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大学英语专业四级听写(50篇)


What a Firefighter's Job Is Like ①The damage that a fire can cause is obvious / and this is why the firefighters' jobs are so important. / ②Firefighters are usually the first ones responding to any type of emergency and perform many tasks,/which include putting out burning buildings, / helping out with medical emergencies, vehicle accidents and many other incidents./ ③They must make sure their equipment is clean / and all the items they use are in proper working order. / ④Keeping their skills up to date is necessary. / ⑤Therefore, they will be continually trained with new equipment and techniques. / ⑥Because of the extreme conditions / and also the stress associated with the emergency situations that arise, / the firefighters definitely need to stay in shape for the work they must do. / ⑦They will stay in the fire station while on duty. / ⑧Unless they need to work on the trucks or respond to a call, / they can eat, sleep, shower and watch TV at the fire station, just like at home. (160 words) Aliens ①For a long time, aliens have often been in the news. / ②They have always been surrounded by mystery / and interest of people all around the world. / ③People have claimed to have been abducted by aliens. / ④Some have claimed to have actually seen them. / ⑤But is there a sound proof that can prove aliens to be real? / ⑥ Alien sightings have mostly been accompanied by sightings of lights in the night sky. / ⑦Some of them have also believed that / the lights came from the spaceships used by the aliens. / ⑧Disk-like objects traveling across the sky / have often been taken as aliens' vehicles./ ⑨At times, people have found blood or hair at the locations / where aliens were sighted. / ⑩Researchers say alien sightings could have probably been a result of human imagination accompanied by fear, / and some of these sightings might have been a result of certain astronomical phenomena. ( 145 words) Computer Eyeglasses ①As computers become a more and more vital part of today's lifestyle and practices,/ new medical conditions are developing as a result of their usage. / ② The most common to date is computer vision problems, / which include eye pain, tired and burning eyes, watering or dry eyes, eye strain. / ③One Would never imagine that such a useful and innovative tool could cause so much physical discomfort ! / ④ As a result of these, science professionals seized the opportunity / to create computer eyeglasses to ease these common conditions / and make computer usage less painful and more comfortable. / ⑤The computer vision problems affect adults as well as children./ ⑥Although children normally have different requirements for near and distance vision glasses, / computer eyeglasses can be used universally for both groups. / ⑦Please note that near and distance vision glasses / should not be used as replacements for computer glasses. /⑧They do not serve the same purpose, / and in some cases will cause more harm than good. (158 words) Labor Day

①International Labor Day, also known as International Workers' Day, / is scheduled for May 1st of each year. /②It is a holiday in celebration of the eight-hour workday. / ③It evolved from efforts of the labor union movement / to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers. / ④It is celebrated as a national holiday across many countries around the world. / ⑤The idea for a workers' holiday began in Australia in 1856 / but was celebrated on May 1st in 1886 in Chicago. /⑥In China, Labor Day was extended to three days during the 1990s. / ⑦The Chinese government made it a seven-day holiday / by moving the prior and upcoming weekends together with these three days. / ⑧This holiday allowed millions of Chinese people to travel / or take other activities during this period. / ⑨ However, China has reduced the Golden Week holiday down to one day in 2008, / while at the same time reviving some traditional holidays such as Mid-Autumn Festival. (158 words) Negative Effects of Television ①Spending too many hours watching television wastes the precious time / that can rather be spent in fruitful and healthy activities like exercise or reading. / ②It also uses up the time / that you can rather spend with your family and friends. / ③Chatting with your near ones, spending time with your close ones / is a better way of spending time than watching TV. / ④People watching television, especially children and youngsters,/ start identifying with what is shown on TV. / ⑤They relate to television shows and films to such an extent that / they get bored of living a normal and simple life. ! ⑥They are eager for fame and money; / they long for living the lives of their favorite 'IV characters. / ⑦This may lead to a high amount of dissatisfaction for the real world. / ⑧As real life is the contrast of the life shown on TV, / such TV addicts become hungry for power, money and status. (151 words) Family Life in India ①Family life is equally varied in Indian states. /②India is a country with many states / in which people are from different cultures, and so on. /③The languages, clothing, customs, and traditions of people are influenced by the respective regions they live in. / ④Most of the families in India are extended ones, / in which every member has his or her own role, often influenced by age and gender. / ⑤Children are cherished and considered as gifts from God. !⑥Children can look forward to continual family support throughout their lives. / ⑦However, they are expected to respect their elders and parents, their wishes and family relationships. / ⑧The family structure in India is typical, / in which there are many wedding customs, / which have to be strongly followed by people. / ⑨ Religion, social status, traditional practices, and regional differences influence family structures. / ⑩ Indians are more emotionally attached to the members of their family. / ⑾Husbands and wives are not allowed to openly display their affection for one another. ( 160 words) Society's Influence on Education

