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2013高考英语语法与单选复习资料


2013 高考英语六大题型必考知识点集萃及精析
第一部分:单项选择 考点一:名词 I. 概念 名词是表示人,事物,地点或抽象概念的名称的词,有专有名词和普通名词之分,还有可数名词 与不可数名词之分. II.相关知识点精讲 1. 名词变复数 1) 以-s, –x, –ch, -sh 结尾加-es Buses,boxes,watches,brushes (stomach-stomachs) 2)以辅音字母加 y 结尾的名词,变 y 为 i 加 es Factories, countries 3) 以-f 或 fe 结尾的名词,变 f 或 fe 为 v 加 es leaf--leaves life—lives 但:roof,chief,gulf,serf,belief,proof, 加 s handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves。 4) 以 o 结尾的名词,变复数时: a. 加 s,photo---photos piano---pianos radio---radios zoo---zoos; b. 加 es,potato--potatoes tomato--tomatoes c. 上述 a 和 b 两种方法均可,如 zero---zeros / zeroes。 5) 名词复数的不规则变化 a. child---children foot---feet tooth---teeth mouse---mice man---men woman---women 注意:由一个词加 man 或 woman 构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women,如 an Englishman, two Englishmen。 German 不是合成词, 但 故复数形式为 Germans; Bowman 是姓,其复数是 the Bowmans。 b. 单复同形,如 deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese ,li,jin,yuan,two li,three mu, four jin 等。 但除人民币的元、 角、 分外, 美元、 英镑、 法郎等都有复数形式。 如:a dollar, two dollars; a meter, two meters。 c. 集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。例如: people police cattle 等本身就是复数,不能说 a people,a police,a cattle,但可以说 a person,a policeman,a head of cattle, the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用,如 The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。 d. 以 s 结尾,仍为单数的名词,如: maths,politics,physics 等学科名词,一般是不可数名词,为单数。 news 为不可数名词。 the United States, 应视为单数。 The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是 1945 年组建起来的。 e. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。例如:

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The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book. 《一千零一夜》 是一本非常有趣的故事书。 f. 表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes 等,若表达具体数 目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers 等。 g. 另外还有一些名词, 其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,如:goods 货物,waters 水域 fishes (各种)鱼。 h. 复合词变复数,以中心词为主 film-goer — film-goers sister-in-law — sisters-in-law grown-up – grown-ups 2. 不可数名词量的表示 1) 物质名词 a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时为可数。 比较:Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (不可数) These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (可数) b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,可数。例如: This factory produces steel. (不可数) We need various steels. (可数) c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。例如: Our country is famous for tea. 我国因茶叶而闻名。 Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。 2) 抽象名词表示具体的事例时也可数。例如: four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations 四个现代化 物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量,如 a glass of water 一杯水/ a piece of advice 一则建议。 3. 定语名词的复数 名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。 1) 用复数作定语。例如: sports meeting students reading-room talks table 谈判桌 the foreign languages department 外语系 2) man, woman, gentleman 等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。例 men workers women teachers gentlemen officials 3) 有些原有 s 结尾的名词,作定语时,s 保留。例如: goods train (货车) arms produce 武器生产 customs papers 海关文件 clothes brush 衣刷 4) 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。例如: two-dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋 a ten-mile walk 十英里路 two-hundred trees 两百棵树 a five-year plan. 一个五年计划 4. 名词的格 1) 单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有 s,也要加"'s",如 the boy's bag 男孩的书包, men's room 男厕所。 2) 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加" ' ",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。 3) 凡不能加"'s"的名词,都可以用"名词 of 名词"的结构来表示所有关系,如:the title of the song 歌的名字。 4)在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时, 名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词,

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如:the barber's 理发店。 5) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。 John's and Mary's rooms(两间) John and Mary's room(一间) 6) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。例如:a month or two's absence 考点二:冠词 I. 不定冠词的用法 不定冠词有 a 和 an 两种形式。 用在以辅音音标开头的词前,an 用在以元音音标开头的词前。 a a house, a useful book an hour, an umbrella 不定冠词的用法主要有: 1) 泛指某人或某物,不具体说明其为何人或何物。 在行文叙述时,第一次提到某个人或事物时, 通常使用不定冠词,此为“泛指” 。例如: A girl is asking for you on the phone. My mother works in a hospital. 2) 用在单数可数名词前,表示一类人或事物,即以一个个体代表整类人或事物,此为“类指” 。 例如: A plane is faster than a train.飞机比火车快。 A snake is a cold-blooded animal.蛇是冷血动物。 3) 表示“一”,但数量概念没有 one 强烈。例如: They waited there for an hour.他们在那等了一个小时。 Rome wasn't built in a day.罗马非一天能建成。(即:冰冻三尺非一日之寒。) 如特别强调数量,应使用 one。例如: I have only one dictionary and I need it myself. 4) 用在表示时间、速度、价格等计量单位的名词前表示“每一”,相当于 per 或 every。例如: The plane can get 300 kilometers an hour.飞机的速度是每小时 300 公里。 The doctor told her to take the medicine three times a day.医生叫她一天服三次药。 We work five days a week.我们一周工作五天。 5) 用于抽象名词、物质名词前(特别是这两种名词有定语修饰时),使之意义具体化,表示“一 种”“一件”“一份”等。例如: 、 、 It is an honour for me to be invited to the party.我被邀请参加聚会是一种荣誉。(honour 是抽象 名词,an honour 指一件荣誉的事) There was heavy rain last week.(rain 为物质名词,这里指一场雨) 6) 用于序数词(后加名词)前,表示又一个,又一次。例如: He tried a sixth time and succeeded.他又试第六次,结果成功了。 When I sat down,a fourth student rose to speak.当我坐下时,又有第四个同学起立发言。 7) 用于某一个人名、地名前,使专有名词普通化。例如: A Mr.Li has been waiting for you.一位姓李的先生一直在等你。 Chongqing is known as a Shanghai of the west.重庆被称作西部的上海。(Shanghai 是专有名词, 本句中 a Shanghai 指和上海一样繁华的城市) 8) 用于某些固定词组中,是这些词组不可缺少的组成部分。例如: in a moment 立刻,马上 once upon a time 从前 as a result (of)作为(??)的结果 in a hurry 急忙地 in a word 一句话,总而言之 once in a while 偶尔地

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have a good time 过得很愉快 have a word with 与??说句话 have/take a look (at)看一看 have/take a rest 休息一下 take an active part in 积极参加 (比较:take part in 参加,不能说 take a part in) do sb.a favour 帮某人的忙 put an end to 结束 at a mouthful 一大口地 all of a sudden 突然地 II. 定冠词 the 的用法 ① 表示上文提到过的人或事物。 He bought an English-Chinese dictionary this morning. The dictionary is very good. ② 用于单数可数名词前,表示整体或类别。 The panda is a rare animal. 此句等于:A panda is a rare animal. = Pandas are rare animals. ③ 用来表示世界上独一无二的事物。 the sun, the moon, the sky, the earth, the world ④ 用于表示阶级、党派的名词前。 the Chinese Communist Party, the working class the proletariat 无产阶级 ⑤ 常用于含有普通名词或形容词的专有名词前。 A. 用于许多江海,山脉,群岛等名词前: The Yellow River The East Sea the Himalayas the Pacific Ocean B. 用于由普通名词构成的国名: The People’s Republic of China the United States C. 用于机关、团体、朝代、时代、报刊杂志等名词前: the United Nations the State Council the Tang dynasty the People’s Daily the Summer Palace the Peace Hotel the British Museum ⑥ 用于表示方位的名词前。 the east the southwest the middle the Far East on the left ⑦ 用于乐器名词前,但汉语拼音的乐器前不用冠词。 play the piano play the violin play erhu ⑧ 用于复数的姓氏前,表示两夫妇或全家,在此情况下,这类名词作复数对待。 The Smiths watch TV every day. ⑨ 用于某些形容词或过去分词前,表示一类人或事物。 the poor the rich the living the young the wounded the oppressed the beautiful ⑩ 用在形容词的最高级前或序数词前。 Shanghai is the biggest city in china. After the game, the first thing they wanted to do was to take a hot bath. III 零冠词用法 ① 表示某一类人或事物的复数名词前,不用冠词。 Now people are living a happy life. Trees are planted everywhere. ② 不含普通名词的专有名词,表示泛指的物质名词和抽象名词前,不用冠词。 We are studying English. He is leaving for America this year. It is pleasant to walk in soft snow. Love is always stronger than hatred. ③ 名词前有指示代词、物主代词、不定代词或名词所有格修饰,不用冠词。 I like this picture better. Is that your book?

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Take their chairs away! I do not have any money on me. As time went on, Einstein‘s theory proved to be correct. ④ 季节、月份、星期等名词前,一般不用冠词。 She likes spring while I like summer. We have no classes on Saturday. The Long March started in October 1934. ⑤ 表示只有一人担任的职务、头衔的名词前,不用冠词。 We have elected him our monitor. ⑥ 三餐饭的名词前,一般不用冠词。 When do you have lunch? After supper we usually take a walk. ⑦ 节假日等名词前,不用冠词。 Children all wear their best clothes on National Day. People give gifts to each other on Christmas Day. 注意:在 eve 后有 of 短语则要加定冠词: on the eve of National Day on the eve of New Year‘s Day ⑧ 球类和棋类运动的名词前,不用冠词。 play basketball play chess ⑨ 作表语用表示程度的形容词最高级前,不用冠词。 Your help was most timely. This method is most effective. 注意:如果有比较范围,形容词最高级前必须加定冠词: Of all methods, this is the most effective. ⑩ 在某些固定词组里,名词前不用冠词。 on foot by train/ boat / plane? in fact as a matter of fact in class in church in danger in hospital in town in bed at home at school at daybreak at sunrise at dusk at sunset at night at noon go to school go to class go to bed from morning till night from victory to victory from door to door V 注意事项 ① 当 man 作人类讲时,用零冠词。 Man will conquer nature. ② 某些抽象名词具体化时是可数名词,其前可加 a。surprise, fire, joy, He is a success as a teacher. Long Jing is a famous tea in China. ③ a 用于姓氏前表示某个只知道名字而不不熟悉的人。 A Mr Liu is waiting to see you outside. ④ 在某些句型中可加 a It is a pity that you have missed the chance. It is a shame / a pleasure / a honour for sb. to do sth. ⑤ word 作消息讲时,用零冠词。 Word came that he would go abroad.gg 考点三:虚拟语气 对虚拟语气的测试主要涉及以下方面: 1) 主语、表语、同位语、宾语从句中虚拟语气的用法 2) wish , would rather 虚拟语气结构的用法 3) if 条件句中虚拟语气的用法, 应特别注意省略 if 的倒装结构是考试的重点 4) if only 结构中虚拟语气的用法

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5) but for , or, otherwise 等含蓄条件句的用法 6) It’s time (that) 等结构中虚拟语气的用法 一、虚拟语气在虚拟条件句中的运用! 条件从句有两类,一是真实条件句,另一是虚拟条件句。如果假设的情况可能发生,是真实 条件句,这种情况下谓语用陈述语气。如: If time permits, we’ll go fishing together.如果时间允许,我们就一起去钓鱼。 如果假设的情况是不存在的或不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。如: If you had come yesterday, you would have met that famous professor.如果你昨天来,你就 会见到那位著名的教授了。 (隐含的事实是:你昨天没来,也没见到那位著名教授) 。 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主从句的谓语都要用虚拟语气,现将其形式列表如下: 1.虚拟语气现在时,表示与现在事实相反的假设和结果。 条件从句 主句 动词过去式(be 用 were) Would/should/could/might + 动词原形 If I were you, I should(would ,could, might)tell him the truth. 要是我是你,我就会告诉他真相 了。 (事实上我不是你) If she had time, she would(could, might)help me.如果她有时间,她就会帮我了。 (事实上 她没有时间) 2. 语气过去式 表示与过去事实相反的假设和结果。 条件从句 主句 Had +过去分词 Would/should/could/might + have+过去分词 If you had taken my advice, you wouldn’t(couldn’t) have failed in the exam.如果你听了我的建 议,你就不会考试不及格。 (事实上你根本没听我的。 ) 3. 虚拟语气过去式 表示与将来事实可能相反的假设和结果 条件从句 主句 should+动词原形 were to+动词原形 would(could/should/might)+动词原形 Would/should/could/might +动词原形 If it should rain, the crops would(could, might)be saved.假如天下雨,庄稼可能就收获了。 注:在表示与将来事实可能相反的条件从句中,were to + 动词原形比较正式,常用于书面 语中。如: If you were to go to Beijing, you would (could, might) have a chance to visit Tian An Men Square. ★★条件从句中省去 if 的情况 在 if 引导的表示虚拟的条件状语从句中,常可以省略 if,将 had, were 或 should 提至句 首。如: Had I seen the film, I would have discussed it with them last night. 假如我看了那部 电影,昨晚我就可以和他们一起讨论了。 Were I a bird, I could fly freely. 假如我是一只小鸟,我就能自由翱翔。 Should it rain next week the farmers would have a good harvest. 要是下周能下雨的话, 农民们就能有个好收成了。 4.主从句时间不一致情况下的虚拟语气(混合条件句) 有时条件从句中的动作和结果与主句中的动作,发生的时间不一致,这时动作的形式 应根据它所表示的时间加以调整。如: If you had followed my advice, you would be able to finish the work now.如果你当时听了

