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考研英语语法超有用的归纳与总结


考研英语语法归纳与练习

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从 2002 年起,研究生英语考试取消了 been [D] had to be have dressed up 语法,词汇等基础知识的考查,将此部分改 (答案为 C) (没有必要穿的那么正式,体现是说话者的 考为听力.但取消了此部分知识点的考查并 2)can't / couldn't have+过去分词, 建议,实际结果是否真的穿的很正式没有确 不意味着英语语法等基础知识的不重要.根 表示对已发生情况的否定推测,译为" (昨 定,答案为 D) 据以往英语取得高分同学的经验和海文英 天)一定没……" .如: 2)should have +过去分词,表示应该做某 语辅导名师的建议,他们都一致认为英语语 Mary my letter; otherwise she would have 事但实际上未做, "本应该……" 译为 should 法和词汇是学好,考好英语的重要基础,其 replied before now. not + have 过去分词表示本不应该做某事但 实完形填空是对语法,词汇的综合考查,但 [A] couldn't have received [B] ought to 实际上做了,译为"本不应该……" .如: 更关键的是学好此部分有助于对英语句子 have received I regret having left the work unfinished; 结构的分析和理解,有助于学生掌握灵活多 [C] has received [D] shouldn't have I should have planned everything ahead 变的句式,这样不仅有助于学生做好阅读理 received carefully. 解, 而且有助于学生做好英译汉, 写好作文. (答案为 A) 我本来应该事先认真地把每件事情规划的 3)may / might have +过去分词,表示对 很好,但实际上作者还是没有规划好,以至 (一)情态动词 已发生的事情做不肯定,可能性很小的推 工作没有完成. 一.情态动词的现在完成式的用法 情态动词现在完成式主要有两个功能:表示 测, 或事实上根本没发生, "也许……" 3) ought to have +过去分词,表示动作按 译为 . 已经发生的情况和表示虚拟语气.在这两个 如: 理该发生了,但实际上未发生,译为 方面 must/mustn't,;can/cann' At Florida Power's Crystal River plant, "该……" ,与 should 的完成式含义类似. t;need/needn't;may/mayn' a potentially serious leakage of 如: t;might/mightn't;should/shouldn't; radioactive water may have been The porter ought to have called the ougtht 等情态动词+完成式表示的意思是 unknowingly caused by an electrician. fire-brigade as soon as he saw the fire 有一定区别的 表示虚拟语气. in the stock, which went up in smoke . 2.表示虚拟语气. 1.表示已经发生的情况. 1) needn't have + 过去分词,表示做了 4) could have +过去分词,表示过去本来 . 1)must have+过去分词,表示对已发生情 不必做的事, 相当于" didn' need to do" 可以做但却未做,译为"完全可以……" t , 这点与 ought/should/ have +过去分词用法 况的肯定推测,译为" (昨天)一定……" 译为"其实没必要……" . .如: 如: You needn't have come over yourself. 相似.如: My pain apparent the moment I walked into As it turned out to be a small house party, What you said is right, but you could have phrased it more tactfully. the room, for the first man I met asked we so formally. sympathetically:" Are you feeling all [A] needn't dress up [B]did not need 5) may/ might have +过去分词,表示过去 可以做但实际未做,译为" (那样)也许 right?" have dressed up [A] must be [B] had been [C] must have [C] did not need dress up [D] needn't 会……" .如:
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考研英语语法归纳与练习
It might have been better to include more Your hair wants cutting punchy statistics and photos of The book is worth reading equipment in the introduction to further The floor requires washing. assist first-time office automation 2.need 既可以用 need to be done 也可以 managers. 使用 need doing ,两种形式都表达被动的 几个情态动词常考的句型: 二.几个情态动词常考的句型: 意义 1).may/might (just) as well "不妨, The house needs painting= the house 最好" ,与 had better 相近; needs to be painted. Since the flight was cancelled, you The watch needed repairing= the watch might as well go by train. needed to be repaired. 既然航班已经取消了,你不妨乘火车吧.相 (二) 形容词,副词及比较级最高级 形容词, 当于 you had better go by train. 一.形容词的修饰与位置 2) .cannot / can't…too …"越……越 一般来说,从构词法角度来看,后缀"ly" 好,怎么也不过分" .