① Society plays an important role in education, and influences it both positively and negatively. / ② Social inequalities and unhealthy educational practices are some of the negative influences of society on our lives. / ③Customs and traditions prevent certain sections of society from exercising their fundamental rights / and get in the way of the well-being of society, / shatter the basic ideas of education and social awareness. / ④Some social groups deny women's right to education, / while others force children to work, / depriving them from a healthy environment / which is good to their growth and development. / ⑤Education is one of the basic human rights. / ⑥If social norms come in the way of social welfare, / it defeats the purpose of education. /⑦Society is an entity that can't be separated from us. / ⑧It is we who make up the society. / ⑨It is entirely in our hands whether to add value to our education or devalue it. (149 words) Choosing the Perfect Hair Color ①Coloring your hair is one way to express your individuality. / ②Choosing the right hair color can be confusing / whether you want to cover gray hair or give yourself a new fresh look. / ③If you are clear about what you want exactly, / it can help while choosing the hair color that is right for you. / ④You can achieve the most flattering look, / if you consider your skin make-up and eye color. / ⑤ Hair color that balances your complexion gives the best results. / ⑥For covering gray hair, you can select a shade close to your natural hair color. / ⑦Hair highlights are another way to improve your overall look. /⑧Highlights can look fascinating and make an attractive impression. / ⑨They add depth and dimension to the base color or natural hair. /⑩Different hair colors suit different complexions. /⑾In order to choose a suitable hair color, / you need to identify the right combination. ( 148 words) Traditional Brazilian Clothing ①Brazil is known internationally for its stylish and sophisticated clothing. /②Brazilian clothes are comfortable, vivid, beautifully crafted and decorated with attractive laces. / ③Traditional Brazilian clothing is influenced by a combination of different races and immigrants from all over the world. / ④A true traditional Brazilian clothing can be seen in the countryside, / where men's clothing includes shirt, jeans and dresses made from inexpensive cotton. / ⑤In the south of Brazil, the cowboys wear a distinctive dress including loose-fitting trousers, / while in the northeast region they wear coat, hat and leather trousers. / ⑥In the urban areas of Brazil, most people prefer modern clothing. / ⑦Young men wear jeans and T-shirts. / ⑧Short skirts and dresses are very popular among women. / ⑨Brazilian jeans are very common ! and they come in a wide variety of styles and textures. / ⑩Jeans made for women are tight-fitting and loose-fitting near the feet. / ⑾Due to abundance of beautiful beaches, / beachwear is a very popular clothing in Brazil. ( 156 words) Sunday School ①Sunday School is a practice designed to help children, after church, / to

adhere to the path of justice and truth. /②However, today, the approach is very unlike the older one / which focused on the classroom-bound mode of interaction and reflection / on the values of Christianity and the Holy Word. / ③Now, children are being allowed to experiment with ideas / and develop a result-based resource base, / with the help of planned and directed effort. / ④Sunday School is now being held within and out of church. / ⑤The children and youth are allowed to interact with peers / outdoors, at picnics, workshops and camping. / ⑥This calls for a redress of security and safety equipment. / ⑦As a matter of fact, with activities such as these, / Sunday School security and safety is the concern of every parent. /⑧And the safety and security of the children is the prime responsibility of the public. (146 words)

11

Spy Cell Phones

A spy phone is a mobile phone or a spy device / that allows a user to monitor and hear or record conversations and other activities taking place over the phone. / Spy phones can function in different ways. / They can be used as listening devices/ whereby secretive conversations can be tracked. / They are popularly used by secret agencies to track criminal activities / that are carried out over networks. / They can be used for tracking periodic calls and recording the frequency of calls from certain suspicious numbers. / Also, they can be used for monitoring business and household activities / while the cell phone user is away. / Although spy cell phones have many positive sides, / they give rise to legal as well as moral concerns, / because spy cell hone software is easily available. / Cell phones are easily transferable to spy hones. / Their ready availability makes them subject to illegal use. (146 words)

12

Water Pollution

Water pollution is an undesirable change in the state of water, / polluted with harmful substances. / It is the second most important environmental issue next to air pollution. / Any change in the physical, chemical or biological properties of water / will have a harmful effect on living things. / Water pollution affects all the major water bodies of the world / such as lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater. / Polluted water is unfit for drinking and for other consumption processes. / It is also not suitable for agricultural and industrial use. / The effects of water pollution are harmful to human beings, plants, animals, fishes and birds. / Water problems in the future will become more intense and more complex. / Our increasing population will tremendously increase urban wastes, primarily sewage. / On the other hand, increasing demands for water / will decrease the amount of water available for dealing with wastes. / Due to water pollution, the entire ecosystem gets disturbed. (150 words)