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我的话,现在就能完成这份工作了。 (从句说明过去,主句说明现在。 ) If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party.如果我是你,我就去参加她的生日晚 会了。 (从句说明现在,主句说明过去。 ) If you hadn’t lent me some money, I couldn’t have bought the new house and most likely I would be still living in the dangerous house now.假若你不借钱给我, 我不可能买下这幢新房, 很可能现在还住在危房里。 (从句说明过去,主句说明过去和现在。 ) 5.含蓄条件句 非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表出来,只暗含在上下文中,这种句子叫做含蓄条 件句。含蓄条件句大体有三种情况; Eg. W hat would I have done without you? 如没有你,我会怎么办呢?(条件暗含在分 词短语 without you 中) But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the experiment. 如果没有你的帮 助,我们的实验是不会成功。 (暗含条件是 but for your help) He must have the strength of a hippopotamus, or/otherwise he never could have vanquished that great beast. 他一定是力大如河马, 否则他绝不会击败那只庞大的野兽。 (暗 含条件是连词 or) 二、虚拟语气某些从句中的运用! 1. 虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法。 在“It is important (strange, natural, necessary) that?”这类句型中,that 所引导的主语从 句中的谓语动词常用 “(should)+动词原形”结构,表示某事是“重要”“奇怪”“自然” , , , “必要”等意义。如: It is important that every Beijinger (should) be able to speak English. 重要的是每个北京人 能说英语。 It is necessary that he (should) be sent to hospital at once. 有必要马上把他送医院。 2. 虚拟语气在宾语从句中的用法。 (1) 在动词 wish 后的宾语从句中, 表示与现在或过去的事实相反, 或对将来的主观愿望, 从句通常省略连词 that。 a.表示对现在情况的虚拟:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式(be 的过去式用 were )表示。 如: I wish I knew the answer to the question. 我希望知道这个问题的答案。 (可惜不知道。 ) b.表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词用 had+过去分词。如: I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time. 我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。 (实际上已经 浪费掉了。 ) c.表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形式为 “would/could/might+动词原形” ,此时要注 意,主句的主语与从句的主语不能相同,因为主句的主语所期望的从句动作能否实现,取决 于从句主语的态度或意愿(非动作名词除外) 。如: I wish it would stop raining.但愿雨能停止。 I wish you would be quiet.我希望你安静一些。 (2)在 suggest(建议), demand(要求), order(命令), propose(建议), insist(坚持要做), command(命令), request(要求), desire(希望)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用 “(should)+ 动词原形” ,表示建议,要求,命令等。如: I suggest that we (should) start the meeting at once.我建议马上开会。

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The undergraduate insisted that he (should) go to work in the south.这位即将毕业的学生坚 持要到南方去工作。 ★★ 当 suggest 表示暗示,主语为 something;insist 表示坚持观点时,后接的宾语从句当 用真实语气。比较: His silence suggested that he agreed with my decision.他的沉默暗示着他赞成我的决定。 He suggested that I (should) stick to my decision.他建议我坚持自己的决定。 He insists that doing morning exercises does good to people’ health. 他坚持认为做早操对 s 健康有益。 He insists that he (should) do morning exercises every day.他坚持他每天都要早操。 3. 虚拟语气在表语从句中的用法。 当主语为 advice, suggestion, order, proposal 等词时后接表语从句, 表语从句中的谓语动 词常用“(should)+动词原形”结构,表示某人建议、劝告、命令等的内如: My advice is that you should practise speaking English as often as possible.我的建议是你尽 可能经常地练习说英语。 4.特殊的虚拟语气结构。 (1)虚拟语气用在状语从句中 由 as if 或 as though 引导的状语从句表示比较或方式时, 从句中的谓语动词用虚拟语气。 (用法与 wish 相同) The teacher treats the student as if he were her own child.这位老师带这位学生就象她的亲生孩 子一样。 He speaks as if he had been to the United States.他说得好象他真的到过美国似的。 (2)在 It is time (that)从句中,谓动词常用动词过去式或 should+动词原形 表示虚拟语气 (3)I’d rather (that)?句型中从句中虚拟语气, Eg. I would rather you did it now. I would rather you did it tomorrow. I would rather you had done it yesterday. 5. 用在 if only 引起的感叹句中 (用法与 wish 相同) If only the driver didn‘t drive so fast! 6.在由 for fear that, in case, lest 等引导的状语从句中,用 should+动词原形 考点四:情态动词 1.情态动词的基本用法 (1)can、be able to 和 could ①can 和 be able to 都表示能力,意思上没多大区别。但 can 只有现在和过去时,而 be able to 则有更多的形式。但当成功地完成某一具体动作时,通常不用 could 而用 was/were able to 来表示。这时 was/were able to 相当于 managed to,表示经过一番努力,终于能够完成某事。 如: Can you use chopsticks? The wounded man still was able to get to the village and was saved in the end. ②can 和 could can 和 could 都可以表示能力、技能、许可、建议或请求和可能性。但比较委婉客气地提出 问题或陈述看法,一般用 could,回答时则用 can。如:

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Could you help me carry the bag? Can I help you? (2)may/might ①may/might 表示可能,但 may 比 might 可能性大。 Eg.---Why isn‘t he in class? ---- He may be sick.(生病的可能性较大) —--He might be sick.(生病的可能性较小) ②may/might 表示“允许” ,may 用于现在时或将来时,might 常用在间接引语中表过去时, 但 might 也可用于现在时间,表示比较委婉的语气,回答用 may。如: He says we may leave. He said we might leave. ③may / might 表示建议或请求, might 比 may 更客气, 但 意思更肯定而无过去时态的含义。 —May / Might I use your bike? —Yes, you can / may. ----No, you mustn‘t (3)must ①must 表示必须,应该,没有时态变化。如: You must do everything as I do. ②must 表示肯定的推测。如: The light is still on, so he must be at home. ③mustn’t 表示禁止做某事。如: You mustn‘t smoke in the office. (4)have to have to 表示“必须、不得不” ,是由于某种外界(客观)原因而“必须”“不得不”做某事, , 也可表示经常的或习惯性的事“必须”做。have to 的否定形式表示不必。have to 可用于多 种时态中。如: You will have to clean your own boots when you join the army. I have to be at my office every evening. (5)should / ought to ①should 和 ought to 表示应当、应该,前者比后者语气轻。如: You should / ought to work hard. ②should / ought to 的否定形式表示禁止之意。如: Children shouldn‘t smoke. ③should 可表示陈述意见,推出建议或请求;而 ought to 可以表示劝告之意。如: You ought to respect your parents. He suggested that they should leave at once. ④should 可以用来表示说话者“吃惊”的语气, 常翻译成“竟然” 。 You can‘t imagine such a well-dressed man should be so rude to a lady. (6)will / would ①will 用于各种人称表示“意志”“意愿”或“决心”等,否定式 won’t + 动词。如: 、 I will tell you all about it. Tom won‘t do such a thing. ②will 用于疑问句中,常用在第二称时表示说话人向对方提出“请求”或“询问”如: Will you please tell her the news when you see her?

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③will 表示习惯性的动作,有“总是”“惯于”的含义。如: 、 Fish will die out of water. ④would 表示客气的请求、建议或意愿。如: Would you please be quiet? Would you like coffee? ⑤would 表示过去反复发生的动作。如: When I passed my school I would see my teachers who taught me 5 years ago. (7)need need 作“必要”讲,既可作情态动词,也可作实义动词。作实义动词时后面的动词不定式 要带 to,其变化与一般动词相同。如: I need to think it over. ---Need you go now? --—Yes, I must./No, I needn‘t (8)dare dare 表示“敢”的意思。作为情态动词时,主要用在疑问句和否定句中。dare 若作实义动词, 后面可带 to 的不定式,此时 to 也可以省略。dare 与 need 的用法相似。如: How dare you say that? She doesn‘t date(to)ask her father. (9)used to used to 表示过去常常发生的动作或存在的习惯,但现在已不复存在了。如: He used to smoke. (10)shall ①shall 作为情态动词用于第二、三人称,表示说话人的意愿,有“命令”“警告、威胁、 、 强制”和“允许”等意思。如: We shall do as our teacher says. You shall have the book as soon as I finish it. ②在疑问句中,shall 用于征求对方的意见或请求指示,常用于第一、第三人称。如: Where shall he wait for us? Shall we go out for a walk? 2、情态动词表示推测或判断的用法 下表即是表示推测的情态动词使用的场合: 情态动词 对现在和未来的推测 对过去的推测 使 用 场 合 must + 动词原形 must+ have done 肯定句 may / might + 动词原形 May / might+ have done 肯定句、否定句 can /could +do Can / could+have done 否定句、疑问名(could 可用于肯定句) should 用来表示一种估计的情况“按理会/估计会”should do/be should have done 肯定句、 否定句、疑问句 例如: It must have rained last night. She may not be at home. = It is possible that she is not at home. She can‘t be at home. = It is impossible that she is at home. They should be there right now. 3、情态动词在虚拟语气中的用法 情态动词用于虚拟语气中表示责备的感情色彩,用法如下:

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(1)should have done 表示“本来应该做某事而实际上未做” ,而 shouldn’t have done 则表 示“本不应该做某事而实际上做了” 。如: You should have told me about it earlier. You shouldn‘t have said such words to your parents. (2)ought to have done 也表示“本应该??”而 ought not to have done 则意为“本不应 该??” 。如: You ought to have told me about it earlier. You ought not to have said such words to your parents. (3)needn’t have done 表示“本无必要做某事而实际上做了” 。如: You needn‘t have walked so quickly since time was enough. (4)could have done 表示“本来有可能??而事实上未做到” 。如: I could have come on time, but my car broke on the way. 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. I was really anxious about you. You________home without a word.(NMET 2001) A.mustn‘t have B.shouldn‘t have left C.couldn‘t have left D.needn‘t have 解析:答案为 B。本题考查的是情态动词在虚拟语气中的用法。题目给出的条件是“我确实 非常担心你” ,因此后面可知应是责备 you 不应该没说一句话就离开了。 2.—Are you coming to Jeff‘s party? —I‘m not sure. I__________ go to the concert instead.(NMET 2000) A.must B.would C.should D.might 解析:答案为 D。本题考查情态动词的基本用法。由题目中“I’m not sure”,表明我可能去 Jeff’s party,也可能去音乐会,故用 might。 3. —Will you stay for lunch? —Sorry, ____________. My brother is coming to see me.(NMET 99) A.I mustn‘t B.I can‘t C.I needn‘t D.I won‘t 解析:答案为 B。本题考查表示请求的英语口语,用 will 来向第二人称提问的疑问结构,是 表示一种请求和意愿,是用疑问的形式来表达较为婉转的祈使语气,意思是“请你??,好 吗” ,对于这种问句的肯定回答是:Suree! Gertainly! Yes, of course. I’d be glad to 等;否定 回答通常是: m sorry, I can’ No, I’ afraid I can’ I’ sorry, but ? I’ like to, but ? I’ t. m t. m d 等。注意情态动词表客气的用法及其在一般疑问句中的问与答。 考点五:倒装句 1. 完全倒装 表示方式或方位的副词或介词短语置于句首 eg. In the dark forest _______, some large enough to hold several English towns. A. stand many lakes B. lie many lakes C. many lakes lie D. many lakes stand Key: B 2. 部分倒装 a. only 修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句,且放于句首时 eg. Only then ______ how much damage had been caused. A. she realized B. she had realized

