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新东方雅思“强化精讲班”全部笔记整理


IELTS NOTES

Section One ----Reading
? General Introduction: 60 minutes ? 40 items ? 90s/item ?3 passages ? 1400~1500 words per passage Actual Time: 52 minutes + 5 minutes + 3 minutes 监考官会报时 Best Time: 50 minutes ? 形容词变化: ugly ? plain-looking ? homely ? List of Headings a) Priority: 1st b) 破题点: 1.主旨性(非细节性) 例:”…..for example…..” 细节部分 skip 2.两段不会有同一个 heading,把例子项排除 c) Procedures: 1. Passage’s Title 如何读?生词?判断词性: 名词?记住拼写 动词?拼写、变形 形容词、副词?skip 2. Instruction 不用找标题的段 x 掉 “NB”是“特别注意”的意思

3. Delete the Example 4. Read Paragraphs: i. Topic sentence 演绎法(总?分) 归纳法(分?总)

读的顺序:第一句,最后一句,第二句 注意第一句和第二句之间的转折关系(but, however, yet, nevertheless) ii. Repeated words(实词) 机械重复、代词重复(He, She……找出指代的人) 、回环结构(首尾呼应) iii. Indicative words “in a word…..”标名词,与题目、文章对应 表归纳:in a word, in summary, in short, in brief 表结果:as a result, so, consequently, therefore, hence, thus, finally, eventually, in the end, at last, in consequence 段尾:this, that, those, these iv. Numbers(数字多的时候才用,一般用于科技说明文)找出数字与什么有关系 v. Story?主旨在开头或结尾 ? Skip skills: 见到”study””research”等?skip to “that” “despite”?skip to “,” ? helping “份” offering “祭品” ? 若一词可作动词或名词,则加 ing 后可能意义改变 ? chronic 反义 acute, invariably = always,nutritional table 营养表 overwork 超量工作 & workaholic 工作狂?贬义 ? Religions: Buddhism 佛教, Christianity 基督教 (adj. ? Christine, 问的时候: you Christine?) Are , Catholic 天主教(adj. & n.) ,Islamism 伊斯兰教 ? Thank you for your endowment.巨谢谢你(慎用,非常大程度)

Thank you in advance 提前谢谢你 // for concerning 谢谢你的关心(一般用作挡箭牌). ? audience(用耳朵听)的观众, spectator(用眼睛看)的观众 ? Summary a) 两篇文章的行文顺序一样 b) 语法性(判断空格中的词性和时态,ing, ed, s, v)? 1st step?有单词选项时优先考虑 顺序性 c) Procedures: 1. Instruction? word number limit? words from the passage(完全一样,包括数字)? where? 2. Blanks? grammar? answer?no grammar? key words【阿拉伯数字、人名、地名(不 变) 、斜体(书名,写作文时用下划线表示) 、大写、特殊符号(双引号、短横线) 】 3. Location d) a, an, the 可以用括号括起来,例如(a) set of benchmarks ? Sentence Completion ? 破题点:1.语法性?1st 2.无序性?different from summary ? True/False/Not Given a) 形式:YES, Yes, Y, TRUE, True, T 是不一样的!! !! b) 破题点: 1. 定位准?key words, list of headings 2. 无序性 3. 比较准?Benchmarks:

True:
i. 只有题目中的语句与文章中的语句思想内容(方向,程度,范围)完全一致,才可以判

定题目的答案为 True。

False:
i. 与文章中的内容完全相反 ii. 文章中为 A、B、C 等几个的并列关系,题目中却出现了 only A 或 A、B 的结构 iii. 文章中的结论成立有条件、范围的限制,题目中没有这些限制直接成立 iv. 文章中为人们对某件事物的主观看法、感受或猜测,题目中转化为客观事实

Not Given:
i. 文章中没有提及题目所讨论的内容?key word missing ii. 题目将文章所这几的事物更加细节化,从而无从考证(some officials?200 officials) iii. 文章中提及若干事物,但没有做出比较,题目中对这些事物进行了比较,从未无法考证 (文章中说 A 19 岁,B 20 岁,题目说 A 比 B 小这种情况例外,数字比较要慎重) (后 现代主义绝招:不够时间时,凡是题目中有比较的,都写 NG ? 不建议的绝招) iv. 文章中为人的目标、目的、愿望、誓言等的内容,在题目中成为了现实 表目标:aim, object, objective, goal, aim at 表目的:purpose, motive, intention 表愿望:hope, wish, desire, dream 表誓言:swear, pledge, vow, promise v. 文章中句子的主语或宾语被其它词语代替,从而无法考证 c) Procedures: 1. Sentence ? key word ? locate ? question word【比较级、最高级;表示比较关系的结 构(as..as, equal to, equivalent) ;数字的精确度;范围的词语(all, both, every, only) ; 谓语动词】 2. Location ? non-existent ? NG ? exist ? procedure 3 3. Compare ? using benchmarks above

? a match-maker 媒婆 well-matched couple 好配的夫妻 ? 不能把试卷撕下来!!! !! ? self-sufficient 自给自足 self-contained 自成一体

? 388?three double eight // three dual eight ? Dualist 二重唱歌手 double 后面用复数) ? World Heritage Site 世界遗址 ? 病的几种讲法: Illness?总称 某种病 disorder?紊乱,失调 ? Multiple Choice a) 破题点:排除法(排除同义选项) ;利用选项定位 b) multiple choice 的 choice 不加 s,一般情况下,正确选项为一项,若要选择多项,则题目会 用大写字母说明要选择多少项 c) 与阅读原文文字完全温和的选项往往都不是正确选项 d) 选项中有“all of the above”选项的,到文章中找并列结构的地方(可找“…,…,…”1、2、3、 “ ) ” e) 选项中有 dollars 字样的,可到文章中找这个符号:$ ? Matching a) 形式:ABCD?1234567;无序性! b) 破题点:小集合定位(先在文章中全部圈出,然后把大集合的题目读一下) 大集合配尽(小集合不一定用尽) c) 如果一个项在文章中出现很多次,就知道文章是说那个项的,因此就先做别的项,最后没有 选到的就是那个项的 complain?Do you have any complain?你有没哪里不舒服? sickness?sickness leave 病假;you’re so sick 你很恶心 disease?具体 dual employment family 双职工家庭 (注意:dual 后面的名词用单数;