13

Health Benefits of Red Wine

We all know drinks containing alcohol are not good for health, / but when it comes to drinking red wine, / it is the other way around. / Recent studies have concluded that there are no negative effects on the body, / if red wine is not consumed excessively. / Certain compounds in red wine can play a very important role in protecting the heart. / It is a heart-healthy drink that can be enjoyed during evening meals. / If you think that red wine is only good for the heart, / then you are wrong. / Studies have revealed that the substance found in the skin of red grapes, / can restrict cancer’s development. / However, the ideal consumption is not 7 to 8 glasses of red wine. / Scientific studies on the potential benefits of red wine recommend that women should not have more than one drink per day; / whereas men can have 2 drinks per day. / The word "moderate" is the key to maximize health benefits of red wine. (160 words)

14

How to Gain Fluency in another Language

To gain fluency in another language, /many people will tell you the only solution is / to travel to a foreign country and immerse yourself completely. / This advice may be greatly appealing for some people. / But for the majority of people, this solution is both inconvenient and costly. / Thankfully, the Internet has brought us new and exciting options for communicating in another language. / To expand your vocabulary, try reading free articles and original books in another language. / To begin with, reading may be a slow and frustrating process / as you will have to stop to look up the meanings for many unfamiliar words. / Before you begin, find an online dictionary / that will offer you quick translations. / Hearing a language is the key to learn how to speak it. / Popular music downloading sites offer free audio files / that you can download and take with you wherever you go. / And most importantly, one must actually practice speaking the language. (155 words)

15

Benefits of Going to College

One of the primary benefits of going to college / is being able to obtain a college degree. / A college degree helps you push your career in the right direction / and opens doors for good job opportunities. / The college years are filled with academic / as well as extra curricular activities. / The projects, the oral and practical exams and demonstrations that are parts of college education / help you build self-confidence and enhance your communication skills. / College education plays a vital role in the development of analytical thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills. / These skills help you throughout life. / However, the most important benefit of going to college is/ perhaps the environment it offers. / It gives you an opportunity to be a part of a huge group. / College education helps

you develop skills of working in a team. / It gives you an opportunity to understand different points of view on different issues in life. (150 words)

16

Benefits of Becoming a Teacher

Becoming a teacher gives you a chance to spend a major portion of your day with children or youngsters. / With kids around, you are a part of their world of innocence and purity. / It indeed creates a healthy work environment for you. / On becoming a teacher, / you get a chance to be with children laughing with them, / think their way and enjoy their innocently silly and healthily naughty behavior. / Apart from this, the nature of your job is such that / you do not work on weekends / and you get your share of holidays. / Becoming a teacher / entitles you for receiving private scholarships and sponsorships for teaching programs. / However, one of the most important benefits of becoming a teacher is that / teachers contribute to the shaping of the future generations. / They make a difference to society / by playing a vital role in nurturing young minds. (146 words)

17

Organic coffee

Today many agricultural products are grown using organic methods no exception. / Organic products have a very minimal effect on the cause there is no use of pesticides and fertilizers. / All organic produces are to ensure that / their products are grown in such a way. / Organic coffee is a lion dollar industry / and each year the sales of this coffee are increasing. / I organic coffee are up in most of Europe and North America. / Organic coffee is grown in many countries such as Africa, Asia and South America. / All over people have become organic coffee drinkers, /but Americans consume the majority of it. / All organic coffee products in the USA are certified for quality. / The organic coffee is produced in a very specific way / and all operators are at random inspected to ensure that they meet US Department of Agriculture standards. (149 words)

18

The Rivers

The rivers are formed when group of springs and streams, / which are known as headwaters/ and having their origin in the mountains, / flow down to form a large stream or springs. / The stream bed of a river lies between the banks of a river./ The large streams are called as rivers / while the smaller ones are called as creeks./ The rivers form the major component of the water cycle. / The water in a river is accumulated from gathering of ground water / and also through the release of stored water in natural reservoirs such as icebergs. / Rivers have been one of the sources of food, water and transport since prehistoric times. / The rivers aid the cultivation of crops by supplying water. / Historians claim that shipping dates back to a very long time ago. / Rivers of the world are the major source of fresh water

/ and they maintain their own food chain.(147 words)

