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Share CR with U SWU 新PREP逻辑 逐题点评

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本文是对新版PREP破解逻辑题逐题(共107题)进行的分析和注释,参与整理编写的均为 2008年至2010年参加GMAT考试的考生(ShareWithU版主),GMAT平均分740。 请大家在使用本 逻辑笔记时注意时效性。由于学识和精力的限制,错误和疏漏在所难免,欢迎大家批评指正! 具体分工请看下表:
Dennis Flyincat 洛洛 青阳昭武 Sudagrape 天才狮子+ Transylvania 天才狮子 听暖 翔依 摇啊摇 向明峰、詹祺 PREP1 73-78 PREP1 106-110 PREP1 91-100 PREP1 111-113 PREP1 117-121 PREP1 122-125 PREP1 85-91 PREP1 114-116 PREP1 79-84 PREP1 101-105 排版、编辑 PREP2 PREP2 PREP2 PREP2 PREP2 PREP2 PREP2 PREP2 PREP2 PREP2 69-76 102-103 91-96 104-106 111-115 116-122 85-90 107-110 77-84 97-101

感谢新PREP逻辑全点评活动的发起者——超级马里奥,100多题的坚持不容易~~。感谢参与 点评的广大网友,正是在大家充分讨论,集体智慧的基础上,才让新PREP逻辑的成稿迅速了不 少。原点评活动链接: http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409240&extra=page%3D1 感谢在申请、工作、学习繁忙之余拨冗点评的每一位版主,允许我再细数一遍他们的名字: Dennis、Flyincat、洛洛、青阳昭武、sudagrape、Transylvania、天才狮子、听暖、翔依、摇 啊摇(按音序排列)。写上致谢,再细数一遍,恐有遗漏,数着数着,不由会心笑了起来,原 来每一位是那么鲜活、有趣,个性分明(具体版主个性点评转后记,不在此赘述)。让我不由 感叹,年轻,一颗追求梦想的心,足矣! 祝每一位成功!

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PRACTICE TEST #1 CRITICAL REASONING (53 QUESTIONS) ................................................ 6 PREP1-073-加强题型 ............................................................................................................................... 6 PREP1-074-评价题型 ............................................................................................................................... 6 PREP1-075-加强题型 ............................................................................................................................... 7 PREP1-076-评价题型 ............................................................................................................................... 8 PREP1-077-评价题型 ............................................................................................................................... 8 PREP1-078-加强题型 ............................................................................................................................... 9 PREP1-079-归纳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 10 PREP1-080-归纳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 11 PREP1-081-归纳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 11 PREP1-082-加强题型 ............................................................................................................................. 12 PREP1-083-削弱题型 ............................................................................................................................. 13 PREP1-084-加强题型 ............................................................................................................................. 13 PREP1-085-加强题型 ............................................................................................................................. 14 PREP1-086-归纳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 15 PREP1-087-归纳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 16 PREP1-088-归纳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 16 PREP1-089-评价题型 ............................................................................................................................. 17 PREP1-090-削弱题型 ............................................................................................................................. 18 PREP1-091-归纳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 19 PREP1-092-削弱题型(GWD-3-Q38) ..................................................................................................... 20 PREP1-093-削弱题型(GWD-21-Q38 DIFFERENT TYPE).......................................................................... 20 PREP1-094-加强题型(GWD-17-Q39) ................................................................................................... 21 PREP1-095-削弱题型(GWD-9-24) ........................................................................................................ 22 PREP1-096-削弱题型(GWD-28-Q17) ................................................................................................... 22 PREP1-097-评价题型(GWD 3-Q2)........................................................................................................ 23 PREP1-098-假设题型(GWD 28-Q29) ................................................................................................... 23 PREP1-099-归纳题型(GWD 12-Q22) ................................................................................................... 24 PREP1-100-削弱题型(GWD 3-Q17)...................................................................................................... 25 PREP1-101-削弱题型(GWD 3-Q38/PREP 2-6 DIFFERENT TYPE)............................................................. 26 PREP1-102-加强题型(GWD 1-Q15)...................................................................................................... 26 PREP1-103-归纳题型(GWD 6-Q28)...................................................................................................... 27 PREP1-104-归纳题型(GWD 5-Q38)...................................................................................................... 28 PREP1-105-加强题型(GWD 6-Q15)...................................................................................................... 28 PREP1-106-归纳题型(GWD 28-Q32) ................................................................................................... 29 PREP1-107-加强题型(GWD 1-Q40 DIFFERENT TYPE) ............................................................................ 29 PREP1-108-评价题型(GWD 7-Q41)...................................................................................................... 30 PREP1-109-削弱题型(GWD 29-Q27 DIFFERENT TYPE) .......................................................................... 31 PREP1-110-削弱题型(GWD 7-Q17)...................................................................................................... 32 PREP1-111-加强题型(GWD 30-Q27 DIFFERENT TYPE) .......................................................................... 32 PREP1-112-削弱题型(GWD 8-Q38)...................................................................................................... 33 PREP1-113-归纳题型(GWD 17-Q41) ................................................................................................... 34 PREP1-114-评价题型(GWD 12-Q38) ................................................................................................... 35 PREP1-115-评价题型(T-3-Q29) ............................................................................................................ 35 PREP1-116-评价题型(T-9-Q18 DIFFERENT TYPE)................................................................................... 36 PREP1-117-假设题型(GWD 3-Q32)...................................................................................................... 37

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PREP1-118-假设题型(GWD 18-Q30) ................................................................................................... 38 PREP1-119-假设题型(GWD 17-Q30) ................................................................................................... 39 PREP1-120-归纳题型(GWD 8-Q40)...................................................................................................... 40 PREP1-121-假设题型(GWD 23-Q40) ................................................................................................... 41 PREP1-122-假设题型(GWD 30-Q27) ................................................................................................... 42 PREP1-123-削弱题型(GWD 1-Q13)...................................................................................................... 42 PREP1-124-分析题型(GWD 12-Q40) ................................................................................................... 43 PREP1-125-评价题型(GWD 28-Q11) ................................................................................................... 44 RPEP1-ANSWERS .................................................................................................................................. 46 PREP2-069-评价题型 ............................................................................................................................. 47 PREP2-070-反驳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 47 PREP2-071-削弱题型 ............................................................................................................................. 48 PREP2-072-加强题型 ............................................................................................................................. 49 PREP2-073-削弱题型 ............................................................................................................................. 50 PREP2-074-归纳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 50 PREP2-075-削弱题型 ............................................................................................................................. 51 PREP2-076-假设题型 ............................................................................................................................. 52 PREP2-077-削弱题型 ............................................................................................................................. 52 PREP2-078-归纳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 53 PREP2-079-削弱题型 ............................................................................................................................. 54 PREP2-080-削弱题型 ............................................................................................................................. 55 PREP2-081-加强题型 ............................................................................................................................. 56 PREP2-082-归纳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 57 PREP2-083-削弱题型 ............................................................................................................................. 58 PREP2-084-归纳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 58 PREP2-085-加强题型 ............................................................................................................................. 59 PREP2-086-削弱题型 ............................................................................................................................. 60 PREP2-087-归纳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 61 PREP2-088-归纳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 61 PREP2-089-归纳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 62 PREP2-090-削弱题型 ............................................................................................................................. 63 PREP2-091-假设题型 ............................................................................................................................. 64 PREP2-092-削弱题型 ............................................................................................................................. 65 PREP2-093-评价题型 ............................................................................................................................. 66 PREP2-094-评价题型 ............................................................................................................................. 66 PREP2-095-归纳题型 ............................................................................................................................. 67 PREP2-096-削弱题型(GWD 7-Q37 DIFFERENT TYPE) ............................................................................ 68 PREP2-097-归纳题型(GWD 6-Q40)...................................................................................................... 69 PREP2-098-归纳题型(T-4-Q20-7-22)................................................................................................... 69 PREP2-099-归纳题型(GWD 21-Q33) ................................................................................................... 70 PREP2-100-评价题型(T-9-Q28. 7-13 , DIFFERENT TYPE) ...................................................................... 71 PREP2-101-归纳题型(GWD 6-Q33)...................................................................................................... 71 PREP2-102-削弱题型(GWD 5-Q28)...................................................................................................... 72 PREP2-103-削弱题型(GWD 27-Q2)...................................................................................................... 73 PREP2-104-加强题型(GWD 5-Q26)...................................................................................................... 74 PREP2-105-削弱题型(GWD 24-Q15) ................................................................................................... 74 PREP2-106-削弱题型(GWD 28-Q11,DIFFERENT TYPE) .......................................................................... 75 PREP2-107-归纳题型(GWD-TN-12,T-4-Q2) ........................................................................................ 76 PREP2-108-归纳题型(GWD 4-Q8)........................................................................................................ 77 PREP2-109-评价题型(T-4-Q15) ............................................................................................................ 77

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PREP2-110-归纳题型(GWD 1-Q14)...................................................................................................... 78 PREP2-111-削弱题型(T-9-Q2) .............................................................................................................. 79 PREP2-112-归纳题型(GWD 26-Q31) ................................................................................................... 80 PREP2-113-归纳题型(T-4-Q18 7-17) ................................................................................................... 81 PREP2-114-假设题型(GWD 23-Q32) ................................................................................................... 82 PREP2-115-归纳题型(GWD 30-Q26) ................................................................................................... 83 PREP2-116-假设题型(T-4-Q34) ............................................................................................................ 84 PREP2-117-削弱题型(GWD 28-Q9, DIFFERENT TYPE) ........................................................................... 84 PREP2-118-分析题型(GWD 10-Q19) ................................................................................................... 85 PREP2-119-削弱题型(GWD 28-Q17) ................................................................................................... 86 PREP2-120-分析题型(GWD 10-Q14) ................................................................................................... 87 PREP2-121-削弱题型(T-4-Q34,DIFFERENT TYPE)................................................................................... 87 PREP2-122-假设题型(GWD 1-Q40)...................................................................................................... 88 PREP2-ANSWERS....................................................................................................................................... 90 后 记 ...................................................................................................................................................... 91

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Practice Test #1 Critical Reasoning (53 Questions) PREP1-073-加强题型 -(25075-!-item-!-188;#058&001412) http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409222 Most of Western music since the Renaissance has been based on a seven-note scale known as the diatonic scale, but when did the scale originate? A fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite has four holes, which are spaced in exactly the right way for playing the third through sixth notes of a diatonic scale. The entire flute must surely have had more holes, and the flute was made from a bone that was long enough for these additional holes to have allowed a complete diatonic scale to be played. Therefore, the Neanderthals who made the flute probably used a diatonic musical scale. In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles? A. The first introduces evidence to support the main conclusion of the argument; the second is the main conclusion stated in the argument. B. The first introduces evidence to support the main conclusion of the argument; the second presents a position to which the argument is opposed. C. The first describes a discovery as undermining the position against which the argument as a whole is directed; the second states the main conclusion of the argument. D. The first introduces the phenomenon that the argument as a whole seeks to explain; the second presents a position to which the argument is opposed. E. The first introduces the phenomenon that the argument as a whole seeks to explain; the second gives a reason to rule out one possible explanation.
答案:A 题干分析: 题干没有出现转折的意思.先说文艺复兴后用的是七个音阶.第一段粗体字说:一残缺笛子有 4 个洞,大 概排列顺序与 7 音阶比较搭.接着说应该有更多洞,而完整笛子确实是更长的.第二段粗体说:笛子很可能用的就是 7 个音阶(有 7 个洞). 选项:由于题干无转折,全是支持,所以选项中第二句话出现反对的都错,排除 BDE,比较 AC 的第一句话,C 的第一句 也是反对的,意思是:第一句削弱了一个整段都反对的立场.无中生有. 选 A 难度评级: 三星(阅读有一定难度,理解了逻辑上很简单) 解题关键:抓住题干的态度,是否有转折,是否有反对等,细节上无需过分追究.

PREP1-074-评价题型 -(29534-!-item-!-188;#058&004138)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409242&extra=
In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movements of many rhinoceroses because those animals wear radio collars. When, as often happens, a collar slips off, it is put back on. Putting a collar on a rhinoceros involves immobilizing the animal by shooting it with a tranquilizer dart. Female rhinoceroses that have been frequently recollared have significantly lower fertility rates than uncollared females. Probably, therefore, some substance in the tranquilizer inhibits fertility. In evaluating the argument, it would be most useful to determine which of the following? A. Whether there are more collared female rhinoceroses than uncollared female rhinoceroses in the park B. How the tranquilizer that is used for immobilizing rhinoceroses differs, if at all, from tranquilizers used in working with other large mammals C. How often park rangers need to use tranquilizer darts to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars

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D. Whether male rhinoceroses in the wildlife park lose their collars any more often than the park’s female rhinoceroses do E. Whether radio collars are the only practical means that park rangers have for tracking the movements of rhinoceroses in the park
答案:C 题干分析:犀牛会掉 collar,掉了装回去需要用镇定剂.发现那些总是被装回 collar 的母犀牛繁殖力低.结论:镇定剂 中某些物质阻碍繁殖. 要求评估. 选项: A、 比较未安装 radio collar 和已安装 radio collar 的雌性犀牛的数量谁多谁少——没有提到生育力,所以无 关 B、 比较犀牛和其他的大型动物关于使用镇定剂的不同——没有提到生育能力,且文中并未出现大型动物,完 全无关 C、翻译:除了给犀牛安装 radio collar 这个原因之外,park ranger 给犀牛注射镇定剂以致它们失去行动力 的频率有多高。 -----因为假设因为其它原因注射镇定剂,就会影响结果.让我们来假设种极端情况(俗称 YY),那些 需要重装 collar 的犀牛由于注射镇定剂,所以听话.其它犀牛就是不听话,对不听话犀牛的办法就是单独抓出来, 注射 1.2 倍镇静剂.如此一来,重装 collar 的犀牛实际上是使用镇静剂最少的犀牛了.结论自然就不确定了. D、 比较雄性犀牛和雌性犀牛的 radio collar 掉落率——没有提到生育能力,且结论并未提到雄性犀牛,无关 E、 radio collar 是不是唯一的能够使人们追踪到犀牛的唯一实用方法——跟结论中的镇定剂和生育力之间的 关系完全无关 选 C 难度评级:二星 解题关键:弄清思路,抓住有关无关迅速排除.

PREP1-075-加强题型 -(33198-!-item-!-188;#058&007254)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409243&extra=
In the year following an eight-cent increase in the federal tax on a pack of cigarettes, sales of cigarettes fell ten percent. In contrast, in the year prior to the tax increase, sales had fallen one percent. The volume of cigarette sales is therefore strongly related to the after-tax price of a pack of cigarettes. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument above? A. During the second year after the tax increase, cigarette sales increased by a significant amount. B. The information available to consumers on the health risks of smoking remained largely unchanged in the period before and after the tax increase. C. Most consumers were unaware that the tax on cigarettes was going to increase. D. During the year following the cigarette tax increase, many consumers had less income, in inflation-adjusted dollars, than they had had in the previous year. E. During the year after the tax increase, there was a greater variety of cigarettes on the market than there had been during the previous year.
答案:B 题干分析:说税涨了 8%,烟销量降了 10%.而税涨前,烟销量降了 1%.结论:香烟销量与税后烟价密切相关.问加强 选项: A.若第 2 年销量大涨,可能是其他原因.未提到税后烟价. B.消费者得到的吸烟对于健康危害的信息在增加税前,税后没有改变。改变的只有香烟的价格,所以是价格影 响 sales。这是典型的他因排除来加强.

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C.消费者不知道税的增加。但这个税后烟价是实实在在涨了,消费者以为是税涨或者是烟涨,都不影响结论. D.香烟价格增加,通货膨胀,人们收入减少。这可能是销量下降的一个原因,削弱了是因为税后烟价上涨这个原 因. E. 香烟种类增加,和题目无关,排除. 选 B 难度评价:四星(题干之间关系较绕,必须结合选项理解) 解题关键:理清概念:税后烟价=香烟价钱+税

PREP1-076-评价题型 (28782-!-item-!-188;#058&003417)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409244&extra=
Which of the following most logically completes the argument? According to experts on shopping behavior, more shoppers would shop at Jerrod’s department store if they were offered the convenience of shopping carts. In fact, even if the amount spent by these additional customers only just covered the cost of providing the carts, providing carts would still probably increase Jerrod’s profits, since _______. A. the layout of Jerrod’s is open enough to accommodate shopping carts comfortably B. several department stores that compete with Jerrod’s have begun to make shopping carts available to their customers C. there are some potential customers who would not be enticed to shop at Jerrod’s by the availability of shopping carts D. stores that make shopping carts available to customers usually have to hire people to retrieve them from parking areas E. a customer with a shopping cart buys more, on average, than a customer without a cart
答案:E 题干分析:商场为吸引顾客,提供免费购物车.然而购物车的花费差不多等于新吸引来顾客带来的利润.不过还是 有必要提供免费购物车,因为? 选项分析: A 属于无关选项 B 有点削弱,因为别人家都有 Carts 顾客就不一定来你这买东西了 C 无关选项,讲的是 some potential customers 不会被吸引,对 profit 的影响不明确 D 削弱了,说明有 carts 还得 hire people,成本增加 profit 可能降低了 E 明显答案.因为购物车来了后,原来顾客会多买. 选 E 难度评级:二星 解题关键:容易到看懂就做得出

PREP1-077-评价题型 (30754-!-item-!-188;#058&005525)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409245&extra=
Which of the following most logically completes the argument below? Twenty percent of the stores in Morganville's downtown shopping district will fail within five years because they will be competing directly with the SaveMart discount department store newly opened in East Morganville. The downtown shopping district has lost business at this rate before and has always completely rebounded. Confidence that it will rebound again from the losses it is now about to suffer is ill founded, however, because __________. A. the stores likely to be put out of business by direct competition from SaveMart are the downtown

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shopping district's anchor stores, on whose ability to draw shoppers many of the other downtown stores depend B. the bus line that has long connected the downtown area of Morganville with East Morganville has a tradition of carrying shoppers who reside in East Morganville into downtown Morganville to shop C. when the downtown shopping district has rebounded before, the business premises of a failed business were typically taken over by a business of the same kind as had been there before D. SaveMart's business plan for the East Morganville store is based on earning low profits, if any, during the first five years of the store's existence E. it is conceivable that the downtown shopping district could shrink substantially without collapsing altogether
答案:A 题干分析:说有一地区的很多店要关门,因为面临某 NB 新店的挑战.曾经有一次,该地区很多店关门了但又振作了. 可这一次,期盼该地区重新振作缺乏根据,因为? 选项分析: A 正确. 旗舰店会直接面临挑战并惨败,而原来带领该地区重新振作的就是这些旗舰店. B,说交通的,无关选项 C,无关选项,说当时重振时,破产的店被同类店所接手. D, 说 NB 店准备在前 5 年薄利多销.不管它怎么销,打击是不变的. E, 可以想象,地区不会全完蛋,而是严重萎缩.这是说明东山再起的可能性有,但很小. 选 A 星级评级:三星 解题关键:看完题干,就明确需要找一个选项,说这次的打击不同于前,而使得该地区无法再次振作.这样 E 就不符 合逻辑,除非题目告诉你说,如果一个地区全完蛋了才更有利于重新规划重新振作,因为这样就不会有那些萎缩的 企业碍手碍脚,你才能选 E.