d) 选项可以一次也不用,也可以用无数次 e) 除了这题,其余的题目的选项都不可以用两次 ? Table a) 破题点:直接定位;语法平行(表格中) ? Short Answer a) 直接定位(问什么找什么) ;答案精确 b) 数字后面必须加单位(符号单位不算字数) c) 阅读中的答案单位必须按原文,听力中 kg 与 kilograms 一样(全称时注意复数) d) 答案不需要大写字母,专有名词除外 e) 答案要满足字数要求 f) 答案中的冠词 a、an、the 可以加括号,不算字数

g) 注意答案的语法,与题目提问词对应(例如:用 what 问,答案则应该是 n.或者 n.-clause) h) 如果原文中有 carbon dioxide 和 CO2 则答案可以写 CO2 ? Flow Chart a) 破题点:顺序性;集中性(答案可能集中在一个段落或者邻近的某几个段落) b) 只有 flow chart 和 summary 的答案出现顺序与原文一样 ? 考场上的做题顺序: (全文共 scan 三次) a) 读第一次时,做 list of headings(没有 list of headings 的也要先略读一次全文,划出各段中 心句或者中心词,知道各段讲什么) b) 读第二次时,做 T/F/NG,summary,sentence completion c) 读第三次时,做 matching,table,flow chart,short answer,multiple choice ? 一口气把某类型的全部题目都读完再去找关键字会提高效率 ? 自己复习的时候:1、词汇表;2、复习所有题目(一次一种) ;3、剑 5 剑 6

Section 2 ---- Speaking
? Pronunciation? accurate, slowly, pause, stress Vocabulary?accurate, variety Grammar?accurate, variety Organization?多层次(好的,坏的) ? 广交会 Guangzhou Trade Fair ? 经济、生活、行业类话题可以用下面两种分类方法: a) 工、农、学、商 manufacturing, agriculture, education, trading, commerce b) 衣、食、住、行 clothing, food, real estate, automobile ? 说话的时候,尽量不要轻易用 because 把自己塞住,多 elaborate,将 what、why 贯穿于答案中

?

Travel?long distance?water, sea // land // air // rail
?short distance? private transport , public transport?地上:bus(numbers of buses, waiting time, fare, comfortable, special priority lanes, overtake small cars), taxi 地下:underground, subway

? 可以以自己的体验(例如一次乘车的旅程)作为逻辑线思考 ? In what way? ? in many ways ? in “terms of” ? 举例不过三,用 etc. ? 工作相关:mainly responsible to, another duty I have is… ? 听不清楚考官题目时:I beg your pardon? // Could you rephrase the question? // ……..x?xx?xxx? ? grow through errors/mist ? 要让思维附着在某处?联想 ? Why? ? well, there’re many reasons…. // I …. for several reasons… ? Yao has lent his name to… ? non-commercial ? to civilize the Chinese Yao is the spokesman for… // represent ? commercial ? 举考官听不懂的例子时要解释:Jay Chou, a local singer, maybe you’re not familiar with him. ? 四种思维模式:固定思维;抓 key words;图形化思维(例如:讲跟人有关系的,可以用考官的 五官来思考,也叫五官法) ;由一个点引申 ?

Being famous? materialistic benefits/satisfaction ? health //

衣食住行(adv. + -ed)

spiritual satisfaction ? self confidence/satisfactions loved/respected by people around you gain social recognition parents/friends be proud of you

Disadvantages: be the target of crime people around you want to take advantage of you lots of pressure people around you be curious about you, you will lose privacy ? 有用的搭配:adv. + v.-ed decorated ? Go to a decent/beautifully-decorated restaurant, order some delicious/gorgeous food, have a very nice chat with.., really enjoy/best time of the day/a lot of fun/give me a lot of joy. ? Crying doesn’t help, why not smile. ? 例如:highly priced, beautiful decorated, well made, luxurious

Ordinary people? job (used to… // but…) ? age (look…but…) ?body
(weigh?overweight, medium-weight, under-weight, description) ? face ? personality (give me the impression of being…indeed…举例支持) ? influence (for one thing // for another) ? sb. Has had a major influence on me, as a matter of fact, xx has taught me about the most important things in life. For one thing…live a healthy lifestyle, for another…be optimistic/xx attitude towards…, get through lots of hardships.

? 形容人的:has a brilliant brain/idea // quick-minded // well-mannered,weigh more than… ? 形容某人善于聆听:sb.’s door is always open to your idea/advice/suggestion/critizism ? genuine 真的,trait 特征,key trait 重要特征 ? 答题时可分 most people think 和 I think 作为两条线索 ? 现场原则——尽量用现场的 tips ? 不同的程度 to different degree ? 文化、生活、变化 diversified;政治、变化 transparent ?

Media change in the past 20 years:
a) Kinds of media ? diversified

b) more transparent ? foreigner think/I think ? corruption, bribery, low efficiency of government c) authenticity of media ? depend on what kinds of media ? internet, magazine or CCTV & politics or economics ? 勇敢用中文描述你根本不知道英文的东西,然后再用英文 explain ? 勇敢重复题目,让自己明白题目意思 勇敢用自己做例子 Let me use myself as an example ? (IELTS 6 P32 PART 3 LAST QUESTION) government duty (benefit for society) a large amount of money investment brings profits

? Sport:
时间:XX is the best time for… 地点:XX has no strict demand for…place 人物:do it alone // join a group of friends // either way is cool 事情:has no strict rules // is flexible 结论:physically: a good way of (keeping health/body building) mentally: refreshing

Section 2-1 ---- Jacob’s speaking
? Self introduction: Name: my name is … a.k.a. … // …also known as… // I’m a…by the name of… Age: I’m currently 20 years old.

nearly 20 years of age. in my early-20’s/mid-20’s/late-20’s 20-ish/25-ish(整十或整五的时候可以用 ish 表示左右,数字、颜色等都可以) I’m a major // of legal age. I’m a minor. Occupation: I study at…major in… I’m a fuul-time student at… and I major in… I will complete …BC in 12-months Hobbies: I enjoy… // take pleasure in… // adore… Origins (hometown): I come from… // my hometown is…, a metropolis located in… // I was born and raised in…settle in… ? Some ethnicities: a CBC: Chinese born in Canada a porkchop: 猪扒 a frog: French people a latina(女)/latino(男): Spanish people a caucasion: white people a FOB: fresh off the boat a gino: Italian people