19

Environmentally Friendly Cars

Environmentally friendly cars are supposed to be the vehicles of future generations. / Nevertheless, such cars exist now / and are becoming more popular in the modern car market than traditional vehicles / which work on fossil fuels./ The advantages of such cars are not only in their lower harmfulness for the environment and people's health / but also in the lower fuel costs. / However, their production is rather expensive, / so it is still a controversial point / both for the customers and the automobile manufacturers. / Although they are more expensive to buy, / they pay for themselves in a period of about 5 years / because they consume less expensive fuels. / The common types of environmentally friendly cars include electric cars, fuel-cell-powered cars, crossbreed cars and solar cars. / And environmentally friendly cars have become the choice of many people / who decided to reduce the influence of burning fossil fuels on the nature. (146 words)

20

Overpopulation

Overpopulation is the condition / where the number of organisms exceeds the carrying capacity of their habitat. / We are facing the effects of overpopulation in our daily lives. / Overpopulation has affected the life of common man / and has proved to be one of the most serious difficulties that have to be fought. / Overpopulation implies a shortage of resources and economic inflation. / Living through the negative effects of overpopulation / has made us realize serious problems associated with it. / It is high time we waken up / and found the causes of overpopulation and worked on them. / Generally, the causes of overpopulation include decline in the death rate, rise in the birth rate, migration and lack of education. / Not every nation is capable of providing its people with the adequate amount of resources. / The ever-increasing population will eventually fail to provide its people with the resources they need to thrive. / When the environment fails to accommodate the living beings that inhabit it, / overpopulation becomes a disaster. (160 words)

21

The Bottled Water

The bottled water used can be sourced from public water sources, / and the purity and safety depend largely on the regulation of quality adopted within a country. /The regulation conducted and recorded ensures that / the bottled water's quality is safe. / The label on the bottled water container or bottle accurately reflects bottle contents, / or at least it is expected to. / In many developing and under-developed nations, / these standards are variable. / This makes the safety of the bottled water controversial. / There is no doubt about the convenience of bottled water relative to boiling. / However, bottled water may provide a possibility

to unsafe drinking water / only for those who can afford it. / The sales of bottled water have surpassed the sales of all other drinks, except some soft drinks. / And the bottled water companies make a good money / even though the popularity of bottled water has been criticized by environmentalist, economists and care-takers and -givers. (151 words)

22

Online Education

Online education, or distance learning, has really taken on a life of its own in the past few years. / With the availability of the Internet, / it is becoming easier and easier to join one of the approved online colleges / and to get your degree online. / These colleges are spread out all over the world. / If you are truly getting your education online / then you don't have to be in the same city / as if you were getting your degree locally. / You simply log into the classroom every day to get your assignments, / then you upload them in order to get your grade. / There isn't even a need to meet the teachers or other students / and you can do it at any time of the day. / Therefore, it won't interfere with your work schedule or your life in general. / And the great news is that employers are recognizing more and more that / an online education is a great way to go. ( 160 words)

23

Red Wolves

Red wolves present a characteristic red colored fur / which is more obvious be-hind the ears and in the neck and legs. / Other than these parts, / the fur color of red wolves is brown with black shading in the back and tail. / Their big ears help them overcome hot and humid climatic conditions. / The average size of red wolves is 4 feet in length, 20 inches tall and weight about 45 to 80 pounds./ Generally, red wolves attain sexual maturity at the age of 22 months ; / however, there are some species that attain within 10 months. / The breeding season of red wolves is during February and March / and their pregnancy period is about 2 months. / Females give birth to about 1 to 10 children one time around March to April. / The newly borns usually stay with their parents about two years, / after which, they spread around the wild. / (The lifespan of red wolves is around 7 or 8 years in the wild / and about 15 years in captivity. (160 words)

24

The Earth Day

Our Planet Earth has so much to give us. / From the beautiful natural surroundings to the rich types of creatures, / Planet Earth has loads of things to offer / that only make the life more beautiful. / However, have you given a thought to how many individuals actually respect this planet.9 / April 22nd is known the world over as Earth Day. / It is celebrated to create more awareness about our planet / and situations that we need to take care of/to ensure our Planet Earth is well

loved and cared for. / As things are, we need to celebrate it on one day / to remind us of the responsibilities we need to handle in the coming years. / The importance of Planet Earth is something / that should be taught to children in their early years, at home and in the school. / Only then will the young and old alike, understand the issues / such as global warming, energy conservation and the importance of recycling. (159 words)

25

Car Alarm System

Car alarm systems are basic ways to keep thieves away. / The first car alarm system was designed in 1896. / Nowadays every car is fitted with advanced electronic sound alarm system. / Though car alarm systems do not always stop the theft from happening but they do create troubles, / which act as alarms for both the owner of the car and the thief. / There have been innumerable cases / when in spite of the car alarm system being there, / the vehicle has been stolen, / because at times the car alarm system fails to understand what exactly is a car theft. / Experts are of the opinion that / nowadays thefts occur in spite of the alarm system being there / because nobody bothers much about it. / People do not pay attention because alarm systems sound / even when there is a strong wind or a pet trying to interfere with the vehicle. / Moreover, thieves are designing newer ways to make new technologies that are being used failed. (1(30 words)

