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STYLISTICS 英语文体学


STYLISTICS
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Introduction A. Definition: Stylistics (H.G Widdowson 1975) is a branch of linguistics which applies the theory and methodolodge of modern linguistics to the study of style. That is the study of style from the angle of linguistics.

Stylistics (Spitzer) is to interpret a certain effect caused by a certain apposition of some language components or semantic components from the angle of cause— effect relation, to reveal the addresser’s psychological features.

B. Understanding. ? Style: may refer to some or all of the lg habits of one person or a group of people, It gives addressee additional information of the speaker or writer. ? Some linguists, like Leech, Shklovskij, Van peer, claim that style is the departure of norms and conventions. Aristotle: we should not only know what to say, but also how to say, i.e. how to enhance the power of persuasion, how to arrange the material, how to choose the best way of expression.

The purpose of stylistics is to discover the additional information or stylistic significance and aesthetic value of a text to arrive at a better understanding of its potential or possible communicative value by analyzing its potential foregrounded features from the levels of phonology, graphology, syntax (including diction,) and the structure of the text.

2 .The rationale of stylistics:
It bases on modern linguistics, particularly, it concerns closely with phonetics, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, social linguistics, cognitive linguistics and speech acts theory.
1. Language is conventional (institutional). Linguists, like Searle (2001:38) say that language is conventional .Conventionality of lg is one basic nature of language.

Language is a system of social symbols and communication can only take place effectively when all the users share a broad understanding of it. That is to say, if the components of a language are not accepted and understood by the members of a speech community, they cannot communicate effectively.

Or rather, we all have made a pact that a certain collection of letters and sounds will mean the same thing to everybody, if the pact is broken, communication breaks down with it. ? This view implies that: all the components have been come into being through conventionalization.

Each element of language has undergone a relatively long and natural process, most new words or expressions or meanings are first used by a few people, then extended till known and agreed with by most people, this process is called conventionalization. ? On the other hand, the rules (institutions or conventions) governing language use are also conventional.

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unlike the strict and rigid rules of nature science, like the sum of three angles of a triangle is 180 degrees, they are relatively flexible. they leave some room for us to change them slightly, as long as the hearers understand the abnormal expressions.

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3.Chomsky’s universal grammar theory holds that this grammar consists of two components: unchanging principles that characterize the fundamental structure of language; and parameters that define the space of possible variation and are fixed by experience.

The unchanging principles enable language to keep stable, and parameters of language enable language to develop constantly. Conventionality of lg provides the feasibility of choice.

4.Principle of compositionality (Frege) holds that the meaning of a sentence is determined by the meanings of its components and the conventional rules they are combined. The conventional rules stipulate the conditions of speaking out the sentence and what the sentence means. That is to say, different ways of combination determine the meaning.

5. Grice’s Co-operative Principle (1975), Leech’s (1983) Politeness Principle, and Sperber & Wilson’s (1986) Relevance Theory and Austin’s Speech Act Theory are the well-known theories on implicature (stylistic effect).

? CP

holds that the participants should speak sincerely, relevantly and clearly, while providing sufficient information. It consists of four maxims: the maxim of quality (sincerity), of quantity (sufficient information), of relevance, and of manner (clearness). On the basis of CP, Grice proposes that if one or more maxim/s is/are violated, implicature will occur.

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holds that people speak indirectly mainly to save both own face and other’s faces and make utterance acceptable, (Face here refers to the public self-image.)

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PP functions as a regulator to maintain the equal status and friendship between participants, under this condition, a successful conversation could be performed.

6.Iconicity of lg ? Lg is the dress of thought. There is some iconicity between linguistic expressions and cognitive structure. ? Different cognitive structure may lead to different choice of words or syntactic structure. the choices are the reflection of their thought, and their additional information they want to express is fulfilled with the choices.

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the employment of lg is also the mirror of speakers’ psychological structure, cognitive structure and conceptual structure. See: 1.They got married and had a baby. 2.They had a baby and they got married. The latter expression does not correspond to our cognitive sequence, so their additional information may occur with them.