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C. had she realized D. did she realized Key: D b. 否定副词 never,nor,not,hardly,little,seldom,rarely 等置于句首时 eg. Little _____ that we were watching his every move, so he seemed to be going his own way in this business. A. he realized B. he didn‘t realize C. didn‘t he realize D. did he realize Key: D c. 几个重要句型 So + be/情态/助 动词 + 主语 Neither + be/情态/助动词 + 主语 So + adj/adv … + that … Neither …, nor … Not only …, but also … Not until … eg. If Joe‘s wife won‘t go to the party, ___________. A. he will either B. neither will he C. he neither will D. either he will Key: B 3. 形式倒装 as 引导让步状语从句,必须把所强调的信息放在句首 eg. _______, his idea was accepted by all the people at the meeting. A. Strange as might it sound B. As it might sound strange C. As strange it might sound D. Strange as it might sound Key: D 考点六:强调句 1.强调句型 It is/was + 被强调部分 + that + 句子其他成分 a. 强调句变为一般疑问句或特殊疑问句 b. not?until 的强调句型 eg. It ______ we had stayed together for a couple of days _____ I found we had a lot in common. A. was until; when B. was until; that C. wasn‘t unitl; when D. wasn‘t until; that Key: D c. 强调句中含有定语从句或其他从句 eg. It is not who is right but what is right ______ is of importance. A. which B. it C. that D. this Key: C d. 强调句中强调时间装状语和 It is +时间+ when 定语从句等句式的区分 2. 谓语动词的强调 强调谓语用 do/does/did 。 考点十二:省略句

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1. 不定式的省略 a. 省略动词不定式后的动词,保留 to。常在 expect, forget, intend, like, love, mean, prefer, seem, try, want 等后面 b. 在 have, need, ought, be going , used 等的后面 c. 否定形式的省略用 not to d. 如果不定式中含有 be, have, have been, 通常保留 be, have, have been 2. 状语从句中的省略 a. 当状语从句的主语和主句的主语一致时,可以省略状语从句中的主语和 be b. 当从句的主语是 it,谓语动词中含有 be 时,可以省略 it 和 be c. 用 so 和 not 代替上文内容 考点七:介 词 介词是表示它后面的名词、代词、短语、从句等与句子其他成分的关系的词。在句子中它不 能单独使用,只能由名词、代词、数词、动名词等构成的介词短语作句子的成分。介词分为 简单介词、 复合介词、 双重介词、 短语介词和分词介词五种类型。 高考介词主要考查点如下: 1、常见介词的用法。 2、介词的固定搭配: 1)介词与其后的名词或代词构成介词短语,在句中作状语、宾语、表语、宾补语后置定语。 2)介词与其前面的动词或形容词构成动词词组,后面要有宾语。这时的词组相当于一个 及物动词。 3、最常见表示时间、地点与方式介词的用法。 4、某些意思比较相近的介词用法辨析。 5、同一介词可表达多种意义,同一场合意义不同则介词不同; ; 6、复合介词及双重介词的使用 解题策略: ● 牢记固定的介词词组 ●正确把握重要介词的用法 ● 辨析意义相近的介词 【要点点拨】 复习时要把握三点: A. 要注意理解情景意义:同一介词可表达多种意义,同一场合意义不同则介词不同。 He hasn’t come for a month. (for 持续时间) The day is warm for April .(for 就??而言) B. 要突破几个关键介词 in , on , at , with , by , from , of , to , for . 1 . 表示时间的:at; in ; on , since , from , to , after , within , during , throughout , towards , over , by , till ; 2 . 表示穿越的:through , across , over 3.表示地理位置的:in ; on; to ; 4. 表示原因、目的的:for ;with ; from ; 5. 表示关于的:about , concerning , regarding , with regard to , as for ,as to ; 6. 表示根据:on ; according to ; 7. in the corner ;on the corner , at the corner 的区别 8.between 和 among 9.besides ;except ; but ;except for

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10.in 和 with C. 要注意介词搭配,集中归纳,反复练习。 1. 固定与 to 构成搭配的名词:key , answer , visit , apology , introduction ,note , etc. 2. 与 on 有关的:mercy , congratulations 3. 与 at 有关的:angry , good , bad , clever , terrified , surprised ; 4. 与 of 有关的:afraid , sure , full , tired , fond , proud , worthy , certain ; 5. 与 with 有关的:angry , strict , careful , busy , poplar ; 6. 与 to 有关的: next, good , polite , kind , cruel , rude , known , anxious , married , close , near , similar, due ; 7. 与 for 有关的:sorry , good , free , fit , unfit , eager, anxious , hungry ; 8. 与 from 有关的:far , different , free, safe , absent , tired . 几组介词的区别: 一、 表示地点时 at, in, on 的区别 ★ at 表示在较小的地方(村庄, 小城镇,门牌); 在某物旁(不确定的地方) ★ in 表示在较大的地方(国家,城市); 在某物范围内.(地点的排列顺序是由小到大). ★ on 表示在某物上(表面接触); road 前用 on, street 前用 in/on; 楼层用 on; farm 前用 on, field 前用 in. 二、 表示时间时 at, in, on 的区别 ★ at 表示时间点(在几点,中午;午夜;夜里;某日期或一段时间的开头或结尾)(at sunrise; at the weekend; at Christmas) ★ on 表示在特定的某一天或某天的上午,下午,晚上等 ★ in 表示一段时间.后接月,年,季等表一段时间的名词. 三、 表持续时间的 since, for, in, after 的区别 ★ since 接过去的某时间点, 常用于完成时. ★ for 接一段具体的时间, 常用于完成时. ★ in + 一段时间与非延续性动词连用,表一段时间以后,多用于将来时; 与延续性动词连用, 表一段时间内,时态不限. ★ after + 一段时间,常用于过去时. 四、 表方位的介词 in, on, to, off 的区别 ★ in 表示在境内. ★ on 表示相邻或在边界上, 不在境内. ★ to 表示在境外, 不接壤. ★ off 表示在海面上靠近海岸的地方. 五、 表示运动方向或目的的介词 ★ across 表示穿过物体表面,或横过. ★ through 表示在某一空间通过,或纵向穿过. ★ along 表示沿着一条线平行. ★ up 表示向上,由南到北,由东到西,由沿海到内陆,由小地方到大地方,由农村到城市. 反之 则用 down. ★ to 表示动作的目的地; towards 指朝向,无到达的意思; for 表示前往的目的,连用的动词有 leave, start off, set out, head, sail 等. 六、 表示除---- 之外的介词 ★ besides 表示包含, 除 --- 之外还有--★ except 表示排除, 除 ---- 之外

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★ but 表示排除, 多与 nobody, none, no one, nothing, anything, everyone, all, who 等连用. ★ except for 表示除去整体中的部分, “只是, 只不过” 七、 介词 among 和 between 的区别 ★ among 表示三个或以上的人或物之间,后接复数名词或集体名词. ★ between 用于两者之间, 或三个以上的两两之间(具体的名词已经列出) 八、 表示价格,比率,标准,速度的介词 ★ at 表示价值,价格, 比率或速度, 表单价. ★ for 表示交换, 指总价钱 ★ by 表示度量单位或标准. 后接表计量单位的名词一般是单数,前面需加定冠词 the. 数词 或复数名词前不加. 九、介词 with 后面加上 doing/done/adj./prep/prep-phrase 的复合结构作定语或状语。

艺考生的救命稻草! 突破 130 分,快速提高 30 分的锦囊妙计! 6 步搞定任何高考英语阅读真题,一般人不告诉他(她)!

2013 吴军高考英语阅读理解 3 天提分秘术
众说周知,得阅读、完形者得天下! 文章看没看懂不重要,关键是要选对! 高考英语阅读的核心暗示点:词和短语! 题目(或题干)有暗示,秘笈为你精准导航! 选项与出题点之间存在逻辑关系,3 天帮您梳理! 速度比完美更重要,思路比题海要有效!

2013 高考英语阅读 3 天提分秘术, 既不是神人的牛 B 押题,也不是最牛高 考班的密卷!而是沈阳高分英语家教吴军老师从 2000-2012 年 2700 多篇高考英 语阅读真题答案内幕规律衍生出的迅捷提分秘诀! 2013 高考英语阅读 3 天提分秘术是纸质的解析讲解类自学教案,而不是如 同上大课般的名师讲座光盘(如高分突破,提分宝典,四步兵法,高频考点等), 你可以站着,躺着,甚至在卫生间里也可以阅读自学! 立竿见影! 以一顶百! 年来我们在自我独门秘笈的基础上, 9 20%参阅了 132 种全国知名高考英语教案或资料(如:新东方,张清波,北京四中李俊和,管卫 东,提分宝典,高频考点等) 。但发现很多名师教案与高考提分关联度小,因为 相当一部分名师只是把自己在考研和雅思领域的研究成果生搬硬套到高考英语
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教学中(讲述的高频词汇严重超纲,甚至是大学 6 级的) ,而不是深入到 2700 篇历届阅读真题中潜心研究,效果可想而知。还有些重点高中一线老师,将自己 上课用的教案制作成光盘用以贩卖,其实质不过是高频考点和词汇的串讲,有的 甚至用 35%的篇章讲述如何记忆单词,而广告却说是提分秘笈,真是让人遗憾! 好消息!吴军老师 2012 高考英语 3 天提分秘诀仅释放了其 30%的功力,就 达到了 90%以上的客户满意度,为了配合文科其他科目的上市,2013 年吴军高 考英语将释放其 70%的功力,2013 年高考英语提分速度和幅度将再升一倍,看 完下列示例后,还不赶紧抢购呀!

目录: 一、2013 阅读吴军猜题秘术: 备选项高频答案特征 二、2013 阅读吴军暗示点秒杀: 备选项高频答案词 三、擒贼先擒王:主旨题、写作目的题吴军答题密码 四、阅读出题点与细节题吴军答题法则 五、阅读文章结构、题材与推论题吴军突破秘诀 六、阅读词汇、文章及作者态度题吴军破解规律

2013 阅读吴军猜题秘术: 备选项高频答案特征(10 条秘诀)
秘诀一:被动结构是备选项高频答案特征!

【2010 辽宁卷 B 篇】I hated dinner parties. But I decided to give them another shot because I'm in London. And my friend Mallery invited me. And because dinner parties in London are very different from those back in New York. There, '“I‘m having a dinner party' means: "I'm booking a table for 12 at a restaurant you can't afford and we'll be sharing the checque evenly, no matter what you eat." Worse, in Manhattan there is always someone who leaves before the bill arrives. They'll throw down cash, half of what they owe, and then people like me, who don‘t drink, end up paying even more. But if I try to use the same trick, the hostess will shout: "Where are you going?" And it's not like I can say I have somewhere to go: everyone know I have nowhere to go. But in London, dinner parties are in people's homes.(转折对比,说明前面 New Yorkers 评价是
Self-centred.) Not only that, the guests are an interesting mix. The last time I went to one, the 16

guests were from France, India. Denmark and Nigeria; it was like a gathering at the United Nations in New York. The mix is less striking. It's like a gathering at Bloomingdale's, a well-known department store. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61. What does the writer dislike most about dinner parties in New York? A There is a strange mix of people. C. The bill is not fairly shared. B. The restaurants are expensive. D. People have to pay cash

63. What is the author's opinion of some New Yorkers from her experience? A. Easy-going. B. Self-centred. C. Generous. D. Conservative.

【2012 四川卷 E 篇】So far, efforts to cut emissions(排放)of planet-warming greenhouse gases are not seen as enough to prevent the Earth heating up beyond 2℃ this century — a point scientists say will bring the danger of a changeable climate in which weather extremes are common, leading to drought, floods, crop failures and rising sea levels. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------60. What can be inferred from the last two paragraphs about the world’s temperature? A. It has risen nearly 0.2℃ since 1979. B. Its change will lead to weather extremes. C. It is 0.8℃ higher in 1979 than that of 1990. D. It needs to be controlled within 2℃ in this century.

【2012 四川卷 A 篇】The seasons change just outside the door. We watch the maples turn every shade of yellow and red in the fall and note the poplars‘(杨树)putting out the first green leaves of spring. The rainbow smelt fills the local steam as the ice gradually disappears, and the wood frogs start to sing in pools after being frozen for the winter. A family of birds rules our skies and flies over the lake. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------43. What does the underlined sentence in the last paragraph mean? A. The change of seasons is easily felt. B. The seasons make the scenes change. C. The weather often changes in the forest. D. The door is a good position to enjoy changing seasons.