注意这个句型的变体 往往是副词,但有的以"ly'结尾的词是形 cannot…over….如: 容词而不是副词,这点要注意;形容词一般 You cannot be too careful when you drive 可以在句子中做定语,表语等成份,但有些 a car.驾车时候,越小心越好. 形容词在句子中只能做表语和只能做前置 The final chapter covers organizational 定语;这些形容词在修饰时候有一定的特殊 change and development. This subject 性要引起大家的注意,下面做了一下归纳: cannot be over emphasized . 结尾的是形容词而不是副词: 1 以-ly 结尾的是形容词而不是副词: 3) .usedn't 或 did't use to 为 used to costly 昂贵的 lonely 孤独的 (do) 的否定式. deadly 死一般的 lively 活泼的 4) .should 除了"应该"一层意思外,考 friendly 友好的 silly 傻气的 研大纲还规定要掌握其 "竟然" 的意思. 如: kindly 热心肠的 likely 可能的 I didn't expect that he should have leisurely 悠闲的 ugly 长得丑的 behaved like that. 我无法想象他竟然这 brotherly 兄弟般的 monthly 每月的 样做. earthly 尘世的 三.情态动词被动关系的主动表达法 情态动词被动关系的主动表达法 2 只作以"a"开头的很多形容词只能做表 只作以" worth(形容词) 1. want, require, worth(形容词)后面 语: 也可以表示被动意义. afraid 害怕的 alike 相象的 接 doing 也可以表示被动意义.
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awake 醒着的 alone 单独的,惟一的 alive 活着的 ashamed 羞愧的 asleep 睡着的 aware 意识到的,察觉到的 well 健康的 content 满意的 unable 无能的 3 只作前置定语的形容词 earthen 泥土做的,大地的 daily 每日的 latter 后面的 golden 金子般的 weekly 每周的 inner 里面的 silken 丝一般的 monthly 每月的 outer 外面的 wooden 木制的 yearly 每年的 elder 年 长的 woolen 毛织的 former 前任的 mere 仅, 只不过 only 惟一的 sheer 纯粹的 very 恰好的 little 小的 live 活的 下列动词既是实义动词又是系动词, 4.下列动词既是实义动词又是系动词,注 意用做系动词时,要求形容词做表语: 意用做系动词时,要求形容词做表语: remain keep become, get, grow, go, come, turn, stay, stand, run, prove, seem, appear, look. 如:All those left undone may sound great in theory, but even the truest believer has great difficulty when it comes to specifics. 二.形容词与副词的比较级与最高级 考比较级时,考生应把握: 1. 考比较级时,考生应把握:

考研英语语法归纳与练习

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1)形容词和副词比较级的形式是否和比较 than Thackeray's. on the market. 连词对应出现,即是否符合原级比较及比较 3)比较级与倍数词关系及其位置 [A] superior [B] advantageous [C] super 级的结构.如: 原级结构中可插入表达倍数的词,表示为 [D] beneficial Do you enjoy listening to records? I find "为….若干倍",当与有表示倍数比较的词 (答案为 A) records are often , or better than an 在一起时候等, 他们的位置是, 倍数词+as… Prior to his departure, he addressed a actual performance. as…,或倍数词+more…than…,但 again 一 letter to his daughter. (1986 年考研题) 5) "比较级+and +比较级"或"more and [A]as good as [B]as good [C]good [D]good 般放在原级词之后,即 "as+原级+ as more/less and less +原级"以及"ever, again+as".如: 在这里 as good as 比较连词与 better than Smoking is so harmful to personal health steadily, daily 等副词+比较级"结构表 比较连词同时出现时候,不能省略任何一个 that it kills people each year than 示"越来越……"的意思,与这类结构搭配 的常用动词有 grow, get ,become 等.前面 介词.答案为 A automobile accidents. On the whole, ambitious students are [A] seven more times [B] seven times more 两种情况更多地出现在进行时态中,注意的 more likely to succeed in their studies [C] over seven times [D] seven times 是这三种情况引导的比较级后面都不需要 than are those with little ambition. 用 than.如: (答案为 B) 2)比较的成分是否属于同类事物或同类概 Things are getting worse and worse. "Do you regret paying five hundred 念,既是说比较要具有可比性.