1. A big red wooden table 2.A wooden big red table ? 1 corresponds to the principle of proximity, which states that the elements which have a close relationship (the most essential part like wooden) must be put close together. if 2 is accepted, there must be something else the speaker wants to say. Because it follows his thought, too.

? Marry

does not think he will leave tomorrow. ? Marry thinks that he will not leave tomorrow. ? The first NOT is closer to THINK than the second one, so the additional information is that “Marry is not sure…” and “Marry is sure…”respectively. ? Analyse: I tought you English V.S I taught English to you.

7.Markedness theory Formal markedness—boy, boys, like, likes, possible, impossible, The underlined ones are marked words. Distributional markedness---it considers with the range of use. In general, the marked words are subjected to more limitation in distribution, while, unmarked words have wider range of use. See:

How old(1) is she? She is very old(2). old(1) is unmarked and means the whole scale of ages, we can say How old is the baby? How old is the old man? old(2) is marked and means she is no longer young. We seldom say How young is his mother? If so, the speaker may show his intention— doubt or disagreement.

Semantic markedness—semantically marked words are more concrete than the unmarked ones in meaning. see: dog, bitch; man, woman; cattle, bull, cow. Is that dog a dog or a bitch?
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a word, these theories can be used to interpret why a speaker or write can choose an abnormal expression to express his additional meaning.

Unit one A Framework of Analysis of Style

1.Michael Short(1984) generalizes the analysis as three interlocking steps: Description → Interpretation →Evaluation. ? The description is the precondition, including describing both the normal features and the potential abnormal features of lg in use from all the levels of lg or according to the needs.

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interpretation and evaluation , may include the field of discourse, the mode of discourse and the tenor of discourse, they help us answer the three questions: ? what does the text mean? ? How does the text mean what it mean? Why is the text valued as it is?(说明语篇为 什么和怎么样才获得其特定的意义.) that is the stylistic effects of the text.

2. Basic concepts a.Text is any passage, spoken or written, of whatever length, that forms a unified whole. The ways to make the parts of a text unified include: grammatical, semantic and pragmatic devices based on context. Cohesion is the formal, linguistic links between sections of a text, which can be listed, pointed at and classified. It is a surface feature—we can recognize it immediately. The devices include the use of pronouns, repetition , ellipsis, coordination, subordination.

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Coherence refers to the way we know a text gels together—continuity of theme, cause and effect and so on. It may only emerge slowly. )e.g. Because it was raining, I picked up my coat and put it on. I went to the door and after I opened it, Iwent outside.( cohesive and coherent—a unified one) Substitution: two boys--- they. why don’t you use your own bike? I don’t have one. Reference (co-reference): a shop---the shop. I cannot open the door, it was locked tight. Ellipsis: Did she get there at six? No, earlier.

? (Endophora(内照应)=anaphoric(前照

应)+cataphoric(后照应)) comparing with exophora(外照应) e.g. ? I cannot open the door, it was locked tight. (anaphoric) ? When I asked him, Tom lied .(cataphoric) ? Pragmatic devices ? Is your English teacher beautiful? --The tree is very tall. (additional meaning occurs. it violates the maxim of relevance, but it is still relevant to the question.)./yes, she is. Or no, she isn’t.

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Context, which is considered as determinants of style, includes: ? Linguistic context( knowledge): it refers to the linguistic units preceding and /or following a particular linguistic unit in a text. ? Such as the functions of the articles, the deictic use and the anaphoric use of pronouns, which may help the hearers reach the presuppositional and entailmental meaning of a sentence, and further distinguish the new information from the given information.

Non-linguistic context (knowledge) includes ? Situational knowledge. Such as 1. Discourse topic (field of discourse), 2. The speech time and speech place. 3. The formality (mode of discourse) and 4. the relationship between the participants (tenor of discourse) and ? Background knowledge. Such as, socialcultural conventions, principles of conversation, common sense, encyclopedia, scientific and the real world knowledge, which are shared by participants? ? Deixis:1. Greek word, means pointing and indicating. It refers to the linguistic units and grammatical forms of a sentence which show the relationship between it and context. it concerns the way in which lgs encode or grammaticalize features of the context of utterance. Such as the words: he, you, I, here, there, now, then.
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It can be classified into paralinguistic (gesture deixis-don’t put it here, not here, please put it here.) and linguistic deixis (demonstratives and the tense of verbs .It can be further classified into person, time, place, discourse and social deixis.) ? 3. All of them take the speaker and the speech time, and the place he speaks as the deictic centre. They are the zero-points or points of reference.