PREP1-078-加强题型 (24029-!-item-!-188;#058&000661)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409392&extra=page%3D1
To improve the long-term savings rate of the citizens of Levaska, the country's legislature decided to implement a plan that allows investors to save up to $1,000 per year in special accounts without paying taxes on the interest earned unless withdrawals are made before the investor reaches age sixty-five. Withdrawals from these accounts prior to age sixty-five would result in the investor's having to pay taxes on all the accumulated interest at the time of withdrawal. Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the prediction that the legislature's plan will have its intended effect? A. The money saved in the tax-free savings accounts will be deposited primarily in those banks and financial institutions that supported the legislation instituting the plan. B. The majority of people choosing to take advantage of the tax-free savings accounts will withdraw their money prior to age sixty-five. C. A significant number of the citizens of Levaska will invest in the tax-free savings accounts well before they reach the age of sixty-five. D. During the ten years prior to implementation of the plan, Levaskans deposited an increasingly smaller percentage of their annual income in long-term savings accounts. E. People who are not citizens of Levaska are not eligible to invest in the tax-free savings accounts, even if their income is taxable in Levaska.
答案:C 题干分析: 国为了增加它公民的 long-term savings rate, L 出台了一项政策。 这个政策允许公民每年存$1000

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而不用交税。但是这个政策有个前提,即公民在 65 岁之前不能取出这些钱,如果要取,就必须把本利累积起 来的税都缴了。 问哪一项能 support 这个政策可以起到刺激 long-term savings 选项分析: A. 在这些免税的账户里存的钱一开始就在那些支持这个计划的银行和机构储蓄。无关。没有强调手段可行,或 者加强前提。 B. 大部分选择该免税账户的人都会在 65 岁之前把钱取出。削弱。 C. 大部分市民会在 65 岁之前把钱存入该免税账户。加强,正确。加强了原文中的前提,即市民必须在 65 岁 之前一直储蓄。 D. 在计划完成的前十年, 市民会在长期储蓄账户里增加年收入一定比例的储蓄额。 无关。 文章讲的是免税账户, 选项中的长期储蓄账户和免税账户属于概念混淆。 E. 不是 L 国家的市民没有权利在免税账户进行投资,即使他们的收入是必须上税的。无关。 选 C 难度评级:三星 解题关键:虽然关于数字的题总是需要把概念分得很清,此题用排除法能较轻松做出.

PREP1-079-归纳题型 (30610-!-item-!-188;#058&005469)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409393&extra=page%3D1
In Europe, many large animal species, such as mammoths, became extinct soon after humans first migrated to the animals' areas of habitation. The spread of such extinctions closely followed the pattern of human migration. However, since humans tended to migrate to areas as the climate in those areas began to warm, the extinctions might have been precipitated by the climatic warming rather than by human migration. Which of the following, if true, provides the best evidence that it was human migration and not climatic change that precipitated the extinctions? A. Many animal species, such as deer and bison, continued to thrive in Europe even after humans migrated there. B. Several periods of marked climatic warming have occurred in Europe, during which many large animal species that lived there became extinct. C. Many animal species that became extinct in Europe survived longer in areas that were isolated from human populations but that experienced intense climatic warming. D. In some areas of Europe, only a few archaeological sites have yielded evidence that shows an overlap between the arrival of humans and the extinction of large animals. E. Some large animals had become extinct in Europe even before humans migrated there.
答案:C 题干分析:人类迁徙和气候变暖都可能导致物种灭绝。问,哪个能够说明是人类迁徙而非气候变暖导致灭绝, 即要满足两个条件:1、人类迁徙导致灭绝;2、气候变暖不导致灭绝 选项分析: A、有些物种在人类进入以后依然可以生存,这是说明气候变暖是主要原因的,排除! B、气候变暖的时候,很多物种灭绝了,这也是说明气候变暖是主要原因的,排除! C、很多物种生存下来了,而这些物种生活的地点是经历了气候变暖但没有人进入的,刚好和要求符合,对啦! D、说只有一些人类学家发现,物种的灭绝和人类的进入好像有一些联系。首先, “只有一些”就说明这个证据 是不足的;其次,没有提到气候的问题,不对! E、一些物种在人类进入之前就灭绝了,这说明人类不是主要原因,排除!

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选 C 难度评级:一星(下级) 解题关键:明确要满足题干的结论需要两个条件。

PREP1-080-归纳题型 (24979-!-item-!-188;#058&001383)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409394&extra=page%3D1
In many scientific disciplines, scientists generally do not do highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a tendency that has normally been taken to show that aging carries with it a loss of creative capacity. However, by the age of forty most scientists have been working in their chosen field for at least fifteen years, so an alternative explanation is that spending too long in a single field reduces the opportunity for creative thought. Investigating which of the following would be most useful in choosing between the competing explanations described above? A. Whether among those scientists who do highly creative work beyond age forty a large proportion entered their field at a considerably later age than is common B. Whether scientists' choice of research projects tends to be influenced by their own belief that their most creative work will be done relatively early in their career C. Whether scientists who are older than forty tend to find more satisfaction in other activities, such as teaching and mentoring, than they do in pursuing their own research D. Whether funding agencies are more inclined to award research grants to scientists who are veterans in their field than to scientists who are relative newcomers E. Whether there is significant variation among scientific fields in the average age at which scientists working in those fields are at their most productive
答案:A 题干分析:科学家超过 40 岁一般就没有重大创新了,所以有人说啊,年龄增长会导致创新能力下降。这是第 一种说法。第二种说法是什么呢?科学家 40 岁时已经在其领域工作 15 年了,所以,不是年龄的问题,而是在 一个领域干的时间太长会导致创新能力下降。问:哪个选项最有助于辨别两个解释哪个更正确。 选项分析: A、是否在那些四十岁之后作出重大创新的科学家中,大部分都比通常情况下更晚进入其研究领域。对啦!为 什么呢?1、 如果是,则说明大龄同样可以有重大创新,只要不在该领域做的时间太久,支持领域时间说,反 对年龄说;2、如果不是,则说明领域时间说不成立(因为如果成立,那么超过 40,还作出重大创新的人,干 的时间更久,矛盾了) B、是否科学家在选项时会受到信念的影响,无关项,排除! C、是否 40 岁以上的科学家在其他活动中获得更多满足,能够解释为啥 40 岁之创新少,但是不能否定和领域 时间的关系,片面,排除! D、是否超过 40 岁的基金代理人,不看了,无关,排除! E、是否科学家之间会有不同,不看了,无关,排除! 选 A 难度评级:二星(中下级) 解题关键:明确答案要支持一种说法,反对另一种说法。

PREP1-081-归纳题型 (29110-!-item-!-188;#058&003820)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409395&extra=page%3D1
Environmentalist: Snowmobiles in the park north of Milville create unacceptable levels of air pollution and should be banned.

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Milville Business Spokesperson: Snowmobiling brings many out-of-towners to Milville in the winter months, to the great direct financial benefit of many local residents. In addition, the money the town collects in fees for the recreational use of the park indirectly benefits all Milville residents. So, it is basic economics for us to put up with the pollution. Which of the following, if true, could best be used by the environmentalist to counter the business spokesperson’s argument? A. A great many cross-country skiers are now kept from visiting Milville by the noise and pollution that snowmobiles generate. B. Not all of the people who go snowmobiling in the vicinity of Milville are from out of town. C. Snowmobiles, because they run on two-cycle engines, emit greater amounts of hydrocarbons and particulate matter than cars do. D. Industrial pollution in Milville has been significantly reduced in the past few years without any adverse effect on the town’s economy. E. Many Milville residents object to having to pay fees for recreational use of the park in the winter.
答案:A 题干分析:环境学家说:M 公园里的 S 带来很多污染,所以应该被取缔 M 发言人说:S 吸引了很多外地游客,可以带动经济。出于巨大的经济利益考虑,应该容忍这些污染。问反驳 M 发言人 选项分析: A:许多滑雪者因为 S 的原因不来 M 了。对啦!为什么呢,因为滑雪者不来会对经济造成影响,M 发言人说 的话就不成立了。 B:不是所有游客都是外地的,无关项,排除! C:S 比轿车释放更多的污染物。迷惑项。看似有道理,但是它没有提到经济因素,排除! D:连 S 都没提到,肯定不对,排除! E:同 D 选 A 难度评级:二星(中下级) 解题关键:解题的关键在于经济效应和污染的权衡,而不仅仅停留在某一方面。

PREP1-082-加强题型 (28316-!-item-!-188;#058&002977)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409396&extra=page%3D1
When feeding, aquatic birds known as phalaropes often spin rapidly on the water’s surface, pecking for food during each revolution. To execute these spins, phalaropes kick one leg harder than the other. This action creates upwelling currents. Because plankton on which phalaropes feed typically occurs in greater quantities well below the surface, it is hypothesized that by spinning phalaropes gain access to food that would otherwise be beyond their reach. Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis? A. Phalaropes rarely feed while on land. B. A given phalarope spins exclusively either to the right or to the left. C. Phalaropes sometimes spin when they are not feeding. D. Different phalaropes spin at somewhat different rates. E. Phalaropes do not usually spin when food is abundant at the surface.
答案:E 题干分析:P 这种鸟经常会在水面上转圈,为了寻找食物。然后说,为了转圈,它会用一只脚站立啊之类,这 些都是废话。最后说,转圈的时候会有上升的气流,会让浮游植物冒出水面。所以得出结论:P 转圈是为了获

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得能力范围之外的食物。 选项分析: A:P 基本不在陆地上寻找食物,无关,排除! B:左脚,右脚,无关,排除! C:P 有时候不吃东西的时候也转圈,削弱项,排除! D:P 以不同的频率转圈,无关,排除! E:当食物充足的时候,P 就不转了,对啦!刚好和原文相符! 选 E 难度评级:二星(中下级) 解题关键:只要能读懂题目,就没什么难的。

PREP1-083-削弱题型 (24931-!-item-!-188;#058&001279)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409495&extra=
The economy around Lake Paqua depends on fishing of the lake's landlocked salmon population. In recent years, scarcity of food for salmon there has caused a decline in both the number and the size of the adult salmon in the lake. As a result, the region's revenues from salmon fishing have declined significantly. To remedy this situation, officials plan to introduce shrimp, which can serve as a food source for adult salmon, into Lake Paqua. Which of the following, if true, most seriously calls into question the plan's chances for success? A. Salmon is not a popular food among residents of the Lake Paqua region. B. Tourists coming to fish for sport generate more income for residents of the Lake Paqua region than does commercial fishing. C. The shrimp to be introduced into Lake Paqua are of a variety that is too small to be harvested for human consumption. D. The primary food for both shrimp and juvenile salmon is plankton, which is not abundant in Lake Paqua. E. Fishing regulations prohibit people from keeping any salmon they have caught in Lake Paqua that are smaller than a certain minimum size.
答案:D 题干分析:P 湖周边的经济靠湖里 S 鱼的捕鱼业支持。近年来,食品的不足导致 S 鱼的质和量都下降了,结果 是地方经济下滑。于是政府决定引入虾,因为虾是 S 鱼的很好的食物。问削弱。 选项分析: A:S 不是当地居民的食物,无关,排除! B:为了运动来垂钓的人比商业捕鱼给 P 带来的经济效益要大,这跟政府引入虾没关系啊,无关,排除! C:引入的虾太小,不适合人类捕捞,无关,排除! D:S 和虾有共同的食物。对啦!这两者之间不光有捕食关系还有竞争关系,当然对 S 不好。 E:规定禁止捕小鱼,无关,排除! 难度评级:一星(下级) 解题关键:结论是“政府要引入虾”而不是其他的

PREP1-084-加强题型 -(24641-!-item-!-188;#058&001146)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409496&extra=

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In Borania many people who want to quit smoking wear nicotine skin patches, which deliver small doses of nicotine through the skin. Beginning next month, these patches can be purchased without a doctor's prescription. Although nonprescription patches will be no more effective than those obtained by prescription and will be equally expensive, patch manufacturers are nevertheless predicting that the patches' new nonprescription status will boost sales, which have slowed considerably in recent years. Which of the following, if true in Borania, most strongly supports the manufacturers' prediction? A. Most people who wanted to quit smoking and who found the nicotine skin patch helpful in quitting have quit. B. Nicotine skin patches generally cost more to use than do other types of aids that help people to quit smoking. C. Several nonprescription aids aimed at helping people to quit smoking have been widely available for a number of years. D. Many smokers who want to quit smoking feel that they cannot afford to visit a doctor for a prescription. E. People who use nicotine skin patches have approximately the same rate of success in quitting smoking as do people who use other aids aimed at helping people to quit smoking.
答案:D 题干分析:在 Borania,许多想戒烟的人都带戒烟贴片,这种贴片会通过皮肤来输入小剂量的尼古丁。从下月开 始,这些贴片将划为非处方药了。虽然非处方贴片不会比处方贴片更有效,而且一样贵。贴片厂商还是预言: 在最近几年里,贴片销量显著下降的情况下的情况下。贴片被划为非处方将会刺激贴片销。问支持。 选项分析: A 大多数想戒烟和已经发现尼古丁皮肤贴片有效地人已经戒了,这是削弱项,排除! B 尼古丁皮肤贴片通常比其他的戒烟手段花费更高,削弱项,排除! C 多年来,一些非处方类的戒烟药已被广泛采用,削弱项,排除! D 许多想要戒烟的人承担不起就医开处方的花费,对啦!刚好符合原文。 E 使用尼古丁皮肤贴片成功戒烟的人的比例和使用其他戒烟手段成功戒烟人的比例几乎相同。削弱项,排除! 选 D 难度评级:一星(下级) 解题关键:理解原文,没什么难的

PREP1-085-加强题型 (23981-!-item-!-188;#058&000656)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409497&extra=
Fearing that the use of titles indicating position in the corporation tends to make the corporate hierarchy rigid by inhibiting communication, some corporations shun the use of executive titles. A title, however, can facilitate an executive's dealings with external businesses since it encourages outsiders to treat the executive with respect. The obvious compromise is for these executives to use their titles externally but not within their corporations. Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the compromise suggested above? A. Only small corporations can preserve an atmosphere of mutual respect and high regard without having a rigid corporate hierarchy. B. Referring to an executive by using a title can encourage both those outside the organization and inside the organization to treat the executive with respect. C. Even if it is widely known within a corporation that the corporation's executives use executive titles outside their organizations, this knowledge does not by itself inhibit communication within the corporation. D. A rigid corporate hierarchy can promote efficiency within an organization as well as provide access to

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the corporation for those outside the organization. E. Although many corporate executives disapprove of rigid hierarchies on the grounds that they inhibit communication, the vast majority of executives have no qualms about using titles both internally and externally.
答案:C 题干分析:由于担心在公司里面强调头衔会使公司等级观念太重,影响交流,一些公司限制管理层头衔的使用。 但是头衔在管理层对外做生意的时候很方便,能让外人更加尊重他。所以两全的办法就是管理层对内不使用头 衔,对外使用。问加强。 选项分析: A:只有小公司会维护一个相互尊重的环境,没有等级制度。无关,排除。 B:老板用头衔可以让公司外部和内容都很尊重他。与题干结论不符,排除。 C:虽然公司内部都知道老板对外使用头衔,但是这不会影响公司内部的交流。与结论相呼应,加强! D:一个森严的公司等级能提高效率,也能为公司外部提供接近公司的途径。无关,排除。 E:虽然很多公司老板不同意森严的等级,因为会影响沟通,但是绝大部分老板对于对内对外都使用头衔没啥 疑虑。公司老板的观点不在考虑范围之内。排除。 选 C 难度评级:二星(中低级) 解题关键:找出与结论呼应的选项,并排除无关选项。

PREP1-086-归纳题型 (24835-!-item-!-188;#058&001244)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409498&extra=
Which of the following most logically completes the passage? Concerned about the financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the government of Runagia decided two years ago to increase by 20 percent the government-provided pension paid to all Runagians over 65. Inflation in the intervening period has been negligible, and the increase has been duly received by all eligible Runagians. Nevertheless, many of them are no better off financially than they were before the increase, in large part because __________. A. they rely entirely on the government pension for their income B. Runagian banks are so inefficient that it can take up to three weeks to cash a pension check C. they buy goods whose prices tend to rise especially fast in times of inflation D. the pension was increased when the number of elderly Runagians below the poverty level reached an all-time high E. in Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living
答案:E 题干分析:句子完成题。考虑到让老人能在经济上好过一点,R政府两年前决定把政府提供给65岁以上老人的 养老金提高20%。中间的通货膨胀可以忽略,且所有符合条件的人都得到了这好处。但是,很多老人却并没有 比涨钱之前好过,主要是因为_________________________ 选项分析: A:老人家就靠着政府养老金活啦~~那不是应该好过了么?没法解释,排除。 B:R的银行太没效率了,兑现养老金支票要3个星期!确实很没效率,不过也还是有钱拿啊~没法解释,排除。 C:老人家买的东西在通货的时候涨得特别快。但是由于题干说通胀可以忽略不计,那么这个选项对于结论是 没有作用的。排除。 D:养老金涨了,同时生活在贫困线以下的老人数量增加到历史最高。钱够不够花和老人数量没关系。排除。 E:小孩会给老人家补给,但只能提供一个舒适的生活水平。说明老人的收入分为两部分:政府+孩子。政府给

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的多了,那么孩子相应就会补给得少(仅保证正常舒适的水平) 。所以老人的生活在涨钱之前和之后是没有差别 的。 选 E 难度评级:四星(中高级) 解题关键:有迷惑选项C,要看清题目,选项的内容不能与题干相矛盾。

PREP1-087-归纳题型 (31284-!-item-!-188;#058&005747)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409499&extra=
Two years ago, the government of Runagia increased by 20 percent the government-provided pensions paid to Runagians over 65. The aim of the increase was to stimulate the economy in the rural regions of the country, where most pension recipients live. Statistics, however, show that there has been no increase in economic activity in those regions since then, but that there has been noticeably more spending in the urban areas. Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain why the increase resulted in the unintended state of affairs described? A. Until the pensions were increased, many Runagians over 65 in rural regions had been receiving support from their children who live in urban areas. B. The pensions were increased when the number of people below the poverty level in rural areas of Runagia reached an all-time high. C. City-dwellers in Runagia rarely travel to rural regions of the country. D. The Runagian postal system is so inefficient that it can take up to three weeks for pension checks to reach recipients in rural areas. E. On average, the pensions were higher in rural than in urban areas before the increase.
答案:A 题干分析: 政府增加了老人的养老金, 目的是刺激农村经济 (因为多数拿养老金的人都住在农村) 但是事实上, 。 农村的消费没有带动起来,反而城市的消费还被带动起来了。问解释 选项分析: A:很好很直接的回答了为什么乡下养老金的增加导致了城市里面消费增加的原因:住在城里的子女不必再为 住在乡下的老人负担这么多的开销了,自然就会把钱用在城里。这里最关键的是 Until 这个词,把 A 跟 E 谁更 好区分开了。 B:讲了半天养老金在 Rural Areas 的 level 都没有提到结论里的 Urban Areas,跟讨论的中心都偏离了 C:城里人 travel 到乡下,实在是跟主题不搭嘎的 D:这个 postal 系统的快慢完全就是在扯了,跟养老金导致城里消费增加半毛钱关系都没有 E:这里说乡下的养老金本来就比城里的多,可这样也并不能直接解释为什么城里的消费就增加了,还需要一 个更进一步的说明才好,跟 A 相比解释力差一些。 选A 难度评级:三星(中级) 解题关键:注意 A 中的 Until,把涨钱之前和之后的情况分开了。

PREP1-088-归纳题型 (24173-!-item-!-188;#058&000719)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409615&extra=
When a new restaurant, Martin's Cafe, opened in Riverville last year, many people predicted that business at the Wildflower Inn, Riverville's only other restaurant, would suffer from the competition. Surprisingly, however, in the year since Martin's Cafe opened, the average number of meals per night served at the Wildflower Inn has increased significantly.