如: dollars for the painting?""No, I would As I spoke to him he became less and less The number of registered participants in gladly have paid for it." angry. this year's marathon was half . Her health was becoming daily worse [A] twice so much [B] twice as much [A] of last year's [B]those of last The road got ever worse until there was [C] as much twice [D] so much twice year's no road at all = the road got worse and (答案为 B) [C]of those of last year [D] that of last My uncle is as old again as I am worse. year's 4)下列词和短语不用比较级形式却表示比 6)比较级前面可以用 even, still, yet ,all the (more)等修饰语用以加强语 (前后相比的应该是今年和去年注册参加 较概念: 的人数"the number of"故代替它的应该 inferior, minor, senior, prior, prefer 气,表示"更加"的意思.如 是单数指示代词"that" ,而不能选择 B, to, superior, major, junior, preferable, Today it is even colder than yesterday I have yet more exciting news for you those 是指代 participants, 不是同类对比, differ from, compared with, in 答案为 D. comparison with, different from, rather 7) 有关比较级的特殊句型: A): not so much…as…与其说……不如 Young readers, more often than not, find than. 如: the novels of dickens far more exciting Their watch is to all the other watches 说……
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考研英语语法归纳与练习
The chief reason for the population growth isn't so much a rise in birth rates a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in medical care. [A] and [B] as [C]but [D] or 人口增长的主要原因与其说是因为出生率 的提高,还不如说是因为医疗的进步带来的 死亡率下降的结果.答案为 B B) no/not any more…than…两者一样都 不…… The heart is intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain. [A] not so [B]not much [C]much more [D] no more (心脏和胃两者都不具有智力,他们都受大 脑控制.答案为 D) There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, they can limit how much water you drink. [A] much more than [B] no more than [C] no less than [D] any more than (答案为 D) C)no/not any less…than…两者一样, 都……注意基本上与 no/not any more… than 意思相反 She is no less beautiful than her sister. 她和她姐姐一样漂亮 D)just as… so… 正如……, ……也…… (用倒装结构) Just as the soil is a part of the earth, the atmosphere. [A] as it is [B] the same is [C] so is [D] and so is (答案为 C) 最高级形式应注意的问题: 2.最高级形式应注意的问题: 1)最高级比较范围用介词 in, over, of, among. in, (all) over 用于在某一范围内的比较, 如:in China, all over the world. of, among 用于在同一群体内同类事物的比 较,如:among the teachers, of the four dresses. 注意: among…相当于 one of …,不说 among all….这一点考生应与汉语表达区别开来 如: all visible lights, red light has the longest and violet the shortest wavelength. [A] Among [B] Of [C]For [D]To 答案为[B] 2)比较级形式表示最高级意义时,比较对象 的范围应用: any other +单数名词 the other +复数名词 the others anyone/anything else 上述词是用业将比较级结构转变成最高级 意义的关键词语,切不可遗漏,尤其是
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other,否则会造成逻辑混乱的错误.如不 能说:John runs faster than anyone.注 意与汉语表达的不同. 3)most 可以用来修饰形容词或副词,意思 相当于 very,用法区分单复数,但不能用定 冠词 the,如:a most interesting book, most expensive restaurants, 要注意与 "the +形容词最高级+of + 名词"的结构 表示的最高级的区别,如: He spoke in the warmest of voices They have been most kind to me Basketball is the most popular of sports in this country. Chinese is the most difficult of language Chinese is a most difficult language 不用比较级和最高级的形容词: 三.不用比较级和最高级的形容词: 1)表示颜色的有:white, black 2)表示形态的有:round, square, oval, circular, triangular(三角形),level 3)表示性质和特征的有: atomic, economic, scientific, sonic, golden, silvery, woolen, earthen, silent, full, empty, sure, dead, deaf, blind, lame, rainy 4)表示状态作表语的有:afraid, asleep, alive, ashamed, alone, aware, alike 5)表示时间,空间和方位的有:daily, weekly, monthly, annual, present, front, back, forward, backward, east, west,