Note: ? 1. The function of deixis is to convert the abstract sentence into utterance, that is, to contextualize a sentence by connecting them with the context. Firstly, we get the information like “Who is I? Where is here? When is now?” according to the points of reference and the contextual elements.
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2. The participants encoded in a speech are addresser and addressee, sometimes audience, among them, some are conventional reference, some are non-conventional reference. e.g. ? 还我河山(我们), 谁欺负了宝宝(你),叔叔 (我)找他说理去。You (everyone) never know what you can do till you try.
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Deixis can be classified into anaphoric( endophoric) use and deictic/exophoric use. e.g. John looked up when he came in. and He came in and John looked up. ? 4. Pre-emptive usage of deixis—deixis is prior to definitive descriptions. If not, additional meaning (to emphasize)will occur with it. E.g. 我绝不会干那事,我/覃 老师不是那种人。Do it now/at 9:14. I will see you tomorrow/ on Thursday.

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3. The procedure of analysis Analyze the lg features of a text into two levels of linguistic description—the phonological/ graphological level, and the lexicogrammatical level.

Compute the frequencies of lg features according to needs. The prevailing tendency of the lg features, the arrangement or pattern of the lg features, the cohesion of a text, the internal structure of a text, the relation between lg and genre scheme, and linguistic appropriateness and inappropriateness to the subject-matter. The linguistic features of a given text should be compared with a set of relative norms of lg in use.

4. Potential markers in a text
? In phonology

In spoken lg, the use of stress, pitch, tempo, loudness and intonation patterns may convey stylistic significance. In written lg, the use of elision, sound patterning (rhyme) and onomatopoeia also can convey stylistic effects. Elision: I wanna (want to) come. I gonna (am going to) do it. 你吃饭冇(没有)?冇。甭(不要 /不用)笑!it indicates that it is an informal or casual style with a hint of sloppiness and laziness or vulgarism of the speaker, and further, we can guess the participants’ social relationship( the tenor of discourse ).

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patterning:(page26) ? Onomatopoeia is used to produce sound images and make a text vivid and realistic, it may reveal speaker’s inside emotion. See:
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introduced himself to us, hum and ha.(哼哼哈哈dislike him) ? A snake hisses. ? A bee hums. ? The train clattered out the station.

-In graphology ? Graphology markers fall into punctuation, capitalization, spelling, paragraphing—the arrangement or the layout of the paragraphs, the tools of writing, the color of the letters etc. see: Ordinary style: OK. Yes. He is my friend. I love you. Extraordinary: OK? Yes? Y-E-S!!! He is my f-f-friend. I LOVE YOU!!!
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f-f-f may show the speaker is a little shy, or reluctant to tell, or stuttering, or just for humor, or something else.

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punctuations are used to replace conjunction, or to indicate the subsequent element. it is a replenishment, or to arouse the readers’ attention, especially when in headlines .See: ? US Teenagers work, (and) spend (New York Times) (美国青少年借打工来充实自 己的腰包) ? Shoppers Tell Gorbachev: (attention) The Shelves Are Empty (购物群众告诉戈尔巴 乔夫: 货架空空)

3.Potential style markers In syntax
3.1 The aim of this section is to raise the sense of the stylistic effects produced by syntactic means.
Sentence consists of one or more clause/s, clause consists of one or more phrase/s, phrase consists of words and word consists of morphemes. A systematic description of syntactic style markers should include:
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Inter-sentence relationship; sentence types; clause types; phrase types; words classes; and word order.