26

Domestic Violence and Abuse

Domestic abuse occurs when one person in an intimate relationship or marriage tries to dominate and control the other person. / An abuser doesn't play fair. / He or she uses fear, guilt, and shame to wear you down and gain complete power over you. / He or she may threaten you, hurt you, or hurt those around you. / Domestic abuse that includes physical violence is called domestic violence. / Victims of domestic abuse or domestic violence may be men or women, / although women are more commonly victimized. / Except for the gender difference, domestic abuse doesn't discriminate. / It happens within all age ranges, ethnic backgrounds, and financial levels. / The abuse may occur during a relationship, / while the couple is breaking up, or after the relationship has ended. / Despite what many people believe, / domestic violence is not due to the abuser's loss of control over his behavior. / Actually, violence is a deliberate choice made by the abuser / in order to take control over his wife or partner. (165 words)

27

Differences between Chinese and Western Eating Habits

There are great differences between Chinese and Western eating habits. / Unlike the West, where everyone has their own plate of food, / in China the dishes are placed on the table and everybody shares. / If you are being treated by a Chinese host, / be prepared for a ton of food. / Chinese are very proud of their culture of cuisine

/ and will do their best to show their hospitality. / And sometimes the Chinese hosts use their chopsticks to put food in your bowl or plate. / This is a sign of politeness. / The appropriate thing to do would be to eat the whatever-it-is / and say how tasty it is. / If you feel uncomfortable with this, / you can just say a polite thank-you and leave the food there. / And you should never tap on your bowl with your chopsticks, / which can be very insulting to the host. (143 words)

28

Water Pollution

When toxic substances enter lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, and other water bodies, / they get dissolved or lie suspended in water or get deposited on the bed. / This results in the pollution of water whereby the quality of the water deteriorates, / affecting aquatic ecosystems. / Pollutants can also go down and affect the groundwater deposits. / Water pollution has many sources. / The most polluting of them are the city sewage and industrial waste discharged into the rivers. / The facilities to treat waste water are not adequate in any city in India. / Presently, only about 10% of the waste water generated is treated; / the rest is discharged as it is into our water bodies. / Due to this, pollutants enter groundwater, rivers, and other water bodies. / Such water, which ultimately ends up in our households, / is often highly polluted and carries disease-causing bacteria./ Agricultural run-off, or the water from the fields that drains into rivers, / is another major water pollutant as it contains fertilizers and pesticides. (161 words)

29

Listening Skills

Communication with others involves learning listening skills. / It's a good feeling when someone listens to you / when you're talking to them. / It makes you feel like they care about you and what you're saying. / The same respect should be given to people that are speaking to you. / Controlling the conversation or interrupting constantly with your views or suggestions / is not listening to the other person. / Listening closely and then responding at the appropriate time makes a good conversation. / Making comments at the correct time lets the speaker know you're interested / and can help you stay centered on the conversation. / Asking good questions about the subject will show you want to know more about it. / Try not to ask too many questions with the word why. / People might not know the answer and won't be able to respond to the question. / Always, let the person finish what they're saying / before you talk about something else. (154t words)

30

Marketing

Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, / pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods, / and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives. / It consists of advertising and

promoting your product or service in order to sell it. / Your business produces goods and services. / Marketing is to let potential customers know what are available for sale. / Sales, advertising, and public relations are essential components of marketing / and each requires specialized skills and expertise. / While a small business may have only one person / performing all these functions under the marketing umbrella, / knowledge of each area is important to develop a focused effort. / A focus on what the customer wants and needs / is essential to successful marketing efforts. / This customer-orientation should go hand-in-hand with the company's objective of maintaining a profitable volume of sales. / Marketing is a creative process combining all of the activities needed to accomplish both of these objectives. (156 words)

31

The World Health Day

The World Health Day is on 7th April. / It marks the founding of the World Health Organization / and is an opportunity to draw worldwide attention / to a subject of major importance to global health each year. / World Health Day 2009 focuses on the safety of health facilities / and the readiness of health workers who treat people affected by emergencies. / Health centers and staff provide vital health care in communities every day. / In disasters, their services are in even greater demand: / treating injuries, preventing illnesses and caring for people's urgent health needs. / A safe hospital that continues to function at best capacity during / and after a disaster or other emergency is a safe haven that protects lives. / Safe health facilities are a joint responsibility, / requiring crucial support from other sectors to ensure essential life-lines. / When health facilities stop functioning, / it is a double blow to a devastated community. (147 words)