? Idioms & slangs:
? ? ? ? After 10-years of hard work, I’m still in the red. (the situation of owing money) After 10-years of hard work, I’m finally in the black. (the situation of not owing money) Hanging out at night made my wife see red. (to be very angry/to hit the roof/to be pissed) Chilling (means: hanging out) at night pissed my bitch off. (you bitch & you’ re a bitch 不同)

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Painting the town red got my boo angry. (蒲) I felt so blue after getting ditched by her. I felt so crappy after getting ditched by her. She was at a loss of words when I busted in tears out of the blues. (suddenly) female prostitute = hooker = whore duck soup = piece of cake // duck 蹲下 He’ll prove he’s not yellow/gutless/chicken.胆小 How does he keep himself in the pink? // in good health? How can man be engaged in pink-collar jobs? (女性工作) be green with envy be envious of sb.褒义 be jealous of sb.贬义

Brown-bagging is an effective way to save money. (自己带饭盒到学校吃) Can you put the rest into a doggy bag? (外带饭盒) Come on! Toast! One shot! (一次饮晒) Don’t miss the boat! It’s a one-shot offer! (只此一次的机会) We’re like bros because we always see eye to eye. (have the same opinion) Don’t shit on me! (blame on me) It takes two to tango! (一个巴掌打不响) I want to do job no.1/no.2 (小便/大便). be of two minds ? indecisive, facing a dilemma He was like a dog with two tails.很开心 I don’t even have two pennies to rub together. (没钱) I’m broke. (现在没钱) I’m only a two-bit teacher, a small potato. (小人物) ? big cheese 大人物 What a two-faced prick! What a hypocrite! (伪君子)

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

It’s a three-ring circus in here! 这里很嘈 That’s the 64,000 dollar question! 所有人都想知道的问题 That four-eyes turns me on! 那个四眼让我很兴奋 ? turn me off 让我很不兴奋 Well done! High five! = give me five! Keep eating five-alarm food (spicy food), and you will have pimples on your face. Ok guys, take five. (take a break) Touch her and you’ll be six feet under! (die) It really knocked me for six to…. (shock me) Seven-year itch 七年之痒 Their relationship won’t last long, it’s just a seven-day wonder. (三分钟热度) Be dressed to the nines. 穿得很正式 Nine times out of ten = often It’s about the Benjamins. = it’s about the money. No money no honey. = No money no talk. (前者才是标准) Ten to one you’ll never get this job. (probably) Keep that under wraps. // in the dark 不要公开那个 BMW = bus + metro + walk Don’t ask for the moon! 别要求太高 Thanks a million/a bunch! 非常感谢 You’re one in a million = you’re so special. A penny = 1-cent coin 25-cent coin A nickel = 5-cent coin A dime = 10-cent coin A quarter =

? ?

A loonie = 1 dollar

A toonie = 2 dollars

Love letter = sugar report

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Cost me an arm and a leg. 好贵 // peanuts 好便 Lay it on the line. = tell me the truth To butt in = to cut in a line = to queue up Zip it = shut up Want beef? = want trouble? You bet! = you’re right Beats me! = search me! = I don’t know.

? Important facets: Appropriate speed, pitch, and volume of voice Confident behavior Direct eye contact Appropriate posture Courteous facial expression A smile

Section 3 ---- Listening
? Time: 30mins+10mins 7 分?31~35 题;8 分?36~38 题 ? 四六级?归纳总结推理?所听非所答 雅思?细节?所听即所答 ? IELTS listening features:1、国际口音;2、四段叙述;3、边听边做;4、题型多样 a) 国际口音:英音 50%,美音 20%,澳音 20%,其他 10% b) 四段叙述: 每段 6min 左右,750~800 字/段,section 1、3 一般是 conversation,section2、 4 一般是 lecture c) 边听边做:需要极强的速读能力,手眼耳并用 d) 题型多样:表格、问答、选择、填空、地图、图画、搭配 ? 听力立体训练法:见笔记 P60

? 场景总结:
a) 租房场景: 租房 v. ?rent, lease, let 房东?landlord, landlady 房客?tenant, lodger, boarder 住家 home stay

房子类型?学校宿舍 dormitory, school residence

公寓 flat

别墅 house, villa

一间房的公寓 studio 包含早餐的旅馆 B&B

青年旅馆 youth hostel

汽车旅馆 motel

地理位置?市中心 centre, central area, downtown area 城市 city, urban 农村 rural area 房子整体状况? 1. 是否装修 decoration/newly decorated 电 electricity 淋浴 shower 有无家具设备 furnished/unfurnished 郊区 suburb(也可表示地铁), countryside, outskirt

中央空调/取暖 central air-conditioning/heating

暖气 radiator/heater 2. 房间类型: 客厅 sitting room/lounge 单人/双/三人房 single room/double room(双人床)

/twin room(两张单人床)/triple room/double-bed room 坐、卧两用 bed sitting room 大厅、门厅 entrance hall/lobby/porch 阳台 balcony

小厨房 kitchenette(-ette 表示小) 3. 家用电器(household appliance) : 电视 TV/cable TV 炉子 stove 烤箱 grill/oven

电视许可证 TV license

电冰箱 refrigerator/fridge

电磁炉 electric stove

微波炉 micro-wave oven 音响 stereo 宽带 broadband

吸尘器 vacuum cleaner

4. 家庭用具(utensil) 地毯 carpet 台灯 lamp (bulb 灯泡) 碗橱 cupboard 扫把 broom 拖把 mop

五斗橱 chest of drawer 抹布 duster/cleaning rag

大衣橱 wardrobe

5. 床上用品(bed pack/facility) 上下铺 double-decked/bunk bed/double-decker(也指双层巴士)

床垫 mattress 被子 quilt b) 个人信息表格:

床单 sheet/bed linen 枕头 pillow 毛巾 towel

床罩 spread 毯子 blanket

靠垫 cushion

1. 人名:姓 family name/last name/surname 名 given name/first name/forename 曾用名 other name 中间名缩写 middle initial 字母大小写 capital/small

MacDonald 的拼法:m a c capital d small o n a l d 某人的:sam’s 的拼法:s a m apostrophe s 2. 电话号码: 0 的读法:zero, oh, naught, nil, null, nothing 862087686160 读的原则:86 pause 20 pause 8768 pause 6160 七位电话的读法:123 pause 4567 两个或三个字母重复会用:double, dual, triple(注意连读现象) 3. 性别 gender/sex 地址 avenue/lane