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Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the increase? A. Unlike the Wildflower Inn, Martin's Cafe serves considerably more meals on weekends than it does on weekdays. B. Most of the customers of Martin's Cafe had never dined in Riverville before this restaurant opened, and on most days Martin's Cafe attracts more customers than it can seat. C. The profit per meal is higher, on average, for meals served at Martin's Cafe than for those served at the Wildflower Inn. D. The Wildflower Inn is not open on Sundays, and therefore Riverville residents who choose to dine out on that day must either eat at Martin's Cafe or go to neighboring towns to eat. E. A significant proportion of the staff at Martin's Cafe are people who formerly worked at the Wildflower Inn and were hired away by the owner of Martin's Cafe.
答案:B 题干分析:当 M 去年开店的时候,人们都认为另外一个饭店 W 会受到竞争的影响。但是自从 M 开张之后,W 这地儿每晚上的生意反而增加了不少。问解释。 选项分析:旁边新开了店,但是生意不减反增,第一个反应就是占了那个新开店的人气的便宜。看选项。 A:不像 W,M 在周末的生意比工作日要多。题干讨论的是 W,M 周末生意多还是工作日生意多与此无关。 排除。 B: 大部分去 M 的顾客在 M 开张之前从来没在 R 这地儿吃过饭, 大部分时间 M 吸引了比它能容纳的人数更多 的顾客。所以坐不下的人就可能去 R 这地儿别的餐馆吃饭,那就只能去 W 了。解释了为什么 W 的生意反而变 好的原因,沾光啊~~ C:M 每顿饭的平均利润比 W 要高。咱讨论的是吃饭的人多了,不是利润。无关,排除。 D:W 星期天不开门,所以 R 里要出去吃饭的居民要么去 M 吃,要么去临镇吃。无关,排除。 E:M 大部分的员工以前是在 W 工作的,后来又被 M 挖走。哪儿跟哪儿么,无关,排除。 选B 难度评级:三星(中级) 解题关键:看清题目,关注的是“吃饭的人”变多,和利润神马的无关。

PREP1-089-评价题型 (31236-!-item-!-188;#058&005728)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409616&extra=
Goronian lawmaker: Goronia's Cheese Importation Board, the agency responsible for inspecting all wholesale shipments of cheese entering Goronia from abroad and rejecting shipments that fail to meet specified standards, rejects about one percent of the cheese that it inspects. Since the health consequences and associated costs of not rejecting that one percent would be negligible, whereas the cost of maintaining the agency is not, the agency's cost clearly outweighs the benefits it provides. Knowing the answer to which of the following would be most useful in evaluating the lawmaker's argument? A. Are any of the types of cheeses that are imported into Goronia also produced in Goronia? B. Has the Cheese Importation Board, over the last several years, reduced its operating costs by eliminating inefficiencies within the agency itself? C. Does the possibility of having merchandise rejected by the Cheese Importation Board deter many cheese exporters from shipping substandard cheese to Goronia? D. Are there any exporters of cheese to Goronia whose merchandise is never rejected by the Cheese Importation Board? E. How is the cheese rejected by the Cheese Importation Board disposed of?
答案: C

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题干分析:这立法的人说,G 的奶酪进口委员会负责审查所有进口的奶酪,并拒绝那些不合标准的奶酪入境, 这个比例大概是审查数量的 1%。但是,由于接受那不合标准的 1%造成的后果和相关的成本可以忽略不计,但 是维持这么一个机构的成本却很多,所以这委员会的成本超过了它的好处。问评价。 选项分析: 题干推理过程是:因为 1%的后果可以忽略不计,机构成本又很高,所以设置这个机构坏处大于好 处。在评价这个结论的时候,要考虑前提是否成立,如果 1%的坏处远不是可以忽略不计的,那么哪怕这个机 构成本高,也必须得设置;如果 1%的坏处确实没什么大不了的,那设置这个机构确实没有必要了。 A:进口的奶酪是不是在国内也有生产?与成本无关,排除。 B:这委员会在过去几年是不是通过提高效率来降低成本?是否降低了成本对评价结论没有帮助,就算降低了, 和 1%可以忽略的后果相比,依然是很多的,所以降低不降低成本,对于结论没有影响。排除。 C:抵制不符合规定的奶酪进口是不是阻止了更多不合标准的奶酪入境?如果确实阻止了更多次品进口,那好 处是大大的,说明消除了很多潜在的风险,这个好处是 1%体现不出来的;如果 1%就是所有可能进口的次品, 那么确实没有必要设置这个委员会,反正有没有,都是 1%。 D:有没有从来没被拒绝入境的进口商?与成本好处无关,排除。 E:被拒绝入境的奶酪是怎么处理的?无关,排除。 选C 难度评级:四星(中高级) 解题关键:评价结论要抓住前提是否能够成立,选项的两种回答会导致相反的两个结论。

PREP1-090-削弱题型 (29250-!-item-!-188;#058&004038)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409617&extra=
In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently have a much higher rate of traffic accidents per mile driven than other vehicles do. However, the very largest trucks—those with three trailers—had less than a third of the accident rate of single- and double-trailer trucks. Clearly, therefore, one way for Partoria to reduce the number of traffic accidents would be to require shippers to increase their use of triple-trailer trucks. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? A. Partorian trucking companies currently use triple-trailer trucks only for long trips using major highways, which is the safest kind of trip for large trucks. B. No matter what changes Partoria makes in the regulation of trucking, it will have to keep some smaller roads off-limits to all large trucks. C. Increased use of triple-trailer trucks would mean that large trucks would account for a smaller proportion of all miles driven on Partoria’s roads than they currently do. D. In Partoria, the safety record of the trucking industry as a whole has improved slightly over the past ten years. E. The volume of truck traffic on Partoria’s highways could be reduced by encouraging shippers to use rail transport whenever possible.
答案: A 题干分析:在 P 国,大卡车目前比其他车发生交通事故的比率要高很多。但是,最大的那种三节大卡车发生车 祸的比率只有单节和双节卡车的不到三分之一。所以,对 P 国来说,要减少交通事故就需要要求运输商多使用 三节卡车。问削弱。 选项分析:削弱的关键就是为什么三节卡车出车祸的比率要低,如果和车本身性能无关的话,那么使用三节卡 车也无法降低车祸率。 A:P 国使用三节卡车主要都是在主要高速路上跑长途的,而这是对大卡车来说最安全的路途。BINGO!说明 车祸少不是因为车好,而是跟跑什么路有关的。他因削弱。

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B:不管 P 国怎么规定卡车运输,它都会保留一些不限制大卡车的小路。无关,排除。 C:增加使用三节卡车意味着大卡车跑公路的路程比例会比现在少。跑的路和车祸率无关,排除。 D:卡车运输的安全记录总体来说在最近十年已经有所提高。无关,排除。 E:通过鼓励运输商在任何可能的情况下都使用铁路,P 国高速公路卡车交通的流量会减少。无关,排除。 选A 难度评级:三星(中级) 解题关键:找出题干推理的前提,并找到他因进行削弱。

PREP1-091-归纳题型 (26045-!-item-!-188;#058&001846)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409618&extra=
Journalist: Every election year at this time the state government releases the financial disclosures that potential candidates must make in order to be eligible to run for office. Among those making the required financial disclosure this year is a prominent local businessman, Arnold Bergeron. There has often been talk in the past of Mr. Bergeron's running for governor, not least from Mr. Bergeron himself. This year it is likely he finally will, since those who have discounted the possibility of a Bergeron candidacy have always pointed to the necessity of making financial disclosure as the main obstacle to such a candidacy. In the journalist's argument, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles? A. The first provides information without which the argument lacks force; the second states the main conclusion of the argument. B. The first provides information without which the argument lacks force; the second states an intermediate conclusion that is used to support a further conclusion. C. The first describes a practice that the journalist seeks to defend; the second cites a likely consequence of this practice. D. The first states evidence bearing against the main conclusion of the argument; the second states that conclusion. E. Each provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that supports a further conclusion stated in the argument.
答案: A 题干分析:这记者说:每年竞选的这个时候,州政府会公布候选人的经济老底来证明自己符合执政的标准。其 中有一个已经公布了老底的人是一个很有希望的当地的商人 AB。 之前一直有传言说 AB 这个人之前公布的老底 不是他本人的。今年,他肯定要公布的,因为那些反对他候选的人一直都指出公布老底的必要性,这会成为候 选的一大障碍。 选项分析:第一段黑体字属于背景介绍,后来提出有 AB 这么一个人,他之前一直都被怀疑没有提供本人的经 济老底。第二段黑体字说今年他必须提供,并给出了一个理由。 A:第一个提供了信息,没有这个信息,作者的结论就不成立;第二个就是作者的结论。与之前的分析相符合, 正确。 B:第一个提供信息;第二个陈述了一个中间结论为了支持以后的一个结论。作者已经论断 AB 这个人必须提供 老底,这就是结论,没有“中间结论” “最终结论”一说。排除。 C:第一个是作者同意的一个措施;第二个引用了这个措施导致的一个可能的后果。题干中不涉及 consequence,仅仅是通过交代一个背景信息,来得出一个结论。排除。 D:第一个提出了一个反对结论的论据;第二个是结论。与原文相左,排除。 E:两个都是为了证明最终结论的中间结论。莫名其妙,排除。 选A 难度评级:三星(中级)

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解题关键:找到两种原因的不同点

PREP1-092-削弱题型(GWD-3-Q38) (24787-!-item-!-188;#058&001210)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409619&extra=
Kate: The recent decline in numbers of the Tennessee warbler, a North American songbird that migrates each fall to coffee plantations in South America, is due to the elimination of the dense tree cover that formerly was a feature of most South American coffee plantations. Scott: The population of the spruce budworm, the warbler's favorite prey in North America, has been dropping. This is a more likely explanation of the warbler's decline. Which of the following, if true, most seriously calls Scott's hypothesis into question? A. The numbers of the Baltimore oriole, a songbird that does not eat budworms but is as dependent on South American coffee plantations as is the Tennessee warbler, are declining. B. The spruce budworm population has dropped because of a disease that can infect budworms but not Tennessee warblers. C. The drop in the population of the spruce budworm is expected to be only temporary. D. Many Tennessee warblers have begun migrating in the fall to places other than traditional coffee plantations. E. Although many North American songbirds have declined in numbers, no other species has experienced as great a decline as has the Tennessee warbler.
答案: A 题干分析:有一种小鸟每年秋天都要飞到南美的咖啡园那里去,然后 kate 就说了,这种鸟现在都减少了,是 因为植被减少了呀!但是 scott 说,这种鸟喜欢吃的北美的一种小虫子,数量减少了,这才是小鸟数量减少的 原因!问削弱 scott 选项分析:A 有另一种不吃那种虫子的小鸟但是同样依靠南非咖啡园的植被,这种鸟也减少了。这是举另外一 个例子来反驳后者的观点,答案选 A B 这种虫子减少的原因和题干无关,排除。 C 这种虫子减少只是暂时的。这也是无关的啊,我们这里不讨论虫子减少的问题。 D 很多小鸟都开始像其他的地方迁徙了。。这个讲的是另一种情况,也是无关的选项。 。 E 尽管北美的这种鸟减少了, 但是其他的鸟都没有减少这么多。。 。这个并不能说明就不是树木影响了 Tennessee warbler,因此排除。 选 C 难度分级:三星 解题关键:这道题其实很简单,重要的是看清楚究竟是削弱谁,一定要注意啊~

PREP1-093-削弱题型(GWD-21-Q38 different type) (24269-!-item-!-188;#058&000870)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409695&extra=
Because it was long thought that few people would watch lengthy televised political messages, most televised political advertisements, like commercial advertisements, took the form of short messages. Last year, however, one candidate produced a half-hour-long advertisement. At the beginning of the half-hour slot a substantial portion of the viewing public had tuned in to that station. Clearly, then, many more people are interested in lengthy televised political messages than was previously thought. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? A. The candidate who produced the half-hour-long advertisement did not win election at the polls. B. The half-hour-long advertisement was widely publicized before it was broadcast. C. The half-hour-long advertisement was aired during a time slot normally taken by one of the most

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popular prime-time shows. D. Most short political advertisements are aired during a wide range of programs in order to reach a broad spectrum of viewers. E. In general a regular-length television program that features debate about current political issues depends for its appeal on the personal qualities of the program's moderator.
答案:C 题干分析:题目讲到,一般人们都觉得没什么人会看很长的政治性广告的嘛,所以这些广告就采用了短小的信 息。 但是有一年一个候选人就播放了一段半小时的政治广告 (看到这就乐了, 这题目出的多怨念啊。 结果发现, ) 在这半小时刚开始的时候, 很多人还调台跳过去了诶。 于是就说原来大家对这么长的政治广告还挺有兴趣的嘛。 问削弱(一看题就知道问削弱,出题人很怨念。。 。) 选项分析:A 那个候选人没有赢得选举。。这是个无关选项(笑。。出题人真怨念) 。 。 B 在播出之前,这段广告已经广为人知了。这个还是和人们有没有兴趣无关,排除 C 这个广告占用了一个很好看的节目平时播出的时间段。这个很容易明白是他因削弱,因为大家都是看看到时 间了就换台来看了嘛,打开一看,诶,怎么是这个人在做广告。。 。(从这里还发现,可能这就是为什么出题人这 么怨念。) 。 D 很多政治广告都是安排在一系列节目之间,这个是无关选项。 E 通常长电视节目收视率取决于主持人。不关竞选者的事情。我们并不知道题干中的长政治广告的主持人是好 还是不好。如果它的主持人很吸引观众,那么改选项有削弱作用,如果不吸引观众,那么反而是加强了。排除。 选C 难度评级:三星 解题关键:看懂题意即可~这题其实不难~

PREP1-094-加强题型(GWD-17-Q39) (25027-!-item-!-188;#058&001384)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409696&extra=
Which of the following most logically completes the passage? On the whole, scientists do their most creative work before age forty, a tendency that has been taken to show that aging carries with it a loss of creative capacity. An alternative explanation is that by age forty most scientists have worked in their field for fifteen or more years and that by then they have exhausted the opportunity for creative work in that field. Supporting this explanation is the finding that __________. A. the average age of recipients of scientific research grants is significantly greater than forty B. a disproportionately large number of the scientists who produce highly creative work beyond age forty entered their field at an older age than is common C. many scientists temper their own expectations of what they can achieve in their research work by their belief that their creativity will decline as they age D. scientists who are older than forty tend to find more satisfaction in other activities, such as teaching and mentoring, than they do in pursuing their own research E. there is a similar diminution of creativity with age in nonscientific fields, such as poetry and musical composition
答案:B 题干分析:大多数情况下,科学家都在 40 岁之前有很多发明创造。衰老会丧失创造力。但是有另一种解释, 40 岁以上的人都已经在这个领域工作了 15 年或者更多了,已经耗尽了所有的创造力了。问支持这个解释 选项分析:A 获得研究奖项的人都是在 40 岁以上。。这个只能说明 40 以上差不多就有创造了,无关,排除。 。 B 很大一部分在 40 岁以上还有发明创造的人都进入这个领域很晚。这个也就是说,他们在这个领域的时间会 比那些较早进入的人要短,也就是说,关键不是年龄,而是在这个领域工作的时间长短。是支持,选择 B。 C 很多人在规划自己的成就的时候都认为随着年龄,创造力会下降。这个是没有关系的,排除。

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D 很多 40 以上的人都会对自己的工作自满,因此就会不再追求进一步的研究。这个是削弱选项。排除 E 类似的创造力随着年纪下降的趋势在其他的领域也有发现。这个是支持了第一种假说,排除。 选 B 难度评级:三星 解题关键:要看清是加强哪一个命题!看清题是解题的第一步!