【2012 陕西卷 C 篇】 authors of both studies stress that these risks are relatively small for The healthy people and certainly modest compared with other risk factors such as smoking and high blood pressure. However, it is important to be aware of these dangers because everyone is exposed to air pollution regardless of lifestyle choices. So stricter regulation by the EPA of pollutants may

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not only improve environmental air quality but could also become necessary to protect public health. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------55. What can we learn from the text? A. Eating fatty food has immediate effects on your heart. B. The EPA conducted many studies on air quality. C. Moderate air quality is more harmful than smoking, D. Stricter regulations on pollutants should be made.

【2012 江西卷 D 篇】 those who make journeys across the world, the speed of travel today For has turned the countries into a series of villages.Distances between them appear no greater to a modern traveler than those which once faced men as they walked from village to village. Jet plane fly people from one end of the earth to the other, allowing them a freedom of movement undreamt of a hundred years ago. Yet some people wonder if the revolution in travel has gone too far. A price has been paid, they say, for the conquest (征服) of time and distance. Travel is something to be enjoyed, not endured (忍受). The boat offers leisure and time enough to appreciate the ever-changing sights and sounds of a journey. A journey by train also has a special charm about it. Lakes and forests and wild, open plains sweeping past your carriage window create a grand view in which time and distance mean nothing. On board a plane, however, there is just the blank blue of the sky filling the narrow window of the airplane. The soft lighting, in-flight films and gentle music make up the only world you know, and the hours progress slowly. Then there is the time spent being ―processed‖ at a modern airport. People are conveyed like robots along walkways; baggage is weighed, tickets produced, examined and produced yet again before the passenger move again to another waiting area. Journeys by rail and sea take longer, yes, but the hours devoted to being “processed‖ at departure and arrival in airports are luckily absent. No wonder, then, that the modern high-speed trains are winning back passengers from the airlines. Man, however, is now a world traveler and can not turn his back on the airplane. The working lives of too many people depend upon it; whole new industries have been built around its design and operation. The holiday maker, too, with limited time to spend, patiently endures the busy airports and limited space of the flight to gain those extra hours and even days, relaxing in the sun. speed controls people‘s lives; time saved, in work or play, is the important thing—or so we are told. Perhaps those first horsemen, riding free across the wild, open plains, were enjoying a better world than the one we know today. They could travel at will, and the clock was not their master. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------73.According to Paragraph3, passengers are turning back to modern high-speed trains
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because_____. A.they pay less for the tickets B.they feel safer during the travel C.they can enjoy higher speed of travel D.they don‘t have to waste time being “processed” 75.What is the main idea of the passage? A.Air travel benefits people and industries. B.Train Travel has some advantages over air travel. C.Great changes have taken place in modern travel. D.The high speed of air travel is gained at a cost.

2013 阅读吴军暗示点秒杀: 备选项高频答案词 17 项不到 90 个单词) (
秘诀 9:lead to

(result in, bring about, cause)是选项中答案高频暗示词!

【2012 浙江卷 C 篇】 First of all, students need to realize that conflict is unavoidable. A report on violence among middle school and high school students indicates that most violent incidents between students begin with a relatively minor insult (侮辱). For example, a fight could start over the fact that one student eats a peanut butter sandwich each lunchtime. Laughter over the sandwich can lead to insults, which in turn can lead to violence. The problem isn't in the sandwich, but in the way students deal with the conflict. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------51. From Paragraph 2 we can learn that________ . A. violence is more likely to occur at lunchtime B. a small conflict can lead to violence C. students tend to lose their temper easily D. the eating habit of a student is often the cause of a fight 具体! 具体!

【2011 湖北卷 D 篇】 own generation has access to more nutritious food .more convenient our transport .bigger houses, better ears .and of course, more pounds and dollars than any who lived before us .This will continue as long as we there things to make other things, This more we specialize and exchange, the better off we‘ll be. 2) Brilliant advances One reason we are richer, healthier, taller, cleverer, longer-lived and freer than ener before is that the four most basie human needs -food, clothing, fuel and shelter- have grown a lot cheaper. Take one example. In 1800 a candle providing one hour‘s light cost six hours‘ work. In the 1880s the same light from an oil lamp took 15 minutes‘ work to pay for. In 1950 it was eight seconds.
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Today it‘s half second. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------65. The candle and lamp example is used to show that A. oil lamps give off more light than candles B. shortening working time brings about a happier life. C. advanced technology helps to produce better candles. D. increased production rate leads to lower cost of goods. .

秘诀 10:

Control (handle, deal with )是选项中答案高频暗示词!

【2012 天津卷 D 篇】 Those who choose to be creators look at life quite differently. They know there are individuals who might like to control their lives, but they don‘t let this get in the way. They know they have their weaknesses, yet they don‘t blame themselves when they fail. Whatever happens, they have choice in the matter. They believe their dance with each sacred(神圣的)moment of life is a gift and that storms are a natural part of life which can bring the rain needed for emotional and spiritual growth. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------52. According to Paragraph 2, creators __________. A. seem willing to experience failures in life C. handle ups and downs of life wisely B. possess the ability to predict future life D. have potential to create something new

【2012 山东卷 D 篇】 Last year, it was a refrigerator that tweeted. This year, it‘s Wi-Fi-enabled laundry machines and fridges that can tell you when your groceries are going bad. The washers and dryers, available starting in the spring, connect to any smartphone through a downloadable application. The phone can then be used as a remote control, so the machines can be turned on and off while their owners is at work or on the bus. Samsung says it‘s not just something new — the app connection actually has some practical uses. ―If you started to dry clothes in the morning and forgot to take them out, you can go to your phone and restart your dryer for the time when come home, so your clothes are refreshed and ready to go,‖ said spokesperson Amy Schmidt. The company also says that with electricity rate(电价)varying depending on the time of day, more control over when the machines are used can help save money.

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Perhaps, but what they will probably really accomplish is what all good technologies do —enable laziness. Rather than getting up to check on whether the laundry is done, users will instead monitor it on their phones while watching TV. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------73. What can we learn about the new laundry machines? A. They can tell you when your clothes need washing B. They can be controlled with a smartphone C. They are difficult to operate D. They are sold at a low price

秘诀 12:miss

(missing) ; lose (lost)是选项中答案高频暗示词!

【2011 全国新课标卷 A 篇】 There is sadly no home milk delivery today. Big companies allowed the production of cheaper milk thus making it difficult for milkmen to compete (竞争). Besides, milk is for sale everywhere, and it may just not have been practiced to have a delivery service. Recently, an old milk box in the countryside I saw brought back my childhood memories. 1 took it home and planted it on the back porch (门廊). Every so often my son's friends will ask what it is. So I start telling stories of my boyhood, and of the milkman who brought us friendship along with his milk. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------59. Why did the author bring back home an old milk box? A. He missed the good old days. C. He needed it for his milk bottles. B. He wanted to tell interesting stories. D. He planted flowers in it.

【2010 江西卷 A 篇】 Andy rode slowly on his way to school, day-dreaming about the fishing trip that his father had promised him. He was so busy dreaming about all the fish he would catch that he was unaware of everything else around him. He rode along until a strange sound drew him to the present. He came to a stop and looked curiously up to the heavens. What he saw shocked and terrified him. A huge swarm of bees filled the sky like a black cloud and the buzzing mass seemed to be heading angrily towards him. With no time to waste, Andy sped off in the opposite direction, riding furiously—but without knowing how to escape the swarm. With a rapidly beating heart and his legs pumping furiously, he sped down the rough road. As the bees came closer, his panic increased. Andy knew that he was

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sensitive to bee stings(蜇). The last sting had landed him in hospital—and that was only one bee sting! He had been forced to stay in bed for two whole days. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------56. Why did Andy fail to notice the swarm of bees earlier? A. He was riding to school. B. He was listening to a strange sound. C. He was going fishing with his father. D. He was lost in the thought of the fishing trip.

擒贼先擒王:主旨题、写作目的题吴军答题密码
方法一:找中心句 第一段首、末句(一段末出现转折) 二段一句、二句(二段对一段进行总结或否定) 尾段首末句, 90%在末句

有汉语标注的地方!

【2012 全国新课标卷 B 篇】 Honey(蜂蜜)from the African forest is not only a kind of natural sugar, it is also delicious. Most people, and many animals, like eating it. However, the only way for them to get that honey is to find a wild bees' nest(巢)and take the honey from it. Often, these nests are high up in trees, and it is difficult to find them. In parts of Africa, though, people and animals looking for honey have a strange and unexpected helper 一 a little bird called a honey guide. The honey guide does not actually like honey, but it does like the wax (蜂蜡) in the beehives (蜂房). The little bird cannot reach this wax, which is deep inside the bees‘ nest. So, when it finds a suitable nest, it looks for someone to help it. The honey guide gives a loud cry that attracts the attention of both passing animals and people. Once it has their attention, it flies through the forest, waiting from time to time for the curious animal or person as it leads them to the nest. When they finally arrive at the nest, the follower reaches in to get at the delicious honey as the bird patiently

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waits and watches. Some of the honey, and the wax, always falls to the ground, and this is when the honey guide takes its share. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------63. What can be the best title for the text? A. Wild Bees C. Beekeeping in Africa B. Wax and Honey D. Honey-Lover's Helper

表转折和因果处:but,

yet, however, instead,today,now,Although,so,

therefore, thus, as a result, because(since,as,for), one of the reasons was……, The results are……
It was a village in India. The people were poor. However, they were not unhappy. After all , their forefathers had lived in the same way for centuries. Then one day, some visitors from the city arrived . They told the villagers there were some people elsewhere who liked to eat frog‘s legs. However, they did not have enough frogs of their own, and so they wanted to buy frogs from other places. This seemed like money for nothing . There were millions of frogs in the fields around, and they were no use to the villagers. All they had to do was catch them . Agreement was reached, and the children were sent into the fields to catch frogs. Every week a truck arrived to collect the catch and hand over the money. For the first time ,the people were able to dream of a better future. But the dream didn‘t last long. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------From Paragragh 1 we learn that the villagers A.worked very hard for centuries C.were poor but somewhat content 【2012 全国新课标 D 篇】 Grown-ups are often surprised by how well they remember something they learned as children but have never practiced still swim as well as ever since. A man when he gets back who has not had a chance to go swimming for years can in the water. He can get on a bicycle after many years and still ride away. He can play catch and hit a ball as well as his son. A mother who has not thought about the words for years can teach her daughter the poem that begins "Twinkle, twinkle, little star"。remember the story of Cinderella or Goldilocks and the Three Bears.
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.

B.dreamed of having a better life D.lived a different life from their forefathers

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------67. What is the main idea of paragraph 1? A. People remember well what they learned in childhood. B. Children have a better memory than grown-ups. C. Poem reading is a good way to learn words. D. Stories for children are easy to remember.

【2012 重庆卷 E 篇】 In his 1930 essay ―Economic Possibilities for Our Grandchildren ―, John Keynes, economist, rewrote that human needs fall into two classes: absolute needs ,which are indeed what other have , and relative needs ,which make us feel superior to our fellows. He thought although relative needs may indeed be insatiable (无止境的) this is not true of absolute. Keynes was surely correct that only a small part of total spending id decided by the superiority He was greatly mistaken, however, in seeing this derive as the only source of demands Decisions to spend are also driven by ideas of quality which can influence the den almost all goods, including even basic goods like food. When a couple goes out for an dinner, for example, the thought of feeling superior to others probably never comes to them. The goal is to share a special meal that stands out from other meals. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------75.The author of the passage argues that ______. A. absolute needs have no limits B. demands for quality are not insatiable C. human desires influence ideas of quality D. relative needs decide most of our spending 【2012 陕西卷 C 篇】 Eating too much fatty food, exercising too little and smoking can raise your future risk of heart disease. But there is another factor that can cause your heart problems more immediately: the air you breathe. Previous studies have linked high exposure (暴露) environmental pollution to an increased to risk of heart problem, but two analyses now show that poor air quality can lead to heart attack or stroke (中风) within as little as a few hours after exposure. In one review of the research, scientists found that people exposed to high levels of pollutants (污染物)were up to 5% more likely to

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suffer a heart attack within days of exposure than those with lower exposure. A separate study of stroke patients showed that even air that the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers to be of ―moderate‖ (良好)quality and relatively safe for our health can raise the risk of stroke as much as 34% within 12 to 14 hours of exposure. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------53. The text mainly discusses the relationship between A. heart problems and air quality C. heart problems and smoking .