32

Wood Recycling

Recycling timber is the process of turning waste timber into usable products. / Recycling timber is a practice that was popularized in the early 1990s / as issues such as deforestation and climate change, / prompted both timber suppliers and consumers to turn to a more sustainable timber source. / Recycling timber has become popular / due to its image as an environmentally friendly product. / Consumers commonly believe that by purchasing recycled wood, / the demand for green timber will fall and ultimately benefit the environment. / Recycled timber is now used as a construction product. / It has been important in both raising industry / and consumer awareness towards deforestation / and promoting timber mills to adopt more environmentally friendly practices. / Wood recycling is a subject which has in recent years taken an even greater role in our lives. / The problem, however, is that although many local authorities like the idea of recycling, / they do not fully support it. (151 words)

33

Idioms

An idiom is defined as a group of words / whose meaning must be known as a whole, / because it cannot be learned from the meaning of the same words used separately. / Obviously, there is a problem / when you cannot look up individual words in a dictionary and find the meaning, / the usual strategy we all employ when we come across a word or words that are unfamiliar. / With idioms, however, we must learn the group of words. / In everyday English, idioms are in common use. / In fact, idioms are so common that / most native speakers do not even realize that they are using idioms. / It is particularly important to recognize idioms / when you hear them or read them. / When you are able to use them comfortably in your own speech and writing, and then you have achieved a higher level of mastery / and fluency in the language. (147 words)

34

Book Review

The determination of the book review is to communicate to the readers' mind / the ideas and sensations book reviewer experienced / while researching the content. / Professional book reviews are important in all professions. / But they are especially important in the sciences, / which defines the specialization of the book reviewer. / That is because the basic unit of scientific communication, the primary research paper, / is typically five to eight printed pages in most fields, / which is short and narrowly specific. / Therefore, to provide a general overview of a significant slice of science, / professional writers of scientific books have to organize and join the reported knowledge in a field into a much larger, / more meaningful package. / In other words, new scientific knowledge is made meaningful / by sorting the bits and pieces into book reviews to provide a larger picture. / Thus, the individual plants and flowers, and even the weeds, become a landscape. (148 words)

35

Television Advertisements elevision

A television advertisement or television commercial is a span of television programming / produced and paid for by an organization that conveys a message. / Advertisement revenue provides a significant portion of the funding / for most privately owned television networks. / The vast majority of television advertisements today consist of brief advertising spots, / ranging in length from a few seconds to several minutes, / even program-length information commercials. / Advertisements of this sort have been used to sell every product imaginable over the years, / from household products to goods and services, to political campaigns. / The effect of television advertisements upon the viewing public has been greatly successful and pervasive. / In some countries, like the United States, / it is considered impossible for a politician to wage a successful election campaign / without the purchase of television advertising. / In other countries, such as France, political advertising is strictly limited on television. / Some countries, like Norway, even completely ban it. (151 words)

36

Nongovernmental Organization in Denmark

Danes pursue common interests in leisure, sports, and politics. / Associations are essentially nongovernmental, originating in the late nineteenth century, / when farmers and workers formed interest groups. / Today Denmark has one of the highest proportions of association membership in the world. / More than 90 percent of the population belongs to an organization, / and more than 73 percent of the people have multiple memberships in more than three hundred thousand organizations. / Organizations and associations play three important roles. / First, they have been able to develop common interests and identities among different groups of people. / Second, practical improvements in the form of production, increases in salary, / and membership discounts have been achieved. / Third, organizations participate in the political struggle for the distribution of values and goods in society. / For example, charities use sophisticated public relations campaigns to raise funds / and employ standard lobbying techniques with governments. / Interest groups may be of political importance / because of their ability to influence social and political outcomes. (160 words)

37

E-waste: Dark Side of Digital Age

What happens to those old computers once they've been abandoned for newer models? / The refuse from discarded electronics products, also known as e-waste, / often ends up in landfills instead of being recycled. / And that means toxic substances like lead and mercury that are commonly used in these products / can contaminate the land, water and air. / The United States generates more e-waste than any other nation. / Some of that waste is recycled. / For example, steel, aluminum and copper are often stripped from outdated machines and reused in newer models. / But even recycled parts come at a price. / An estimated 50 to 80 percent of e-waste collected in the United States for recycling / is exported to areas such as China or India or Pakistan, / where workers taking apart the old machines are handling toxic chemicals / that can pose serious health problems. / Luckily, some manufacturers are beginning to assume greater responsibility for / what happens to their products after they become out-of-date. (158 words)