PREP1-095-削弱题型(GWD-9-24) (28456-!-item-!-188;#058&003043)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409697&extra=
For similar cars and drivers, automobile insurance for collision damage has always cost more in Greatport than in Fairmont. Police studies, however, show that cars owned by Greatport residents are, on average, slightly less likely to be involved in a collision than cars in Fairmont. Clearly, therefore, insurance companies are making a greater profit on collision-damage insurance in Greatport than in Fairmont. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends? A. Repairing typical collision damage does not cost more in Greatport than in Fairmont. B. There are no more motorists in Greatport than in Fairmont. C. Greatport residents who have been in a collision are more likely to report it to their insurance company than Fairmont residents are. D. Fairmont and Greatport are the cities with the highest collision-damage insurance rates. E. The insurance companies were already aware of the difference in the likelihood of collisions before the publication of the police reports.
答案:A 题干分析:对于相同的车啊,G 城市的车祸保险总是比 F 城贵。警方通过调查呢,发现 G 城的车比较不容易被 卷入车祸,所以,保险公司在 G 城就比在 F 城赚得多。 问假设。 选项分析:A 取反 G 城修车比 F 城修车要贵。因为利润等于收入减成本嘛,所以成本提高了的话,就不一定收 入高了,是削弱。答案选 A。 B 取反 G 城和 F 城一样多摩托。。我们这里讨论的是车,不是摩托,排除。 。 C 取反 G 城人出了车祸和 F 城一样愿意向保险公司汇报。如果一样会同保险公司联系的话,就是说保险公司会 一样赔偿,这个就是加强了。排除。 D G and F 的最高车祸保险率不是最高的。。这个是无关选项。排除。 。 E 保险公司在调查之前就发现了撞车的可能性的不同。无关选项。排除。 选 A 难度评级:三星 解题关键:读懂题干,对选项进行取反。

PREP1-096-削弱题型(GWD-28-Q17) (28176-!-item-!-188;#058&002907)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409698&extra=
In the nation of Partoria, large trucks currently account for 6 percent of miles driven on Partoria’s roads but are involved in 12 percent of all highway fatalities. The very largest trucks—those with three trailers—had less than a third of the accident rate of single- and double-trailer trucks. Clearly, therefore, one way for Partoria to reduce highway deaths would be to require shippers to increase their use of triple-trailer trucks. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

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A. No matter what changes Partoria makes in the regulation of trucking, it will have to keep some smaller roads off-limits to all large trucks. B. So far only the best, most experienced drivers for Partorian trucking companies have been driving triple-trailer trucks. C. Very few fatal collisions involving trucks in Partoria are collisions between two trucks. D. In Partoria, the safety record of the trucking industry as a whole has improved slightly over the past ten years. E. In Partoria, the maximum legal payload of a triple-trailer truck is less than three times the maximum legal payload of the largest of the single-trailer trucks.
答案:B 题干分析:P 这个国家,大卡车的行驶路程只有全国的 6%,但是重大事故率只有全国的 12%。而最大的卡车, 尤其是 3 节拖车的,发生事故的比例只有那些单节或者双节拖车卡车的不到三分之一。结论是:为了降低高速 公路的事故率,运输者应该多使用三节拖车的卡车。 问削弱。 选项分析:A 无关选项,一看就和题没关系。 B 都是那些最有经验的人在开三截的卡车,因此车祸少和车市没关系的,是和司机的技术有关,他因削弱。选 B。 C 两只卡车相撞的事故很少有死亡。这个也是无关选项~排除。 D 卡车工业的安全率整体提高了。无关选项。排除。 E 讲允许运载的货物量,无关,排除。 选 B 难度评级: 两星 解题关键:挺简单的~找相关的嘛~

PREP1-097-评价题型(GWD 3-Q2) (33058-!-item-!-188;#058&007111)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409699&extra=
Hunter: Hunters alone are blamed for the decline in Greenrock National Forest's deer population over the past ten years. Yet clearly, black bears have also played an important role in this decline. In the past ten years, the forest's protected black bear population has risen sharply, and examination of black bears found dead in the forest during the deer hunting season showed that a number of them had recently fed on deer. In the hunter's argument, the boldface portion plays which of the following roles? A. It is the main conclusion of the argument. B. It is an objection that has been raised against the main conclusion of the argument. C. It is a judgment that the argument opposes. D. It is a finding that the argument seeks to explain. E. It provides evidence in support of the main conclusion of the argument.
答案:A 题干分析:这段话每句话的作用依次是:1)作者要反驳的观点;2)作者的结论;3)支持作者结论的论据。 由于没有标明哪句是 boldface,所以就每句话都分析下了。

PREP1-098-假设题型(GWD 28-Q29) (32682-!-item-!-188;#058&006783)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409782&extra=
Early in the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted. Recently fish populations have recovered as release of industrial pollutants has declined and the lake’s waters have become cleaner.

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Fears are now being voiced that the planned construction of an oil pipeline across the lake’s bottom might revive pollution and cause the fish population to decline again. However, a technology for preventing leaks is being installed. Therefore, provided this technology is effective, those fears are groundless. The argument depends on assuming which of the following? A. Apart from development related to the pipeline, there will be no new industrial development around the lake that will create renewed pollution in its waters. B. There is no reason to believe that the leak-preventing technology would be ineffective when installed in the pipeline in Lake Konfa. C. The bottom of the lake does not contain toxic remnants of earlier pollution that will be stirred into the water by pipeline construction. D. Damage to the lake’s fish populations would be the only harm that a leak of oil from the pipeline would cause. E. The species of fish that are present in Lake Konfa now are the same as those that were in the lake before it was affected by pollution.
答案:C 题干分析:K 湖污染很严重,由于工业污染减少了因而鱼群的数量有所回升了~但是有一根海底的油管要建造, 这就有可能会对湖水造成污染使鱼群下降。但是有一种技术可以防止泄露。所以,如果这种技术是有效地,这 种危险就不存在了。问假设。 选项分析:A 取反除去这根油管,还有其他的工业会造成湖水污染。这个和题干无关啊,排除。 B 取反有理由相信这个防泄漏的技术是无效的。题中都说了有效了嘛,排除。 C 取反湖底还有其他的有毒的物质,如果建这条油管就会把以前的有毒物质露出来,还是会污染,这就削弱了 题目, D 取反漏油的话不只会影响鱼的数量。 。这个是无关选项嘛,排除。 E 取反现在湖里的鱼和上次污染前的鱼的种类是不一样的。无关选项,排除。 选C 难度评级:四星 解题关键:要认真理解题干啊。

PREP1-099-归纳题型(GWD 12-Q22) (29812-!-item-!-188;#058&004367)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409783&extra=
Denoma, a major consumer-electronics maker, had a sizable decline in sales revenue for its most recent fiscal year. This result appears surprising, because electronics retailers report that although their overall sales were considerably lower than in the previous year, their sales revenue from Denoma models actually grew, largely thanks to some innovative and popular models that Denoma introduced. Which of the following, if true, does most to explain the apparently surprising result? A. Because of the need to educate the public about its new models’ capabilities, Denoma’s advertising spending was higher than normal over the period. B. For the period at issue, Denoma’s major competitors reported declines in revenue that were, in percentage terms, greater than Denoma’s. C. A significant proportion of Denoma’s revenue comes from making components for other consumer-electronics manufacturers. D. Unlike some of its major competitors, Denoma has no lines of business outside consumer electronics to provide revenue when retail sales of consumer electronics are weak. E. During the period, consumer-electronics retailers sold remaining units of Denoma’s superseded models at prices that were deeply discounted from those models’ original prices.

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答案:C 题干分析:D 公司最近一年收入降了,但是因为尽管销售量下降了,但是销售收入其实上升了,因为他们公司 的一些工艺的创新。问解释为什么销售收入下降了。 选项分析:A 因为要告诉大众他们的新的产品很好,所以广告费用上升了。这个不一定就会造成收入的下降。 B 这段时间该公司的竞争对手都经历了销售下降,并且下降的更多。这个是无关选项,排除。 C D 公司主要是制造一种其他公司产品需要的某种零件, 因此别的公司遭遇了销售下降之后就会造成 D 公司的 连锁下降。 D D 公司在零售很弱的时候没有其他的收入,这个也不一定会造成收入减少呀~ E 零售商把积压的 D 公司产品减价卖了。这个是零售商的问题,和制造商无关~排除。 选择 C 难度评级:四星 解题关键:挺绕的。 。找一个最可能的吧。。 。

PREP1-100-削弱题型(GWD 3-Q17) (31888-!-item-!-188;#058&006228)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409784&extra=
Brochure: Help conserve our city’s water supply. By converting the landscaping in your yard to a water-conserving landscape, you can greatly reduce your outdoor water use. A water-conserving landscape is natural and attractive, and it also saves you money. Criticism: For most people with yards, the savings from converting to a water-conserving landscape cannot justify the expense of new landscaping, since typically the conversion would save less than twenty dollars on a homeowner’s yearly water bills. Which of the following, if true, provides the best basis for a rebuttal of the criticism? A. Even homeowners whose yards do not have water-conserving landscapes can conserve water by installing water-saving devices in their homes. B. A conventional landscape generally requires a much greater expenditure on fertilizer and herbicide than does a water-conserving landscape. C. A significant proportion of the residents of the city live in buildings that do not have yards. D. It costs no more to put in water-conserving landscaping than it does to put in conventional landscaping. E. Some homeowners use more water to maintain their yards than they use for all other purposes combined.
答案:B 题干分析:小册子:为了保护水资源减少用水,可以把自己的院子的地形改成是节水型的地形。 批评者:节水的节省并不能抵消换成接水地形的开销,每个节水花园每年才节省不到 20 美金嘛。问削弱批评 者。 选项分析:A 那些不换地形的家庭也可以通过换用节水器件来节约水。这个没什么关系,排除 B 传统的地形通常需要更多的肥料和杀虫剂,这个就指出了传统的也会很浪费钱啊,削弱了批评者的观点。 C 很大一部分人都住在没有院子的房子里。这个也是无关选项。 D 两种安装的费用一样,无关选项,排除。 E 有些家庭用来照顾花园的用水比其他的所有用处加起来都多。无关,排除。 选择 B

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难度评级:三星 解题关键:看准是削弱哪一个人的观点。

PREP1-101-削弱题型(GWD 3-Q38/prep 2-6 different type) (31700-!-item-!-188;#058&006145) http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409785&extra Two computer companies, Garnet and Renco, each pay Salcor to provide health insurance for their employees. Because early treatment of high cholesterol can prevent strokes that would otherwise occur several years later, Salcor encourages Garnet employees to have their cholesterol levels tested and to obtain early treatment for high cholesterol. Renco employees generally remain with Renco only for a few years, however. Therefore, Salcor lacks any financial incentive to provide similar encouragement to Renco employees. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? A. Early treatment of high cholesterol does not eliminate the possibility of a stroke later in life. B. People often obtain early treatment for high cholesterol on their own. C. Garnet hires a significant number of former employees of Renco. D. Renco and Garnet have approximately the same number of employees. E. Renco employees are not, on average, significantly younger than Garnet employees.
答案:C 题干分析:S公司给G和R两家公司提供健康保险,早期的胆固醇检查能防止中风,早期资料可以降低风险和花 费。R的员工在R时间不长,所以S没什么兴趣做R的生意。问削弱。 选项分析: A:高胆固醇的早期治疗不会减少 stroke 在晚期发生的概率。这是无关选项。 B:人们经常自己接受高胆固醇的早期治疗。这个也是无关选项。 C:G 雇佣了大量 R 的员工,言外之意是反正 G 要求检查胆固醇,所以如果这些重复的人即便在 R 检查了也要 重新检查,所以干脆也可以给 R 的人检查,反正他们将来会去 G,这样就查两遍,赚两遍钱。所以是削弱。 D:R 和 G 有数量差不多的员工,无关。 E:平均来说,R 的员工不比 G 的员工年轻很多。是否年轻与结论无关 选C 难度评级:三星(中级) 解题关键:有点绕,想清楚什么是 financial incentive

PREP1-102-加强题型(GWD 1-Q15) (29392-!-item-!-188;#058&004074) http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409786&extra In parts of South America, vitamin-A deficiency is a serious health problem, especially among children. In one region, agriculturists hope to improve nutrition by encouraging farmers to plant a new variety of sweet potato called SPK004 that is rich in betacarotene, which the body converts into vitamin A. The plan has good chances of success, since sweet potato is a staple of the region’s diet and agriculture, and the varieties currently grown contain little beta-carotene. Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the prediction that the plan will succeed? A. There are other vegetables currently grown in the region that contain more beta-carotene than the currently cultivated varieties of sweet potato do. B. The flesh of SPK004 differs from that of the currently cultivated sweet potatoes in color and texture, so traditional foods would look somewhat different when prepared from SPK004. C. For successful cultivation of SPK004, a soil significantly richer in nitrogen is needed than is needed for

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the varieties of sweet potato currently cultivated in the region. D. There are no other varieties of sweet potato that are significantly richer in beta-carotene than SPK004 is. E. The currently cultivated varieties of sweet potato contain no important nutrients that SPK004 lacks.
答案:E 题干分析:一些南美国家孩子缺少维生素A,所以农业学家说可以鼓励农民多种植SPK004,一种富含维生素A 的食物,并且sweet potato是当地的主食,现在的品种缺乏维生素A,问支持计划会成功。ESPK004不会缺少 普通sweet potato的重要元素。言外之意是说SPK004 所有方面都比原来的好。 选项分析: A:在这个地区还生长有其他的蔬菜,这些蔬菜中含有的 betacartoene 比现在所种植的 sweet potato 所含 有的 betacartoene 多。其他的蔬菜是无关项,排除。 B:SPK004 的 flesh 与目前培养的 sweet potatoes 在色泽和质地上不一样,所以如果用 SPK004 做传统的饭 的话,看起来多少有些不同是否有营养与看起来是否相同毫无关系。 C:如果想要成功种植 SPK004 的话,那么土壤中需要的含氮量要比种植目前的 sweet potatoes 的土壤中的 含氮量丰富。与含氮量无关。 D:没有其他种类的 sweet potatoes 比 PSK004 含有更多的 betacartoene。不比 SPK004 含有的多,但是只 要比目前种植的 sweet potatoes 含有的多就可以。所以这个选项不支持。 E:SKP004 不会缺少普通 sweet potato 的重要元素。言外之意是说 SPK004 所有方面都比原来的好,除了 betacartoene 比原来的多之外,其他的重要元素也不比其他的少,营养不会缺乏。正确选项。 选E 难度评级:三星(中级) 解题关键:清楚是怎样 improve nutrition,在补充 betacartoene 的同时,不减少其他的营养。

PREP1-103-归纳题型(GWD 6-Q28) (31044-!-item-!-188;#058&005684) http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409837&extra Which of the following most logically completes the argument below? According to promotional material published by the city of Springfield, more tourists stay in hotels in Springfield than stay in the neighboring city of Harristown. A brochure from the largest hotel in Harristown claims that more tourists stay in that hotel than stay in the Royal Arms Hotel in Springfield. If both of these sources are accurate, however, the “Report on Tourism” for the region must be in error in stating that __________. A. the average length of stay is longer at the largest hotel in Harristown than it is at the Royal Arms Hotel B. there is only one hotel in Harristown that is larger than the Royal Arms Hotel C. more tourists stay in hotels in Harristown than stay in the Royal Arms Hotel D. the Royal Arms Hotel is the largest hotel in Springfield E. the Royal Arms Hotel is the only hotel in Springfield
答案:E 题干分析:S公布游客呆在S的酒店比呆在H的多。H却公布呆在H的酒店比呆在S的RA酒店多。如果大家说得都 对,那么是下面一定是错误的是? 选项分析: A: 在 H 的最大的酒店逗留的时间比在 RA hotel 逗留的时间长。逗留时间长短与游客人数无关。 B:在 H 只有一家 hotel 比 RA hotel 大。无关选项。 C:在 H 酒店的游客比在 RA hotel 的游客多。即使错误也可能出现题目中的结果。 D:RA hotel 是 S 最大的酒店。与酒店大小无关。 E:R 是 S 唯一的酒店。言外之意是说 S 只有一个酒店 R,只能呆在那里。这是不可能的,S 如果只有一家旅

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馆的话,还比 H 中最大的旅馆的游客少,不能解释 S 城的游客比 H 城的游客多。所以是正确答案。 选E 难度评级:四星(中级) 解题关键:看清楚是 must be in error in stating .

PREP1-104-归纳题型(GWD 5-Q38) (24883-!-item-!-188;#058&001256) http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409838&extra Nitrogen dioxide is a pollutant emitted by automobiles. Catalytic converters, devices designed to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions, have been required in all new cars in Donia since 1993, and as a result, nitrogen dioxide emissions have been significantly reduced throughout most of the country. Yet although the proportion of new cars in Donia's capital city has always been comparatively high, nitrogen dioxide emissions there have showed only an insignificant decline since 1993. Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the insignificant decline in nitrogen dioxide emissions in Donia's capital city? A. More of the cars in Donia's capital city were made before 1993 than after 1993. B. The number of new cars sold per year in Donia has declined slightly since 1993. C. Pollutants other than nitrogen dioxide that are emitted by automobiles have also been significantly reduced in Donia since 1993. D. Many Donians who own cars made before 1993 have had catalytic converters installed in their cars. E. Most car trips in Donia's capital city are too short for the catalytic converter to reach its effective working temperature.
答案:E 题干分析:N是汽车尾气的污染物,C转换器用来减少N的排放。D城市要求从1993年开始所有汽车必须安装C 转换器。但是虽然新车很多,但是N排放从1993年开始并没减少多少。问为什么? 选项分析: A:在 D 的首都 1993 年前产的车比 1993 年后产的车多。1993 年前的车的使用量与一氧化氮的排放的转化没 有直接的关系。 B:自从 1993 年以来,在 D 过每年卖出的新车的数量有所减少。并没有直接提到一氧化碳排放的转化。 C:汽车排放的除了一氧化碳之玩的污染物自从 1993 年之后也大幅下降了。无法解释。 D:在 1993 年生产的车也安装了 C 转换器。这样的话,应该一氧化氮的排放量更少了才对,所以无法解释。 E:C 转换器需要特殊温度才能工作,但是 D 城市的汽车旅程较短,根本没有达到特殊温度。所以 C 转换器没 什么效用。能够解释结论,正确 选E 难度评级:三星(中级) 解题关键:找到两种原因的不同点

PREP1-105-加强题型(GWD 6-Q15) (29298-!-item-!-188;#058&004042) http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409839&extra Capuchin monkeys often rub their bodies with a certain type of millipede. Laboratory tests show that secretions from the bodies of these millipedes are rich in two chemicals that are potent mosquito repellents, and mosquitoes carry parasites that debilitate capuchins. Some scientists hypothesize that the monkeys rub their bodies with the millipedes because doing so helps protect them from mosquitoes. Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the scientists’ hypothesis? A. A single millipede often gets passed around among several capuchins, all of whom rub their bodies

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with it. B. The two chemicals that repel mosquitoes also repel several other varieties of insects. C. The capuchins rarely rub their bodies with the millipedes except during the rainy season, when mosquito populations are at their peak. D. Although the capuchins eat several species of insects, they do not eat the type of millipede they use to rub on their bodies. E. The two insect-repelling chemicals in the secretions of the millipedes are carcinogenic for humans but do not appear to be carcinogenic for capuchins.
答案:C 题干分析:猴子经常往自己身上抓一种虫子,因为虫子而已分泌2种化学物质用来驱蚊。所以科学家认为猴子 往自己身上抓虫子是为了保护自己免受蚊子骚扰。问支持? 选项分析: A:一个 M 经常能在多个猴子身上传,所有的猴子都抓这个虫子。无关选项。 B:取走蚊子的两种化学物质不技能驱走蚊子,还能驱走其他的昆虫。无关。 C:猴子很少会往身上抓虫子,除了在雨季,而雨季蚊子数量最多。因为只在蚊子最多的时候往身上抓虫子, 说明是为了驱赶蚊子。支持结论。 D:尽管猴子吃很多昆虫,但是他们不吃这种往身上抓的昆虫。不吃不代表能驱蚊子。 E:能驱蚊的两种化学物质在人类身上会致癌,但是在猴子身上就不会致癌。是否致癌无关。 选C 难度评级:二星 解题关键:确定支持的对象的什么,无关选项都要排除。

PREP1-106-归纳题型(GWD 28-Q32) (31188-!-item-!-188;#058&005724)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409840&extra=
A prominent investor who holds a large stake in the Burton Tool Company has recently claimed that the company is mismanaged. As evidence for this claim, the investor cited the company's failure to slow production in response to a recent rise in its inventory of finished products. It is doubtful whether an investor's sniping at management can ever be anything other than counterproductive, but in this case it is clearly not justified. It is true that an increased inventory of finished products often indicates that production is outstripping demand. In Burton's case it indicates no such thing, however: the increase in inventory is entirely attributable to products that have already been assigned to orders received from customers. In the argument given, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles? A. The first provides evidence to support the conclusion of the argument as a whole; the second states that conclusion. B. The first states the conclusion of the argument as a whole; the second states an intermediate conclusion that is drawn in order to support that conclusion. C. The first is the position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second provides evidence against the position being opposed. D. The first states an intermediate conclusion that is drawn in order to support the conclusion of the argument as a whole; the second states the conclusion of the argument as a whole. E. The first and the second both state intermediate conclusions that are drawn in order to support jointly the conclusion of the argument as a whole.
原题无划线,暂无点评