考研英语语法归纳与练习
south, north, left, right, final 6)表示极限,主次,等级的有:maximum, minimum, utmost, main, major, chief minor, superior, inferior, senior, junior, super, favorite 7)含有绝对概念的有:absolute, entire, whole, total, perfect, excellent, thorough, complete. 四.平行结构与比较级 平行结构很多情况下是由形容词或副词的 比较级或者暗含比较意味的连词引导的. 如: The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes. 大多数情况下平行结构都是具有一定的比 较含义的,有的是递进对比 not only…but (also) ;prefer…to…;rather than 有的是 同类对比:and ;but;or;both… and…; either…or…; neither…nor….. 平行结构测试时候注意以下几点: 平行结构测试时候注意以下几点: 1.注意比较结构中相比较的内容在语法形 式上是否相同. 式上是否相同.如: It is better to die one's feet than . [A]living on one's knees [B]live on one's knees [C]on one's knees [D]to live on one's knees (答案为 D) Despite the temporary difficulties, the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasing it. 2.其他具有并列或比较意义的短语也可引 导平行结构. 导平行结构. 1)rather than, let alone 虽不是并列连 词,但在结构上连接两个语法形式相同的成 分.如: We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style in a personal style. [A]rather than [B]other than [C]better than [D]less than 答案为 A For the new country to survive, for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will be required. [A] to name a few [B]let alone [C]not to speak [D]let's say (答案为 B) 2)如果平行的两个成分在形式上是介词短 语,而且介词相同,一般说来第二个介词不 要省略.如: At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials. (三)代词及其指代一致
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一.代词的指代 1.that 的指代作用 that 指代不可数名词和单数可数名词 (如是 复数,用 those) ,后面通常跟有修饰语,如 出现在比较结构中的 that of.如 Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener, and it calls for occasional "digestive pauses" by both.这里 that 指代前面的 the role. No bread eaten by men is so sweet as that earned by his own labor. 2.one 的指代作用 one 指代带不定冠词的单数可数名词,复数 为 ones.the one 指代带定冠词的单数可数 名词.如: A good writer is who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way. [A] that [B]he [C]one [D]this 答案为[C] 的替代作用. 3.do 的替代作用. do 代替动词,注意数和时态的变化.如: For him to be re-elected, what is essential is not that his policy works , but that the public believe that it does. 二.代词指代一致问题 代词指代一致是指指代的名词在性,数,格 上是否一致,或者所照应的名词词组在某些 方面保持一致. Each cigarette a person smokes does some

考研英语语法归纳与练习
harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease form its effect. 这里 he 指代前面的 person. It was during the 1920's that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached its highest point. 这里 its 指代前面的两人的 friendship. Our department was monitored by two supervisors, Bill and me. 这里 me 必须用宾格形式. 代词指代一致必须注意以下几个原则和规 律: 1.邻近和靠近原则 由 either … or, neither…nor, not neither… not only… (also)连接先行词时候 连接先行词时候, only…but (also)连接先行词时候,如果两 个先行词在数和性上保持一致, 个先行词在数和性上保持一致, 就用其相应 的一直的人称代词; 的一直的人称代词; 如果两个先行词在数或 性上不一致, 性上不一致, 人称代词一般与邻近的先行词 在数和性上保持一致. 在数和性上保持一致. Neither Mary nor Alice has her key with her. Neither the package nor the letters have reached their destination If either David or Janet comes , he or she will want a drink 2.