B. heart problems and exercising D. heart problems and fatty food

写作目的题秘诀 13:广告文体写作目的题一般用 advertise!
【2012 重庆卷 B 篇】Top lists are lecturing people on everything from"100 books to read ". Aren't you just tired of being told what to do with your time? Now you have a list to end all lists! Take a look at the following two examples from the list of "101 things not to do": …… Go to See the Mona Lisa? There must be something about the mysterious(神秘的)smile. The 6 million people who the lady in the Louvre every year can‘t all be wrong after all. But they can be quite and standing in front of you, holding up their cameras to prevent you from seeing anything. In fact hard for you to see the painting clearly because you have to stay away from it for security read. After queuing for hours, many tourists can remain in front of the painting only for 15 seconds most. So, still long to see the Mona Lisa? If you want to find out more about the list, read 101 Tings NOT to Do Before You Die. Visit www.not2dobeforeidie.co.uk and buy the book at a 20% discount. 63. What is the main purpose of the passage? A. To advertise a book C. To comment on popular lists B. To introduce a website D. To recommend tourist activities.

写作目的题秘诀 17:一般说明文写作目的题常用 inform!
【2012 浙江卷 C 篇】 There will always be conflict in schools, but that doesn't mean there needs to be violence. After students in Atlanta started a conflict resolution program, according to Educators for Social Responsibility, "64 percent of the teachers reported less physical violence in the classroom; 75 percent of the teachers reported an increase in student cooperation; and 92 percent of the students

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felt better about themselves". Learning to resolve conflicts can help students deal with friends,. teachers. parents, bosses, and coworkers. In that way, conflict resolution is a basic life skill that should be taught in schools across the country. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------54. The writer‘s purpose for writing this article is to_______. A. complain about problems in school education B. teach students different strategies for school life C. advocate teaching conflict management in schools D. inform teachers of the latest studies on school violence But 后面 violence 是重心!

写作目的题秘诀 18:新闻报道写作目的题常用 report!
【2012 全国 II 卷 D 篇】 ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia - One of the world's most famous fossils (化石) - the 3.2 million-year-old Lucy skeleton ( 骨骼 ) unearthed in Ethiopia in 1974 - will go on an exhibition tour abroad for the first time in the United States, officials said Tuesday. Even the Ethiopian public has only seen Lucy twice. The Lucy on exhibition at the Ethiopian National Museum in the capital. Addis Ababa is a replica while the real remains are usually locked in a secret storeroom. A team from the Museum of National Service in to U.S. tour. Texas spent four years disscusing with the Ethiopians for the U.S. tour. Which will start in Houston next September. "Ethiopia's rich culture of both the past and today, is one of the best kept secrets in the world,"said Joel Bartsch, director of the Houston museum. The six-year tour will also go to Washington, New York. Denver and Chicago. Officials said six other U.S. cities may be on the tour. But they said plans had not yet been worked out. Traveling with Lucy will be 190 other fossils. Lucy, her name taken from a Beatles song that played in a camp the night of her discovery, is part of the skeleton of what was once a 3?-foot-ball ape-man (猿人). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------53. The author writes this text mainly to _ A. introduce a few U.S. museums C. discuss the value of an ape-man _. B. describe some research work D. report a coming event

阅读出题点与细节题吴军答题法则
秘诀 9:找到信息点后核对选项,发现照抄原文的不是答案,同义替换的通 常是答案,有时结合答案特征,发现的更快!
Tanni‘s enduring success had been part motivation(动机), part preparation, ―The training I do

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that enables me to be a good sprinter(短跑运动员) enables me to be good at a marathon too. I train 50 weeks of the year and that keeps me prepared for whatever distance I want to race…. I am still competing at a very high lever, but as I get older things get harder and I want to retire before I fall apart.‖ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------58. The underlined word ―that‖ in the 5th paragraph refers to _______. (此题容易错选 A ,但正确答案是 C ,怎样避开陷阱?) A. fifty weeks‘ training C. training almost every day B. being a good sprinter D. part motivation and part preparation

阅读文章结构、题材与推论题吴军突破秘诀
推论题秘诀 3: 没有中心句(中心词四选项都有) ,尾段也没有核对点,则找出题点核对!
【2012 福建卷 B 篇】 At exactly eleven Sir Percival knocked and entered, with anxiety and worry in every line of his face. This meeting would decide his future life,and he obviously knew it. "You may wonder, Sir Percival,‘‘ said Laura calmly, ―if I am going to ask to be released (免 除)from my promise to marry you. I am not going to ask this. I respect my father's wishes too much.― 汉语标注处是出题核对点! His face relaxed a little, but one of his feet kept beating the carpet. "No, if we are going to withdraw.(退出)from our planned marriage, it will be because of your wish, not mine. ―Mine?‖ he said in great surprise. ―What reason could I have for withdrawing?‘ "A reason that is very hard to tell you," she answered. "There is a change in me. ‖ His face went so pale that even his lips lost their color. He turned his head to one side. "What change?" he asked, trying to appear calm. ― When the promise was made two years ago, ‖ she said, my love did not belong to anyone. Will you forgive me, Sir Percival, if I tell you that it now belongs to another person?‖ ―I wish you to understand, ― Laura continued, ―that I will never see this person again, and that if you leave me, you only allow mc to remain a single woman for the rest of my life. All I ask is that you forgive mc and keep my secret." ?I will do both those things, ― he said. Then he looked at Laura, as if he was waiting to hear

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more. "I think I have said enough to give you reason to withdraw from our marriage, ― she added quietly. ― No. You have said enough to make it the dearest wish of my life to marry you, ― he said. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61. We can learn from the passage that .

A. Laura had once promised to marry Percival B. Laura's father wished to end her marriage C. Percival had been married to Laura for two years D. Percival asked to be released from the marriage

文章取材题秘诀 5:若首段有小括号,里面有新华,搜狐,网易,新浪,路 透,BBC 等提示,如(XINHUA NET),或每段首句有具体时间信息点,则选项一定与 news 有关!
【2012 辽宁卷 C 篇】 If Confucius 孔子) ( were still alive today and could celebrate his September 28 birthday with a big cake, there would be a lot of candles.He‘d need a fan or a strong wind to help him put them out. While many people in China will remember Confucius on his special day, few people in the United States will give him a passing thought. It‘s nothing personal. Most Americans don‘t even remember the birthdays of their own national heroes. But this doesn‘t mean that Americans don‘t care about Confucius. In many ways he has become a bridge that foreigners must cross if they want to reach a deeper understanding of China. In the past two decades, the Chinese studies programs have gained huge popularity in Western universities. More recently, the Chinese government has set up Confucius Institutes in more than 80 countries. These schools teach both Chinese language and culture. The main courses of Chinese culture usually included Chinese art, history and philosophy(哲学).Some social scientists suggest that Westerners should take advantages of the ancient Chinese wisdom to make up for the drawbacks of Westerners philosophy. Students in the United States, at the same time, are racing to learn Chinese. So they will be ready for life in a world where China is an equal power with the United States. Businessmen who hope to make money in China are reading books about Confucius to understand their Chinese customers.

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So the old thinker‘s ideas are still alive and well. Today China attracts the West more than ever, and it will need more teachers to introduce Confucius and Chinese culture to the West. As for the old thinker, he will not soon be forgotten by people in the West, even if his birthday is. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------67. The passage is likely to appear in ___________. A. a biography C.a newspaper B. a history paper D. a philosophy textbook

文章取材题秘诀 6:文章首尾句看是否有关键信息点,比如 book,可能是书 的前言或简介,若有价格,与钱有关或访问某网站,则可能是广告 (advertisement)!
【2010 湖北卷 C 篇】 This brief book is aimed at high school students , but speaks to anyone learning at any stage of life. Its formal ,serious style closely matches its content ,a school-masterly book on schooling .The author , W .H . Armstrong ,starts with the basics : reading and writing . In his opinion , reading doesn‘t just mean recognizing each word on the page ; it means taking in the information,digesting it and incorporating it into oneself just as one digests a sandwich and makes it a part of himself .The goal is to bring the information back to life , not just to treat it as dead facts on paper from dead trees . Reading and writing cannot be completely separated from each other ; in fact ,the aim of reading is to express the information you have got from the text .I‘ve seen it again and again :some-one who can‘t express an idea after reading a text is just as ineffective as someone who hasn‘t read it at all. Only a third of the book remains after that discussion ,which Armstrong devotes to specific tips for studying languages ,math , science and history . He generally handles these topics thoroughly(透彻地) and equally ,except for some weakness in the science and math sections and a bit too much passion(激情) regarding history to his students , that was a hundred times more than my history teachers ever got across .To my disappointment , in this part of the book he ignores the arts .As a matter of fact ,they demand all the concentration and study that math and science do,though the study differs slightly in kind .Although it‘s commonly believed that the arts can only be naturally acquired ,actually ,learning the arts is no more natural than learning French or mathematics.
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My other comment is that the text aged. The first edition apparently dates to the 1960s—none of the references(参考文献)seem newer than the late 1950s. As a result, the discussion misses the entire computer age. These are small points, though, and don‘t affect the main discussion. I recommend it to any student and any teacher, including the self-taught student. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------66. This passage can be classified as________. A. an advertisement C. a feature story B. a book review D. A news report

【2012 北京卷 A 篇】 The Basics of Math—Made Clear Basic Math introduces students to the basic concepts of mathematics, as well as the fundamentals of more tricky areas. These 30 fantastic lectures are designed to provide students with an understanding of arithmetic and to prepare them for Algebra(代数) and beyond. The lessons in Basic Math cover every basic aspect of arithmetic. They also look into exponents(指数), the order of operations, and square roots. In addition to learning how to perform various mathematical operations, students discover why these operations work, how a particular mathematical topic relates to other branches of mathematics, and how these operations can be used practically. Basic Math starts from the relatively easier concepts and gradually moves on to the more troublesome ones, so as to allow for steady and sure understanding of the material by students. The lectures offer students the chance to ―make sense‖ of mathematical knowledge that may have seemed so frightening. They also help students prepare for college mathematics and overcome their anxiety about this amazing—and completely understandable—field of study. By the conclusion of the course, students will have improved their understanding of basic math. They will be able to clear away the mystery(神秘性) of mathematics and face their studies with more confidence than they ever imagined. In addition, they will strengthen their ability to accept new and exciting mathematical challenges. Professor H. Siegel, honored by Kentucky Educational Television as ―the best math teacher in America,‖ is a devoted teacher and has a gift for explaining mathematical concepts in ways that make them seem clear and obvious. From the basic concrete ideas to the more abstract problems, he is master in making math lectures learner-friendlier and less scary. With a PhD in Mathematics Education from Georgia State University, Dr. Siegel teaches

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mathematics at Central Arizona College. His courses include various make-up classes and a number of lectures for future primary school teachers. If the course fails to provide complete satisfaction to you, you can easily exchange it for any other course that we offer. Or you can get your money back. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------59. Where is the passage most likely to have been taken from? A. A news report. C. A lesson plan. B. A book review D. An advertisement

文体结构题秘诀 4:指定段落有 a man, one man, such as 等信号词时, 结构为举例(examples).
【2012 江西卷 D 篇】 Yet some people wonder if the revolution in travel has gone too far. A price has been paid, they say, for the conquest (征服) of time and distance. Travel is something to be enjoyed, not endured (忍受). The boat offers leisure and time enough to appreciate the ever-changing sights and sounds of a journey. A journey by train also has a special charm about it. Lakes and forests and wild, open plains sweeping past your carriage window create a grand view in which time and distance mean nothing. On board a plane, however, there is just the blank blue of the sky filling the narrow window of the airplane. The soft lighting, in-flight films and gentle music make up the only world you know, and the hours progress slowly. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------72.How does the writer support the underlined statement in Paragraph2? A.By giving instructions. C.By following the order of time. B.By analyzing cause and effect. D.By giving examples.