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Here are four major types of sentences in English:

1. Declaratives—usually with subject-verb order. 2. Interrogatives—normally with inversion of the first auxiliary or modal (called operators) and the subject. 3. Imperatives—normally without subject unless it is needed for emphasis or to avoid ambiguity, say, You shut up! 4. Exclamatives—usually with an initial phrase introduced by what or how and with subjectverb order

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The four sentence types are associated with four discourse functions respectively (Quirk et al, 1985): statement, question, command and exclamation.
Statements are primarily concerned with giving information, in a positive way or in a negative way. Questions are primarily concerned with requiring information. Moreover each of the major sub-classes of questions (yes-no questions, alternative questions, WH-questions and tag questions) has different syntactic forms and performs different functions, and conveys different meanings.

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Commands are issued when the speaker or writer intends to get things done. Exclamations are very emotional, they express the extent of the speaker’s impression of something, typically his surprise, excitement, amazement, disappointment or hatred etc.
But we often have questions that do not really ask, statements that do not really assert, and imperatives that do not really command. For examples:

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moved into the new house? It is semantically a question though declarative in form. Your food is getting cold. It is a declarative sentence but functions as an imperative to urge you to eat.
didn’t you consult me? It is an interrogative sentence but functions as a complaint.

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3.2 Phrase fall into noun phrase and verb phrase and preposition phrase.
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When a group of words function as single noun, they are called noun phrase. The majority of noun phrases consists of a head word plus one or more optional elements, which are called premodifiers or post-modifiers.

They have a highly variable appearance—from single words to very long passages of text. see: ? She, I, we, my friend, the T-shirt with vents, the old stone cottage at the top of the hill which had been…
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Pronouns are a special type of noun phrase which refer to people or things. Speakers do not always to speak so directly about themselves, they may wish to submerge their own identity. The tactics used to do this involve a shift in person or number—into either the singular third person or the plural first person instead of using I . see: One just doesn’t (I don’t) do that kind of thing. The stylistic effect: One and we used here imply that the speaker is but a sub-group of a larger group of people, who also share the quality or opinion in question. So shorten the distance, or help the speaker to convey or hide something.

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second person You can refer to one specific person, or several specific persons, or to any or all people in an unspecific way, or to the speaker himself in an impersonal way to avoiding appearing self-centred. See: ? Tom, have you done your homework? You two, come here. You can’t beat a nice cup of tea.

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The pre-modifiers or post-modifier allow the hearers or readers to know what the head noun is before receiving any extra information about it. Such as the personality of characters, the narrators’ opinion of the characters. The choice of pre- or post-modifiers involves the difference in emphasis, in the degree of permanence of the attributes, in the degree of the explicitness of the message, also it is a device in newspaper to arouse readers’ interest,so that they will go on to read the text of the news item. see:

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? 中国共产党.V.S

伟大,光荣的,正确的中国 共产党. Answers for Developing Nations.( from the Christian ) Science Monitor—发展中国家的对策 The Color Lines肤色界线 ? Verb phrase consists of an obligatory main verb to which other auxiliary verbs may be added, as well as negative particles and adverbs. The most significant feature of verb phrases in stylistic analysis are tense and voice.

? Situation

types, tense, aspect and mood. The events and relations in the world may occur or exist in the past, at the present or in the future, or even in possible worlds; some events may be perfective, others may be imperfective, these cases are known as situations. Situation type is one aspect of sentence meaning, which reveals the characteristics of verbs: states, events or processes .

? Verbs

inherently describe different situation types. Some are inherently static portraying a static situation—states; others are dynamic describing processes and events.
aspect of sentence meaning is the marker of time, known as tense and aspect, which convey grammatical meaning of verbs.

? Another

? Tense

refers to a systematic set of inflectional features of verbs that are loosely related to time. Or rather, time can be external to situations, expressed with tense, besides with some special time words, such as now, yesterday, tomorrow in English. It is a deictic category, which allows speaker to describe the situation as happening prior to, concurrent with or following the act of speaking.

? Time

can be expressed by aspect when it is internal to situations. Aspect is nondeictic, but an analytical category, it allows speaker to look into the internal temporality of situations and see them as extended in time, complete or incomplete, iterated or non-iterated. ? We recognize two aspect forms: progressive aspect and perfective aspect, which combine with tense.

