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Stylistics-9


Stylistics--9
The English of Advertising

9. 1. 1 The Ubiquity无所不在of Advertising
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Nowadays advertising penetrates every comer of society: newspapers, radio and TV, magazines, highway billboards, streamers, window shows, floor and counter displays, transport decorations, fairs and exhibitions, telephones and direct mails, and even sandwich-man (man who walks about the streets with two advertising boards one hanging over his chest and the other over his back);

9. 1. 2 The Function of Advertising
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1) Marketing role--helping companies sell their products or services, and increase profits; 2) Educational role-- helping people learn about new products and services; 3) Economic role--encouraging competition in product/service improvements; 4) Social role--helping increase productivity and shape people‘s life style;

9.1.3 The language of Advertising
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The functional tenor of advertising language is mainly persuasive (as consumer advertising) or mainly informative (as business advertising). The personal tenor: warm plain speech used in daily life and the various language tricks to impress and move the audience. All advertising language must have its appeal to the target people.

9.2 Newspaper Advertising
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1. Two types: display and classified. 2. The display ads. : from one-inch notices to multiple-page advertisements in which advertisers present and promote their products and services. 3. The classified ads are the small-print, generally brief announcements packed closely together, dealing with diverse topics, such as help wanted, apartments for rent, used furniture and automobiles for sale, instruction offered, film and theatre, lost and found, and so on.

9. 2.3 Stylistic Features of Display Ads
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9. 2.3 . 1 Graphological features 1. Full use of graphological contrasts E.g. Various shapes and sizes of letters are used in headlines and body to achieve the best possible eye-catching effect. 2. Prominent use of pictures 3. Clear identification of the advertiser Make the trademark prominent;

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4. deliberate misspelling of words; E.g. Cooool. A fabulous sort-of-soft drink. 5. abundant use of exclamation marks; E.g. Hey Chief! SaveMart‘s done it again! Just look at these prices!! 6. punctuation marks of greater seperative force (full stop, dashes, ellipsis); E.g. Automatic focus lets you take this picture…easily. Only POLAROID lets you see it…INSTANTLY.

9. 2.3 .2 Grammatical features
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1. Preference for short sentences; E.g. For birthdays. For special Days. Forever. A diamond is forever. 2. Combined use of various types of sentences; 1). Use of direct imperative to prompt action E.g. Say YES to Electrolux—cleaner, better, faster! E.g. Save time and temper. Use Schiphol. (Schiphol pain relief)

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2). Use of minor sentences to make the message more striking; E.g. NOW! NOW! NOW! Time to replace your windows! E.g. ―The Victoria‖…the sun, the sea, the moon and you! (The VICTORIA 7 day Caribbean cruise) 3). Use of questions to arouse curiosity; E.g. Is your office still in the Carbon Age? (carbonless paper) E.g. How to get 100 watts of light for only 44 watts of electricity? (GE)

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E.g. When it comes to camcorders, make sure you ask the right questions: Who delivers the finest picture and sound quality? Who gives you five times more recording time than VHS-C? Who makes it simple to play back directly on any TV? Who was ranked NQ 1 by the leading consumer rating magazines? And, who is America 's most popular choice? Shoot later. Who has all the answers? Without question, Sony Handycam.

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4. The present tense is used to imply a universal timelessness, and the present perfect is sometimes used to emphasize the present state or the consistent quality of a product or service; E.g. Persil washes whiter and it shows. (Persil detergent) E.g. FOR TEN YEARS, A VERY SPECIAL AIR FORCE HAS BEEN BATTL1NG CANCER (Nurse network)

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5. Use of heavily modified nominal groups In order to pack more information into a limited space, many ads have heavily modified nominal groups. E.g. an honestly American sport coupe with outstanding style, attractive potential and no pretension

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heavily pre-modified nominal groups seem to be more often used; E.g. an ad about MAZDA MX-3 CS: The only L 8 L , 24-valve in its class. Plus 4wheel independent suspension and disc brakes 盘式制动器 (ABC optional). And a 36month/50,000-mile limited warranty with nonreducible, 'bumper-to-bumper' protection. See your dealer for details. So where do you find one? Call 1-800-639-1000.

9. 2.3 .3 Lexical features
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1. Wide use of simple, affirmative and commendatory words and expressions; E.g. We have a pleasure to drive, a truly great car, automobile of the gear, the new commitment to qualify, Detroit 's magic touch, an honestly American sport coupe, outstanding style, attractive potential, a perfect world, runs with the best .