PREP1-107-加强题型(GWD 1-Q40 different type) (26093-!-item-!-188;#058&001880)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409841&extra=

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Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been available. They have been used primarily by older adults, who are at risk for complications from influenza. A new vaccine administered in a nasal spray has proven effective in preventing influenza in children. Since children are significantly more likely than adults to contract and spread influenza, making the new vaccine widely available for children will greatly reduce the spread of influenza across the population. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument? A. If a person receives both the injectable and the nasal-spray vaccine, the two vaccines do not interfere with each other. B. The new vaccine uses the same mechanism to ward off influenza as injectable vaccines do. C. Government subsidies have kept the injectable vaccine affordable for all older adults. D. Of the older adults who contract influenza, relatively few contract it from children with influenza. E. Many parents would be more inclined to have their children vaccinated against influenza if the vaccination did not require an injection.
答案:E 题干分析: 老年人很容易感染流感。小孩子更容易感染和传播流感, 新发明了一种疫苗不用 inject 就可以接种, 说这种新疫苗能使整体的疫情得到大幅改善,问加强。 选项分析:只要找到一个选项能说明新疫苗能有效减少患病人数就行了。 A 属于无关选项,并没有说明两种药的混合药效跟加强原文结论有什么关系。 B 既无加强也无削弱。 C 无关选项。Affordable 和控制整体流感疫情没有关系。 D 削弱了原文结论。既然老人很少是从年轻人那感染的流感,那么新的疫苗根本就不会明显减轻整体疫情了。 E 为正确答案。新发明的药剂可以使更多的孩子 vaccinated,而孩子又更容易 contract 和 spread,所以如控 制了孩子的流感病情就可以减少整个人群的流感病情。 选 E 难度评级:三星 解题关键:找到新疫苗、孩子与老人之间的联系

PREP1-108-评价题型(GWD 7-Q41) (32122-!-item-!-188;#058&006354)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409893&extra=
Magazine Publisher: Our magazine does not have a liberal bias. It is true that when a book review we had commissioned last year turned out to express distinctly conservative views, we did not publish it until we had also obtained a second review that took a strongly liberal position. Clearly, however, our actions demonstrate not a bias in favor of liberal views but rather a commitment to a balanced presentation of diverse opinions. Determining which of the following would be most useful in evaluating the cogency of the magazine publisher's response? A. Whether any other magazines in which the book was reviewed carried more than one review of the book B. Whether the magazine publishes unsolicited book reviews as well as those that it has commissioned C. Whether in the event that a first review commissioned by the magazine takes a clearly liberal position the magazine would make any efforts to obtain further reviews D. Whether the book that was the subject of the two reviews was itself written from a clearly

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conservative or a clearly liberal point of view E. Whether most of the readers of the magazine regularly read the book reviews that the magazine publishes
答案:C 题干分析:一个杂志辩解说自己并没有言论偏见。去年有一本书,他的观点是相对 conservative 的,于是我们 等待知道有了 liberal 的观点才出版,所以我们并不是更偏向于 liberal views 而是希望观点能有一个 balance。 问衡量。 选项分析:衡量题的解题关键是找到一个选项,加强削弱都可以。要做到的就是排除所有无关选项。 A 为无关选项,其他 magazines 的做法跟本杂志没有任何关系。 B 为无关选项,出版 unsolicited book 的做法并不能说明该杂志没有偏见, 因为可能 unsolicited books 可能 即有 liberal views 也有 conservative views。 C 为正确选项。如果杂志不管接收到的是不是 liberal 观点都会等到有不同观点之后再发表的话,就说明肯定没 有 bias。 D 为无关选项,的观点写的是否明确无法判断出杂志是否存在偏见。 E 为无关选项,书的读者是否阅读杂志出版的书跟杂志是否存在偏见无关。 难度评级:四星 解题关键:明确思路,排除与之无关的选项

PREP1-109-削弱题型(GWD 29-Q27 different type) (30048-!-item-!-188;#058&004735)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409894&extra=
Though sucking zinc lozenges has been promoted as a treatment for the common cold, research has revealed no consistent effect. Recently, however, a zinc gel applied nasally has been shown to greatly reduce the duration of colds. Since the gel contains zinc in the same form and concentration as the lozenges, the greater effectiveness of the gel must be due to the fact that cold viruses tend to concentrate in the nose, not the mouth. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? A. Experimental subjects who used the zinc gel not only had colds of shorter duration but also had less severe symptoms than did those who used a gel that did not contain zinc. B. The mechanism by which zinc affects the viruses that cause the common cold has not been conclusively established. C. To make them palatable, zinc lozenges generally contain other ingredients, such as citric acid, that can interfere with the chemical activity of zinc. D. No zinc-based cold remedy can have any effect unless it is taken or applied within 48 hours of the initial onset of cold symptoms. E. Drug-company researchers experimenting with a nasal spray based on zinc have found that it has much the same effect on colds as the gel does.
答案:C 题干分析:有两种治流感的药,一种是 suck 的 zinc,一种是用在鼻腔里的 zinc,但是后者效果更好,而两者 的 zinc 含量化学组成都是完全一样的, 所以结论是病毒大部分都集中在鼻子里所以才导致后者效果好。 问削弱。 选项分析: 只要找到一个条件能说明有其他的东西能影响前者的药效就行了。 A 为无关比较,比较了 zinc gel 和 gel that did not contain zinc 的药效区别,无关。 B 为无关选项,说 zinc 如何影响病毒的具体机制还没弄明白,同样解释不了两种药为什么药效有差别。 C 为正确答案。C 说明 lozenges 里面其实含有很多其他的物质可以削弱 zinc 的药效,所以不一定是因为病毒 鼻子里更多才导致 gel 效果好的,从而削弱。 D 为无关选项。No zinc-based cold remedy,明显和我们要反驳的结论无关嘛。

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E 应该是 strengthen 了原文结论。既然两种药在实验中药效是相同的,那么后者好估计就是因为病毒都在鼻 子里所以杀的多效果显著。 选 C 难度评级:四星 解题关键:找到一个能说明影响药效的其他因素即可。

PREP1-110-削弱题型(GWD 7-Q17) (30658-!-item-!-188;#058&005491)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409895&extra=
Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass surgery—a procedure widely prescribed for people with heart disease—only 75 percent benefited from the surgery. Thus it appears that for one in four such patients, the doctors who advised them to undergo this surgery, with its attendant risks and expense, were more interested in an opportunity to practice their skills and in their fee than in helping the patient. Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument? A. Many of the patients who receive coronary bypass surgery are less than 55 years old. B. Possible benefits of coronary bypass surgery include both relief from troubling symptoms and prolongation of life. C. Most of the patients in the survey decided to undergo coronary bypass surgery because they were advised that the surgery would reduce their risk of future heart attacks. D. The patients over 65 years old who did not benefit from the coronary bypass surgery were as fully informed as those who did benefit from the surgery as to the risks of the surgery prior to undergoing it. E. The patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery but who did not benefit from it were medically indistinguishable, prior to their surgery, from the patients who did benefit.
答案:E 题干分析:做了手术的人只有 75%受益了,所以医生如果已经知道了术后风险还劝你做手术的话根本就不是为 了你之后能恢复健康考虑,而只是想练练手或者赚钱。问削弱。 选项分析:削弱的话就是要找出一个选项来证明医生并不是在已知手术不能成功时还让病人接受手术。 A 为无关选项,原题中讨论的是 65 岁以上的人人做手术会咋样。 B 为无关选项,医生黑不黑和手术的 benefits 具体效果没有关系。 C 有些支持的意味,好像医生不告诉他们有 25%的人会 suffer 只说动手术的好处,变相说明了医生很坏,支持 原文结论。 D 既不削弱也不支持,医生肯定得通知病人风险,但他是不是明知手术会失败还让你做就不知道了。 E 正确。原题说 E 刚好说明了在手术前医生是无法分辨出那些病人能够 benefit 哪些不能 benefit 的,所以他 们肯定得一视同仁,都得让你做手术。所以就不存在医生让你做手术是想黑你的说法了。 选 E 难度评级:五星(干扰选项较多) 解题关键:应该正确判断出解题关键点,从而达到有效的削弱。要从医生是否是故意让病人动注定失败的手术 这个点出发。

PREP1-111-加强题型(GWD 30-Q27 different type) (30514-!-item-!-188;#058&005454)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409896&extra=
Personnel officer: The exorbitant cost of our health-insurance benefits reflects the high dollar amount of medical expenses incurred by our employees. Employees who are out of shape, as a group, have higher doctor bills and longer hospital stays than do their colleagues who are fit. Therefore, since we must reduce our health-insurance costs, we should offer a rigorous fitness program of jogging and

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weight lifting to all employees, and require employees who are out of shape to participate. Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the personnel officer's proposal? A. The medical expenses incurred by fit people who participate in a program of jogging and weight lifting are less than those incurred by fit people who do not participate in such a program. B. More otherwise fit people are injured by participating in rigorous jogging and weight-lifting programs than are injured by participating in moderate jogging and weight-lifting programs. C. The likelihood of incurring medical expenses is slightly greater for people who participate in fitness programs offered by their employers than it is for people who participate in programs offered commercially. D. Moderate fitness programs increase the average person's fitness to the same extent that rigorous fitness programs do. E. More health problems and injuries are the result of mandatory participation in a fitness program than are the result of voluntary participation.
答案:A 题干分析:体型失衡的比匀称的花费公司更多的保险。那么,提供减肥计划来并体型失衡的人参加,以减少公 司的保险费。问加强。 选项分析: A. 有运动的人医疗花费比不运动的少。支持了运动可以减少医疗费用。 B. 削弱。说 fitness program 导致的是 injury 而不是让人变健康 C. 明显无关 D. 削弱。moderate 和 rigorous 导致相同的结果,那就没必要用 rigorous 的 program E. 削弱。原因同 B,说 fitness program 导致的是 injury 而不是让人变健康 选 A 难度评级:三星(中级) 解题关键:排除法可较准确选出正确答案

PREP1-112-削弱题型(GWD 8-Q38) (32826-!-item-!-188;#058&006832)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409897&extra=
Unless tiger hunting decreases, tigers will soon be extinct in the wild. The countries in which the tigers' habitats are located are currently debating joint legislation that would ban tiger hunting. Thus, if these countries can successfully enforce this legislation, the survival of tigers in the wild will be ensured. The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument A. assumes without sufficient warrant that a ban on tiger hunting could be successfully enforced B. considers the effects of hunting on tigers without also considering the effects of hunting on other endangered animal species C. fails to take into account how often tiger hunters are unsuccessful in their attempts to kill tigers D. neglects to consider the results of governmental attempts in the past to limit tiger hunting E. takes the removal of an impediment to the tigers' survival as a guarantee of their survival
答案:E 题干分析:除非减少 hunting,否则野生老虎很多就会灭绝。一个地方准备立法禁止 hunting。如果这个顺利 执行,老虎的生存就会有保障了。 选项分析: A 项易错选。此处须分清既定前提条件 A:说这个法令能够执行没有得到保证。 这个选项很有迷惑性!但注意,这里这个法令能执行就是一个既定前 问削弱

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提,题干中也说“如果能执行,才能怎样怎样”所以,这个假设不应被挑战。这个选项属于无端攻击论证中的 假定,对其取非也不能推倒原论证 B:无关(other animal) C:无关(how often) D:无关(in the past) E:说把一个对老虎生存的阻碍因素的消除实为保证其生存的因素。此项正确 选 E 难度评级:四星(较难) 解题关键:认清结论的既定前提条件,避免落入陷阱

PREP1-113-归纳题型(GWD 17-Q41) (32778-!-item-!-188;#058&006823)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409973&extra=
Last year a record number of new manufacturing jobs were created. Will this year bring another record? Well, any new manufacturing job is created either within an existing company or by the start-up of a new company. Within existing firms, new jobs have been created this year at well below last year’s record pace. At the same time, there is considerable evidence that the number of new companies starting up will be no higher this year than it was last year and surely the new companies starting up this year will create no more jobs per company than did last year’s start-ups. So clearly, the number of new jobs created this year will fall short of last year’s record. In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles? A. The first is presented as an obvious truth on which the argument is based; the second is a prediction advanced in support of the main conclusion of the argument. B. The first is presented as an obvious truth on which the argument is based; the second is an objection that the argument rejects. C. The first is presented as an obvious truth on which the argument is based; the second is the main conclusion of the argument. D. The first is a generalization that the argument seeks to establish; the second is a claim that has been advanced in support of a position that the argument opposes. E. The first is a generalization that the argument seeks to establish; the second is a claim that has been advanced in order to challenge that generalization.
答案:A 题干分析: 去年的工作岗位达到了新高。今年还会超过记录吗?因为新增的岗位来源于现有的公司和新建立的公司,而今 年现有公司的岗位会比去年少。与此同时,没有证据说明今年新公司会提供比去年新公司多的职位。所以,今 年的工作岗位会比去年的有所减少 选项分析:Boldface 题的解题要点:找出假设和结论 Premise: 1. new job is created either within... or by... 2. existing company: below 3. new company: no reason ... will more than llast year's Conclusion: the number of new jobs created this will fall short of last year 从这里可以很容易的看出答案为 A 选 C 难度评级:一星(简单级) (truth)

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解题关键:找出假设和结论

PREP1-114-评价题型(GWD 12-Q38) (29014-!-item-!-188;#058&003730)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409974&extra=
Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever occur irregularly in East Africa, several years apart. When outbreaks do occur, they kill thousands of cattle. A livestock vaccine against the disease exists but is rarely used. It is too expensive for farmers to use routinely, and since it is not effective until a month after vaccination, administering it after an outbreak begins helps very little. Nevertheless, experts predict that use of the vaccine will increase significantly within the next few years. Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest justification for the experts’ prediction? A. Rift Valley fever is spread by mosquitoes, but each outbreak is so widespread that it is impractical to control it by using insecticides. B. When an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurs, unaffected countries often refuse to import livestock from the countries affected by the outbreak. C. It would take less than a month for producers of the vaccine to adjust their production operations to cope with a large increase in demand. D. Many cattle farmers in East Africa are nomadic or live in remote villages, and such farmers, who have little access to modern veterinary medicine, are particularly hard hit by outbreaks of Rift Valley fever. E. Recently published research has shown that certain identifiable climatic conditions are almost invariably followed, within two to five months, by an outbreak of Rift Valley fever.
答案:A 题干分析:题目说 疫苗很少被使用,一是因为日常使用太贵了,二是因为在注射疫苗一个月后该疫苗才能起到 效果,那么当瘟疫爆发后在注射就没什么用了。 (即前提为,要么日常使用疫苗,要么就只能在瘟疫爆发后注射 疫苗)紧接着转折,现在专家预测在未来,该疫苗的使用将会大大增加(结论) 。问专家预测的理由。 选项分析:如何解释专家的预测呢,思路是 疫苗可以在其他前提下注射,提前预付瘟疫。 A: fever 是由蚊子传播的,但是每一次的爆发都如此广泛以至于使用杀虫剂是没用的。杀虫剂纯属无关词, 改选项对结论的成立没用任何作用。 B: 当 fever 爆发后,其他国家拒绝从遭受瘟疫的国家进口牲畜。 这个描写 fever 爆发的后果,与结论完全无 关。 C: 该选项有点迷惑, 它说 即使疫苗需求大量增加, 也不需要一个月就能调节疫苗的生产以应对大规模的需求。 看似对结论有加强作用,其实无关。 D: 该选项说的是那些不会被 fever 感染的牲畜,这些牲畜 对结论没有加强作用 E: 一些 identifiable 可识别的天气情况经常伴随着 Rift Valley fever 的爆发。关键词为 identifiable 和 outbreak. 这说明了瘟疫的爆发也是有标志的,那么农民可以根据标志,也就是特定的天气预测瘟疫的爆 发情况,从而提前使用疫苗,那么疫苗的使用将会增加。 选 A 难度评级:三星(中级) 解题关键:排除不靠谱的选项,找到解释结论的合理原因

PREP1-115-评价题型(T-3-Q29) (24593-!-item-!-188;#058&001109)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409975&extra=
The emission of sulfur dioxide when high-sulfur coal is burned is restricted by law. New coal-burning plants usually comply with the law by installing expensive equipment to filter sulfur dioxide from their emissions. These new plants could save money by installing instead less expensive cleaning equipment that chemically removes most sulfur from coal before combustion.