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Simple present tense sometimes can refer to the past and future (extr-aodinary). e.g. Martin Luther King delivers his last speech. (in newspaper headline) I’ll stay at home if it rains tomorrow. Simple past tense sometimes can be used to express hypotheses or special attitudes (extraodinary). e.g. I wish I had strength like yours. (hypothesis) Did you understand? (politeness)

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third aspect of sentence meaning is the marking of mood, which shows speaker’s degrees of commitment to propositions: stronger or weaker commitment to the factuality of statements or to social factors of obligation, responsibility, permission. ? A sentence can be embedded under higher clause with an adjective or an adverb of modality, such as: It is certain/ probable/ likely/ possible that S. (S stands for sentence.)

Or put a verb into the higher clause that describe the extent of the speaker’s belief—propositional attitude. Such as: I know/believe/ think/ don’t know/doubt that S.
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Or employ modal verbs to mark the variations of commitment towards the statement, like she must/might/ could/ needn’t have left by now. Alternatively, employ modal verbs to mark obligation or permission. Such as: You must /should /need/ought to take these books back. You can/ could/ might leave them there.

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we have seen three aspects of sentence meaning: situation type, tense and aspect, and mood from the angle of verbs in sentences. ? Situation type reveals the characteristics of verbs: states, events or processes. ? Tense and aspect describe the situation as happening prior to, concurrent with or following the act of speaking and the internal temporality of situations. ? Mood shows speaker’s degrees of commitment to propositions. They are not separate, and often used together to analyze sentence meaning. For example, He can answer this question. Can may show possibility or permission according to different contexts; answer is a dynamic verb that indicates the situation is an event.
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Cases (Fillmore) are the relationships between the verb and noun phrases of sentences. Cases, also called thematic roles, may include: ? agent, patient, theme, experiencer, beneficiary, instrument, location, goal, and source etc. John cut the wood with a band saw. saw cut the wood. A band

In the sentence John cut the wood with a band saw. John has an agent role and is in subject position, wood has a patient role and is in object position, and a band saw has an instrumental role and is in a preposition phrase.

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we can say that the notions of subject, object, predicate, predictive, attributive and adverbial of sentences should be seen as surface structure. Only in the deep structures, these cases are universal, no matter what the surface structures are like. Because verbs like cook, melt, cut, and break have particular requirements for their thematic roles.

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When a logical object stands at the subject position, passive voice appears. Stylistically, the downplay, or obscures, the agent of a deed, and focuses attention on the thing which has something done to it. It is a way to foreground.
The use of adverb in VP makes an action vivid, realistic and concrete. See: A man went into a room. V.S He went into a room quietly from the window with a knife and a bag in his hands at night. We can guess how he went in and what he would do.

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Diction---the lexical choice. A stylistic analysis of content words to answer the questions: Are the words simple or complex? Formal or informal? General or specific?

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Generally speaking, words of Latin, French origin are words of science, religion and official communication, and in most cases, they help to create the effect of coolness, dignity and intellectual distance. Words of Anglo-Saxon origin are quite usual in infomal style. see: canine-dog, steed-horse-nag, disturb-worry, exterminate-kill, advertisement-ad, mirophonemike.

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General words, which refer to a group of objects or a class of object, are too vague to convey any concrete meaning. they are often used when there is no need for specification, or when the user wants to leave things vague for some reason. while specific words refer to a member of a group or a class, so the use of them is more informative in detail and can evoke vivid images in the readers minds. See: tree—pine,oak, poplar. Work—chop the wood, wash the dishes

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Types of meaning: grammatical meaning, lexical meaning= Conceptual + associtive meaning Grammatical meaning refers to the part of the meaning of word which denotes grammatical concepts or relations such as parts of speech of words, singular and plural meaning of nouns, tense meaning of verbs. Conceptual meaning covers the basic, essential meaning components which are conveyed by the literal use of a word. Such as Husband means HUMAN & ADULT & MALE & MARRIED. the same word has the same conceptual meaning to all the speakers of the same lg. It is relatively stable and constant.