【2012 全国新课标 D 篇】 One explanation is the law of overlearning , which can be stated as follows: Once we have learned something, additional learning trials(尝试)increase the length of time we will remember it. In childhood we usually continue to practice such skills as swimming, bicycle riding, and playing baseball long after we have learned them. We continue to listen to and remind ourselves of

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words such as "Twinkle, twinkle, little star" and childhood tales such as Cinderella and Goldilocks. We not only learn but overlearn. The multiplication tables(乘法口诀表)are an exception to the eeneral rule that we forget rather quickly the things that we learn in school, because they are another of the things we overlearn in childhood. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------68.The author explains the law of overlearning by_________. A. presenting research findings C. making a comparison B. setting down general rules D. using examples

阅读词汇、文章及作者态度题吴军破解规律
词汇答题秘诀 12:模凌两可处如何处理?向该词就近信息点靠拢!向高频答 案词特征靠拢!选择范围大的!

【2011 重庆卷 A 篇】There was a gardener who looked after his garden with great care. To water his flowers, he used two buckers. One was a shiny and new bucket. The other was a very old and dilapidated one, which had seen many years of service, but was now past its best. 56. What does the underlined word ―dilapidated‖ probably mean? A. Dirty C. Worn-out 被动答案特征! B. Dark D. Plain-looking.

作者态度题秘诀 11:高频答案词 caring(关心的; 有同情心的)
【2012 天津卷 B 篇】 45. Which of the following can best describe Ms. Yates? A. Reliable and devoted. C. Proud but patient. 【2012 辽宁卷 B 篇】 61. Which of the following best describes the families of the astronauts on the ISS ?
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B. Tough and generous. D. Strict but caring.

A. The are caring and thoughtful B. The are impatient and annoyed C. The are impatient and annoyed. D. The are excited and curious.

【2010 全国Ⅱ卷 A 篇】 45.Which of the following best describes Brownie? A. Shy B. Polite C. Brave D. Caring

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您孩子或许接受过一对一的大型品牌英语家教服务,甚至一线在职教师的辅导, 但绝大多数的情况是,您孩子的英语分数纹丝不动甚至下降了!为什么? 花言巧语的广告轰炸和信誓旦旦的保分承诺是让很多家长经不起的诱惑! 其实很多品牌 家教派给您孩子的家教不过是以前在马路上举牌仅值 30-50 元/小时的应往届毕业生而已!

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最终,拿回承诺的退费比登山还难,即使退了,也换不来孩子的分数和本应美好的未来! 在职教师有着令人信服的耀眼光环,但该好的当然是好,但该坏的照样是坏的!重点高 中的孩子并不是你在职教师教出来的,因为学苗好,都 125-130 分了,谁教都会一样的好! 把普通学校的学生拿给在职教师教, 再用在职教师滚瓜烂熟的知识点串讲辅导和拿个五三套 题让学生去做,其结果,很难短期内事半功倍!

什么北京 XX 高分突破,60 分钟高考英语提分秘诀,2012 高分核按纽,选择 题高分模板等层出不穷,到底哪个才有效啊?与吴军高分密码有什么区别? 有的用名头砸人(比如用北京或上海英语学科带头人,参加过高考出题,享受国务院特 殊津贴等作为卖点) ;有的用卖成功学陈 XX 那样的文字广告框人;有的干脆模仿或照抄相 关广告文案去骗人,甄别起来,还真是有点困难!

真想区别开来,其实是可以找到答案的: 骗子是很好鉴别的,一是可以让您的孩子问一些高考英语中阅读和完型很具体的问题, 看他或她回答的如何?另外,骗子一般都不留自己的联络地址和电话号码,只留邮箱,QQ 号码和银行卡号,让你被骗之后无从寻找。另外,他们还会承诺,不满意,可以退回资料, 马上退款,还负责汇款手续费,让你觉得深信不已!其实,仔细想一想,资料都暴漏了, 谁拿到后都可以马上复印,若可以退的话,岂不是所有人都可以免费拿到资料了吗?

比如,2011 年高考的时候就有人假借吴军老师的名义实施骗局!他在网上贴吧和博客 上出卖的教案根本不是吴军的核心授课教案,是免费公益版的;另外淘宝网上卖的也是假的, 是武汉某某在沈阳吴军高分英语家教网站上或百度文库,英语周报英语教师网及新浪爱问共 享资料上免费下载的,是可以免费得到的,然而他却卖你 3000 元,但其并非吴军本人核心授课 教案!声明:没有与沈阳吴军本人联络,且未将款项打入沈阳吴军个人银行帐号的交易与吴军 无任何关系,其后果自负!已经上当的家长,请看一下你得到的是类似如下吴军高分教案吗? 不要图便宜,还是与吴军本人亲自交易吧!

辨别有没有效,好不好使,其实方法也很简单:一要看你教的学生是不是真实的? 广告 中提分的学员是否留有学校,班级和学生真实姓名及提分幅度?这样一来,知道了班级和姓名 就很容易核实了,不符则可称为诈骗,可追究法律责任! 不敢留学生真实姓名,只是写上张某 某(或从别处粘贴了外地高考状元的照片)并随意说提了 50 分是不可信的,目的也是可想而知! 吴军英语的广告中声称的提分效果,都写明了学校班级和学生姓名及提分幅度,是可信的,也 是敢于让公众监督的! 比如,吴军英语关于提分在其官网上是这么写的:
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2012 吴军高考英语成绩公告
2012 年高考已经结束,吴军老师今年承接了一对一或一对二,共计 87 位考生。其中刨 出一个最高分 136 分(本身来时就 130 分左右)及考前半个月左右才来学的 2 位考生,平均 提分 36.7,再创辉煌!其中值得一提的是,吴老师所授的一名学员英语单科成绩竟然提了 90 多分,再次刷新了吴老师 2009 年创造的提 73 分的最高记录!令人兴奋!

最高提 90 分,刷新 2009 年最高提 73 分记录!
方美乔, 鲁美附中高三 3 班(考前 2 个月内在翰林补课班上学), 考生号: 12210104130592, 考场在 50 中学,高二下学期来吴军老师处学习时,成绩最高时仅 36 分,通过在 1 年多每周一 次课的学习,2012 年高考成绩为 126 分,提分 90 多分,刷新了 2009 年吴老师创造的最高 提 73 分的记录。作为沈阳隆方房地产公司老板的女儿,家庭条件相当优越,但其从不缺乏 刻苦专研精神,最后即将以艺考 482 分的优异成绩考取鲁迅美术学院!

重点高中在职教师不行,不妨再找吴老师试试!
刘赫绅,22 中高三 9 班,考生号: 12210106150716,考场在 53 中学,通过某位重点高中参加 过高考英语出题的在职教师近 1 年的一对一补课,成绩始终徘徊在 70 分左右,但考中国民航大 学飞行员的英语小分必须达到 90 分.后来其母亲沈阳雏鹰小学马老师通过 2011 年考取一本 B 段涉外高护专业的沈阳 4 中胡兢元的母亲鼎立推荐,找到了吴军老师,此时距离 2012 年高考还 有不到 2 个半月的时间,通过每周一、三、五下午 17:30-19:00 近 30 课的学习,最终将以 2012 年高考英语 101 分的成绩如愿以偿!

短期火箭式提分有秘方!
高考前 3 个月,词汇量能达到初三下学期水平,本身有强烈的提分欲望,能刻苦专研, 没有 心理障碍的学员,基本上,或者说 2005-2012 历年 99%提分。 徐可,沈阳 4 中高三 0 班,考生号:12210106110515,考场在 15 中学, 总分 605(过理 科一本线) 。2012 年高考英语为 125 分。来时 100 多分,通过短期 10 课的学习,分数提了 近 20 分; 王天池,沈阳 120 中,考生号:12210105150840,考场在省实验中学,总分 478(过理 科二本线) 。2012 年高考英语为 89 分。来时接近 40 分,通过短期集中 20 多课的学习,分 数提了近 50 分; 袁小力,鲁美附中高三 1 班艺考生,考生号:12210104130667,考场在 50 中学, 总分 436。按其成绩排名基本上可以考取鲁美。通过短期集中 20 课的学习,其由来时的 30 多分, 上升到本次高考 66 分,分数翻倍,险过小分!

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蒋同学,沈阳 31 中高三艺考生,考生号:12210102170004,考场在 38 中学,通过 8 次课 的集中学习,成绩由原来的 80 分左右提到 2012 年高考英语 109 分!

更多提分详细资料,请亲临咨询!对于携带记者证或预交 1 课学费者,可以全部查询相 关提分信息,并任意抽查 3-5 位同学父母的联络方式核实!也可根据其所在学校班级,二次 核实! (链接 2011 年吴军老师亲授学员成绩公告) 吴军亲授考生共 83 人参加了 2011 年高考,去掉一个最高分东北育才本部 137 分,去掉一 个艺考最低分(临时只学了 7 次课,来时 33 分,2011 年高考 61 分),平均提分 31.5 分! 2011 年沈阳高分英语家教吴军一对一亲授中考生学员共计 39 人, 分以上占 97.17%; 140 130-140 之间为 0%;120-130 之间占 2.73%,没有 120 分以下的。其中 21 人达到了 145 分 或以上,有―两匹黑马‖值得一提,他们一个是辽宁省实验中学北校区初三 8 班的杨淇,另一 位是沈阳 7 中初三 21 班的童俊豪, 他们来吴军老师这儿学习时均为 120 分或以下, 本次 2011 年沈阳中考英语成绩均达到了 146 分。
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------许译 鲁美附中高三 1 班,考生号:11210104130303;宁莹莹 鲁美附中高三 3 班 2011 届高三文科艺考生, 考生号:11210702130017; 黄钰乔 沈阳 27 中高三 13 班,考生号:11210105130331,2011 年高考英语分别提高 了 30-55 分不等,已被一批本科鲁迅美术学院和中央美术学院录取! 卢涵 沈阳铁路中学高三 11 班 2011 届高三艺考生,考生号:11210105130901, 李奕宣 沈阳同泽女中学

高三 3 班 2011 届高三艺考生,考生号:112101053130422, 2011 年高考英语成绩分别提高了 30-35 分不等,已 被中国传媒大学文编专业和天津师范大学播音专业录取! 李晨晖 沈阳 2 中 2011 届高三考生,考生号:11210103151002,总分:651 分,理科,一本线重点大学,来吴军高 分英语前 110-120 分,本次高考英语成绩为 127 分; 杨嘉睿 东北育才双语 2011 届高三 4 班考生,考生号:11210102111097,总分:559 分, 理科,预估一本线,来 吴军高分英语前 120 分,本次高考英语成绩为 130 分; 鲁菲 沈阳 120 中 7 班 2011 届高三考生,考生号:11210105110762,总分:544 分, 理科,一本线,来吴军高分 英语前 110 分,考前共学 5 课,本次高考英语成绩为 119 分。 姜萧栩 沈阳雨田中学初三 2 班 考号:061020116 2011 年沈阳中考英语成绩为 145 分; 2011 年沈阳中考英语成绩为 146 分; 2011 年沈阳中考英语成绩为 146 分; 2011 年沈阳中考英语成绩为 144 分; 2011 年沈阳中考英语成绩为 146 分; 2011 年沈阳中考英语成绩为 144 分。

杨淇 辽宁省实验中学北校区初三 8 班 考号:051008906 王一乾 沈阳雨田中学初三 2 班 袁若琳 沈阳雨田中学初三 1 班 考号:061020406 考号:061021102

童俊豪 沈阳 7 中初三 21 班 考号:031009521 张天爱 沈阳雨田中学初三 1 班 考号:061019414

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2012 吴军高考英语 3 天提分秘诀辽宁卷效果示例
一、知识点和词汇全部押对!
举几个 2012 高考英语辽宁卷单选的例子: 吴军老师帮您筛选的 30 多个形容词和副词,大家看一看,是不是都在下列备选项中? 22. We used to see each other A. especially , but I haven‘t head from him since last year. C. particularly D. approximately

B. regularly

有些连知识点都不用,只是通过吴军老师教你的正负 / 过程和结果解题法就所向披靡 了! 通过正负, 可知 A 和 D 可选! 再通过过程和结果, 可知 A. with pleasure 强调的是结果, 说明借过后,表示荣幸,所以不符!电话还没借呢,故只有 D 符合。 23. — I‘m terribly sorry to interrupt, but may I use your phone? It‘s rather urgent. — Yes, . B. no burry C. it doesn‘t matter D. of course

A. with pleasure

2012 吴军高考语法与词汇单项选择题 3 天提分密码 B-1 第 25 页,Shall 用于第二、第 三人称,表示说话人给对方命令、警告、允诺或威胁。这儿是说根据学校规定学生在校时 都必须要穿校服。 24. One of our rules is that every student A. might B. could wear school uniform while at school. C. shall D. will

2012 吴军高考语法与词汇单项选择题 3 天提分密码 B-2 第 25 页,有宾语主动,无宾语 被动!follow 后面有宾语,with 的宾语后面可加形容词、副词、分词、不定式、名词等作 宾补,这儿 pet dog 与 follow 构成主谓关系,所以用 following. 25. The old couple often take a walk after supper in the park with their pet dog A. to follow B. following C. followed D. follows them.