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Which of the following, if known, would be most relevant to evaluating the claim above about how new coal-burning plants could save money? A. Whether existing oil-burning plants are required to filter sulfur dioxide from their emissions B. Whether the expense of installing the cleaning equipment in a new plant is less than the expense of installing the cleaning equipment in an older plant C. Whether the process of cleaning the coal is more expensive than the process of filtering the emissions D. Whether lawful emissions of sulfur dioxide from coal-burning plants are damaging the environment E. Whether existing plants that use the filtering equipment could replace this equipment with the cleaning equipment and still compete with new plants that install the cleaning equipment
答案:C 题干分析: 两种减少 sulfur dioxide 排放的方法。 一是使用贵得设备, 可以从尾气中过滤掉 sulfur dioxide, 二 是使用不那么贵的设备,可以从煤中分离掉 sulfur。结论,用第二种方法会省钱。评价结论,寻找 gap。 前 提是 设备的价格比较,结论是整个过程的成本比较。正确选项应该是关于这两种方法的某种成本的比较。 选项分析: A: 是否现在 oil-burning plants 需要过滤 sulfur dioxide。 无关选项, 因为结论关于 coal-burning plants。 B: 是否在新工厂中安装清洁设备比在旧工厂中安装清洁设备要便宜。看似迷幻,其实无关,关于旧工厂和新 工厂的比较与结论是没有关系的,结论是关于两种方法的比较。提醒各位童鞋要看清选项,不是任何比较 在这里都是正确答案。 C: 是否清洁煤的过程(即第二种方法)比过滤尾气的方法(即第一种方法)要更贵。回答为“是”的话,第 二种方法的成本增加,则削弱结论。回答为“否”的话,则加强结论。 D: 是否法定的 sulfur dioxide 排放量是损害环境的,完全无关选项。 E: 是否现存的使用过滤设备的工厂能用清洁设备取代这个过滤设备,并且与安装了清洁设备的新工厂竞争。 无关选项 选 C 难度评级:三星(中级) 解题关键:寻找关键词和 gap

PREP1-116-评价题型(T-9-Q18 different type) (30096-!-item-!-188;#058&005070)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409976&extra=
The growing popularity of computer-based activities was widely expected to result in a decline in television viewing, since it had been assumed that people lack sufficient free time to maintain current television-viewing levels while spending increasing amounts of free time on the computer. That assumption, however, is evidently false: in a recent mail survey concerning media use, a very large majority of respondents who report increasing time spent per week using computers report no change in time spent watching television. In order to evaluate the argument, it would be most useful to determine which of the following? A. Whether the survey collected information about the amount of money respondents spent on free-time media use B. Whether the amount of time spent watching television is declining among people who report that they rarely or never use computers C. Whether the type of television programs a person watches tends to change as the amount of time spent per week using computers increases D. Whether a large majority of the computer owners in the survey reported spending increasing amounts of time per week using computers E. Whether the survey respondents’ reports of time spent using computers included time spent using

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computers at work
答案:E 题干分析: 以电脑为基础的活动的流行将会导致看电视的下降,因为我们假设人们缺乏足够的 free time 在 维持现在看电视的水平的情况下还能增加话在电脑上的 free time。紧接着转折,但是这个假设是错误的(文 章结论) 。因为最近调查显示,很大一部分回应者在增加用电脑的时间(time)的同时维持看电视水平不变。 Gap: free time 和 time (其实很容易被忽略的点) 评价题 。 选项分析: A, 是否该调查收集了回应者花在休闲时间媒体使用的钱数。Money 与结论完全无关 们看电视的时间多少与结论无关。 C, 是否当人们花在电脑使用上的时间增加了,人们看的电视节目类型也随之评价。又是一个八竿子打不着的 选项。 D, 是否调查中的电脑所有人中很大一部分每周花在电脑上的时间增加了。这个对结论不能有加强或者削弱作 用。因为结论的前提本来就是 那些人花在电脑上的时间增加了。 E, 是否调查中的回应者们所说的时间包括了用电脑工作的时间。正确选项,点出来 time 和 free time 的区 别。如果回应者说的时间包括工作时间,那么即使整体用电脑的时间增加了,也不能说明使用电脑的 free time 增加了,对结论就削弱了。如果不包括,则加强。 选 C 难度评级:三星级(中级) 解题关键:找准 gap 和关键词 B, 是否那些很少或从不使用电脑的人们,看电视的时间减少了。很少或从不使用电脑的人属于无关群体,他

PREP1-117-假设题型(GWD 3-Q32) (30804-!-item-!-188;#058&005538)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=409977&extra=
Newspaper editorial: In an attempt to reduce the crime rate, the governor is getting tough on criminals and making prison conditions harsher. Part of this effort has been to deny inmates the access they formerly had to college-level courses. However, this action is clearly counter to the governor's ultimate goal, since after being released from prison, inmates who had taken such courses committed far fewer crimes overall than other inmates. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends? A. Not being able to take college-level courses while in prison is unlikely to deter anyone from a crime that he or she might otherwise have committed. B. Former inmates are no more likely to commit crimes than are members of the general population. C. The group of inmates who chose to take college-level courses were not already less likely than other inmates to commit crimes after being released. D. Taking high school level courses in prison has less effect on an inmate's subsequent behavior than taking college-level courses does. E. The governor's ultimate goal actually is to gain popularity by convincing people that something effective is being done about crime.
答案:C 题干分析:为了减少犯罪率,监狱长对罪犯和监狱的状况的更加严格把控。其中一项措施,就是以前罪犯可以 参加大学课程,现在给取消了,不让他们上了。 但是呢,实际上这个做法是有悖于监狱长的最终目标的。为什么呢?因为根据以往情况来看,在监狱里上过这 些课程的人,出狱以后犯罪率都比没上过的人要低很多。

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问题是,这个结论是基于怎样的假设? 选项分析:找假设,先看选项是否相关,再把剩下的选项先假定为真,一个个带进去看是否能支持这个结论。 A:双重否定,有点绕。意思是不让罪犯上课不能阻止他们犯罪。双重否定等于肯定,就是说上课可以阻止犯 罪。题干中说在监狱里上过这些课程的人,出狱以后犯罪率都比没上过的人要低很多,也就是说上课是可以阻 止犯罪的。实际上 A 选项就是把这个意思重复了一遍,没有起到任何加强的作用,也就无法称其为假设,排除。 B:有前科的人比普通人更加容易犯罪。这个选项很容易排除。分清楚比较对象就行了。题干里比较的是“上 过课的罪犯”和“没上过课的罪犯” ,而这个选项比较的是“罪犯”和“普通人” ,比较对象都错了,肯定没法 支持结论了 C:这个选项否定了一个观点: “选择参加这些课的人本来就比不参加的人犯罪率低” 。选项本身比较绕,我们 把它取非,就是“选择参加这些课的人本来就比不参加的人犯罪率低” 。把这个意思带到题干中去理解,那么就 说明参不参加这个课程对犯罪率就没有影响了,题干中说“这个做法有悖于监狱长的最终目标”就不成立了, 因为实际上这个监狱长是否这样做他的目标都可以实现。题干中的结论无法推出,那么这个取非后的说法显然 就是错误的了,反言之,这个选项就是正确的。因为否定了这个说法,恰好就支持了题干中的结论。 D:这个和 B 的错误类似,也是比较对象的错误。题干中比较的是“上课的”和“没上课”的,D 比较的是“上 高中课程的”和“上大学课程的” ,比较对象错误,排除 E:这个选项说,最终目标是监狱长要说服人民群众他们正在做一些有效的事情来降低犯罪率。这个目标实现 了没有,我们无从考证。也许群众不知道在监狱里上过这些课程的人,出狱以后犯罪率都比没上过的人要低很 多。那监狱长的目标还是有可能会实现。所以说这个选项的真实性无法确定,不能选。 选 C 难度评级:四星(较难) 解题关键:取非,分清楚题干的比较对象和题目中的比较对象

PREP1-118-假设题型(GWD 18-Q30) (30900-!-item-!-188;#058&005643)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410009&extra=
The ancient Nubians inhabited an area in which typhus occurs, yet surprisingly few of their skeletons show the usual evidence of this disease. The skeletons do show deposits of tetracycline, an antibiotic produced by a bacterium common in Nubian soil. This bacterium can flourish on the dried grain used for making two staples of the Nubian diet, beer and bread. Thus, tetracycline in their food probably explains the low incidence of typhus among ancient Nubians. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies? A. Infectious diseases other than typhus to which the ancient Nubians were exposed are unaffected by tetracycline. B. Tetracycline is not rendered ineffective as an antibiotic by exposure to the processes involved in making bread and beer. C. Typhus cannot be transmitted by ingesting bread or beer contaminated with the infectious agents of this disease. D. Bread and beer were the only items in the diet of the ancient Nubians which could have contained tetracycline. E. Typhus is generally fatal.
答案:C 题干分析:古巴比伦人住在一个很容易感染伤寒的地方,但是令人惊讶的是,基本上他们的骨架上都没有出现 感染伤寒留下的痕迹。 后面又说了,他们的骨架上有四环素的沉积物,四环素是一种用巴比伦土壤里的细菌做成的抗生素,而这种细 菌会在一种谷物里繁殖,这种谷物一般被巴比伦人用来做两种食物:啤酒和面包。

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然后就得出了结论,正是因为这种抗生素的存在,才让古巴比伦人避免了感染风寒。 问题是找前提假设 选项分析:找假设,先看选项是否相关,再把剩下的选项先假定为真,一个个带进去看是否能支持这个结论。 A:古巴比伦人可能会得的除了风寒以外的感染病,四环素都不起作用。题目的意思是要说明四环素和风寒之 间的关系。和别的感染病没有关系。所以这个选项是无关的。 B:在制作面包和啤酒的过程中,四环素不会失效。这就排除了一个疑虑,确保古巴比伦通过喝啤酒和吃面包 确实能得到有效的免疫,所以支持了题干中的说法,正确。我们也可以通过取非来确认,取非以后就是在制作 面包和啤酒的过程中,四环素会失效,这就削弱了题干中的推理,所以取非之前的说法是正确的。 C:这个选项说,古巴比伦人不会因为吃了受到病毒污染过的食物而感染上伤寒。这个选项实际上是无关选项, 因为题干中关注的是“古巴比伦人通过食物得以对伤寒免疫”这个说法是否正确,没提到过吃了受到病毒污染 过的食物会怎样,无关,排除 D:说面包和啤酒是巴比伦人的食物中唯一包含四环素的。这个也无关。因为关键是“四环素与免疫”之间的 关系,跟别的食物里是否有四环素没有关系。 E:风寒是致命的。这个就更加没有关系了,是否致命与如何免疫没有任何关系,一眼就能排除。 选 C 难度评级:二级(简单) 解题关键:快速找到题干中的关键信息,排除无关选项

PREP1-119-假设题型(GWD 17-Q30) (28734-!-item-!-188;#058&003375)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410010&extra=
In a study conducted in Pennsylvania, servers in various restaurants wrote “Thank you” on randomly selected bills before presenting the bills to their customers. Tips on these bills were an average of three percentage points higher than tips on bills without the message. Therefore, if servers in Pennsylvania regularly wrote “Thank you” on restaurant bills, their average income from tips would be significantly higher than it otherwise would have been. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies? A. The “Thank you” messages would have the same impact on regular patrons of a restaurant as they would on occasional patrons of the same restaurant. B. Regularly seeing “Thank you” written on their bills would not lead restaurant patrons to revert to their earlier tipping habits. C. The written “Thank you” reminds restaurant patrons that tips constitute a significant part of the income of many food servers. D. The rate at which people tip food servers in Pennsylvania does not vary with how expensive a restaurant is. E. Virtually all patrons of the Pennsylvania restaurants in the study who were given a bill with “Thank you” written on it left a larger tip than they otherwise would have.
答案:B 题干分析:说是有一个调查,在宾州的一些餐厅的侍者会随机的在一些账单上写下“Thank you” ,然后再把账 单给顾客。 结果呢,用这些账单的得到的小费,比没有“Thank you”的账单得到的小费平均要高出 3%. 然后就得出了结论,说如果这些侍者经常性的在账单上写“Thank you” ,他们的小费收入会比不写的时候高出 很多。 问支持这个结论的假设。 选项分析:找假设,先看选项是否相关,再把剩下的选项先假定为真,一个个带进去看是否能支持这个结论。

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A:对同一间餐馆来说, “Thank you”账单对常客和偶尔来的顾客都能有同样的效果。这个选项比较有迷惑性, 为了更好的检验,我们把它取非来看看: “Thank you”账单对常客和偶尔来的顾客并没有同样的效果。但是有 一点要注意了,一个餐厅的顾客不可能都是常客,肯定有偶尔来的顾客,只要这些顾客会多给小费,题干中的 结论就是正确的。所以说,A 这个选项成立与否,对题干结论没有影响,所以排除。 B:经常看到“Thank you”账单不会导致顾客们不再给出较多的小费。还是取非:经常看到“Thank you”账 单,顾客们就不会再给较多的小费了。这个就对结论有影响了,因为这个情况是针对所有顾客而言的。所以说 取非以后会削弱题干的结论,那么 B 选项这个说法就是加强题干结论了,正确 C: “Thank you”提醒顾客们,小费是很多侍者收入中的的一个重要部分。这个是无关选项。题干中想说明的是 “经常写 Thank you”和“小费收入增加”之间的关系,这个选项没有与此没有任何解释或支持削弱的关系, 排除 D:在宾州,人们增加小费的比率不会随着食物的贵贱而改变。这个说法正确与否同样对说明“经常写 Thank you”和“小费收入增加”之间的关系没有任何的影响。无关。 E:在这个调查中,所有收到“Thank you”账单的顾客都给出了比正常情况下要高的小费。题干结论是要把这 个情况推广从随机推广到一般,再次重复调查中的结果对此没有起到任何作用,是对题干本身的重复,排除。 选 B 难度评级:三级(中级) 解题关键:找出题干结论说明的是哪两者之间的关系。分清“常客”“偶尔来的顾客”“全体顾客”之间的关 , , 系——GMAT 很爱玩这种“部分和整体”的游戏,好几题都是这样的,小心别被绕晕。

PREP1-120-归纳题型(GWD 8-Q40) (32170-!-item-!-188;#058&006359)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410011&extra=
From 1973 to 1976, total United States consumption of cigarettes increased 3.4 percent, and total sales of chewing tobacco rose 18.0 percent. During the same period, total United States population increased 5.0 percent. If the statements above are true, which of the following conclusions can be properly drawn? A. United States manufacturers of tobacco products had higher profits in 1976 than in 1973. B. Per capita consumption of cigarettes in the United States was lower in 1976 than in 1973. C. The proportion of nonsmokers in the United States population dropped slightly between 1973 and 1976. D. United States manufacturers of tobacco products realize a lower profit on cigarettes than on chewing tobacco. E. A large percentage of United States smokers switched from cigarettes to chewing tobacco between 1973 and 1976.
答案:B 题干分析: 1973 年到 1976 年, 美国人消费香烟的总量增长了 3..4%,而 chewing tobacco 的销售量增长了 18%。 在相同的时间段内,美国人口总量增加了 5%。 问如果上面说的都是真的,可以推出下面哪个结论? 选项分析:推断题,看清楚前提找结论。这题主要是弄清楚几个关系和数学公式。 A:美国的烟草商在 1976 年比 1973 年的利润高。这个不一定。因为利润=单个产品利润*销量,我们不知道 单个产品利润是多了还是少了,所以没法决定。错 B:平均每人香烟消费量,1976 年比 1973 年少。做一下除法,很容易比较出来,是对的。 C:美国不抽烟的人在 1973 年和 1976 年之间有略微的减少。我们只知道总人口的变化和香烟的总消费量,这 个推不出来。错。

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D:cigarettes 的盈利比 chewing tobacco 少。和 A 一样的原因,不知道二者的单独利润分别有什么变化,推 不出来。 E:1973 年到 1976 年之间,很大一部分的美国烟民从买 cigarettes 转向了买 chewing tobacco。从总人口 和两种烟草的消费量无法推出这个变化。 还有很多种其他的可能, 比如是新增加的烟民消费 chewing tobacco, 原来买 cigarettes 的人还是买 cigarettes。 选 B 难度评级:二级(简单) 解题关键:知道利润=单个产品利润*销量这个公式基本就不会错了。

PREP1-121-假设题型(GWD 23-Q40) (32730-!-item-!-188;#058&006786)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410012&extra=
Political advocacy groups have begun to use information services to disseminate information that is then accessed by the public via personal computer. Since many groups are thus able to bypass traditional news sources, whose reporting is selective, and to present their political views directly to the public, information services present a more balanced picture of the complexities of political issues than any traditional news source presents. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument above depends? A. Information services are accessible to enough people to ensure that political advocacy groups can use these services to reach as large a percentage of the public as they could through traditional news sources. B. People could get a thorough understanding of a particular political issue by sorting through information provided by several traditional news sources, each with differing editorial biases. C. Information on political issues disseminated through information services does not come almost entirely from advocacy groups that share a single bias. D. Traditional news sources seldom report the views of political advocacy groups accurately. E. Most people who get information on political issues from newspapers and other traditional news sources can readily identify the editorial biases of those sources.
答案:C 题干分析:题干告诉我们现在政治选战都开始利用 information services 来进行宣传了,所以很多政治团体就 可以不受传统媒体的限制了,可以直接把他们的观点传递给受众,所以说这个 information services 比传统媒 体更能够在复杂的政治事件中提供一个平衡点。问前提假设。 选项分析:找假设,先看选项是否相关,再把剩下的选项先假定为真,一个个带进去看是否能支持这个结论。 A:Information services 的受众足够大,使政治团体可以拥有和利用传统媒体一样的影响人群。题干的结论 FOCUS 在 a more balanced picture,这个和受众的数量没有关系,无关,排除。 B:读者可以通过分析几篇带有不同偏向的来自传统媒体的报道对某个政治事件有一个透彻的了解。如果是这 样,那题目中所说的 information services 的优势就不存在了。这个是削弱,排除。 C:information services 中宣传的观点不是完全来自于同一个阵营的。这个就对了。取非,如果完全是来自 于同一个阵营的,那它的偏向性只会比传统媒体更加严重。只有不同的团体都有发言的机会,才能让 information services 真正做到 more balanced。正确。 D:传统媒体很少能准确的传达政治团体的意见。举个反例,就算如实报道,也可以是“有偏见的如实报道” , 所以这个选项无论正确与否对结论都没有影响,排除。 E:传统媒体的受众能很容易看出来偏向性。和 B 的意思差不多,同样的原因可以排除。 选 C 难度评级:三级(中级)

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解题关键:找到和“balanced”这个重点有关的要素,无关要素快速排除。

PREP1-122-假设题型(GWD 30-Q27) (30466-!-item-!-188;#058&005453)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410013&extra=
Personnel officer: The exorbitant cost of our health-insurance benefits reflects the high dollar amount of medical expenses incurred by our employees. Employees who are out of shape, as a group, have higher doctor bills and longer hospital stays than do their colleagues who are fit. Therefore, since we must reduce our health-insurance costs, we should offer a rigorous fitness program of jogging and weight lifting to all employees, and require employees who are out of shape to participate. The conclusion reached by the personnel officer depends on which of the following assumptions? A. A person who is fit would receive a routine physical checkup by a doctor less regularly than would a person who is out of shape. B. The medical expenses incurred by employees who are required to participate in the fitness program would be less than those incurred by employees who are not required to participate. C. The strenuous activities required of out-of-shape employees by the program would not by themselves generate medical expenses greater than any reduction achieved by the program. D. The fitness program would serve more employees who are out of shape than it would employees who are fit. E. The employees who participate in the fitness program would be away from work because of illness less than would the employees who do not participate.
答案:C 题干分析:这个人事经理说,健康保险成本增加是因为员工的医疗花费太高了。那些身材走样的员工比那些健 康的员工花更多的钱,住更久的院。所以,为了降低健康保险成本,我们应该为所有员工提供一些慢跑或举重 的项目,并且要求身材走样的员工必须参加。问假设。 选项分析:问假设,就应该对选项进行取非,能削弱题干者为正确选项。以下选项解释均为取非后的结果。 A.健康的员工例行体检的频率没有比肥胖的员工更不规律。题干讨论的是运动会使员工少花钱在看病上,从 而让保险成本下降。和例行体检无关,排除。 B.被要求参加锻炼员工产生的医疗费用不会比不要求参加锻炼的员工更少。要求不要求参加产生费用的差别 以及有没有这个项目产生费用的差别是不同的。题目讨论的是后者,所以该选项无关,排除。 C.要求肥胖员工参加的活动本身就会造成比这个项目降低的成本更多的医疗成本。也就是说,可能人家本来 没啥事儿,一参加活动反而缺胳膊断腿了,花更多的钱。这很好地反驳了这个项目会使保险成本下降,因此正 确。 D.这个锻炼项目不会让比健康员工更多肥胖员工参加。没有讨论降低成本的问题,无关,排除。 E.参加项目的员工不会比不参加的人更容易因为生病不上班。没有讨论降低成本问题,无关。 选 C 难度评级:二星 解题关键:对选项取非,排除无关选项。

PREP1-123-削弱题型(GWD 1-Q13) (31092-!-item-!-188;#058&005693)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410014&extra=
In the United States, of the people who moved from one state to another when they retired, the percentage who retired to Florida has decreased by three percentage points over the past ten years. Since many local businesses in Florida cater to retirees, this decline is likely to have a noticeably negative economic effect on these businesses. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