当 no one, everyone, each,everybody, none ,anybody, someone, somebody 用作 主语或主语的限定词时候, 主语或主语的限定词时候,或者 anything, nothing, something everything 等不定代 词作主语时候, 其相应的代词一般按照语法 词作主语时候, 一致原则,采取单数形式.如: 一致原则,采取单数形式. Everybody talked at the top of his voice. None of the boys can do it , can he? Everything is ready, isn't it? 当主语为复数形式, 3.当主语为复数形式,后跟 each 作同位语 位于动词之前, 时,如果 each 位于动词之前,其后的代词 或相应的限定词用复数形式; 或相应的限定词用复数形式;如果 each 位 于动词之后, 于动词之后, 其后的代词或相应的限定词用 单数形式. 单数形式.如: They each have two coats we are each responsible for his own family 连接两个先行词, 4.由 and 连接两个先行词,代词用复数 如:the tourist and businessmen lost their luggage in the accident (三) 主谓一致问题 主谓一致是指主语与谓语在数上要一致.把 握主谓一致问题,考生主要解决的是对不同 结构的主语单复数的认定,进而选择适当的 谓语.解决主谓一致主要遵循三个原则: 解决主谓一致主要遵循三个原则: 解决主谓一致主要遵循三个原则 语法一致原则 意义一致原则 就近一致原则 很多情况下应该综合利用这三个原则来处 理主谓一致,在不同情况下可能应用三个原 则中的不同原则,具体应用哪种原则应该视 具体情况而定.总结如下: 一.谓语动词用单数的情况 动名词短语,不定式短语, 1.动名词短语,不定式短语,名词性从句
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做主语,谓语用单数. 做主语,谓语用单数.如: Buying clothes is often a time-consuming job because those clothes that a person likes are rarely the cones that fit him or her. (1987 年考研题) To understand the situation completely requires more thought than has been given thus far. 表示时间,距离,金额,重量,面积, 2.表示时间,距离,金额,重量,面积, 容积等度量的名词短语做主语时, 体积,容积等度量的名词短语做主语时,谓 语用单数. 语用单数. Two weeks was too long Five times five makes twenty five 3.一般用 and 连接的两个单词或短语做主 语时候,谓语用复数, 语时候,谓语用复数,但是下面用 and 连接 的主语表示一个概念,谓语用单数: 的主语表示一个概念,谓语用单数: law and order 法制 soap and water 肥皂 水 a cup and saucer 茶杯碟子 fork and knife 刀叉 the needle and thread 针线 trial and error 反复尝试,不断摸索 horse and carriage 马车 time and tide 岁月 bread and butter 奶油面包 the ebb and flow 盛衰,潮涨潮落 如: If law and order not preserved, neither the citizen nor his property is safe.

考研英语语法归纳与练习

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A. is B. are C. was d. were The Japanese were once very aggressive 2. 主语带有 together/along) (together/along) with, such 答案:A. 4.某些形容词前面加定冠词表示一类人, as, accompanied by, as well as, no less 某些形容词前面加定冠词表示一类人, 做主语时候, besides, 4.表示学科和某些疾病名称的名词是复数 做主语时候,谓语动词用复数 than, except, besides, with, combined 形式,作主语时候谓语动词用单数形式 The rich are not always selfish 形式,作主语时候谓语动词用单数形式 with, in addition to , including, Linguistics is a branch of study on human 5.不可数名词作主语,其前有表示数量的 together with 等等附加成分,谓语的数不 不可数名词作主语, 等等附加成分, language. 复数名词修饰时, 复数名词修饰时,谓语动词用复数 受附加成分的影响仍然与主语保持一致 有些名词形式上是复数,意义上是单数, 5.有些名词形式上是复数,意义上是单数, Three million tons of coal were exported Professor Taylor , with six of his that year students ,is attending a conference in 根据意义一致原则动词用单数 The chaos was stopped by the police 谓语动词可用单数, 三.谓语动词可用单数,也可以用复数的情 Boston organized to compare current The news is a great encouragement to us 况 practice in the United States with those A series of debates between the lectures 1. 就近一致原则 of other nations. was scheduled for the next weekend. 这种情况下,谓语动词使用单数还是复数取 The president of the college, together 6.用 and 连接的成份表示一个单一概念时 决于最靠近该动词的主语的单复数,存在这 with the deans, is planning a conference 种情况的主要由以下几种可能: for the purpose of laying down certain 候,动词谓语用单数形式 Bread and butter is our daily food 1) 由连词 either…or…; neither…nor…; regulations. (1981 年考研题) Time and tide waits for no man whether… or…;not only…but (also) ;or 3.