2012 吴军高考英语高频答案词一本通第 108 页,Rod 喜欢拆卸钟表,然而,他从来都 不能再重新装好。所以选 B 项。另外 However 两边句子相反,看到 put…… together, 当然 相反的就是 taking apart 啦! 26. Rod loves A. taking apart clocks. However, he never manages to put them together again. B. giving away C. making up D. turning off

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2012 吴军高考语法与词汇单项选择题 3 天提分密码 B-1 第 6 页, 作“一个”, one “一本”, “一件”等解,用来代替上文提到过的 paper。相当于 a copy of paper. 28. If you‘re buying today‘s paper from the stand, could you get A. one B. such C. this D. that for me?

2012 吴军高考语法与词汇单项选择题 3 天提分密码 B-2 第 13 页, 把你的钥匙留给你的 邻居,以防你把自己锁在外面了。所以选 C 项。 30. Leave your key with your neighbor A. as long as B. even though you lock yourself out one day. C. in case D. as if

2012 吴军高考语法与词汇单项选择题 3 天提分密码 B-3 第 4 页,Not until 位于句首时 句子要倒装,consider having a holiday abroad 这个动作发生在 retire 之后,所以用一般过 去时。 32. Not until he retired from teaching three years ago A. he had considered C. he considered B. had he considered D. did he consider having a holiday abroad.

2012 吴军高考语法与词汇单项选择题 3 天提分密码 B-1 第 26 页, 在句型 “It’s high/ very time that…”中, 从句中的谓语动词用 did 或 should do.所以选 D 项。 33. Jack is a great talker. It‘s high time that he A. will do B. has done C. do something instead of just talking. D. did

2012 吴军高考语法与词汇单项选择题 3 天提分密码 B-2 第 18 页, 名词性从句 4 个高频 答案词,介词 for 后面加的是宾语从句,且从句中 find 缺少宾语,故用 whatever,选 C。 34. The newcomer went to the library the other day and scarched for about Mark Twain. A. wherever B. however C. whatever D. whichever he could find

二、完形技巧+高频答案词,挑战高分!
举几个 2012 高考英语辽宁卷完形填空的例子来回忆一下吴军老师的完形易经,骄傲一 下自己当时精明的选择! 首尾或上下段落呼应,复现解决问题!
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When Glen Kruger picked a small cat from an animal shelter, he did not expect much. Yet right from the start, eight years ago, there was an uncommon connection between him and the small black cat. He 36 her Inky. 37 38 playmates,‖Kruger,The of farm epuipment , so I

― I grew up on a hundred-acre farm and had only cats seventy-year-old man,says. ―My hearing was damaged by the learned to connect with 39. A. animals 39 . C. farmers

B. friends

D. neghbors

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in a pool of blood on the basement floor, Kruger felt

47 going into shock(休克).

He shouted for help , 48 the house. 49

his wife, Brenda , was asleep in their bedroom at the opposite end of

Kruger noticed Inky watching from the top of the stairs.

―Go get Brenda, ‖ Krugger said to Inky. Inky 50 her to the 52 to the bedroom door and scratched Brenda found her husband B. basement 53 51 until Brenda opened it. Then Inky led

the stairs and called 911. D. house

52. A. bedroom

C yard

通过同现解决问题! 看到 rushed 后就知道很匆忙,故 50 空纠结时,通过同现校正答案,就不能误选 C 了, ran 与 rushed 同现;51 空是 C 还是 D 呢?Inky 是猫,madly 更贴切;53 空,叫 911 送医院 了,说明掉楼梯底下了。 Inky 50 her to the 52 to the hospital. 50. A. walked 51. A. rapidly B. ran B. suddenly C. returned C. madly C. at the top of D. withdrew D . urgently D. in the front of to the bedroom door and scratched Brenda found her husband 53 51 until Brenda opened it. Then Inky led

the stairs and called 911. Kruger was rushed

53. A. at the bottom of B. in the middle of

通过正负解决问题! ―My hearing was damaged by the with 39 38 of farm epuipment , so I learned to connect

. They react to what they see and what you do. ‖ B. alarm C. noise D. voice

38. A. sound

三、吴军英语阅读迅捷技巧+矩阵法则,挑战满分!
找不到主旨句或四个选项都带中心词时,看出题点,即每段首尾句和有汉语标注的地
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方等,然后通过复现和同现就解决了! Astronauts on shorter shuttle missions 使命) ( often work very long days. Tasks are scheduled so tightly that break times are often used to finish the day‘s work. This type of schedute is far too demanding for long missions on the Internaitional Space Sttation ISS) ISS crewmembers usually ( . live in space for at least a quarter of a year. They work five days on and two days off to mimic the normal way they do things on Earth as much as possible. Weekends give the crew valuable. Weekends give the crew valuable time to rest and do a few hours of housework. They can communicate with family and friends by email, isternet phone and throhgh Private video conferenes. While astronauts cannot go to a baseball game or a movie in orbit, there are many familiar activetics that they can still enjoy. Before a mission. The family and friends of each ISS crewmember put together a collection of family photos, messages, videos and reading material for The astromauts to look at when they will be floating 370 kilometers above the Earth. During their missiom, the crew also receives care packages with CDs, books, magazines, photos and letters . And as from early 2010, the internet became available on the ISS , giving astronaouts the chance to do some ―web surfing (冲浪)‖in their personal time. Besides relaxing with these more commom entertainments, astromauts can simply enjoy the experience of living in space. Many astronauts say that one of the most relaxing things to do in space is to look out the window and stare at the universe and the Earth‘s vast land mass and oceans. 63. The passage mainly discusses how astronauts A. work for longer missions in space C. observe the Earth from space . (2012 辽宁卷阅读 B 篇)

B. connect with people on the Earth D. spend their free time in space

词汇 13 大解题思路使您茅塞顿开!本题仅用代入法就解决了问题! Astronauts on shorter shuttle missions 使命) ( often work very long days. Tasks are scheduled so tightly that break times are often used to finish the day‘s work. This type of schedute is far too demanding for long missions on the Internaitional Space Sttation ISS) ISS crewmembers usually ( . live in space for at least a quarter of a year. They work five days on and two days off to mimic the normal way they do things on Earth as much as possible. Weekends give the crew valuable. Weekends give the crew valuable time to rest and do a few hours of housework. 60. What does the word ―minic‖in Paragraph 1 probably mean?(2012 辽宁卷阅读 B 篇) A. Find B. Copy C. Change D. Lose

找到 minic 这个动词的宾语 way, way they do things 做事的方式, Find 发现?; Copy 模 仿?Change 改变?Lose 失去?way they do things 做事的方式,当然是模仿做事的方式喽! A 大于 B,则选 A。 In the past two decades, the Chinese studies programs have gained huge popularity in

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Western universities. More recently, the Chinese government has set up Confucius Institutes in more than 80 countries. These schools teach both Chinese language and culture. The main courses of Chinese culture usually included Chinese art, history and philosophy(哲学). Some social scientists suggest that Westerners should take advantages of the ancient Chinese wisdom to make up for the drawbacks of Westerners philosophy. Students in the United States, at the same time, are racing to learn Chinese. So they will be ready for life in a world where China is an equal power with the United States. Businessmen who hope to make money in China are reading books about Confucius to understand their Chinese customers. 65. We can learn from Paragraph 4 that American students______。2012 辽宁卷阅读 C 篇) ( A. have a great interest in studying Chinese B. take an active part in Chinese competitions C. try to get high scores in Chinese exams D. fight for a chance to learn Chinese 65 题根据题干关键字 American students 文章定位,就近原则参考点为 racing to learn Chinese. 有些同学在 A 和 D 之间纠结。如果确实区分有困难的话,可以根据―A 大于 D,则 选 A。‖原则,则选 A。

矩阵法则解题:出题点;与中心词沾边;答案特征;答题步骤;核对规则. 69. According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE? (2012 辽宁卷阅读 D 篇) A.The customers who cannot pay can word as volunteers instead. B.More volunteers will go to new Orleans for the hurricane cleanup. C.Many new cafes will be opened to offer free lunches in the town. D.The lunch menu has remained the same since the caféwas started.

69 题出题点在尾句,更有出题信号词 instead ;选项中 A 是前后矛盾的句子,符合答案特征; 选项 A 中含有的 volunteers 是文章反复出现的中心词,所以答案就可以选 A 了.

四、洞穿 7 选 5 秘诀, 吴军高考英语运筹帷幄!
答题步骤:首句定位;排比;逻辑关系;指代+同现或复现;连接词+同现或复现;先易后难,缩 小范围,从而高分突破!
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How to Make Friends Friendship is a very important human relationship and everyone needs good friends. Good friendship has many benefits. It offers companionship, improves self-worth and promotes good health. There are times in our lives such as when we have recently moved into a new town, or changed our jobs or schools. Such changes often leaves us without a friend 71 . But for many of us the process is difficult and requires courage. Below are some helpful suggestions on how to make and keep friends. 1. Associate with others. The first step to making friends is associating with other people. You can go to public places to meet new people. Besides, you will need to make yourself known by becoming an active member of such places. 2.Start a conversation Starting a conversation is the second most important step in making new friends. 72 You can always start the conversation. Being able to make small talk is a very useful skill in relating with other people. 3. 73 Choosing friends with common interests is important in building friendship as these interests would always bring you and your friend together, Hanging out will always be a pleasant experience. 4.Let it grow. It is a good thing to stay in touch. However, try not to press your new friend with calls, messages or visits as this would likely wear him or her out and finally you may lose your friend. 74 . The best friendships are the ones that grow naturally. 5.Enjoy your friendship The best way to enjoy your friendship is to allow your friends to be themselves. 75 Try not to change them from who they are to what you want them to be. Become the kind of friend you will want your friend to be to you. A. Be cheerful. B. Do things together. C. Do not wait to be spoken to. D. Try not to find fault with your friends. E. Making new friends comes easy for some people. F. For a friendship to develop you need to stay in touch. G. So you will need to give your friend time to react to you.
71 空发现复现词 friend,根据吴军高考英语 7 选 5 法则转折关系(形容词或副词相反,转折),选 E; 据吴军 7 选 5 法则同现原则, spoken to 与 conversation 关联,所以选 C; 项中有与原文中的复现词 together,所以选 B; 72 空根

73 空看到每段都是祁使句,而只有 B

74 空就近原则指代一致 you,复现一致 your friend,所以选 G;

75 空后面有 them,说明前面有复数名词,再加上否定句结构排比 Try not to,所以 75 空选 D.

五、改错探秘, 吴军教案看 7 遍,错点全部找到!

Dear Diana,

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Thank you for the lovely day we have with you. It was so kind for you to let us bring Anne's had of

friend. Gina. Unfortunate, the only problem was the journey home. There had been a terrible Unfortunately accident on the highway and, for a result, there was a long line of traffic for at least six mile. In as miles

the end, we drove to a service station and waited there unless the road was clear. In the car park until here,Gina nearly got knocked over as ∧car drove out far too quickly from behind a lorry. They there a We

finally dropped Gina off at her parents' and made our own way to home.