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A. Florida attracts more people who move from one state to another when they retire than does any other state. B. The number of people who move out of Florida to accept employment in other states has increased over the past ten years. C. There are far more local businesses in Florida that cater to tourists than there are local businesses that cater to retirees. D. The total number of people who retired and moved to another state for their retirement has increased significantly over the past ten years. E. The number of people who left Florida when they retired to live in another state was greater last year than it was ten years ago.
答案:C 题干分析:原文说退休到 FLORIDA 的人占所有退休以后跑别的州去的人的总数比例下降了百分之三,所以这 样一来,FLORIDA 为退休的人服务的行业就会受挫。问削弱。 选项分析:比例不等于绝对值。看到比例要敏感! A.FLORIDA 比其他州吸引了更多退休后会跑去别的州的人。无关,排除。 B.过去十年从 FLORIDA 搬出去别的州工作的人大大增加。无关,排除。 C.在 FLORIDA,为游客开的本地商店比为退休的人开的本地商店要多。文章说退休来的人少了会导致服务业 受挫,而这个选项是个无关比较。排除。 D.所有退休后跑别的州去的人总数大大增加,这样一来,虽然比例下降了,但是去 FLORIDA 的绝对人数肯 定增加的,这样一来,服务退休者行业还是很有希望的~正确 E.去年从 FLORIDA 退休去别地的人比 10 年前要多。无关,排除。 选 D 难度评级:二星 解题关键:比例不等于绝对值,排除无关选项。

PREP1-124-分析题型(GWD 12-Q40) (25997-!-item-!-188;#058&001833)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410015&extra=
Which of the following most logically completes the argument? Researchers recently asked dozens of shoppers, chosen at random coming out of a FoodBasket supermarket, what they had purchased. The prices of the very same items at the nearest ShopperKing supermarket were totaled and compared with the FoodBasket total. The ShopperKing totals averaged five percent higher than the FoodBasket totals. Nevertheless, this result does not necessarily show that shoppers at ShopperKing would save money overall by shopping at FoodBasket instead, since __________. A. shoppers who shop regularly at a given supermarket generally choose that store for the low prices offered on the items that they purchase most often B. for shoppers with more than 20 items, the ShopperKing totals averaged more than five percent higher than the FoodBasket totals C. many shoppers consider factors other than price in choosing the supermarket at which they shop most regularly D. there is little variation from month to month in the overall quantity of purchases made at supermarkets by a given shopper E. none of the people who conducted the research were employees of the FoodBasket supermarket
答案:A 题干分析:原文说抽查 F 店出来的人买的东西,一样的东西和 S 比,S 比 F 贵大概 5%~但是这不代表在 F 买东 西就比在 S 买东西节约很多,因为___________

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选项分析: A.因为人们在一个店里买东西都是买他们最经常买的卖得很便宜的货~这么一来,就是说从 F 出来的人买的 东西就是很便宜的,这不代表其他他们没买的东西就比 S 便宜,没准更贵~ B.买了超过 20 个东西的人,S 的总数平均比 F 高 5%。这不是和题干说的一样么?岂不是加强?排除。 C.很多消费者在选择更多去哪个超市的时候会考虑除了价格以外的因素。和价格无关,排除。 D.一个特定的消费者每个月在超市购买的东西数量没啥差别。与价格无关,排除。 E.做调查的人没有一个是 F 超市的员工。绝对无关,排除! 选 A 难度评级:二星 解题关键:排除无关选项,对题干讨论的主题很清楚。

PREP1-125-评价题型(GWD 28-Q11) (32266-!-item-!-188;#058&006433)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410016&extra=
Trancorp currently transports all its goods to Burland Island by truck. The only bridge over the channel separating Burland from the mainland is congested, and trucks typically spend hours in traffic. Trains can reach the channel more quickly than trucks, and freight cars can be transported to Burland by barges that typically cross the channel in an hour. Therefore, to reduce shipping time, Trancorp plans to switch to trains and barges to transport goods to Burland. Which of the following would be most important to know in determining whether Trancorp's plan, if implemented, is likely to achieve its goal? A. Whether transportation by train and barge would be substantially less expensive than transportation by truck B. Whether there are boats that can make the trip between the mainland and Burland faster than barges can C. Whether loading the freight cars onto barges is very time consuming D. Whether the average number of vehicles traveling over the bridge into Burland has been relatively constant in recent years E. Whether most trucks transporting goods into Burland return to the mainland empty
答案:C 题干分析:T 公司目前运货去 B 岛都是用卡车。链接岛和陆地的唯一一座桥很挤,卡车在路上会花很多时间。 而火车比卡车更快到达隧道,运去 B 岛的货车一个小时就能通过驳船运过隧道。所以,为了减少运货时间,T 公司计划使用货车和驳船运货去 B 岛。问评价。 选项分析:题干讨论的是每种运输方式对减少运货时间的影响。重点是时间。 A.用火车和驳船运货是不是比用卡车便宜。与时间无关,排除。 B.有没有在陆地和岛之间运货的船。与时间无关,排除。 C.装卸货到驳船上是不是很费时。有时间!如果很费时,那么还不如用卡车;如果不费时,那就用火车吧。 D.过桥去 B 岛的汽车数量是不是一直保持稳定。与时间无关,排除。 E.运货去 B 岛的卡车是不是都空着回大陆。与时间无关,排除。 选 C 难度系数:二星 解题关键:找到题干的关键词,据此排除无关选项。

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RPEP1-Answers 073: 083: 093: 103: 113: 123: A: D: C: E: A: D: 074: C : 084: D : 094: B : 104: E : 114: E : 124: A : 075: B : 085: C : 095: A : 105: C : 115: C : 125: C 076: E : 086: E : 096: B : 106: B : 116: E : 077: A : 087: A : 097: A : 107: E : 117: C : 078: C : 088: B : 098: C : 108: C : 118: B : 079: C : 089: C : 099: C : 109: C : 119: B : 080: A : 090: A : 100: B : 110: E : 120: B : 081: 091: 101: 111: 121: A A C A C : 082: E : : 092: A : : 102: E : : 112: E : : 122: C :

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http://www.sharewithu.com/ Practice Test #1 Critical Reasoning (54 Questions)
PREP2-069-评价题型 (25194-!-item-!-188;#058&001228)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410151&extra=
Which of the following most logically completes the reasoning? When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproductive maturity early make up a larger proportion of the population, because they have a better chance of reproducing. When species face diminished food resources, on the other hand, individuals tend to take longer to reach reproductive maturity. These considerations may help settle whether the primary cause of the gradual disappearance of North America's mastodons, prehistoric animals related to elephants, was diminished food resources or human hunting, since __________. A. from the location of certain hunting weapons in juxtaposition with mastodon remains, it is possible to determine whether those weapons were used to hunt mastodons B. the average age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity can be established from mastodon tusks, of which there are many fossils dating from different periods C. from the remains of mastodons already discovered, it can be accurately estimated when mastodons became extinct D. from tusks and other bones, it is possible to determine whether male and female mastodons reached reproductive maturity at about the same age E. it is possible to determine whether the earliest human dwellings constructed from mastodon tusks and bones come from an earlier period than the earliest hunting weapons unambiguously associated with mastodon remains
答案:B 题干分析:被狩猎的动物种群偏向性早熟;缺乏食物的动物种群偏向性晚熟.通过这个判定方法,可判断某大象是 因为人类捕杀还是食物缺乏灭绝的.因为? 选项分析: A 通过对大象遗体边上武器摆放情况的分析,可判定武器是否用来捕杀大象,很 NB 的方法,可惜无关. B 通过象牙可测出大象性早熟情况.答案.测出性早熟就可以判断了. C 通过验尸可知大象何时灭亡.无关 D 可知雌雄大象是否同时性成熟. 无关 E 可知道早些时候用象牙建的人类居所是否早于大象遗体旁发现的武器.无关. 选B 难度评价:三星 解题关键:别被看似难的单词吓倒了,用有关无关(性成熟)很容易做出答案.

PREP2-070-反驳题型 (33177-!-item-!-188;#058&007253)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410152&extra=
Insect infestations in certain cotton-growing regions of the world have caused dramatic increases in the price of cotton on the world market. Knowing that cotton plants mature quickly, many soybean growers in Ortovia plan to cease growing soybeans, the price of which has long been stable, and to begin raising cotton instead, thereby taking advantage of the high price of cotton to increase their income significantly at least over the next several years. Which of the following, if true, most calls into question the reasoning on which the plan is based? A. The cost of raising soybeans has increased significantly over the past several years and is expected to continue to climb.

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B. Tests of a newly developed, inexpensive pesticide have shown it to be both environmentally safe and effective against the insects that have infected cotton crops. C. In the past several years there has been no sharp increase in the demand for cotton and for goods made out of cotton. D. Many consumers consider cotton cloth a necessity rather than a luxury and would be willing to pay significantly higher prices for cotton goods than they currently pay. E. The species of insect that has infested cotton plants has never been known to attack soybean plants.
答案:B 题干分析:因为 Insect infestations(根本原因) ,使 Cotton 价格增高(根本原因导致的直接原因 1) ;Cotton 长的快(直接原因 2) ;the price of soybean has long been stable(直接原因 3) 结果:soybean growers plan to cease growing soybeans and to begin raising cotton instead to make more money Q:find flaw in the reasoning, 选出最能反驳题干结论的选项 选项分析: A:种植 soybean 的成本高,所以 soybean growers plan to cease growing soybeans,支持,错 B: a newly developed, inexpensive pesticide 出现了,意味着 Insect infestations 有望消除,因此 cotton 价格不会增高了,所以改种 cotton 也不一定增加利润,反驳了题干,对 C:过去对 Cotton 的需求保持平稳。不知道未来如何。无关,错 D:consumers consider cotton cloth a necessity,使种植 Cotton 变得更加有优势,支持,错 E:The species of insect 与 cotton 和 soybean 的价格及需求都无直接关系,无关,错 选 B 难度评级:三星 解题关键:弄清因果链,农民换作物因为 cotton 价钱高,长得快.若其中一个不满足了,则换作物就没用了.

PREP2-071-削弱题型 (31165-!-item-!-188;#058&006004)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410153&extra=
In order to improve the long-term savings rate of its citizens, Levaska’s government has decided to introduce special savings accounts. Citizens can save up to $3,000 a year in special accounts without having to pay tax on the interest, unless they withdraw money from the account before they reach the age of sixty-five. If they do withdraw any money before that age, they have to pay tax on the accumulated interest and a penalty. Which of the following, if true, most seriously threatens the success of the government’s plan? A. The banks and financial institutions where the special accounts will be held lobbied hard for their introduction. B. Nearly all workers in Levaska can already save money in tax-free accounts through their workplace. C. For the past ten years, Levaskans have been depositing an ever smaller percentage of their income in long-term savings. D. Many Levaskans continue to work beyond the age of sixty-five. E. In certain circumstances, such as a serious illness, the government plans to waive the penalty on early withdrawals from the special accounts.
答案:B 题干分析: L 国为了增加它公民的 long-term savings rate,出台了一项政策。这个政策允许公民每年存$1000 而不用交税。但是这个政策有个前提,即公民在 65 岁之前不能取出这些钱,如果要取,就必须把本利累积起

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来的税都缴了。问怎样削弱政府政策. 选项分析: A:lobbied hard for their introduction,有利于 special savings accounts 的推广,支持,错 B:special savings accounts 的吸引力在于免税,如果工人现在不参加这个 special savings accounts 已 经可以免税存款,这个 special savings accounts 就没有吸引力了,反驳,对 C:存款比例减少与免税存款的吸引力之间无直接关系,无关,错 D:工作年限与免税存款的吸引力之间无直接关系,无关,错 E:waive the penalty on early withdrawals from the special accounts 会让这 special accounts 更具吸引 力,支持,错 选 B 难度评级:三星 解题关键:参考 prep1 的 78 题,那题是加强.

PREP2-072-加强题型 (30176-!-item-!-188;#058&005083)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410154&extra=
A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked whether they took up smoking and how their mental health changed. After one year, the incidence of depression among those who had taken up smoking was four times as high as it was among those who had not. Since nicotine in cigarettes changes brain chemistry, perhaps thereby affecting mood, it is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument? A. Participants who were depressed at the start of the study were no more likely to be smokers after one year than those who were not depressed. B. The study did not distinguish between participants who smoked only occasionally and those who were heavy smokers. C. Few, if any, of the participants in the study were friends or relatives of other participants. D. Some participants entered and emerged from a period of depression within the year of the study. E. The researchers did not track use of alcohol by the teenagers.
答案:A 题干分析: 背景:the incidence of depression among those who had taken up smoking was four times as high as it was among those who had not. 原因:nicotine in cigarettes changes brain chemistry 结论:it is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers Q:strengthen 选项分析: A:对比了试验开始之前的情况。试验开始之前,所有 teenagers 都是不抽烟的,试验前 depressed 的人并 不比 not depressed 的人更容易开始吸烟, 说明 depression 不是导致抽烟的原因, 排除了一个潜在的 weak point,从而加强,对 B:指出了试验中的漏洞。削弱,错 C:亲戚朋友关系对于研究吸烟和 depression 之间的关系没有直接联系,无关,错 D:与研究吸烟和 depression 之间的关系没有直接联系,无关,错

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E:指出了试验中的漏洞。削弱,错 选 A 难度评级:三星 解题关键:知道有这么一种题型,当 A,B 同时出现,削弱 A 导致 B 可通过---其实是 B 导致 A.这种 GMAT 作文找错 中叶经常用到.如果不知道这题型,该题有一定难度.

PREP2-073-削弱题型 (31495-!-item-!-188;#058&006365)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410155&extra=
Advertisement: Ten years ago, the Cormond Hotel's lobby was carpeted with Duratex carpet while the lobby of a nearby hotel was being carpeted with our competitor's most durable carpet. Today, after a decade in which the two hotels have had similar amounts of foot traffic through their lobbies, that other hotel is having to replace the worn-out carpeting near its lobby entrances, whereas the Cormond's Duratex carpeting has years of wear left in it. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the force of the advertisement's evidence for concluding that Duratex carpet is more durable than the carpet of its competitor? A. The lobby of the Cormond Hotel has five different entrances, but the lobby of the other hotel has only two. B. The carpet of the Cormond Hotel's lobby is not the most durable carpet that Duratex manufactures. C. The other hotel has a popular restaurant that can be reached from outside without walking through the hotel lobby. D. The carpet that is being used to replace carpeting near the other hotel's lobby entrances is not Duratex carpet. E. There is a third hotel near the other two that has not replaced the Duratex carpet in its lobby for more than 15 years.
答案:A 题干分析:C 旅馆配套 D 地毯,隔壁旅馆配 X 地毯.10 年后,在两家旅馆人流差不多的情况下,D 地毯仍然坚挺,X 地 毯却需要更新.结论:D 地毯就是比 X 地毯 NB 啊. 问削弱 选项分析: A C D E C 旅馆有 5 个出口,隔壁旅馆只有一个. 正确,出口多,分流人,地毯不易坏.削弱 错误,不是最 NB 的产品都这么 NB 了… 错,这样隔壁的地毯受到的蹂躏只会因此减少, B 用于 C 旅馆的 D 地毯不是公司最 NB 产品. 可是它还需要换,岂不是质量很差.应是加强 无关 还有一旅店 15 年都不换 D 地毯 也是加强

隔壁旅馆有个热门餐厅,不需经过门厅就能直接从外面进去.

选 A 难度评级:二级 解题关键:还挺简单的.搞清旅馆与地毯的关系即可.

PREP2-074-归纳题型 (28254-!-item-!-188;#058&002906)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410156&extra=
Comcorp Shipping Clerk: Last week, no shipments of building supplies were sent out on Friday. The five specially ordered shipments sent out last week were sent out on Thursday, and each of

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those specially ordered shipments consisted entirely of building supplies. Four shipments were sent to Truax Construction last week, none of which consisted of building supplies. If the shipping clerk’s statements are true, which of the following must also be true? A. All of Comcorp’s shipments of building supplies last week were specially ordered. B. None of Comcorp’s shipments sent on Friday of last week was sent to Truax Construction. C. None of the shipments sent by Comcorp to Truax Construction last week was specially ordered. D. None of Comcorp’s shipments sent on Thursday of last week was sent to Truax Construction. E. All of Comcorp’s shipments of building supplies last week were sent out on Thursday.
答案:C 题干分析:星期五没有送出建材货船.上周全部 5 艘特点货船,都是星期四送出,且携带建材.4 艘到 TC 的船都不携 带建材.一下哪项是正确的. 选项分析: A B C D E 所有建材船都是特点的. 星期五没有船送到 TC 送到 TC 的船没有特点的. 星期四的船没有去 TC 的. 不能确定 星期五步送建材船,很可能送非建材船到 TC. 不对 正确 星期四送出的船可能不止特点的那五艘 不确定

所有建材船都是星期四送出的.

选 C 难度评级:四星 解题关键:弄清关系,可在草稿纸上简单列表.注意定冠词.

PREP2-075-削弱题型 (30082-!-item-!-188;#058&004831)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410186&extra=
Which of the following, if true, most logically completes the reasoning in the passage? Kernland’s government restricts the export of unprocessed cashew nuts in order to ensure a low-cost supply for domestic processing plants. Though the policy constrains farm income and limits the number of farmers who can profitably grow cashews, the government defends it on the grounds that, since the processing plants are in urban areas, removing the restrictions would hurt efforts to reduce urban unemployment. However, the policy may actually have contributed to urban unemployment, since __________. A. a lack of profitable crops is driving many small cashew farmers in Kernland off their land and into the cities B. some of the by-products of cashew processing are used as raw materials by other industries located in Kernland’s cities C. the government does not place similar restrictions on the export of any crop other than cashews D. the income earned by workers in the processing plants is generally greater than that earned by agricultural laborers in rural areas E. without governmental aid in some form, Kernland’s cashew processing plants would not be able to compete for sales in world markets
答案:A 题干分析:K 政府禁止 nuts 出口,为城市一些加工业提高廉价原材料.政府不解放禁令,说 nuts 出口了,原材料价格 上升会造成加工业工人失业.造成城市人口失业(严重).问削弱 选项分析: A 原材料不出口就无利润,导致农民大量进城 正确,农民大量进城,城市职位不变,城市失业更严重(农民进城

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就成城市人了) B 是一个事实,不会随着政府政策变动而变化 C 无关 D 挣钱多少哪怕与收入相关,也与失业无直接关系 E 这个是加强,也是政府的理由 选 A 难度评级: 四星 解题关键:A 选项不是特别好选,有的同学纠结于城市失业率和农民的关系,认为农民进城也是农民,与城市失业率 无关…这,跟咋们中国的户口制度是不是有一定关系呢

PREP2-076-假设题型 (30649-!-item-!-188;#058&005626)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410187&extra=
In response to mounting public concern, an airplane manufacturer implemented a program with the well-publicized goal of reducing by half the total yearly amount of hazardous waste generated by its passenger-jet division. When the program began in 1994, the division's hazardous waste output was 90 pounds per production worker; last year it was 40 pounds per production worker. Clearly, therefore, charges that the manufacturer's program has not met its goal are false. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends? A. The amount of nonhazardous waste generated each year by the passenger-jet division has not increased significantly since 1994. B. At least as many passenger jets were produced by the division last year as had been produced in 1994. C. Since 1994, other divisions in the company have achieved reductions in hazardous waste output that are at least equal to that achieved in the passenger-jet division. D. The average number of weekly hours per production worker in the passenger-jet division was not significantly greater last year than it was in 1994. E. The number of production workers assigned to the passenger-jet division was not significantly less in 1994 than it was last year.
答案:E 题干分析:飞机厂商决心减少一半飞机车间所排有害废物.1994 年,有害废物排量是每工人 90 磅,去年是每人 40 磅.结论:说飞机车间没改进是错的. 问假设 选项分析: A B C D E 说从 1994 年起无害废物排放量至少不变. 与 94 年比,去年至少同样多飞机被生产出 无关,说公司其他车间的情况 说工人工作时间,无关 与 94 年比,去年工人人数并无明显增加 正确. 取非削弱:如果工人人数比 94 年明显增加的话,那么每人 无关,题干只管有害废气 无关,飞机数不影响

40 磅,总废物也很难是 94 年的一半. 选 C 难度评级:三星 解题关键:理清关系,简单草稿.假设题正确选项判断法常常通过对其取非,看是否削弱结论.