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A large number of emotive/evaluative adjectives are used: great, groovy俚语,顶刮刮 的 , swinging, wonderful, fantastic, flesh, stylish, beautiful, handsome, elegant, exceptional, exclusive, high-size, roomy, sleek, crisp, fast, smooth, exciting, fuelefficient, all-new; E.g. NEW COLORS. NEW FORMULA. NEW DIAL. Two new ways to feel clean, fresh and confident all day long. (Dial Soap)

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2. Frequent use of personal pronouns
Use of personal pronouns is extremely common, especially you and we, obviously to make the language more warm and friendly in tone and strengthen its appeal to the reader. E.g. Because quality over time means so much for you, it means even more to us. In the past several years, we have turned our company inside out to deliver lasting quality to you. E.g. You can give your family seven important benefits every day just by serving delicious yogurt, such as Dannon yogurt. To see how you can help your loved ones live a healthier lifestyle, take a look at the benefits below!

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Sometimes she or he is used to refer to your loved one; as in an ad for ring: E.g. Real gold. Slip it on her fingers and she 'll know what's in your heart. Nothing else feels like real gold. E.g. Give him a diamond, the girl he will never forget.

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3. Use of neologisms and improvised adj. structures
To stress the uniqueness or novelty; E.g. Ringworm of the foot is a real ailment. But it was seldom mentioned until it was widely called athlete foot when Absorbine Jr advertised itself as a remedy for it. E.g. 1). 造字(COINAGE)巧用语音规则,错拼; THE ORANGEMOSTEST DRINK IN THE WORLD。 它取自一则饮料广告,“ORANGEMOSTEST‖,实 际等于“ORANGE+MOST+EST‖,表现这种橙汁软 饮料的“高质量、高……‖,而给人以丰富的想象。

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GIVE A TIMEX TO ALL,TO ALL A GOOD TIME. ―天美时”表的广告: TIMEX=TIME+EXCELLENT); Sunkist(销售橙子的公司= sun +kiss; Kraft (美国卡夫食品公司)= craft(精心制作)一词谐 音; Klim(牛奶公司)来自于milk。 Eggsactly(销售鸡蛋的公司)= egg +exactly; 牛奶广告:Pinta Girl is Popular, 其中的Pinta实 际上使Pint的错拼,广告上号召女性每天喝一品 脱牛奶。

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2). 句子缩略构成新词; 一家程序服务公司以三个字母“OIC‖为商标, 意思为:Oh, I see! (也可作眼镜广告) SUREFIT Home Furnishings Ltd: SUREFIT 是一家室内饰品公司的名称,这个生词的使用 使人们联想起Surely to fit your home furnishing

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4. Use of all, every, alwaysor no, none, nothing to express universal reference or exclusion. E.g. Arthritis 关节炎 Pains? All you need is Bayer Asprin. E.g. None is more amazing than Alba Quartz.

9.2.3.4 Semantic features
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1. Heavy reliance on overall layout Regularly a newspaper (or other print) advertisement is composed of five parts: the headline, the body, the illustration(s), the signature line (with an optional symbol), and the slogan. Each part contributes to the organic whole of the ad – rendering it more eye-catching and impressive.

9.2.3.5 Rhetorical devices
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2. High attention to positioning and theme
E.g. in a soft drink market dominated by colas, Seven Up successfully competed by positioning itself as the 'uncola'. E.g. Seeing sunbathers highly conscious of the risk of skin cancer due to over-exposure, Bain de Soleil repositioned its product to stress the protection angle.

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Theme must be formed. E.g. In the early 1980s, for example, Delta Airlines had positioned itself as an airline catering to the needs of business traveller. Research revealed that the most important factor to the business flyer was convenience, so Delta's agency came up with the theme: 'Delta is ready when you are.' E.g. The Canon Corporation, in order to make its new automatic camera appeal to college-educated men or women, eighteen to forty-five, decided to emphasize the camera's ease of operation and hit upon the theme: 'The Canon AE-1 is so advanced it's simple.' E.g. In order to please its diet and health conscious buyers, TCBY yogurt based its ad campaign on the theme: 'Say goodbye to high calories. Say goodbye to ice cream.'

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3. Rhetorical Devices 1). Repetition is striking in some ads. An ad about Sunbeam?s new Easy-to-Assemble gas grill烤架 plays up on the word easy: IT'S SO EASY to go from box to barbecue with Sunbeam's new Easy -to-Assemble gas grill. Factory assembled components make it easy to be cooking in just minutes. And features like convenient side burners, easy -clean cooking grids and foldaway side tables make it so easy to use. American made quality and Sunbeam's exclusive 10.3.1 consumer warranty make it so easy to see why sunbeam is America 's favorite gas grill. Easy to use, easy to assemble, and easy to find.

