浙江省 2004 年 10 月高等教育自学考试
Ⅰ. Choose the best answer for each blank (10 points, 1 point for each item) 从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答 案。 （每小题 1 分，共 10 分） 1.Carry-out restaurants often serve fast foods; customers place their _________ at a counter and then “take-out” the food to wherever they wish to eat. A. menus C. demands A. specialty C. availability A. integration C. acquisition the database and model base. A. reaction C. response who died in 1929. A. Conspicuous C. Obvious A. conduct C. advise A. courses C. sources B. Suspicious D. Outstanding B. supervise D. adjust B. causes D. resources B. operation D. interaction B. orders D. reservations B. occupancy D. low cost B. combination D. normalization
2.Traditionally the hotel industry has looked at _________ as a measure of success.
3.The European Union was established to foster economic _________ among the countries of Western Europe.
4.One element of the decision support systems is a software that permits easy _________ between users of the system and
5. _________ consumption is a phrase coined by Thorstein Veblen, a prominent American social theorist and economist
6.Operational managers are lower-level managers who _________ the operations of the organization.
7.Various _________ can provide information helpful in forecasting the future.
8.Many researchers agree that organizations usually perform better if they implement more concentric _________ strategy in which businesses are somewhat related to one another. A. simplification C. diversification A. self-reliant C. self-service B. complication D. certification B. self-taught D. self-confident
9.Chrismatic leaders are _________ and have a strong conviction in the moral righteousness of their beliefs.
10.Knowing a few fundamental _________ of persuasion will help you convince others to adopt your viewpoint. A. disciples C. disciplines B. principles D. principals
Ⅱ. Cloze Test (10 points, 1 point for each item) 下列短文中有十个空白，每个空白有四个选项，根据上下文要求选 出最佳答案。 （每小题 1 分，共 10 分） The 11 communication means not only that the receiver provides feedback but also that the sender is receptive to 12 . In these constructive exchanges, information is 15 13 14 between both parties rather than than it should be because it is 16 strongly with 18 , and responds to the
delivered from one person to the other. One-way communication is much more faster and easier for the
. The busy executive finds it easier to dash off a memo than to discuss the issue with 17 than one-way communication. 20
the subordinate. Also he doesn’t have to deal with questions or be challenged by someone who what the memo says. Two-way communication is more difficult and it is more accurate; thus, fewer mistakes occur and fewer problems communicated and what they should do with the information. 11.A. one way 12.A. information 13.A. supplied 14.A. common 15.A. manager 16.A. agrees 17.A. time saving 18.A. What’s more 19.A. arise 20.A. what B. one-way B. answer B. shared B. influential B. subordinate B. disagrees B. consuming time B. Furthermore B. rise B. which C. two ways C. reply C. applied C. unusual C. receiver C. supports C. time-consuming C. Instead C. raise C. that D. two-way D. feedback D. compared D. specific D. sender D. opposes D. saving-time D. However D. arouse D. who
19 . Receivers have a chance to ask questions, is being
share concerns, make suggestions or modifications, and consequently understand more precisely
Ⅲ．Reading Comprehension (30 points, 2 points for each item) 阅读下列短文，根据短文，在每个问题后所给的四 个选项中选出一个最佳答案。 （每小题 2 分，共 30 分） Passage One More traditional approaches to studying leadership are the trait approach, the behavioral approach, and the situational approach. The trait approach is the oldest leadership perspective and was dominant for several decades. This approach seems logical for studying leadership: It focuses on individual leaders and attempts to determine the personal characteristics (traits) that great leaders share. What set Winston Churchill, Alexander the Great, Gandhi, Napoleon, and Martin Luther King apart from the crowd? The trait approach assumes the existence of a leadership personality and that leaders are born not made. But the perspective of the 1990s is that although some personality traits do distinguish effective leaders from other people, a person need not be born with these traits, but can strive to acquire them. These traits may include drive, leader- ship motivation, integrity, self-confidence, knowledge of the business, and the ability to perceive the needs and goals of followers and to adjust one’s personal leadership approach accordingly. The behavioral approach attempts to identify what good leaders do. Should leaders focus on getting the job done or on keeping their followers happy? Should they make decisions autocratically or democratically? In the behavioral approach,
personal characteristics are considered less important than the behaviors leaders exhibit. Three general categories of leadership behavior have received particular attention: behaviors related to task performance, group maintenance, and employee participation in decision making. According to proponents of the situational approaches to leadership, universally important traits and behaviors don’t exist. They believe effective leader behaviors vary from situation to situation. The leader should first analyze the situation and then decide what to do. In other words, look before you lead. 21.What does the word “trait” in the 1st paragraph mean? A. Ability. C. Trial. A. The trait approach. C. The behavioral approach. A. Leaders are born. C. Personality traits can be acquired. B. Trade. D. Characteristic. B. The traditional approach. D. The situational approach. B. Leaders are made. D. There’s no leadership personality.