关系代词做主语的定语从句中,谓语的 关系代词做主语的定语从句中, 等连接的并列主语 数要与先行词一致. 二. 谓语用复数情况 数要与先行词一致.如: 连接的并列主语, 1. 由 and, both …and, 连接的并列主语, Neither money nor fame has influence on Despite much research, there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the 和 both ,a few, many ,several 等修饰语 me 后面谓语动词通常用复数形式. Not only you but also he is wrong insect that are not fully understood. 后面谓语动词通常用复数形式. Few people know he and I were classmates 2) 在倒装结构中,谓语动词与后面的第一 (1996 年考研题) when we were at college. 个主语一致 There are many valuable services which Blocking the open-sided porch, framed by the public are willing to pay for, but 2.集体名词 police, public, militia, which do not bring a return in money to cattle ,class ,youth 后常用复数形式的动 the enveloping fog, stands a tall grave-faced policeman. the community. 词 The Chinese people are brave and Just outside the ruins is a magnificent (1990 年考研题) hardworking building surrounded by tall trees. 一些表示数量的短语与名词连用时候, 4.一些表示数量的短语与名词连用时候, The cattle are grazing in the sunshine Although a great number of houses in that 谓语动词的数取决于名词的数,名词是复 谓语动词的数取决于名词的数, 当表示民族的词与冠词合用当主语, 谓语动词用复数 反之就用单数. 3.当表示民族的词与冠词合用当主语,谓 area are still in need of repair, there 数,谓语动词用复数,反之就用单数.这些 has been improvement in the facili 短语包括: 语动词用复数形式 短语包括:a lot of /lots of; plenty
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考研英语语法归纳与练习
twoneither/either of + 可数名词复数 谓语 of/heaps of; half of; two-third (three-fourth…) of; eighty(ten, (three用单数 twenty… twenty…) percent; part of; rest of ; one and a half + 可数名词复数 谓语用单 数 none of 等等 Two-thirds of people present are women 第三组; Lots of damage was caused by the fire more than one + 可数名词单数 谓语用单 集体名词作主语时, 5.集体名词作主语时,谓语动词的数取决 数 于主语表示的意思和数 当表示整体时候, 表示的意思和数, 于主语表示的意思和数,当表示整体时候, many a + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数 谓语动词就用单数, 谓语动词就用单数, 当强调集体中的个体时 第四组; 谓语动词就用复数.这些集体名词如: 候,谓语动词就用复数.这些集体名词如: the greater part of a large proportion of army, audience, band ,government ,group ,flock, police, 50% of public ,staff ,team ,troop. Crowd, firm, one third of plenty of family 等等 The family is the basic unit of our the rest of society 谓语的数与 of 后面的名词一致 The family were watching the TV 第五组; The audience was enormous (n)either…(n)or…. The audience were greatly moved at the not only….. but also …… words not …..but …… 某些固定结构中主语与谓语的数: 谓语的数与主语的第二部分(即(n)or/ but 6.某些固定结构中主语与谓语的数: 第一组: also/ but 引导的后面部分)一致. a great many + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数 注意比较: a number of + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数 More students than one have been the majority of + 可数名词复数 谓语用 referred to 复数 More than one student is going to buy 第二组; this book the number of + 可数名词复数 谓语用单 (四)倒装结构 数 倒装是指句子成分不是按主语在前,谓语在 each/every + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数 后的正常语序排列,而是将谓语或谓语的一