4. Weight: gram, kilogram, ounce, pound 5. Height: meter, centimeter, inch, foot (feet) 6. 国籍(nationality)?填相应国家的形容词 Korea?Korean Finland?Finish Ireland?Irish Spain?Spanish Sweden?Swedish Portugal?Portuguese Philippines?Philippine Thailand?Thai Holland (Netherlands)?Dutch Poland?Polish Greece?Greek Denmark?Danish Norway?Norwegian

Switzerland?Swiss Malaysia?Malaysian Turkey?Turkish 7. 教育程度:

Scotland?Scottish

高等教育 higher education 学位 degree

证书 certificate

文凭 diploma

高中生 A level

本科生 undergraduate 硕士 master

研究生 postgraduate 博士 Ph.D

本科毕业生 graduate student

职业教育 vocational education

培训 training

初中 secondary education 8. 工作经验 working experience 9. 课程名称总结: History, Geography, Language, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Politics, Mathematics, Law, Philosophy, Literature, Sociology, Medicine, Economics, Accounting, Finance 岗位 position 工作年限 year of experience

Banking, Engineering, Civil Engineering(土木工程), Journalism(新闻学), Mass-communication(大众传媒), Physical Science, Agriculture, Astronomy, Linguistics(语言学), Education, Social Sciences, Biochemistry

Geometry(几何), Algebra(代数) Psychology(心理学), Electronic Engineering, , Anthropology(人类学), Business Administration, Architecture, Botany(植物学), Commercial Science c) 课程研究场景: 研究 research 假设 hypothesis 解释 interpretation 数据 data 调查 survey 统计 statistics (民意)调查 poll 调查 investigate 访谈 interview 定性的 qualitative

调查问卷 questionnaire

被访谈的人 respondents 分析数据 data analysis

有效的 valid/validity

定量的 quantitative

显著的差异 significant difference/different d) 旅游场景:

1. 目的地: 城市 cities 山区 mountains 沙漠 deserts 丘陵地带 hilly areas

沼泽地 wetlands 旅游胜地 resorts 2. 交通工具: 公交 public transport

灌木丛 bush land

热带雨林 tropical rain forests

沿海地区 coastal areas

渡船 ferry

地铁 underground/subway/tube/metro

私人交通 private transport 3. 费用和支付方式:

巡游 river cruise/boat trips

订房间 book/reserve the room (make a reservation) 日元 Japanese Yen

货币 currency

信用卡 credit card (VISA, MASTER) 旅行支票 Traveler’s Check/Cheque

美国运通卡 American Express 4. 景点: 温泉 hot springs 喷泉 fountain 5. 活动: 器械潜水 scuba diving 水球 water polo 6. 注意事项: 刺痛人的东西 stingers 7. 携带物品: 大浴巾 beach towel 遮阳物 sunscreen e) 形容某人的特征: 1. 头发:

经典游 spotlight tour

瀑布 waterfalls

城堡 castle

滑水 water skiing

悬挂滑翔 hang gliding

鲨鱼 shark

有毒水母 box jellyfish

步行靴 walking boots

长裤 long trousers

灰色 grey

金棕色 ginger(生姜) 卷发 curly hair 单麻花辫 pigtail

齐肩中长发 shoulder length hair 中波浪 ripple 马尾辫 ponytail 大波浪 wavy 辫子 plait

直发 straight hair 蓬松 straggly

板寸头 spiky/sparky hair 中分 center parting

刘海 band/fringe

发髻 bun

侧分 side parting

修剪 trim

【例子:I have a ponytail with a band.】 2. 身材: 中等身材 medium-built 矮壮、健壮结实的 stocky 3. 衣服: 衣服、服装 clothes/clothing 牛仔服 jeans T 恤衫 T-shirt 工作服 jumper 裤子(英) trousers 中等高度 average height 肥重、强壮的 stout 苗条的 slender/slim

短袖女士衬衫 short-sleeved blouse

粉红和白色的条纹裙 pink and white striped skirt 成衣 ready-to-wear/ready-made clothes 女大衣 coat 皮大衣 fur coat 短外衣夹克 jacket

风衣 dust coat 外衣 garments/town clothes

中长大衣 three-quarter coat 4. 鞋子: 靴子 boots

平跟鞋 flat shoes

凉鞋 sandal

高跟鞋 high-heeled shoes 鞋底 sole

厚底鞋 thick-soled shoes 鞋带 shoe lace

硬底鞋 black-soled shoes

黑漆皮鞋 patent leather shoes

拖鞋、便鞋 slippers

帆布鞋 canvas shoes/rope soled shoes 5. 衣领、衣袖: (上衣)翻领 lapel

木拖鞋 clog

假领、活领 detachable collar V 型领 V-neck 圆领 crew-neck

上浆翻领、硬翻领 wing collar

凹领 scooped neck 6. 帽子: 便帽 cap

袖口 cuff

纽扣孔 buttonhole

带沿的帽子 hat

圆顶硬礼帽 bowler hat

高顶红质礼帽 top hat

尖顶帽 peaked cap/cap with a visor

宽边草帽 broad-brimmed straw hat 7. 花纹 pattern: 圆点花 dot 条纹 stripe 花纹 flower pattern 细条纹 pinstripe 面纹 veil

Z 字型纹 zigzag f) 学习课程场景: 教授 professor 讲师 lecturer

格子花纹 checked

纯色无花纹 plain

副教授 associate professor 系主任 dean

助理教授 assistant professor

导师 tutor/mentor/advisor 班主任、课程协调老师 coordinator 员工 staff/faculty

辅导老师 counselor

论文导师 supervisor

校长 chancellor/president(美式)/principal(美式) 助教 TA (Teaching Assistant)

助研 RA (Research Assistant)

必修课,选修课 compulsory course/required course, selective/elective/optional course 初级的,中级的,高级的 primary/elementary/fundamental/foundation, secondary/intermediate/middle-leveled, Advanced 课程安排 course arrangement 实地考察 field trip 老师讲课 lecture 讨论课 workshop, seminar

助教的辅导 tutorial

教授与学生的面谈时间 office hour

作业 paper/thesis/dissertation/essay/journal/handout/assessment g) 图书馆场景: 1. 动作: 登记并借出 check out 支付罚款 pay a fine 续借 renew 过期 overdue 归还 return

