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直接引语变间接引语详解 练习


2013 年 3 月 31 日

直接引语和间接引语

引述别人的话时,一般采用两种方式:一是引用别人的原话,把它放在引号内,称为直接引语;二是用自己的 话加以转述,被转述的话不放在引号内,称为间接引语。间接引语在大多数情况下是一个宾语从语。直接引语变成间 接引语时,要注意以下几点:人称变化、时态变化、状语变化、宾语从句要用陈述句语序。 一、如何变人称: 有一句顺口溜“一随主。二随宾,第三人称不更新”。“一随主”是指在直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语 是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰。从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化如: She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "→She said her brother wanted to go with her. “二随宾”是指直接引语变间接引语时,若从句中的主语及宾语是第二人称,从句中的人称要跟引号外的主句的宾语一 致。 He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?"→He asked Kate how her sister was then。 “第三人称不更新”是指直接引语变间接引语时。如果从句中的主语及宾语是第三人称, 从句中的人称一般不需要变 化如: Mr Smith said。 "Jack is a good worker。"→Mr Smith said Jack was a good worker。 二、如何变时态: 直接引语在改为间接引语时、时态需要做相应的调整。 现在时它需改为过去时态;过去时态改为完成时;过去完成时则保留原来的时态。如: 1)She said. "I have lost a pen."→She said she had lost a pen 2)She said. "We hope so."→She said they hoped so. 3) She said. "He will go to see his friend。"→She said he would go to see his friend。 (1) 一般现在时变为一般过去时 (2) 现在进行时变为过去进行时 (3) 一般将来时变为过去将来时 (4) 现在完成时变为过去完成时 (5) 一般过去时变为过去完成时 (6) 过去完成时不变,仍为过去完成时 但要注意在以下几种情况下。在直接引语变为间接引语时,时态一般不变化。 ①直接引语是客观真理。 "The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth, the teacher told me. → The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。 ②直接引语是过去进行时,时态不变。如: Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"→Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street。 ③直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。如: Xiao Wang said. "I was born on April 2l, 1980。" →Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980。 ④直接引语如果是一般现在时。表示一种反复出现或习惯性的动作,变间接引语,时态不变。如: He said, "I get up at six every morning。" →He said he gets up at six every morning。 ⑤如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(例:ought to, had better, used to)和已经是过去时的形式时,(例: could, should, would, might)不再变。如: Peter said. "You had better come have today。" →Peter said I had better go there that day。
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2013 年 3 月 31 日

三、如何变状语: 直接引语变间接引语,状语变化有其内在规津,时间状语由“现在”改为“原来”(例:now 变为 then, yesterday。变 为 the day before)地点状语,尤其表示方向性的,或用指示代词修饰的状语,由“此”改为“彼”(例:this 改为 that), 如: He said, "These books are mine." →He said those books were his. 指示代词 this……these these……those 表示时间的词 now……then today……that day this week(month ,etc)……that week (month ,etc) yesterday……the day before last week(month ,etc)……the week(month ,etc) before three days (a year ,etc) ago……three days (a year. etc) before tomorrow……the next (following ) day next week (month ,etc)……the next (following ) week (month ,etc) 表地点的词 here……there 动词 bring……take come……go 四、如何变句型: ①直接引语如果是陈述句,间接引语应改为由 that 引导的宾语从句。如:She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes. ②直接引语如果是反意疑问句, 选择疑问句或一般疑问句, 间接引语应改为由 whether 或 if 引导的宾语从句.如: said, He "Can you swim, John?" →He asked John if he could swim. "You have finished the homework, haven?t you?" my mother asked. →My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework. "Do you go to school by bus or by bike?" →He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike. ③直接引语如果是特殊问句,间接引语应该改为由疑问代词或疑问副词引导的宾语从句(宾语从句必须用陈述句语 序)。 She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"→ She asked me when they had their dinner. ④直接引语如果是祈使句,间接引语应改为"tell(ask, order, beg 等) sb (not) to do sth."句型。如: "Don?t make any noise," she said to the children. →She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise. "Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she.→She asked him to bring her a cup of tea. ⑤直接引语如果是以“Let?s”开头的祈使句,变为间接引语时,通常用“suggest +动句词(或从句)。”如: He said, "Let?s go to the film." →He suggested going to the film.或 He suggested that they should go to see the film.