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2). Punning E.g. Because Sony knows Beta. (Sony Beta Video tapes) E.g. If you are chewsy– Try Speargum. (Chew--choose)

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3). Various types of sound patterning and syntactic parallelism. E.g. Players go places. (Players cigarette) E.g. You‘ve got a lot to live. Pepsi‘s got a lot to give. E.g. Smash and Grab We smash the prices and you grab the bargains.

9. 2. 4 Conspicuous Features of Business-to-business Advertising
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B2B: Business to Business (企业对企业), 比 如阿里巴巴; 1. the target audience in business advertising is much smaller. 2. most of the products or services that are advertised tend to be technical, complicated, and high priced. 3. the buyer will be professionals.

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4. Business ad tends to be longer, more detailed, and more factual. Emphasis is placed on accuracy and completeness. 5. Any technical inaccuracy or unsubstantiated 无事实根据的 exaggeration is likely to result in compromised credibility of the product or service. 6. Some of the most used formats in business advertising are testimonials证明书, case histories, news, and demonstrations.

? 网络营销专业术语:
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1. Advertorial (软文) 广告的一种, 即付费文章, 故意设计成像一篇普通的文章. 2. Banner Ad (横幅广告) 出现在网页上的广告, 就是通常在页面的顶部, 底部,或 侧边的广告. 为了让用户点击获取更多信息. 3. Brand Loyalty (品牌忠诚度) 4. Click Rate (点击率/点进率) 即Click-Through Rate, 简称CTR. 如果这个页面被访问 了100次, 而页面上的广告被点击了20次, 那么CTR为 20%. CTR是评估广告效果的指标之一. 5. CPC (点击成本) 即Cost Per Click, 广告为每个用户点击所付的费用; CPC是评估广告效果的指标之一.

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6. CPM (千人成本) 即Cost Per Thousand Impression, 广告主为它的广 告显示1000次所付的费用; 如果一个Banner广告单价 是¥10/CPM,意味着每被1000人次看到就收¥10; 如此类推, 每10000人次看到就是¥100, CPM是评估 广告效果的指标之一. 7. E-Commerce (电子商务) 通过网络等数字媒体销售产品或者服务. 分为: B2B: Business to Business (企业对企业), 比如阿里 巴巴; B2C: Business to Custom/Consumer (企业对消费者), 比如amazon.com, 卓越; C2C: Custom to Custom/Consumer (消费者对消费 者), 比如eBay, 淘宝, 拍拍;

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8. E-Coupons (电子优惠券, 包含手机等其他 数字平台) 9. eDM (线上直邮/电子邮件广告) Online Direct Mail Advertising/Electronic Direct Mail Advertising 10. IGA (网游植入广告) 即In-Game Advertising. 是指在游戏中的嵌入 式商业广告. 通常分为内嵌式、外挂式和独立 交互式三种. 国内酷动、NGI、天街、IMG、 SPT这几家都是比较知名的Agency.

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11. SEO (搜索引擎优化) 即Search Engine Optimization. 通过总结搜索 引擎的排名规律对网站进行合理优化, 使你的 网站在各搜索引擎(如百度,Google)的排名提高, 让搜索引擎给你带来客户! SEM (搜索引擎营销) 即Search Engine Marketing. SEM就是企业利 用搜索引擎来进行网络营销和推广. 12.Spam (垃圾信息) 你并不想要收到的电子邮件(垃圾邮件), 网站、 论坛、博客留言都可以叫Spam

9.2.5 Conspicuous Features of Classified Advertising
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For the sake of space economy, classified advertising is always packed closely together with small print. Most prominent is its use of elliptical sentences and abbreviations. Here is an ad for help wanted: ART GALLERY MGR-- Upper Geo ' twn. Exper. Knowledgeable & personable. Willing to work wknds & some eves. Send resume to POB 57334, Wash. , DC 20036. 202-331-1485 No sentence is complete and that words can be unconventionally abbreviated so long as they present no problem of understanding in the context, as MGR for manager, Exper for experienced, weknds for weekends, eves for evenings .

9.3 Radio Advertising
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Radio advertisements draw their hearers' attention by phonological contrasts and effects. They tend to appeal more to the emotion of their audience. E.g. One post-Christmas radio commercial in Tennessee , USA : Picture: People having a hearty meal, with murmuring of satisfaction. Voice: A gain in the lips, a gain on the hips, After the Christmas feasting, many people are now worried about their waist. You don't have to. Join our Slim Fast program, and we'll take off your weight in no time. Music: Over throughout Voice.

Study Questions
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1. Tell how advertisements are designed for eyecatching effects. 2. Tell how and why display advertising tends to be grammatically simple, and yet its nominal groups can be heavily modified. 3. How is it that vague and subtle comparisons are often used in advertising? 4. Find coinages of new terms in both English and Chinese display advertising. 5. What is positioning? What is theme? 6. In what way is business advertising different from consumer advertising?


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