2. 书的状态: 可借 available 借出的 out on loan/out of circulation

订了……书 reserved in circulation 只读不外借 not for circulation/closed reserved 3. 借的物品: video tapes, journal(学术期刊), periodicals(期刊,月刊,季刊) 现期刊物 current issue 4. 证件: 图书馆出入证 library card/admission card 学生证 student card 5. 图书馆各部分: 服务台 information desk 阅览室 reference room 复印室 photocopy room 参考书库 reference section ? 大数字(人口、报纸发行量)借助数位符: thousand?1 个“, million?2 个“, billion?3 个“, ” ” ” ? 外国排序一般用 A、B、C、D 而不用 1、2、3、4,所以听的时候如果分不清 18 还是 1A 就填 1A ? 最后原则?对应同一个核心词出现多个可能成为答案的词时,答案很可能是最后出现的词 ? disadvantage?shortcoming?drawback?downside?weak point ? 替换原则:1、同义词替换 eg. disadvantage?downside; metal industry?iron forge; society?community; sign?indication; price?cost 2、同义词组替换 eg. at the time?in the past; aim at?in order to; 借书台 circulation desk/delivery desk 书库 stacks 开架、闭架 open/closed shelf 学生储存间 students locker 索书单 call slip 驾照 driving license 过刊 back issue

还书处 return area

high labor turnover?high rate of staff change 3、逻辑关系替换 eg. A affect B?because A, B…… 4、主动和被动的替换(标志“by…” 注意要填部分是宾语时原文的被动、主动) , 5、加减关系替换 ? 地图题中常用到的一些方位词: 中心、中间 the centre/the middle 中部的中心 mid-central 上部、下部的中心 the upper central/lower central

上部、下部的左右边 the upper/lower left/right 中部的左、右边 the middle left/right 最左、最右边 the far left/right

左边、右边的第一、二个 the first/second on/from the left/right 顶部、底部 the top/bottom 从上往下(下往上)数第二、三个 the second/third from the top/bottom the next to the top/bottom ….后面的中间 clear to the back of … in the centre 最右边 to the extreme right side ? 信息修正原则: 表否定的词:1、否定词 no, not 2、sorry, I made a mistake…, please allow me to change 3、but, however, actually, in fact 4、wrong, correction, amendment 5、on the other hand, on the contrary, the downside is, on the second thought ? 表示强调的方法:1、重读、语音、语调、停顿 2、however 等表示转折关系的词 3、表强调的情态动词 must、should… 走到最后边 walk down to the back of

4、be sure to…/ please do…/ remember to… 5、important, vital, essential, critical, crucial, significant 6、比较级的最高级 ? bad work good 中 bad 的 d,work 的 k 都不读?失爆现象 ? 顺序混乱原则:1、多出现在 section 3、4 2、出现的题型:表格填空或表格选择题 3、判断:example 的位置在中间 4、靠 key words 定位

? 题型:
a) 一般表格题 1. 读标题、图例和说明文字(备注) 2. 读横轴、竖轴(最上、最左) 3. 只看出题的空格,并注意上看下看左看右看 4. 省词原则:冠词 a, an, the 介词 in, on, near, around 代词 it, they, she, he

连词 and, as well as b) 选择题 1. 读题时,先读题目,划中心词

修饰作用的词(实在不会拼时)freezing weather

2. 扫一眼选项(横看看核心词,竖看看区别) 3. 听题时找出核心词定位 ? 注意核心词的替换现象 c) 地图题 1. 先看地图,再看题目 2. 看图看四点:图例;指向标(有则一定有用) ;说明文字;起始点 3. 关于起始点:路线图?一般标有 entrance, exit, door, gate

方位图?说话人的位置,通常第一人称是“我” 4. 扫描图中其它信息,分类看:先看路名,再看建筑名 5. 看题干 6. 按录音叙述用笔划出路线 d) 填空题——单句填空 1. 看题:划核心词(否定形式要划,录音中一定重读) ;划空前空后处 2. 预测可能出现的答案 3. 听题:注意核心词及其同义词的出现;抓空前空后处的词出现 e) 填空题——提纲型填空(P76) (关键在读题) 1. 第一次读题时,当阅读题来读,寻找醒目处:标题、副标题、黑体、斜体、下划线 2. 第二次读题时,只看出题的句子,并划出句子核心词和空前空后处 3. 听题时,注意核心词或同义词的出现及空前空后处的出现 f) 填空题——summary 形填空(P75) (难点:读题时间少;连续出答案) 1. 划出核心词,空前空后都要划 2. 完整行里的线索词:快速扫描,标出最明显最容易听的词(例如:时间、地点、人物、 副词) 3. summary 的第一个实词特别重要(判断开始的标志) 4. 边划核心词边猜词性及范围 5. 篇幅长的段落先读首位两句 g) 图画题: 1. 先看题再看图 2. 看图看区别 h) 表格选择题 1. 划核心词

2. 靠划出的核心词及选项词同时定位(听题时先 KW 再选项词或先选项词再 KW 都 OK) ? 先出现选项词但不出现 KW,选项不是正确选项 i) 搭配题 1. 扫描题目和选项的数量,确定大致搭配关系 2. 划核心词 3. 听题时,确定说话人的论述次序,若次序为题干,则答题时更注重选项,反之亦然 4. 考抽象概念的注意抓题干和选项的同义和近义关系 ? 分子用的是基数词,分母用的是序数词,分数线不读,例如:1/3, 5/9, 4/7,分子大于 1, 分母要用复数,但一般读音上没有太大区别 ? 小数点的读法: point, 例如: 0.35 可以读成 zero point thirty-five, 也可以直接读成 point thirty-five ? 时间的一些表达方法: century 可以简写成 C,例如:C21 90 年代可以写成 90s 或是 90’s. 千禧年读成 millennium. 月份的缩写:取每月的前三个字母,有三个月特别:六月,七月,九月:June, July, Sept. Sept. 25, 2007, Sept. 25th, 2007, 09/25/07 或 25/09/07 星期的缩写取前三个字母 Mon, Tue, Wed ? 标点符号:句号:full stop 破折号:dash 斜体:italics 逗号:comma 连字符:hyphen 下划线:underline 冒号:colon 分号:semicolon 斜杠:slash