22.Which of the following approaches is considered to be the oldest leadership perspective?
23.What does the trait approach assume?
24.Which of the following isn’t the traditional approach to the study of leadership? A. Study of leaders’ personal characteristics. B. Study of leaders’ conduct. C. Study of the environment of leaders. D. Study of leaders’ magic power. 25.What’s the author’s attitude toward these traditional approaches? A. He agrees with them. B. He criticizes the situational approach. C. He criticizes the behavioral approach. D. He introduces them objectively. Passage Two The danger of being sued by a client for problems created by an intermediary has forced travel agents and such suppliers as airlines to seek protection through insurance and the use of disclaimers. A disclaimer is a statement that is written into a contract explaining that the travel agent or supplier will not be liable for acts or errors of wholesalers and other third parties, such as tour guides and chauffeurs. To be fully protected, a disclaimer normally must be presented to the client both in writing and orally. Travel agents and suppliers have found that it is important to review carefully all of the advertising and promotional materials they give to clients to make certain the wording in such material does not negate their disclaimers. It is natural for a travel agency to want to convince clients that it is professional and offers dependable service; however, such claims may create problems if they should prove untrue. For example, an agency called the Four Winds Travel Agency once stated the following in its advertising: Four Winds also guarantees that every tour will be escorted by a qualified professional tour director. Our directors are carefully selected and trained. Your Four Winds jet tour is an escorted tour. From the moment you leave until your journey ends, you are cared for by a carefully selected Four Winds Tour Escort.
A client purchased a 47-day tour for a Four Winds tour to South America. During her visit to Brazil she was being transported in a boat on the Amazon River near Manaus. The boat was not owned by Four Winds, and the guide was not a Four Winds employee. As the boat docked at Manaus, the client slipped and fell in the Amazon. Although it was an accident, she sued Four Winds. The court agreed that the promotional literature had led her to believe Four Winds would be in charge of the tour. 26.In this passage a disclaimer _________. A. is an oral statement B. is often used by clients C. can free a travel agent from liability in certain matters D. is used by a wholesaler to sue a travel agent 27.The word “wording” in the 1st sentence of the 2nd paragraph means _________ . A. the words chosen to express something B. the lengthy sentences C. the ambiguous words D. the word order 28.In the example, the client purchased a tour to _________ . A. the Amazon River C. South America A. a qualified professional tour director B. a guide who was not a Four Winds employee C. a carefully selected Four Winds Tour Escort D. a guide who accompanied her all the way to the destination 30. _________ won the lawsuit. A. The new guide C. Four winds B. The guide with Four Winds D. The client Passage Three California Pizza Kitchen was created in 1985 by two former federal prosecutors looking for “something different” to do. This restaurant chain specializes in “designer pizza” in which the pizza crust is a “canvas” for exotic food toppings , such as Thai chicken or southwestern burritos. The formula of offering stylish main courses costing less than $10 in a sit-down setting brought success. In only nine years, CPK mushroomed into a national chain of 77 restaurants with plans to expand tenfold in the years to come. Part of its recipe for success was its intensive use of information systems. The fast-food restaurant business is extremely competitive. To remain profitable, restaurants need to tightly control food and labor costs while maintaining the quality of food and service. Since diners are put off by high prices, the only way to contain costs is through inventory and portion control. CPK keeps precise track of the amount of ingredients used in each menu item and stocks only as much of these ingredients as each restaurant needs. Waiters and waitresses enter data about each menu item ordered into handheld point-of-sale (POS) device in all CPK restaurants. These devices transmit the ordering information via radio frequencies to a server in the back of the restaurant. B. Manaus D. Four Winds
29.The client fell in the Amazon River when she was escorted by _________.