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部分移到主语之前.倒装是一种修辞手段, 目的是为了强调.倒装分为部分倒装和全部 倒装,考试多为部分倒装.考生应掌握什么 情况下需要倒装,并对倒装后的句子能够认 出来,避免做题时候的盲目和迷茫. 一. 用全部倒装的情况 全部倒装一般是存在以下列副词开头的句 子中,全部倒装的方法是把句子的主谓语序 颠倒过来,把谓语移到主语前面: 1)出于修辞需要,表示方向的副词:out, down, in ,up, away, on.如: Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him. Up went the plane 2)出于习惯用法:here, there, now, thus, hence, then.如: Now is your turn. There goes the bell. Here is a ticket for you There existed a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of work 注意:here,there 用于倒装结构时主语一 般为名词,如果是人称代词则不需要倒装 " where is the cup?" "Here it is! " Here you are. There he comes. 3)有时主语较长,为了使句子平衡,避免头 重脚轻,主谓要全部倒装.这种情况多出现 在主系表结构中.如: Less important than ever is developing

考研英语语法归纳与练习
a meaningful philosophy of life. In between these two extremes are those people who agree with the jury system as a whole, but feel that some changes need to be implemented to improve its effectiveness. 二. 采用部分倒装情况 部分倒装一般是把句子谓语的一部分(主要 是助动词或系动词)放到句子主语前,构成 部分倒装,而全部倒装则把句子的谓语(包 括实义动词)都放在主语前 1.下列否定词及含有否定意义的词组修饰 状语时,若置于句首, 状语时,若置于句首,句子的主谓要部分倒 装: never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowhere, at no time, on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by less. no means, in vain, still less.如: Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on. Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state. (1985 年考研题) 注:1)如果谓语动词是单个实义动词,倒装 时需根据人称和时态加助动词 do.如: Little did we expect that he would fulfill his task so rapidly. (1983 年考研题) 2)考生要广义理解"句首"的概念,注意 从句的句首和并列分句的句首均为句首. 如: Suddenly, Gallup's name was on everyone's lips; not only was he the prophet of the moment, but it was generally believed that he had founded a new and most important method of prediction. 修饰状语(副词,介词短语, 2.以 only 修饰状语(副词,介词短语,状 语从句)开头的句子, 语从句)开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒 装: only then, only at that time, only once, only in this way, only with, only through, only by, only when, only after, because. only because.如: Only when you have obtained sufficient data come to a sound conclusion. [A]can you [B]would you [C]you will [D]you can 以下列副词或短语开头的句子, 3.以下列副词或短语开头的句子,句子的 主谓要部分倒装: 主谓要部分倒装: often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to time. such a point, many a time.如: So involved with their computers that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.
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[A]became the children [B]become the children [C]had the children become [D]do the children become (2001 年考研题,答案为 D) 比较从句的倒装: 4.比较从句的倒装: 引导的比较从句中, as, than 引导的比较从句中, 如果主语是名 词短语且较长,经常采用倒装结构( 词短语且较长,经常采用倒装结构(不倒装 也可以) 注意:这种结构主语一般为名词, .注意 也可以) 注意:这种结构主语一般为名词, . 如果是代词则不倒装. 如果是代词则不倒装.如: Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce. Today's electuic cars cannot go as fast as gasoline-driven vehicles because the battery does not offer the same amount of energy as does gasoline combustion. Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body. 5.用于前面所说的情况也适用于另一人 (物)的肯定句或否定句中的倒装 1) 肯定重复倒装用:so They have got up, and so has jack 2) 否定重复倒装用: nor, neither, no more If you don't agree to our plan, neither will they also"结构时, 6. not only..but also"结构时,如果 not " 放在句首, (also)句子 only 放在句首,则前半句 but (also)句子 后面不倒装 Not only did we lose all our money, but we also came close to being broke.