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? Associtive

meaning refers to the meaning that a word has beyond or in addition to its conceptual meaning.i.e the secondary meaning supplemented to the conceptual meaning. it is open-ended and indeterminate. It is liable to the influence of such factors as culture, experience, religion, region, class background, education. It comprises four types: connotative, stylistic, affective,and collocative. it shows the users’ emotions, attitudes towards what the word refers to. See:

? Connotative

Mother, besides refering to female parent, may also mean maternal love, care tenderness,forgiving.
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synonymy) Attitudes of approval: famous slim black determined stateman Attitudes of disapproval : notorious skinny nigger pigheaded politician

? Collocation

may refer to the conventional restriction of the way in which words are used together to show a syntagmatic trlation between words; see: Addle, rancid, fetid, curdle, sour can be used to refer to the unfit food or drinks, but we often say: addle eggs/brains, curdle milk, sour milk/ wine. rancid meat, fetid water/gas. and we say: a floack of sheep, a herd of cows, a school of whales.

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a tendency of co-occurrence of a set of words in a context to show a paradigmatic relation. See:

A pretty— girl, woman, garden.(facial features) A handsome—boy, man, car. (posture, behavior) People quivers with excitement. People trembles with fear.

If we say a pretty man, or a handsome woman, or people trembles with exciteness, it sounds abnormal, which is called deviation, then stylistic effects may occur. At least, we know the users’ knowledge of lg use is poor. Otherwise, some additional information will appear with. ? Repetition refers to the repetition of a linguistic unit which has occurred in the preceding context. it is normal when in spoken lg because the users donot have enough time to choose other expressions. However, it is sometimes deliberate: it is used for emotive intensification, or for emphasizing something to direct the addressee’s attention when repetition appears in written lg. See:
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Sound patterning (rhyme): it refers to the matching of identical or similar sounds between two or more words.
By using them, we can achieve some acoustic effects, aesthetic satisfaction, or to emphasize something to make a text readable, easier to remember. They are often uesed in poems, proses, newspaper headlines and advertisments.see: 。。。光,霜。乡。 恒 源 祥,羊!羊!羊! 往事越千年, 陈酿白云边。 Coca-Cola is it!(还是可口可乐好!) Fresh up with seven—up.(七喜饮料) Hi-Fi, Hi-Fun, Hi-Fashion, only from Sony.(高保真,高乐趣, 高时尚)

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Dish after dish after dish. People expect us to be better.(一盘一盘又一盘,) Spend, Spend, Spend,(花钱, 花钱,花钱)Ah Bian to stop. (花钱, 花钱,花钱) “周总理!你在哪里? 我们…周总理!你在哪里? 我们…周总理!你在哪里? 我们…” “祝你康 必得!祝你康必得!祝你康必得!”

4. The theory of foregrounding
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Foregrounding/salience/prominence is often achieved through unconventional, abnormal expressions which attract the readers’ attention. The main manifestiations of it are deviation and parallelism 4.1 Deviation Some stylists think the feature of styles is the deviation of conventions and norms. That is to make the normal lg defamiliarized or estranged or de-automatized. Deviation can be classified into (Leech): Lexical deviation—by neologism and nonce-formation(临 时造词). See: I have foresuffered all. The widow-making unchilding unfathering deeps(深渊).

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Grammatical deviation—a grief ago,( grief is an uncountable noun) Graphological deviation—the use of a dialect, or the misuse or special use of punctuation or spelling or paragraphing. How Do You Like London?(stress every word) Semantic deviation—The child is father of the man. 我买了两 斤一钱肉.(redundancy), a living death.(absurdity). She is a parrot.(metaphor) Jiangqin smiled, all China was gay.( honest deception) Dialectual deviation—to imitate one’s dialect in some situation for different purposes. like for humor, friendliness,despite. Deviation of register—to state weather report with Tianjin Kuaiban.

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Deviation always convey something new, the user’s intention, it is the reason why the user do so, otherwise, he will not deviate the norms. The main purpose of stylistic analysis is to analyse the foregrounded parts of a text.
4.2 Parallelism refers to the repetition of the same syntactical form and phrase/clause structure in two or more neighbouring clauses/sentences. The similarity of them is a device of emphasis, the parallelism of form implies parallelism of meaning, it helps to buid up an emotional climax. see: To err is human, to forgive divine. If you prick us,do we not bleed? If you tickle us, do we not laught? If you poison us, do we not die? If you wrong us , shall we not revenge?