38

Children's Health

It seems we have developed such a fast paced society of convenience / that kids today don't play outside much anymore. / But they would rather stay inside and have things done for them. / They spend too much time inside on the sofa / and neglect any kind of physical activity, / which causes a state of being inactive and unhealthy. / Inactive kids have a higher risk of becoming obese, / having high blood pressure and a higher risk of heart disease. / Along with being inactive, / kids today don't get enough personal interaction with other kids, / causing them to have a lack of interpersonal skills. / Besides, their parents and grandparents allow children to

have everything they want. / Parents' spoiling only makes for an attitude of selfishness. / T0 avoid this situation, parents should encourage their kids to spend more time out of the house, / such as playing basketball in a community basketball team. (147 words)

39

Information Age

The Information Age means something different to everyone. / In 1956 in the United States, researchers noticed that / the number of people holding "white collar" jobs had just exceeded the number of people holding "blue collar" jobs. / These researchers realized that this was an important change, / as it was clear that the Industrial Age was coming to an end. / As the Industrial Age ended, / the newer times adopted the tide of "the Information Age". / Of course, at that time relatively few jobs had much to do with computers and computer-related technology. / What was occurring was a steady trend / away from people holding Industrial Age manufacturing jobs. / An increasing number of people held jobs as clerks in stores, office workers, teachers, nurses, etc. / The Western world was shifting into a service economy. /Eventually, Information and Communication Technology became a significant part of the economy. / Microcomputers were developed, / and many business and industries were greatly changed by it. (155 words)

40

Obesity

At the other end of the malnutrition scale, / obesity is one of today's most visible, yet most neglected, public health problems. / Paradoxically, co-existing with under-nutrition, / a global epidemic of overweight and obesity is taking over many parts of the world. / If immediate action is not taken, / millions will suffer from an array of serious health disorders. / Obesity is a complex condition, one with serious social and psychological dimensions, / that affects virtually all age and threatens to overwhelm both developed and developing countries. / As of 2000, the number of obese adults is over 300 million. / Contrary to conventional wisdom, the obesity epidemic is not restricted to industrialized societies. / In developing countries, / it is estimated that over 115 million people suffer from obesity-related problems. / Generally, although men may have higher rates of overweight, women have higher rates of obesity. / For both, obesity poses a major risk for serious diet-related non-communicable diseases, / including stroke and certain forms of cancer. (156 words)

41

Waste

Waste is sometimes a subjective concept, / because items that some people discard may have value to others. / It is widely recognized that waste materials are a valuable resource, / while there is debate as to how this value is best realized. / Governments need to define what waste is / in order that it can be safely and legally

managed. / Different definitions need to be combined / in order to ensure the safe and legal disposal of the waste. / The European Union has started a discussion / that will end in an End-of-Waste directive. / It will clarify the distinction between waste that shall be treated for disposal / and raw materials that can be reused for the same or other purposes. / All over the world, America generates more waste than any other nation in the world, / with 4.5 pounds of municipal solid waste per person per day, / 55 percent of which is contributed as residential garbage. (150 words)

42

Customer Service

Good customer service is the lifeblood of any business. / You can offer promotions and slash prices to bring in as many new customers as you want. / But unless you can get some of those customers to come back, / your business won't be profitable for long. / Good customer service is all about bringing customers back. / And about sending them away happy, / happy enough to pass positive feedback about your business along to others, / who may then try the product or service you offer for themselves / and in their turn become repeat customers. / If you're a good salesperson, / you can sell anything to anyone once. / But it will be your approach to customer service that determines / whether or not you'll ever be able to sell that person anything else. / The essence of good customer service is forming a relationship with customers, / a relationship that the individual customer feels that he would like to pursue. (152 words)

43

Illiteracy in Africa

Illiteracy in Africa is at extremely high levels. / 21 nations have adult literacy rates below 50% / and overall 4 of every 10 Africans are illiterate. / Achieving higher rates of literacy is a vital part of the effort to eradicate African poverty. / But the relationship between the two is complex, / because the effects of poverty are a major obstacle to literacy. / Given the widespread poverty, / few parents can afford to send their children to school. / Raising literacy rates depends on governments making schools and programs for adult education available. / Some governments are making a real effort to improve literacy. / However, many government officials are either indifferent or corrupt, / giving education a low priority or the government efforts are poorly organized and implemented. / Non-governmental organizations can help, / but they must depend on local governments to step up and become a partner, / rather than an obstacle to progress. (145 words)

44

AIDS

When AIDS first emerged, / no one could have predicted how the epidemic would spread across the world / and how many millions of lives it would change. / There was no real idea what caused it / and consequently no real idea how to protect against it. / Now we know from bitter experience that / AIDS is caused by the virus HIV,