引号:quotation mark

Section 4 ---- Writing
? Exploration is not the reach for the furthest distance of the world, but the furthest distance within ourselves. ? volume of the plastic container is 2M3 ? flow chart 中重点描述动作,把不懂的名词用动词表现出来 ? pencil?IELTS answer sheet?250 words?4 paragraphs?60 words/paragraph?4~5 sentences/paragraph?10~13 words/line?27 lines?句子间空格,段落间空行 ? 开头段落结构:一般?具体:从大分类入手,具体到题目内容 具体?一般:从具体题目内容入手,再到大分类 ? 词源分析法(etymological analysis): muse?music?museum?amuse?amusement [Sample] Museum is the establishment of modern civilization of mankind. The initial/original

purpose of museum can be understood/explained/interpreted by the etymological analysis of the word “museum”…… ? at the beginning=at the primitive stage/period ? stands for=means=equals to ? the function of …. is served as…. ? 一些与历史有关的例子:Herodotos?father of history Edward Gibbon?The Fall of Rome(相当于资治通鉴) Jesus Christ 耶稣 Arnold Toynbee?A Study of History ? like….(a distinguished/famous/eminent)…person’s immortal classic/masterpiece/piece of work...providing (information)… ? immortal classic 不朽的经典 ? function-oriented age 实用主义年代 ? 【观点对比句】….while the controversy arises since the existence of opposing notion that many people holds: ….. ? people tend to amass possessions ? “转变”的几个不同说法: 1、科学的进步改变了社会几乎每一个方面 The progress and prosperity of science transform almost every aspect of the society. 2、关键是由强调财富的生活态度转变为强调健康的生活态度 The key is to convert the attitude of life from a fortune-oriented/wealth-conscious (-centered) attitude to a health-oriented one. 3、小强成功地转变了我的看法 Johnny successfully converted my opinion.

4、历史总是不断地改变 The vicissitude of history is constant. ? change=shift=conversion; convert=transform ? pose a heavy influence on… ? The shift from a (观点 1) philosophy of life to a (观点 2) one is the best way to solve the (问题) ? If I can convert my love for you into dollars, I will be richer than Bill Gates. ? be immune to/from=avoid ? Life is marked by vicissitude. The vicissitude of season is constant. History is known for its eternal vicissitude. ? The best part of life is to have you by my side to witness the vicissitude of the world till the end of time. ? The worst part of life is waiting, but the best part of life is having someone worthy of waiting for. ? rich people?at the very top of the income ladder?plutocrat 有钱有势的人 ? 写长句技巧:中文动词—英文动词—派生名词?介词+从句;竹竿句+树枝句;并列句 ? Art is a lie that tells us the truth. 【Picasso】

? 【观点】Art is in possession of the magic power to help us to understand better our life and our world. 【证明】Just as Picasso, the great Spanish artist, said, art is a lie that tells us the truth. 【举例】 Like Nobel Prize Laureate Beckett’s drama Waiting for Godot, the two actors played an unrealistic act, leading us to the question the existence of purpose of life. ? Like the movie Forrest Gump with a great popularity in the world, the movie reveals a truth/nature/essence about life, though the movie is in itself a fiction.

? truth—fake, false, fiction ? the upper part of the iceberg above the ocean 冰山一角 ? 【例证之后总结观点】This example, like a tip of the huge iceberg under the ocean, indicates a widespread/common/self-evident fact that…. ? 【文章结构】观点对立型:引入话题?正方观点?反方观点?我的观点 ? 【文章结构】原因方法型:引入话题?原因 1?原因 2?解决方法 ? 【引入话题段】 (一般?具体) :按分类决定首句?按分类决定延续句(symbol)?引入题目? 两方观点表述/原因或解决方法的难度描述 ? desire, need=crave for, craving ? breeze/wind?前者有感情色彩 ? feasible(可行的) // available and accessible // effective and efficient + method/measure/solution ? Wise men never marry, when they marry, they become otherwise. 【Garfield】

? 【反方观点开头】Some people think otherwise, they argue that…//Different voices say that… ? There was a time when the world asked ordinary people to do extraordinary things. of Brothers】 ? ….seem to possess the magic power to…. ? 【观点论证段落结构】论据型:观点?论据?论据套入主题?总结 ? 【观点论证段落结构】例证型:观点?例子 1?例子 2?总结 ? turn one’s thumbs up/down on… 赞成/反对,认为……好/不好 ? advanced and sophisticated technology ? traffic problem is the biggest headache of a city ? derive from 来源于=stem from bestow 给予 【Band

? 【有关女性统治社会是否比男性好的话题?提纲】 :

开始:all men are created equal 观点:男人主导的弊:1、暴力;2、战争;3、犯罪 女人主导的好:1、爱心;2、沟通(Mother Teresa, Prince Diana) 我的看法:赞成,但不可行(Utopia) ? read between the lines in one’s mind=understand sb. ? the rate of crime is skyrocket high in man-dominated society ? xx is a foreign word in/to… 没有 xx 这样东西 ? it lacks the freshness to run the headline 常见、缺乏新鲜感 ? a place without peace=a place where peace is absent/a foreign word ? the master key which opens the gate to…=lead to ? 【媒体广告话题】 : 1. key words: media, television, internet, radio, magazine, book 2. 论据: a) 词源分析法:”Med” stands for middle, the function of media is in the middle between audiences and information. b) Medium is information. 【Mcluhan】[Canadian Sociologist]

c) Citizens in an open society should have the right to know. d) 【Upgraded】In an open society based on the belief on democracy, citizens are endowed with an unalienable right to know.(政府话题中可换成 to supervise the action of government) e) 小孩没有判断力?parental guided f) 在 google 中搜索”quotation media”

3. arouse a lot of attention = catch a lot of eyeballs = under heated debate 4. it is a taboo for….to do…禁忌

5. image—scenes 6. brutal—cruel, ruthless, relentless + violence 7. 【媒体、教育、犯罪】the fall/decline/ebb/wane for social moral 8. 【教育话题】 For too long, publishers have ascribed the fall of social moral to the decline of current education system. Therefore, controversy on what to teach and how to teach is always heated debated by sociologist and educationist. 9. ….seems to be a new evidence to support the negative effect media pose on society 10. negative = -phobic ? money-phobic

11. The ground … is based on a common sense in a democratic society. 12. precedent example 先例 13. be contagious to = spread to = extend to = influence 14. block = hinder = become the barrier of 15. exposure of sth. to sb. = let sb. know 16. 【教育话题】Exposure of moral value to students is an prerequisite/essential element/indispensable to a successful education. 17. 【政府话题】Exposure of statistics/information of how government is spending money is prerequisite for formation of democracy. 18. This ability of judgment to distinguish between right and wrong is foreign to/absent for children. 19. Advertising is only evil when it advertises evil things. 20. consumer insight 消费者洞察 21. capability to make sound judgment 消费者的判断力?小孩没有判断力 22. mate/marriage/coordination/combination of… 。。的结合 。 23. the deception of advertisement exist 【David Ogilvy】

advertisement purposefully deceive consumers 24. Many people believe that advertisement is in possession of magic power to persuade people to purchase goods that they actually don’t need.

