivate students?