/ and that it can destroy families, communities and whole continents. / However, experience has also shown us that the right approaches can and do result in lower national HIV infection rates / and less suffering for those affected by the epidemic. /Already, more than twenty-five million people around the world have died of AIDS-related diseases. / 33 million people around the world are now living with HIV, / and most of these are likely to die over the next decade or so. / It is disappointing that the global numbers of people infected with HIV continue to rise, / despite the fact that effective prevention strategies already exist. (160 words)

45

HomeHome-schooling

More and more parents are feeling that / the schools are not up to a suitable standard required to meet their children's needs. / Therefore, home-schooling becomes an appealing prospect for parents / who want to remain in control of their children learning. / There are both benefits to home-schooling a child, / but the positives seem to outweigh the negatives in the minds of parents. / In UK home-schooling has increased in recent years as the gap between the best- and worst-performing schools has grown. / Parents increasingly feel excluded from their children's education, / for schools have turned into examination factories. / In schools, teaching to the test is the norm, / instead of allowing children to explore their own creativity. / Schools need to achieve good examination results in order to have their higher status recognized, / which obviously has implications for the level of funding they receive. / Hence, it would almost seem that students are seen as a means to an end, / rather than as the whole reason for a school's existence. (166 words)

46

Mail Fraud

Mail fraud occurs when someone asks for something of value to be sent through the mail, / promising something in return, then fails to deliver. / Fraud can also be committed by wire, phone, or e-mail, / but is only considered mail fraud / when it involves things being sent by mail. / This fraud can take the form of offering a product or service / which is then not provided or offering employment that turns out to be a scare. / It can also be offering a product or service for a price / that is already provided for free by the government. / Sometimes, you may receive an advertisement for something designed to look like an invoice. / Some Internet domain registration providers are known for sending mail to owners of domains / registered through competing companies, / urging them to renew their domains. / But in the process of renewing, / the domain registration would be transferred to the provider sending the mail, / often at a higher cost. (157 words)

47

Lead Time

Lead time is the period between a customer's order and delivery of the final product. / A small order of a pre-existing item may only have a few hours' lead time, / but a larger order of custom-made parts may have a lead time of weeks, months or even longer. / It all depends on a number of factors, / from the time it takes to create the machinery to the speed of the delivery system. / Lead time may change according to seasons or holidays / or overall demand for the product. / Manufacturers are always looking for ways / to improve the lead time on their products. / Lead time can mean the difference / between making the sale and watching a competitor sign the contract. / If a company can deliver the product weeks ahead of the competition, / it stands a better chance of receiving future orders. / Because of this, management and labor teams routinely hold meetings / to discuss lead time improvements. (154 words)

48

Online Shopping

With just a click of the mouse, / shoppers can buy nearly any product online, /from groceries to cars, / from insurance policies to home loans. / The world of electronic commerce, als0 known as e-commerce, / enables consumers to shop at thousands of online stores and pay for their purchases / without leaving the comfort of home. / For many, the Internet has taken the place of Saturday afternoon window shopping at the mall. / Consumers expect merchants to not only make their products available on the Web, / but to make payments a simple and secure process. / However, the same things can go wrong shopping in cyberspace as in the real world. / Sometimes it is simply a case of a computer bug or poor customer service. / Other times, shoppers are cheated by clever seam artists. / Therefore, online shoppers need to take sensible precautions / to make their online shopping experiences enjoyable and safe. (146 words) 49

49

Sight

Sight is very effective at giving exact information over considerable distances. /If the viewed object is moving, / it can tell us much about the speed and direction of this movement / as well as allowing us to identify it. / For all this to happen we need to see it. / This means our eyes have to be looking in the correct direction. / Light waves do not go around objects very well, / so we cannot see an object if it is hidden behind another object. / @This does put limits on what sight can achieve. / Sight is an easy sense to use, / because during the day we are surrounded by light supplied by the sun. / This light bounces off things and brings us information about them. / However, when the sun sets on a cloudy night, / the light is mostly gone, / and then vision shall become less useful as a sense. (146 words)

50

Getting Paid to Shop

Advertising in our days has joined our lives quite well. / Getting paid to shop is another form of advertising. / A contractor evaluates products and services /

offered by various companies / in order to become known to the public / with the main purpose to increase their sales. / Getting paid to shop, users have the opportunity to shop favorite products / like jewelry, handbags, clothes, shoes and other things, / and create an income that might later lead them to financial freedom. / To be more clear and specific, / anyone who joins a getting paid to shop program will have the opportunity to shop things / that you wish for free while at the end of the campaign might those things become yours. / In addition, those companies that offer such opportunity will pay their members to do that. / Getting paid to shop is certainly the ideal solution that fits perfectly with most women / who like to shop often or see shopping as a hobby. (158 words)


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