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4.3 Other devices of foregrounding at syntactic level ? Sequence
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Segmentation involves the grouping of lg units different ways of grouping may highlight different units.(see the examples on page 73-74) Phrase order ( end-focus principle, fronting— inversion---Happy indeed I was. postponement— what you said to him doesn’t matter.→it doesn’t mater what you said to him. see the examples on page78-79)

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4.4 Other Rhetorical devices Personification is an extension of the metorph, it gives inanimate objects or abstract ideas the features of persons.see: The flowers nodded and smiled.

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Oxymoron(矛盾修饰)—is the combination of ideas in a seemingly adsurd manner. See:They are all being idly busy.
Pun—is a play of words with the object of producing a humorous effect. See:A judge can end a sentence with a sentence. Why is a river so rich? Because it has two banks. Litotes(间接肯定)—is a negative understatement used for the purpose of emphasis. See: He is no fool. I didn’t do so badly.

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Hyperbole—is a form of exaggeration used for the purpose of emphasis. See; She wept buckets at the disappointment.
Sarcasm—is the use of a bitter or cutting(尖刻) words to emphasize what one says. See: He died! His death made no great stir on earth. Climax—is an arrangement of ideas in which the most important one is put last. See: Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.

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5. Varieties of contemporary English
5.1 Regional and social dialects (You are what you speak.)
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Social dialects refer to the varieties of lg according to education, socioecnomic status, ethnic origin, and even age and sex.(P122-123) it is difficult to separate regional and social dialect:everyone speak both regional and social dialect. They reveal both the facts about the speakers regionalorigin, social class membership, ethnic origin, sex or age, and his willingness to identify himself with the people of a particular region or social group.

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English /lg refers to the particular socially—favoured which is based on the speesh and writing of educated users. it has noconnection with a particular region.It is primarilyused for public communication: books, newspapers, official documents, news broadcasts, school.

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American and British English (P125-130) ? Non-standard English/lg

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Accent refers to all the features of speech sounds. We can identify where and what social class the speaker comes from by her or his accent. The most frequent accent is the accent which a person acquired when s/he was very young. This accent can be often heard when s/he talks with her or his family folks. The second accent is the accent which a person learned at school. It refers to the accent of PuTongHua at different levels.
The third accent may be the accent of another dialect which a person learned when she/he moved to or traveled to another community.

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Accent-switching is very common among young people especially when they move to a more developed place or talk with the people from other speech communities. They often speak PuTongHua or speak local dialects to correspond to the local accents. It is interesting that the people who belong to the highest social class, such as Chairman Mao, Deng xiaoping, and the people who belong to the lowest social class, such as beggars, hardly switch their accents. They often speak with a certain accent nearly all the time.

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Chairman Mao always spoke Hunanese. Deng xiaoping spoke Sichuangese both at home and at public occasions. and people can hardly hear a beggar begs with PuTongHua. 5.2 The markers indicating non-standard speech in literature(P131—134) 5.3 The functions of non-standard portrayals—to portray characters, to provide local colour, to create humorous effects, and then to be the markers of social status, as hints to characters’ relationship(tenor of discourse), and as and aid to individualize the characters.(P134—140)
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6.Varieties of lg according to use ? Register(语域)is the varieties of a lg according to the situations in which lg is being used. Register concerns with field of discourse, mode of discourse and tenor of discourse. Or rather, these factors influnce the use of lg. ? Field of discourse refers to the experience, the purpose, the subject-matter of communication. That is why and about what a communication occurs.
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Purposive roles may be technical or non-technical. nontechnical roles, such as “establishing personal contact” have a number of possible fields such as “weather”, “health”, “current news”; technical roles relate to special fields.

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Grammatical structure seem to be determined by the field of discourse. passive voice and lengthy pre-and- post modifications of nouns are often used in scientific writing for definition and precision as economically as possible in space.
The subject-matter restricts the use of lg so that it become fully comprehensive only to people acquainted with that topic/field The subject-matter can be anything, ranging from technical to non-technical: the theory of relativity, a footmatch, health of sb.