考研英语语法归纳与练习
attend the meeting 三. 特殊的倒装结构 特殊形式的倒装结构是指句子虽然是倒装 However cold it is , he always goes 结构,但不是主谓倒装,而往往是出于强调 swimming. 的需要,把强调部分移到句首,而其它部分 顺序不需要改变,句子主谓不需要倒装.出 现这样的情况有以下几种可能: 让步从句的倒装. 1.让步从句的倒装. 1)as 引导让步状语从句,必须采用倒装结 构,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容 置于句首.如: Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her, in thoroughness, whatever the job. Brave as they are, they are afraid of fight 2) .出现在句型 be+主语+其他,come what may 中.如: While it's true that we all need a career, preferably a profitable one, it is equally true that our civilization 语法测试 has accumulated an incredible amount of 1.She said that she __ much progress knowledge—be it scientific or artistic. The business of each day selling goods since she came here. or shipping them, went quite smoothly. [A] it being [B] be it [C] was it [D] it A. makes B. made C. have made D had was (答案为 B) made 3) no matter how(who…);however 引导的 让步状语从句必须采用倒装结构,但不是主 2. "What's the matter, Ali? You look 谓倒装, 而是将被强调的内容置于句首. 如: sad." "Oh, nothing much. As a matter No matter how busy he is , he has to
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of fact, I my friends back home." A. just thought B. have just been thinking C. was just thinking D. have just thought 3. She on this essay for twenty minutes but she has written only about a hundred words. A. will be working B. worked C. has been working D. will have worked 4. The committee will not make the decision until it the matter. A. has investigated B.investigates C. will have investigated D. investigated 5. Carey didn't go to the party last night because she the baby for her sister until 9:30. A. must have looked after B. would have

考研英语语法归纳与练习

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to look after C. had to look after D. A. had produced B. have been produced 4.(A) 句意表明委员会是在调查事件之后 才会做出决定,调查应发生在决定之前,所 以应用将来完成时态,但是在英语中,时间 C. would have produced D. had been should have looked after 条件状语从句中的将来完成时态是由现在 6. four years since John left school. produced 完成时来表示的,所以正确答案是(A). 5.(C) 从上下文的逻辑意义看,(C)项是唯 A. They have been B. It is C. It was 10. The president __ the delegation at 一的正确答案.Carey 没有参加晚会,原因 the airport but he was taken ill last 是给她姐姐照看小孩子.而(A)和(D)表示对 D. Those are 过去发生的事情根据客观情况作出主观推 7.The car at the present speed until it night, so the vice-president is going to 断: (A)作"准是看孩子了"讲; (D)作 "本 应该看孩子"讲,都不对,而(B)表示动作 reaches the foot of the mountain at about instead. A. is to meet B. was to meet 发生在过去的将来,也不对,所以只有(C) 正确. C. has been to meet D. was to have met 4 o' clock this afternoon. 6. (B) 这是一个固定结构(或句型).本句 语法测题答案与详解 也可说在"Four years have passed since A. has gone B. has not gone C will be 1.(D) 根据时态一致的原则,间接引语(或 John left school."或"has been four 宾语从句)的时态应与主句的时态一致.该 years sinceJohn left schoo1.'' going D. has been going 句中 said 是过去时所以 that 引导的宾语从 7.(C) until 引导的时间状语从句用了一般 8. By the time you arrive in London, we 句中也要用过去的某一种时态,而从句中 现在时表示将来的意思,主句因此必须用一 since 引导的时间状语从句表明其应为完 般将来时与之呼应,口语中常用将来进行时 __ in Europe for two weeks. 成时态,故应用过去完成时态. 代替一般将来时表示预料即将发生或肯定 2.(C) 通过上下文可以判定 Ali 看起来很 发生的事,也可表示某件事已经决定了.本 A. shall stay B. have stayed C. will 难受很伤心,是因为刚才在进行的事情所导 句完全可以用 will go 因此,正确答案是 have stayed D. have been staying 致的,所以用过去进行时较好,故(C)是正 (C). ? 确答案. 8.(C) by the time 引导的时间状语从句中 9. Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 3.(C) 根据句意和时间状语 for twenty 若谓语动词用现在时,则主句要用将来完成 minutes,可以判断这里应填入现在完成时 时;若谓语动词用过去时,则主句要用过去 motion pictures in which artificial 态,现在完成进行时是现在完成时态的强调 完成时,有时也可以用过去将来完成时.这 形式,并且选项中没有现在完成时态,所以 样,本道题目的正确答案是(C). beings were portrayed . (C)是正确答案. 9.(D) 有具体表示过去某一时间段内业已
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考研英语语法归纳与练习
发生的事件的时间状语,句子应该用过去完 成时. 10.(B) 由第一个句子中的 but 引导的转折 句中所用的过去时,可以判断总统本要在机 场接见代表团,表示计划要做某事在英语中 可以用 be+动词不定式来表达,故正确答案 是 B).

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