PREP2-077-削弱题型

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(30553-!-item-!-188;#058&005527)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410188&extra=
Citizens of Parktown are worried by the increased frequency of serious crimes committed by local teenagers. In response, the city government has instituted a series of measures designed to keep teenagers at home in the late evening. Even if the measures succeed in keeping teenagers at home, however, they are unlikely to affect the problem that concerns citizens, since most crimes committed by local teenagers take place between 3 p.m. and 6 p.m. Which of the following, if true, most substantially weakens the argument? A. Similar measures adopted in other places have failed to reduce the number of teenagers on the streets in the late evening. B. The crimes committed by teenagers in the afternoon are mostly small thefts and inconsequential vandalism. C. Teenagers are much less likely to commit serious crimes when they are at home than when they are not at home. D. Any decrease in the need for police patrols in the late evening would not mean that there could be more intensive patrolling in the afternoon. E. The schools in Parktown have introduced a number of after-school programs that will be available to teenagers until 6 p.m. on weekday afternoons.
答案:B 题干分析:其实这道题也不是很难,你看哈,他说,P 这个地方的居民对于近年来上升的青少年恶性犯罪率感 到很忧虑。于是呢,政府就出台措施,保证青少年晚上呆在家里。但是呢,尽管这项措施可以让青少年晚上呆 在家里,居民仍然会很担心,因为大多数犯罪(注意这里已经作了一个偷换,把恶性案件偷换成了广义的案件) 是在下午 3 点到 6 点之间的。问削弱。 选项分析:这段话的结论是什么呢?是居民仍然会担心恶性犯罪问题。作者怎么得出这个结论的呢?有两个原 因:1、政府只能控制青少年晚上在家;2、犯罪在下午。好,下面我们看选项,哪个可以削弱: A:其他地区的相似政策,不用看了,无关项,排除! B:下午的犯罪都是小偷小摸。对了,为什么对呢?因为政府要控制的是恶性案件,而下午的案件是小偷小摸, 说明恶性案件在晚上,于是削弱结论。 C:青少年在家的时候不容易犯案。迷惑项!是啊,在家确实不容易犯案,但是原文的意思是,犯案高峰期(下 午)的时候,政府没能青少年在家。 D:都扯到警察巡逻队去了,无关,排除! E:P 这个地方的学校给孩子们搞了很多活动,让孩子们可以一直玩到 6 点。支持项,刚好说明下午不用政府来 管了。 选B 难度评级:四星(中上级) 解题关键:意识到恶性案件和广义案件的偷换

PREP2-078-归纳题型 (32009-!-item-!-188;#058&006754)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410189&extra=
Kitchen magazine plans to license the use of its name by a line of cookware. For a magazine, licensing the use of its name for products involves some danger, since if the products disappoint consumers, the magazine's reputation suffers, with consequent reductions in circulation and advertising. However, experts have evaluated the cookware and found it superior to all other cookware advertised in Kitchen. Therefore, Kitchen can collect its licensing fee without endangering its other revenues.

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The argument above assumes which of the following? A. No other line of cookware is superior to that which will carry the Kitchen name. B. Kitchen will not license the use of its name for any products other than the line of cookware. C. Makers of cookware will not find Kitchen a less attractive advertising vehicle because the magazine's name is associated with a competing product. D. Consumers who are not regular readers of Kitchen magazine will be attracted to the cookware by the Kitchen name. E. Kitchen is one of the most prestigious cooking-related magazines.
答案:C 题干分析:K 杂志决定给一个系列的厨具使用它名字的权力。但是呢,对于杂志来说,这样做很危险,因为如 果这个厨具让消费者不满意的话,杂志也会跟着遭殃。再但是,专家对厨具做了评估,说这个厨具质量非常好, 不会有问题的!结论:杂志可以在不影响其他收入的前提下收取商标使用权的费用。问假设。 选项分析: 其实题干的逻辑里缺了一环: “其他收入”不仅仅是卖杂志的收入噢。换句话说,就算消费者米有 受到影响,会不会有其他主体受到影响,而这些主体对杂志的收入会带来副作用呢? A:其他系列的厨具,不用看了,无关项,排除! B:还是在说其他厨具,无关项,排除! C:厨具的制造者(新出体出现了! )不会因为 K 把自己的名字给了其他的制造者就不在这里打广告(言下之意 是这样的) 。对了,因为如果其他的制造者真的不打广告了的话,K 的广告费收入一定会下降的。 D:说消费者和厨具的关系,与杂志无关,排除! E:K 是最有名的杂志,无关,排除! 选C 难度评级:三星(中级) 解题关键:意识到“其他收入”不仅仅指卖杂志的收入

PREP2-079-削弱题型 (32057-!-item-!-188;#058&006758)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410190&extra=
The country of Baurisia has, until now, been self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, with growing prosperity in Baurisia has come a steadily increasing per capita consumption of meat, and it takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income in Baurisia is almost certain to rise further but increases in domestic grain production are highly unlikely, Baurisia is soon likely to become an importer of grain. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? A. When people increase their consumption of meat, they also tend to increase their consumption of grain. B. The per capita consumption of meat in Baurisia is roughly the same across all income levels. C. Per capita consumption of meat has not increased substantially in recent years in those countries from which Baurisia is likely to import meat. D. It is more economical for Baurisians to import meat than grain. E. During Baurisia's years of growing prosperity, the country's population has remained relatively stable.
答案:D 题干分析 :直到现在,B 国的谷和肉都是自给自足的。但是近年来,B 国人均的肉消费量正 在增长,而每生产一镑肉就要消耗几镑谷物。因此,由于 B 国人均收入几乎必定继续上涨,但国

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内谷物上涨却不太可能,B 国将很快成为谷物进口国.问削弱 选项分析 : A 如此一来,更须进口谷物,加强 B 说在各个收入层次,人均肉消费量不变.就是说 B 国人均肉消费量的增加是因为人们收入层次提高了.这是题干 现象的解释. C 所以 B 国可能从这些国家进口肉,可具体 B 国会不会这样做呢,我们不知道 D 说 B 国进口肉比进口谷物划算 答案,划算了就进口肉啊,谷物就仍然自给自足,因此进口部增加 E 人口不变.题干说人均肉消费上升,所以肉总消费量上升,国内仍然可能放弃生产谷物而去生产肉,谷物则去进 口.不能削弱 选 D 难度评级 :三星 解题关键 : 读懂题干,知道肉与谷物的关系.劳动力就那么多,肉与谷物不能兼产.肉销量上升可以通过进口或增加 自产,而增 加自产这种方法会导致谷物生产力不足,从而需要进口谷物. 附:另一详细解 原文说:技术进步和设备成本的降低使将太阳光能量转化为电能的成本效益更佳。但是它的经济可行性阈值一 直没变,还在 35 块美元。然后原文告诉了你什么是经济可行性阈值:如果想让新的太阳能电厂和新烧石油的 火电场的发电成本效益相当,那么油价得上升多少钱/桶。挺直白的一个事实,没什么因果关系在这里面。 问题说:以下哪条如果是真的,将能解释为什么太阳能发电的成本效益增加了却仍然无法降低这个阈值?这里 略有一个陷阱:阈值虽然本身是一个价格差,但其决定因素实际上还是一种发电成本效益去比另一种发电的成 本效益,而不是石油实际的价格(体现一个 would 上,你要读出这个虚拟给出来的意味) 。我们需要关心的不 是油这边的价格本身,而是效益本身,但是当然我们也不能限定自己去思考这方面的东西,否则,在题目比较 难的情况下,我们会错过正确答案。 A 说:石油的成本大幅度下降了。看起来还点关系,先留着不排除。 B 说:尽管太阳能发电设备的原材料价格上涨,但这些设备的成本还是降低了。只能说完全,先留着不排除。 C 说:科技进步使得石油火电厂的成本效益提升了。有关。 D 说:大部分电力石油煤火电厂或核电厂生产的。无关。 E 说:当时有价格上涨时,之前那些经济上不值得开采石油储备现在变得可以开采了。硬要延伸的话,跟石油 价格有点一定关系。 既然这样那就很清楚了,只能是 C,因为 A 和 E 在讨论的还是实际价格上的变化,这些价格上的变化可能导致 石油发电的成本效益变化,但也可能不能,而 C 比较直接的支出了石油发电成本效益的问题。正如之前所提, 石油的实际价格不是决定该阈值的因素,真正的因素还是石油发电的成本效益。贴上 OG 的原文解释:Actual oil prices control how far, given the viability threshold, solar power is from economic viability but do not figure in the determination of the threshold, so choices A and E are incorrect.

PREP2-080-削弱题型 (29100-!-item-!-188;#058&003474)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410261&extra=
Given that employees of the XYZ Company could, in theory, do their work at home, the company developed a radical plan to increase efficiency: eliminate office-space expenditures by having

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employees work at home. To evaluate this plan, XYZ’s managers asked volunteers from the company’s staff to try the arrangement for six months. There were several volunteers; significantly, their productivity during this period was as high as or higher than before. Which of the following, if true, would argue most strongly against deciding, on the basis of the trial results, to implement the company’s plan? A. The employees who agreed to participate in the test of the plan were among the company’s most self-motivated and independent workers. B. The savings that would accrue from reduced office-space expenditures alone would be sufficient to justify implementation of the plan apart from any productivity increases. C. Other companies that have achieved successful results from work-at-home plans have work forces that are substantially larger than that of XYZ. D. The volunteers who worked at home were able to communicate with other employees as necessary for performing the work. E. Recent changes in the way work is organized at XYZ’s company offices have not brought about any productivity increases.
答案:A 题干分析:其实这道题还挺简单的。你看哈,他说,理论上说 XYZ 公司的员工是可以在家工作的。然后呢,这 个公司就做了一个实验,他找了一些志愿者(人员样本出现了哟)在家试了 6 个月(时间样本出现了哟) 。结 论:公司发现这些人的效率确实比以前高了,所以准备执行该计划。问削弱。 选项分析:怎样才能削弱呢?对于一个有样本的逻辑题来说,样本特殊性是削弱的不二选择。果然: A:这些志愿者是公司最独立,最懂得自我激励的员工。多好一选项啊!说的就是样本特殊性!既然这些员工 是最独立,最自我的,出现这样的结果不足为奇。但是对于那些需要别人在物质和精神上给予支持的员工,可 能这种方法并不适用噢!列入正确答案考虑范围。 B:除了试验结果之外,由该计划导致的成本的下降更加能够证明该计划的正确性。首先,这是个无关项。 (因 为结论是让我们基于实验结果讨论) ;其次,就算它有关,它也是个加强噢! C:看到“other companies”,无关,直接排除! D:试验人员可以和其他人员取得联系以获得帮助。加强! E:“recent changes”是指其他改变,无关,直接排除! 选A 难度评级:二星(中下级) 解题关键:发现题干中样本的存在

PREP2-081-加强题型 (24344-!-item-!-188;#058&000867)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410262&extra=
In Arumville, among those young children with elevated levels of lead in their blood, few live in houses containing lead-based paint, but many live in areas where vehicular traffic is heavy. These children's elevated blood-lead levels probably result from lead added to gasoline, since, although gasoline sold in and around Arumville has been lead-free since 1990, lead from vehicle exhaust remains in the soil for many years. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument? A. Sales of lead-based paint for use in homes was banned in Arumville in 1977. B. Vehicle traffic in most residential areas of Arumville is heavier today than it was twenty years ago. C. Some lead in the soil comes from deteriorating lead-based paint on the exteriors of buildings.

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D. In Arumville, children's blood-lead levels typically rise during the warm summer months when children frequently play outdoors but not in the winter when children spend more time indoors. E. If improperly carried out, the removal of lead-based paint from older houses can significantly increase the risk that children living in such houses will ingest lead dust.
答案:D 题干分析:其实这道题也不难哟。你看哈,他说,A 这个地方的孩子,但凡是血液中铅浓度高的,几乎没有是 住在以铅为原料的房子里的,而大部分是住在交通极其发达地区的。 (言下之意,研究机构刚开始的时候可能认 为这两个有可能是原因并已经展开了调查)于是他得出结论:这个铅浓度过高肯定是交通的原因!但是没对啊, 因为汽油早在 90 年的时候就不加铅了。紧接着他给出解释:尾气中的铅会残留很久。问加强。 选项分析:怎样才能加强呢?既然有两个原因,那能体现出这两个原因不同之处的地方就最好了。我们一个一 个看: A:以铅为原料的画 77 年就禁止了。这个看似有点道理噢,但其实它是个迷惑项。因为题目里已经说这种画不 是原因了,这样再一说纯属废话。 B:A 地居民区现在的交通情况比 20 年前严重得多。这个,啥也没说啊。。无关,排除! 。 C:土壤里有些铅是从大楼外面的画里分解出来的,言下之意,跟汽车米有关系。这个是加强噢。 D:A 这儿孩子的血液铅浓度一到夏天就升高一到冬天就不高,而夏天的时候孩子们喜欢在外面玩儿,冬天的 时候大家喜欢在室内。对了噢!这就是我刚才说到的两个原因的不同之处,交通尾气是在室外,而画大都挂在 室内。结论和这个选项一拍即合! E:如果不恰当地移动画的话,会增加孩子吞下铅的风险。但是原文中没有提到画的移动噢,无关,排除! 选D 难度评级:三星(中级) 解题关键:找到两种原因的不同点

PREP2-082-归纳题型 (33511-!-item-!-188;#058&007598)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410263&extra=
Technological improvements and reduced equipment costs have made converting solar energy directly into electricity far more cost-efficient in the last decade. However, the threshold of economic viability for solar power (that is, the price per barrel to which oil would have to rise in order for new solar power plants to be more economical than new oil-fired power plants) is unchanged at thirty-five dollars. Which of the following, if true, does most to help explain why the increased cost-efficiency of solar power has not decreased its threshold of economic viability? A. The cost of oil has fallen dramatically. B. The reduction in the cost of solar-power equipment has occurred despite increased raw material costs for that equipment. C. Technological changes have increased the efficiency of oil-fired power plants. D. Most electricity is generated by coal-fired or nuclear, rather than oil-fired, power plants. E. When the price of oil increases, reserves of oil not previously worth exploiting become economically viable.
答案:C 题干分析:过去十年,技术进步和设备降价让太阳能转变为电能更加便宜.然而,太阳能 EV 的门槛(就是相对于油涨 价,每个太阳能厂的电池要比燃油厂的便宜)仍然是 35 美元.以下哪个选项最能帮助解释为什么性价比增加的太 阳能没有降低他的 EV 门槛. A 油价大跌.如此一来,门槛降低.

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B 尽管设备原材料增加,太阳能设备费用仍然减少.门槛降低. C 燃油厂效率增高.门槛高了. D 无关 E 油价上升,原来不好开采的石油业可以考虑开采了.这样可能导致油价更高,门槛低 选 C 难度:三星 解题关键: 括号里的话比较绕,只要理解个意思,就是门槛是相对的东西,太阳能厂自己高效了,还有考虑它对手-燃油厂的效率是否也增高了.假设太阳厂产电便宜了,而燃油长由于沙特国王高兴全部赠送原油导致燃油电价狂 跌,那么估计大家都不会去买太阳能厂产的电,这一行就做不下去了.

PREP2-083-削弱题型 (25338-!-item-!-188;#058&001294)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410264&extra=
Many people suffer an allergic reaction to sulfites, including those that are commonly added to wine as preservatives. However, since there are several winemakers producing wine to which no sulfites are added, those who would like to drink wine but are allergic to sulfites can drink these wines without risking an allergic reaction to sulfites. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? A. Sulfites occur naturally in most wine. B. The sulfites that can produce an allergic reaction are also commonly found in beverages other than wine. C. Wines without added sulfites tend to be at least moderately expensive. D. Apart from sulfites, there are other substances commonly present in wine that can trigger allergic reactions. E. Wine without added sulfites sometimes becomes undrinkable even before the wine is sold to consumers.
答案:A 题干分析:很多人对硫磺过敏,包括人为添加作为防腐剂的那些。但是,现在有些制造商制造了没有添加硫磺 的酒,那些对硫磺过敏的人就可以不冒过敏的风险喝这些酒了。问削弱。 选项分析: A:在酒里,硫磺会天然生成。对了!刚刚好削弱,原文说没有添加硫磺,这里说不添加照样可以有。 B:说除了酒以外的饮料,无关项,排除! C:说酒的价格,无关项,排除! D:说其他物质,无关项,排除! E:没有添加硫磺的酒在出售之前就不能喝了。迷惑项。有人觉得刚好可以论证酒不能喝啊!但是我们的结论 是:对硫磺过敏的人可以不冒过敏风险喝酒。无关项,排除! 选A 难度评级:三星(中级) 解题关键:注意看结论到底是什么

PREP2-084-归纳题型 (26216-!-item-!-188;#058&001794)

http://www.sharewithu.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=410265&extra=
The general availability of high-quality electronic scanners and color printers for computers has made the counterfeiting of checks much easier. In order to deter such counterfeiting, several

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banks plan to issue to their corporate customers checks that contain dots too small to be accurately duplicated by any electronic scanner currently available; when such checks are scanned and printed, the dots seem to blend together in such a way that the word “VOID” appears on the check. A questionable assumption of the plan is that A. in the territory served by the banks the proportion of counterfeit checks that are made using electronic scanners has remained approximately constant over the past few years B. most counterfeiters who use electronic scanners counterfeit checks only for relatively large amounts of money C. the smallest dots on the proposed checks cannot be distinguished visually except under strong magnification D. most corporations served by these banks will not have

ChaseDream GMATPrep2008版 逻辑笔记.doc

ChaseDream PREP2008 逻辑笔记 (72 题 125 题) ChaseDream PREP2008 逻辑笔记 (73 题 - 125 题) 作者:Helr 责编:Zeros www.ChaseDream.com 1 / 106 ...

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常用PPT逻辑结构_育儿理论经验_幼儿教育_教育专区。ppt制作 ,结构把握 ...PREP结构 立场 Position 理由 Reason 实例 Example 立场 Position 13 产品推介...

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