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The purpose based on the functions of lg.( see Note One and the description on page 199 and page 203)

6.2. Mode of discourse refers to the means/medium by which communication take place. That is how a communication happens? In spoken lg or in written lg? 6.2.1 Spoken lg can be spontaneous or non-spontaneous, written lg just to be read with the eye.
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The texts of written mode are usually inherently cohensive, we can understand them without the context beyond the text. while the texts of spoken mode like personal contact and gossip field, are less cohesive, so we need immediate context to understand them. Secondly, the syntactic structures are also different, the simple, minor clauses are often used in spoken mode; and compound, lengthy clauses in written mode.

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6.2.2 The following aspects condition the variations in speech and writing: channel limitation, spontaneity of message, audience interaction, publicity of the situation.
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Channel limitation means the transmission of a message is limited to one channel only—visual or auditory. Spoken lg has no channel limitation in most cases, because the participants can see and hear each other, and body lg like nodding ,smiling, shared knowledge, shared contexts make the communication inexplicit, simple and short. What is more, hearer can make questions when he is not clear about something that the speaker mentioned.

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Exophric words(外在联系词-like pronouns which can replace persons, things, places, time within the shared context and thus would make less sense to outsiders.), cliches, general or vague words( thing, stuff, do, make, nice)simple and ungrammatical sentenses are frequently used. On the other hand, written lg is limitted to the visual channel only, it is characterised by the use of paragraphs, italics, quotation marks, etc. also the writer can not employ the resources of intonation, stress and rhythm to show how the message is to be taken; Finally, the participants share less information. So endophoric words, phrases with pre-and post modification, logical connections,like moreover, similarly, nevertheless , complex and explicit sentences, like cleft sentences,are often used to make up the weakness and let the reader have a better understanding.

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Audience interaction and linguistic manifestation. To hold hearers attention or to maitain repport with them, in speech, speaker often use monotoring marks (oh, well, you know,do you get me), questions, tag-question, imperatives to invite the active participation of the hearer. ( this corresponds to the function of lg-phatic function.)
Publicity of the situation the size of the audience, the relations between the participants condition the mode of lg. Generally speaking, the larger size and the more public the setting, the more formal the lg.

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6.3 Tenor of discourse depends on the relationship between the participants, that is to whom the speech is conveyed. It corresponds to another metafunction of lg—interpersonal function, which enacts social relationships.
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The relations between participants is a kind of context, which is called generic situation(内属情景). It is often defined in terms of tenor. It goes without saying, tenor of discourse determines the styles of texts. Role relationships range from temporary to permanent: causal acquaintances on a train, parent and son. Lg features indicating these are usually classified along four scales: formality,politeness,impersonality,and accessibility.

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The degrees of formality are determined by the role relationships, size of heares and contexts of situation, such as a public lecture, sermon, cocktail / birthday party.

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Formal lg, is primarily found in official documents, regulations, business letters or ceremonial speechs.
Informal lg is found in private conversations or personal letters, advertisement and popular newspapers, they marked by slovenly pronunciation, abundant use of elision(ASPAYC) or assimilation(he dunno-doesn’t know);

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? some

punctuation marks; figures instead of words; constracted forms (isn’t, don’t); pronuns in the objective case used as subject(me, too.); clause without that; the preposition may be placed at the end of a relative clause; elliptical questions and abbreviated clauses( why not? if not?what for? (do you)want a drink?);dialect slang, colloquialism, argot, euphemism.

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Linguistic features on politeness: Lg may vary according to the degrees of intimacy and of social distance between the participants, in terms of politeness. Linguistic features on politeness are marked by intonation patterns; the use of exclamatory questions( Am I hungry!); could/ might/would did instead of can/may/ will/ do; dialect forms to reinforce their group identification. Linguistic features on immpersonality When lg avoids the use of personal nouns(I, we, you),or avoids direct reference , it is said to be impersonal. See: You should return the overdue books quickly.(personal) Students should return the overdue books quickly.( immpersonal)

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? Impersonal

style is chiefly in formal and written forms—the text is regarded as having a validity independent of the person who writes or readsit. Thus this style has a distancing effect and is typical of scientific, legal and official writing. 7. Examples of stylistic analysis ? Description → Interpretation → Evaluation
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