? 【环境保护话题】 : 1. 核心:如何保护环境 2. 了解关于雪灾的一些描述 3. 现状:global warming, deforestation, green house effect 4. 【教育话题】Failure helps to shape my soul, and let the glory out. 5. the goddess of history = history 6. xxx is a mirror reflecting/indicating… 7. This example is just a tip of the iceberg in the ocean, reflecting a phenomenon that…. 8. xxx is the Achilles’ Heel(致命的弱点) that hinders the development of human society 9. Carbon dioxide emission from transportation is one of the very top attractions of people’s concern. 10. 【论据】influence of human activities 11. indiscriminating 无差别的(widespread) 12. spur—lead to—is the master key that open the gate to—unlocking the Pandora’s Box of….(不好的东西) 13. 【环境保护方法】 : a) [全人类合作]global collaboration b) Heal the world, making it a better place for you, for me and for the entire human race. 【Michael Jackson】 c) every individual has shared/diffused responsibilities… d) United we stand, divided we fall. 【J.F.Kennedy】 【Al Gore】

e) 【Upgraded】United we can stand against the threat of ecosystem, divided we fall to deal with the formidable challenge. f) None Governmental Organization?Green Peace

g) [政府立法]legislation by government h) 【政府、 环境话题】 Government should set up strict and relevant laws, regulations, and policies to secure the (sustainable development of mankind). Punishment, in financial form or other feasible means, should be employed as a warning to the people and institutes who commit (environment threatening/damaging behaviors) i) j) 【媒体、环境话题】Medium is information. 【Al Gore】

An Inconvenient Truth

【Al Gore】

k) People are always insensitive to gradual change, like the famous frog experiment. l) The preservation of environment can find support from giant companies.

m) The preservation of ECOsystem can find support from ECOnomic giants like GE, Microsoft and DuPont. n) The preservation of ECOsystem can find support from CEOs: ask for/seek for financial assistance from… 14. 【全球变暖论据】(Global warming), which causes deserts to expand, rivers to dry up, droughts to intensify and melting of the polar ice caps which may lead to the intrusion of salt water into fresh water supplies. 15. 【水资源论据】While most wealthy country will cope with falling water supplies due to sufficient water management, poorer countries will suffer on a huge scale, making it even harder for them to escape poverty. 16. 【水资源论据】Increase investment in water supply sanitation and water resources to ensure that the basic needs of poorer communities are met before the luxury needs of the

wealthy. 17. Absence of recognition of the seriousness of the growing pollution will lead to a huge error. 18. 【能源话题】 a condition urgently calling for energy, the nuclear station without pollution On and in possession of a low cost advantage can provide a large amount of energy, but since many people are of high concern on the safety of nuclear energy, so they are negative for the use of nuclear station.

? 【政府话题】 : 1. key words: government, individuals, cost, money, expense 2. a criterion for evaluating… 衡量…的标准 3. efficiency and effectiveness & lucrative and profitable 【Cicero】[Greek philosopher and

4. The welfare of the people is the ultimate law. politician]

5. 【万能首句】Like it or not, there are certain issues in human society, such as (the role of

government, scientific research, education….) that attracts a disproportion amount of public attention. 6. 【万能尾句】Based on the above analysis, (it seems that) there exist only a foggy hope to reach a unanimous agreement between both sides (is difficult to achieve). But I prone to …. 7. I didn’t have the foggiest impression on him. 8. History is known for its constant vicissitude, but some issues, like the role of government, are of eternal value for discussion. 9. 【万能首段尾句】To move from an abstract debate to a more concrete area, (like the one ….), the question may be simplified to a conclusion: …. 10. 【政府话题的两个主要论据】night-watchman & efficiency and effectiveness 11. mass 可以代表百姓 subsidies 补贴

12. 【个人看法句】For me, I am pretty adamant that… 13. learn from what was inscribed on the wall of Mother Teresa’s Children Home in Calcutta: do it any way. 14. Government in possession of the power to allocate the tax of the citizens should learn to spend the money wisely.

? 【金钱与幸福话题】 1. key word: life, satisfaction 2. I’m happy to present here at the present moment to give a presentation, it’s the best present for me. 3. So what is important is not happiness but whether unhappiness can be eradicated. 【Krisknamunchi】[Indian Guru] 4. You are what you meet. 5. 幸福的核心:不要与别人比?reference group 6. If you do the job you love, then you don’t have to work a day in your life. Confucius】 7. You’ve got to find what you love. 【Steve Jobs】 【Maugham】 【Sage

8. If you expect nothing but simply the best, you very often can get it.

? 【全球化话题】 1. cuisine, chef, restaurant, menu?French words 2. useful words: globalization, preservation, melting pot 熔炉, culture shock, global village, Butterfly effect, migrant (immigrant/emigrant?import/export), outsourcing 外包, global vision with local sense, extinction 3. melting pot?America is a melting pot 4. outsourcing?The outsourcing of multinationals like IBM, Nike contributes to the developing countries by providing job opportunities, and in return, benefit from the developed countries by lowering the cost of products. 5. global vision with local sense?Under the era of global village, people should cultivate a global vision with local sense, that is to preserve conventional culture, simultaneously, meet the trend of global economy. 6. extinction?There exists a danger of extinction of traditional culture under the threat of globalization.

7. Business Globalization: Coke, McDonald, Starbucks 8. Multi-culture is like melting pot, which is not to be afraid, but American Beauty. 9. 【论据】As the followers of social Darwinism embrace, the globalization is exactly a social version of the evolution of the nature: Only the fittest survive. 10. 【inevitability of globalization 论据】It has been said that arguing against globalization is like arguing against the law of gravity. 【Kofi Annan】[former chief secretary of UN]

11. 【论据】We may have different religions, language, colored skin, but we all belonged to one human race. 【Kofi Annan】

12. 【论据】The beauty of colors stems from the presence of the whole spectrum of visible light. 【Beyond】

13. spectrum = scope = range?spectrum of knowledge 14. make a giant leap = make a great progress 15. formidable = big 16. 时代:age, time, era, epoch

? 【法律道德话题】 1. useful words: justice, judge, law school, Libra 天平, sue, court, verdict 裁决[n.], lawsuit 案 件, guilty, innocent, evil, Satan, temptation 诱惑, expulsion from Eden, moral decline, self-discipline 自律, penal code 刑法, desperate, discordance 不协调, conflict 2. expulsion from Eden?Prison is the punishment of expulsion of the guilty from the society, just like Adam and Eve’s expulsion from Eden.