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2013 年 3 月 31 日

练习题:
一、把下列直接引语改为间接引语 1.He said: “I?ve left my book in my room.” 2.She said: “He will be busy.” 3.She said to Tom, “Can you help me?” 4.She asked, “Is this book yours or his?” 5.The teacher asked, “how did you repair it?” 6.The teacher said to the students, “Don?t waste your time.” 7.The mother said, “Tom, get up early, please.” 8.The teacher said, “The earth goes round the sun.” 9.My father said, “Practice makes perfect.” 10.The boy said to us, “ I usually get up at six every day.” 11.He said, “We are still students.? 12.He said to me, “I was born in 1978. 13.The engineer said, “I was at college in 1967.” 14.He said, “I have studied English since I was a boy.” 15.She said, “I read the book while I was waiting for a bus. 16.Mr. Green said to them, “Joe told me all about his story when he asked for a job.” 17.He said, “We insisted that she start immediately.18.She said, “He demanded that the girl leave at once.” 19.I said to him, “I have finished it.” 20.She said to us,“ I?ll come here tomorrow.” 二、将所给直接引语变为间接引语,每空一词: 1. “I never eat meat.” he said. He said that ______ never ______ meat. 2. “I?ve found my wallet.” he said to me. He ______ me that he ______ ______ ______ wallet. 第 3 页 共 3 页

2013 年 3 月 31 日 3. “I took it home with me.” she said. She said that ______ ______ _______ it home with her. 4. The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east and goes down in the west.” The teacher said that the sun ______ in the east and ______ down in the west. 5. “I met her yesterday.” he said to me. He ______ me that he ______ met the day ______. 6. “You must come here before five.” he said. He said that I ______ to go ______ before five. 7. “I bought the house 10 years ago.” he said. He said that he _______ bought the house 10 years _______. 8. “Did you see her last week?” he said. He ______ ______ I had seen her the week _______. 9. He said, “You can sit here, Jim.” He ______ Jim that he ______ sit there 10. He asked, “How did you find it, mother?” He asked her mother ______ ______ ______ found it. 11. “Where have you been these days?” he asked. He asked me _______ _______ _______been _______ days. 12. “Do you know where she lives?” he asked. He asked ______ ______ knew where she ______. 13. “Stop making so much noise, children.” he said. He ______ the children ______ ______ making so much noise. 14. “Don?t tell him the news.” she said. She told me _______ ______ ______ him the news. 15. “Are you intested in this?” he said. He ______ ______ I was interestd in ______. 三、单项选择题 1. Our teacher asked us _____ our dictionaries to school. A. bring B. brought C. bring D. to bring

2. The teacher told the boy students ______ football on the grass. A. not play B. not to play C. played D. playing

3. ____ Tom didn?t go to school? A. Do you know how B. Why do you know C. How you know why D. Do you know why

4. She looks sad. Could you please tell me _____ that prevents her from being as happy as before? A. what it is B. it is what C. how it is D. it is how

5. Betty asked her sister ____ to the railway station to see her off. A. not to come B. not to go C. to not come D. to not go

6. The pupil asked his teacher _____ round the earth. A. weather the moon goes C. whether the moon goes B. that the moon went D. whether the moon went 第 4 页 共 4 页

2013 年 3 月 31 日 7. Mr. Li ____ Wang Ling ____ a taxi to the airport. A. asked; take B. asked; taking C. told; take D. told; to take

8. She asked him ____. A. whose dictionary this is C. whose dictionary is this 9. Mary?s mother asked her _____. A. that whether she had finished her homework C. if she had finished her homework B. if she has finished her homework D. that if she had finished her homework B. whose dictionary that was D. whose dictionary that is

10. Do you know ____? A. what is he doing C. what he is doing 11. I don?t know ____ to learn English. A. when did he begin B. when he began C. he when began D. when he begins B. what he doing D. what does he do now

12. He asked me ____. A. how would the weather be like tomorrow C. how the weather would be like tomorrow B. what the weather would be like the next day D. what would the weather be like the next day

13. You can?t imagine ____ when they received these nice Spring Festival presents. A. how excited they were C. how they were excited B. how excited were they D. they were how excited

14. She told me that she ____ by her relatives at the bus stop. A. had been seen off B. have seen off C. have been seen off D. had seen off

15. Do you remember how many times ____ to Australia? A. had you been B. did you go C. have you been D. you have been

16. Can you guess ____? A. what is that man B. who that man is C. whom that man is D. who is that man

17. More and more students and teachers have began to know ____. A. how important the foreign language are C. how important the foreign language is B. how the foreign language is important D. how important is the foreign language

18. The hostess said that it ___ time that they ___ supper. A. was; had B. was; had had C. is; have D. is; have had

19. The boss asked his secretary ____ he had finished typing the report ____. A. if; or not B. if; not C. whether; or not D. whether; not

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2013 年 3 月 31 日 20. I wonder how much _____. A. does he spend on his car C. he spent on his car B. did he spend on his car D. he spent in his car

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