Each restaurant transmits its sales data and inventory reports to PCs at the company’ home office, where the information is s consolidated and analyzed. One application called Inventory Express “remembers” ordering patterns, such as the amount of tomatoes a restaurant needs each week, and compares the amount of each item used to what each restaurant actually sold. If, for example, a restaurant sold 100 Peking Duck pizzas in one week, it should have used a predetermined amount of duck meat, such as 40 pounds, based on portion measurements established by CPK management. Using more duck meat would indicate a problem with over-portioning or waste. Restaurants with out-of-line portions would be told to take corrective action. 31.California Pizza Kitchen is _________ . A. an Italian restaurant C. a restaurant chain
B. a pizza stand D. a gourmet restaurant B. cloth D. burrito
32.The word “canvas” in the 2 sentence of the 1st paragraph doesn’t mean _________ . A. crust C. topping
33.To remain profitable, CPK doesn’t _________. A. stock more ingredients than needed by each restaurant B. tightly control food and labor cost. C. maintain the quality of food and service D. offer inexpensive stylish main courses. 34.The portion measurements are established by _________. A. each restaurant C. the two federal prosecutors. A. put diners off. C. attract more customers B. waiters and waitresses D. CPK management B. increase in profit D. lead to over-portioning or waste
35.Restaurants with out-of-line potions would _________.
Ⅳ. Word Spelling (20 points, 1 point for each item) 请将完整的单词写出。作为提示，每个单词的意义、词类及首字 母均已给出（每小题 1 分，共 20 分） 1. to prevent the progress of something (v.) h_________ 2. to depart from a purpose (v.) d_________ 3. fit for cultivation (adj.) a_________ 4. done with force and energy (adj.) v_________ 5. the power to begin with a plan (n.) i_________ 6. very complex and complicated (adj.) s_________ 7. to ponder or evaluate (v.) w_________ 8. arising from the faculty of sensing without the use of rational process (adj.) i_________ 9. one who argues in support of something (n.) p_________ 10. a preceding occurrence (n.) a_________ 11. tending to cause something (adj.) c_________ 12. a characteristic manner of preparing food (n.) c_________ 13. to institute legal proceedings (v.) s_________
14. biased (adj.) d_________ 15. most favorable or desirable (adj.) o_________ 16. to have as an necessary consequence (v.) e_________ 17. to promote the development of (v.) f_________ 18. precedence, especially established by order of importance (n.) p_________ 19. to make as perfect as possible (v.) o_________ 20. easily affected (adj.) s_________ Ⅴ. Translation from Chinese into English (15 points, 3 points for each item) 将下列各句译成英语（每小题 3 分，共 15 分） 1. 报告应该包含研究者的资格信息。 2. 私有化常常被看作达到某一目的的手段。 3. 宾客的满意是前台的主要职责。 4. 五类信息通过正式渠道向下传达。 5. 人们愿意勤奋工作，只要有理由这样做。 Ⅵ. Translation from English into Chinese (15 points, 3 points for each item) 将下列各句译成汉语。 （每小题 3 分， 共 15 分） 1. The information should be clear, consistent, and timely. 2. Servers are generally assigned to a specific group of tables. 3. Marketing means designing a hotel to suit the needs and tastes of guest. 4. Travel agents are subject to many restrictions and obligations. 5. There are mainly three types of management support systems. 百度文库：专注、专心、专一为您服务！