3. 【犯罪原因】fear, nature, fortune, power nature of human: sin money: Bible said, money is the root of all evil. power: Power tends to corrupt, absolute power corrupts absolutely. fear: lack of education and love 4. human?hum 泥土?inhume/exhume 入土/出土 【Sir Acton】

5. Prison may be not the most ideal way, but it indeed is the most efficient way. 6. 【惩罚方式】prison, social service, financial punishment 7. Money makes the mare go. 有钱使得鬼推磨。 8. 【判断刑法应否执行】Severe punishment is based on an economic perspective to let the cost of committing outweigh the profit. 9. the inquiry into the nature and causes of…. 10. layman and men of letter alike 普通的和有文化的人 11. History is nothing more than a table of crime and misfortune. socialist] 12. Crime and Punishment 13. transgress = violate ? 【Dostoevsky】[Russian Author] transgress/violate/break the law 【Voltaire】[French

14. probe into 研究、探索 15. 犯罪?为什么会犯罪?四原因 16. 犯罪话题——金钱: Outlaws are those trying to convert the risky law-breaking behavior into notes. 17. Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. 【Sir Acton】

? 【教育话题】?what to teach & how to teach? 1. key words: parents, children, teach, education, study 2. If we can go to a more concrete level, avoiding the metaphysics contemplation of the essence of education, just like what we’re going to discuss today. 3. Renaissance man 博学之人? Leonardo Da Vinci, Benjamin Franklin 4. Knowledge is not memorization, but organization; knowledge is not data, but the structure that relate data. 【Suslick】[Chemistry Professor]

5. 【教育目的】 During an age of function worship, it’s not surprising that students tend to convert education into currency. 6. 【教育目的】The purpose of education is to allow the student’s discovery of the furthest reach of the world and also the discovery of the furthest reach within himself or herself.

? 【平等话题】 1. useful words: abolish, abolishment, bereave/deprive (of)剥夺, civil right 民权, monopoly 垄 断, discriminate 歧视, segregate 隔离, gender discrimination 性别歧视, individualism 个人 主义, humanistic 人道主义, topple/overthrow 推翻 2. All men are created equal.

? 【科学技术话题】 1. theme: side effect (double edge sword) & science evolution (destructive technology) 2. Don’t throw the baby out with the bath water. 3. Cars, with the most famous Ford’s model-T assemble line, is a modern invention that symbolized the second wave of human society called industrial revolution.

4. 【艺术与科技话题】Unlike science, which is intended for the discovery of the furthest reach of the world, art is leading to the discovery of the furthest reach within ourselves, to help us to discover the hidden iceberg under the ocean. 5. 【食品话题】Science and technology has transformed almost every aspect of the society, and even food, the most essential craving of human, according to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs(马斯洛需求层次,所有需求类的都可以用), cannot be immune from this trend. 6. Breeze/Wind of change driven by science and technology spreads to every reach of human society/all walks of life. 7. 【食品话题】However, counter arguments, held by some specialists and layman alike, exist to deny the positive effect of science and knowledge on food choices. 8. 【食品话题】Some embrace that this will lead to a great improvement in food availability and accessibility, in both quality and quantity. 9. 【开头】When Neil Armstrong landed on the moon, his word--that’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind--became an immortal statement with a historical echo. Space travel is of course the fruit of the science and technology progress and prosperity of man, while some areas that closely related to our daily life is also influenced. 10. That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. 【Neil Armstrong】

11. 【食品话题】However, some people think otherwise: it is not a blessing for our diet with the influence of science, though it may not be a curse, either.

? 【图表作文】 1. graph, table, flow chart 2. 注意:只描述数据,不加任何个人评论和理解 3. 思维:P1 图标主题?P2、3 描述图表 4. 周期性的现象只需要把最高、最低点描述就 ok,不需要讲趋势 5. when the calendar turn to 2008….. 6. the value/data/statistics… 7. the situation was completely reversed 8. the pie chart was composed of two groups 9. there exists 92% differences 10. a tool is employed to make bottles

Section 5 ---- Words and Expressions
? ether 以太?eternal ? Crying doesn’t help, why not smile. ? subordinate 下属 white lie 善意的谎言 country man 同乡

? It’s my treat//It’s on me. 我请客。 ? jewelry 珠宝 ? cruel—brutal auditorium 大礼堂 bistro 小饭店 derive from = stem from crisp 脆

dominate—govern—rule

? zealous supporters 热心的支持者 ? relevant issues 相关的话题 ? judge?judgment

minor nationality 小数民族 taboo 禁忌

steamed-bread 馒头

acknowledge?acknowledgment

? President Election Campaign 总统大选 ? criterion[单]—criteria[复] = benchmarks = standards ? unanimous agreements 一致同意 ? control = manipulate regime 政体

? vague 模糊

zen 禅

eradicate 铲除

surreal 超现实的

adamant 坚定

? to slack off = procrastinate 逃课 ? Terracotta Warrior 兵马俑 ? pesticides 杀虫剂 acupuncture 针灸 abacus 算盘 Mahjong 麻将

pension 养老金

hassle of 激烈的争论

? financial affairs = economic situation ? One nation cannot have two queens. 一山不能容二虎。 ? enigmatic 神秘的 superficial 肤浅的 mansion 宅邸、大厦 villa 别墅、庄园

? pretentious 自负的、自命不凡的 ? courtship 求爱、求婚

masquerade 假面舞会

franchise 特许权、经销权

etch(用酸在金属上)蚀刻

truth or dare 真心话大冒险

? look somebody in the eyes ? embed 镶 fable story 寓言故事 interdependence 相互依赖

? bank on = depend on ? tells no borders 无边界 ? integration of global economy = merging of global economy 全球经济整合 ? paradigm 范式(解释很多问题的理论) ? metaphysics 形而上学 fallen creatures 坠落天使 assertion 断言 accolade 表扬 liberal art 文科

weave a story 编故事


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