请购买 2012 高考英语 3 天提分秘诀教案(增购 7 选 5 和改错版)的顾客仔细核对:
1. 第 1 句 have→had, 参考吴军改错教案一 23 页,由后面的 was 可知,这儿应该用过去时态。 2. 第 2 句 for→of, 参考吴军改错教案二 3 页押中原题,It‘s kind of you 为固定用法。 3. 第 3 句 Unfortunate→Unfortunately, 参考吴军改错教案一 18 页押中原题,用副词作状语。 4. 第 4 句 for→as, 考吴军改错教案二 2 页,as a result 固定搭配。 5. 第 4 句 mile→miles, 参考吴军改错教案一 4-5 页,mile 是可数名词,并且前面是 six. 6. 第 5 句 unless→until, 考吴军改错教案二 4-5 页,这儿后面一句是一个时间状语从句,意思是我们一直等 到路通了。 7. 第 6 句 here→there, 参考吴军改错教案一 16-19 页,叙述的是别的地方发生的事,所以用 there. 8. 第 6 句 car 前加 a, 参考吴军改错教案一 1 页,car 不是特指,并且是可数名词,所以前面要加 a. 9. 第 7 句 they→we, 参考吴军改错教案一 9 页押中原题,叙述的是我们做的事,所以用 we. 10. 第 7 句去掉 to, 参考吴军改错教案二 2 页押中原题,make one‘s way home 中 home 为副词,所以前面不 用介词 to。

2013 吴军高考英语迅捷提分秘术! 版权所有,侵权必究! 同行抄袭可耻,转载注明出处!

考点八:形容词和副词 ?高考形容词考查项目 1)形容词作定语、表语和宾语补足语的用法; 2)比较等级:原级、比较级、最高级。
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副词考查项目 1)时间、地点、方式、程度、疑问、连接、关系等副词的用法; 2)比较等级:原级、比较级、最高级。 ?解题策略: 高考题中多次出现对形容词、副词考点的考查,而侧重语境考查的题目占较大比重。答此类 题目时不仅仅要理解形容词和副词的词义,而且对语境的正确理解更为重要。 ?知识盘点 * 形容词及其用法 1.形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。通常,可将形容词分成性质形容词和叙 述形容词两类,其位置不一定都放在名词前面。 1)直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修 饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。 2)叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用 程度副词修饰。大多数以 a 开头的形容词都属于这一类。 这类词还有: well,unwell,ill,faint,afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake 等。 3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing 为字尾的 词语时,要放在这些词之后。例如:something nice. 2. 以-ly 结尾的形容词 1) 大部分形容词加-ly 可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively, ugly,brotherly,仍为形容词。 2)有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词,如 daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early 等。 3. 用形容词表示类别和整体 1) 某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人, 与谓语动词的复数连接, the dead, living, 如 the the rich,the poor,the blind,the hungry 等。 2) 有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用,如 the British,the English,the French,the Chinese 等。 4. 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序 多个形容词修饰名词时,限定词+数量词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+性状形容词+大小、 长短、高低等形体+新旧+颜色+国籍+材料+名词,如 those + three + beautiful + large + square +old + brown + wood + table。 下面的口诀可帮你记住这一先后顺序,也是解题的关键。 限定描绘大长高, 形状年龄和新老; 颜色国籍跟材料, 作用类别往后靠; 其中, “限定词”包括:冠词、物主代词、指示代词、或数词,它位于各类形容词前。它本 身分为三位,即:前、中、后。前位限定词有 all、half、both、分数和倍数;中位限定词有 冠词、指示代词、物主代词等;后位限定词有基数词和序数词,但序数词位于基数词前。 如:both my hands、all half his income 等。 “描绘”性形容词如:beautiful、bad、cold、great 等。 “大长高”表示大小、长短、高低等一些词。表示“形状”的词如:round square 等。 “国 籍”指一个国家或地区的词。 “材料”的词如:wooden, woolen, stone, silk 等。 “作用类别” 的词如:medical, college,writing desk,police car 等。 还有一句最简单的口诀更容易记记:限观形龄色国材 * 副词及其基本用法

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副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或其他结构。 一、副词的位置 1) 在动词之前。 2) 在 be 动词、助动词之后。 3) 多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。 注意: a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。 b. 方式副词 well,badly,hard 等只放在句尾。 二、副词的排列顺序: 1) 时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。 2) 方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用 and 或 but 等连词连接。 3) 多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。 注意:副词 very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。 注意:副词 enough 要放在形容词的后面,形容词 enough 放在名词前后都可。 三、兼有两种形式的副词 1) close 与 closely close 意思是"近";closely 意思是"仔细地"。 2) late 与 lately late 意思是"晚";lately 意思是"最近"。 3) deep 与 deeply deep 意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply 时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"。 4) high 与 highly high 表示空间高度;highly 表示程度,相当于 much。 5) wide 与 widely wide 表示空间宽度;widely 意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"。 6) free 与 freely free 的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"。 * 形容词与副词的比较级 大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高级, 用来表示事物的等级差别。 原级即形容词的原形, 比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化 两种。 1) 规则变化 单音节词和少数双音节词,加词尾-er,-est 来构成比较级和最高级。 构成法 原级 比较级 最高级 一般单音节词末尾加-er,-est tall taller tallest 以不发音的 e 结尾的单音词和少数以- le 结尾的双音节词只加-r,-st nice nicernicest 以一个辅音字母结尾的闭音节单音节词,双写结尾的辅音字母,再加-er,-est big bigger biggest "以辅音字母+y"结尾的双音节词,改 y 为 i,再加-er,-est busy busier busiest 少数以-er,-ow 结尾的双音节词未尾加-er,-est clever/narrow cleverer/ narrower cleverest/ narrowest 其他双音节词和多音节词,在前面加 more,most 来构成比较级和最高级 important/ easily more important/ more easily most important/ most easily 2) 不规则变化

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原级 比较级 最高级 good better best well(健康的) worse worst bad ill(有病的) old older/elder oldest/eldest much/many more most little less least far farther/further farthest/furthest * 一些固定结构的用法 1.as + 形容词或副词原级 + as 1)在否定句或疑问句中可用 so? as。 2)当 as? as 中间有名词时采用以下格式:as +形容词+ a +单数名词/ as + many/much +名 词。 注意: too 和 so 也可以构成 too+形容词+ a +单数名词 结构 3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在 as 的前面。 4)倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ the ? + of。例如: This bridge is three times as long as that one. 这座桥的长度是那座的三倍。 This bridge is three times the length of that one. Your room is twice as large as mine. 你的房间是我的两倍大。 Your room is twice the size of mine. 2.比较级形容词或副词 + than 。 注意: 1)要避免重复使用比较级。 2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。 3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。 4)要注意定冠词在比较级中的使用。 3. 可修饰比较级的词 1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even 等。 2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。 3)以上词(除 by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。 4. many, old 和 far 1) 如果后接名词时,much more +不可数名词,many more +可数名词复数。 2) old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和 elder/eldest。elder,eldest 只用于兄弟 姐妹的长幼关系。 3) far 有两种比较级,farther,further。一般 father 表示距离,further 表示进一步。 5. the + 最高级 + 比较范围 1)形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。 形容词 most 前面没有 the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。 注意:使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。 2)在比较级前可以使用 much,(a)little, a lot, far, even, still, any, a great deal, rather 等副词表示 比较的程度,many,(a)few 只能用在表示数量比较的 more 前。 另外,在 too, very, quite, so, rather 等后应用原级。例如:

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下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost。 注意: a. very 可修饰最高级,但位置与 much 不同。 b. 序数词通常只修饰最高级。 3) 最高级的意义有时可以用比较级表示出来。 4) "否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so? as"结构也可以表示最高级含义。 6. 和 more 有关的词组, 1) the more?the more? 越??就越??。 2) more B than A=less A than B 与其说 A 不如说 B。 3) no more? than? 与??一样??,不比??多。 no less? than? 与??一样??。 4) more than 不只是,非常。 7..the+形容词/副词比较级+of the two “两个中更??的那一个” 。 8.最高级后表示比较范围的介词使用。例如: Han Meimei is the youngest ______ all the students. A. in B. than C. of D. over 在最高级后通常会用一个 in 或 of 引导的介词短语来表示比较的范围。in 表示在一定场所、 范围内进行比较,of 则表示与同类对象进行比较,故该题选 C。 考点九:动词时态语态考点盘点 1、动词时态考查要点简述 (1)一般现在时考点分析 ①表示客观事实或普通真理(不受时态限制) The geography teacher told us the earth moves around the sun. Water boils at 100oC. ②表示现状、性质、状态时多用系动词或状态动词;表示经常或习惯性的动作,多用动作动 词,且常与表频率的时间状语连用。 Ice feels cold. We always care for each other and help each other. ③表示知觉、态度、感情、某种抽象的关系或概念的词常用一般现在时:see、hear、smell、 taste、feel、notice、agree、believe、like、hate、want、think、belong seem 等。如: I know what you mean. Smith owns a car and a house. All the students here belong to No.1 Middle School. ④在时间、条件状语从句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。但要注意由 if 引导的条件状语从 句中可以用 shall 或 will 表“意愿” ,但不表示时态。 If you will accept my invitation and come to our party, my family will be pleased.如果你愿意接 受并参加我们的舞会,我的家人会非常高兴。 ⑤少数用于表示起止的动词如 come、go、leave、arrive、fly、return、start、begin、pen、close、 end、stop 等常用一般现在时代替将来时,表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动作。当 be 表示根据时间或事先安排,肯定会出现的状态,只用一般现在时。 The shop closes at 11:00 p.m. every day. Tomorrow is Wednesday. (2)一般过去时的考点分析(考核重点) 。

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①一般过去时的基本用法: 表示过去的事情、 动作或状态常与表示过去具体的时间状语连用 (或有上下文语境暗示) ;用于表达过去的习惯;表示说话人原来没有料到、想到或希望的 事通常用过去式。如: I met her in the street yesterday. I once saw the famous star here. They never drank wine. I thought the film would be interesting,but it isn‘t. ②如果从句中有一个过去的时间状语, 尽管从句中的动作先于主句发生, 但从句中的谓语动 词连用过去式。如: He told me he read an interesting novel last night. ③表示两个紧接着发生的动作, 常由以下词语连接, 用一般过去时。 but, and, when, as soon 如: as, immediately, the moment, the minute。 The moment she came in, she told me what had happened to her. He bought a watch but lost it. ④常用一般过去时的句型: Why didn‘t you / I think of that? I didn‘t notice it. I forgot to tell you I had been there with my brother before. I didn‘t recognize him. (3)一般将来时考点分析。 ①表示未来的动作或状态常用 will / shall + 动词(常与表示将来的时间状语边用如 tomorrow、next week 等) 。 ②表示一种趋向或习惯动作。 We‘ll die without air or water. ③表示趋向行为的动词如 come、go、start、begin、leave 等词常用进行时的形式表示将来时。 ④be going to 与 will / shall, be to do, be about to do 用法及区别: be going to 表示现在打算在最近或将来要做某事, 这种打算往往经过事先考虑, 甚至已做了 某种准备;shall / will do 表示未事先考虑过,即说话时临时作出的决定。 be going to 表将来,不能用在条件状语从句的主句中;而 will 则能,表意愿。如: If it is fine, we’ll go fishing.(正确) If it is fine, we are going to go fishing.(错误) be to do sth.表按计划、安排即将发生的动作,还可表示吩咐、命令、禁止,可能性等。 A meeting is to be held at 3:00 o‘clock this afternoon. be about to do sth.表示“即可,就要” ,后面不能接时间状语或状语从句。 Autumn harvest is about to start. (4)现在进行时考点分析。 ①表示说话时正在发生着的一个动作; 表示现阶段但不一定是发生在讲话时; 表近期特定的 安排或计划;go、come 等起止动作可用进行时代替将来时。如: It is raining now. He is teaching English and learning Chinese. I am meeting Mr. Wang tonight. We are leaving on Friday. At six I am bathing the baby.(I start bathing the bady before six.) The girl is always talking loud in public.(与 always、often 等频度副词连用,表经常反复的行动

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或某种感情色彩) ②下面四类动词不宜用现在进行时。 (A)表示心理状态、情感的动作:like, love, hate, care, remember, believe, want, mind, wish, agree, mean, need。B) ( 表存在的状态的动词: appear, exist, lie, remain, seem belong to, depend on。 (C)表示一时性动作的动词:allow, accept, permit, promise, admit, complete。 (D) 表示感官的动词: hear, notice, feel, smell, sound, taste, look。 see, (5)过去完成时考点分析(考核重点) 。 ①常用过去完成时的几种情况: (A)在 by、by the end、by the time、until、before、since 后 接表示过去某一时间的短语或从句以前发生的动作。如:By the end of last year, we had produced 20,000 cars. The train had left before we reached the station. (B)表示曾实现的希望、 打 算、意图、诺言等。常用 had hoped / planned / meant / intended/ though / wanted / expected 等或用上述动词过去式接不定式完成式表示即: hoped / planned ? + to have done。 “时间名词 + before”在句子中作状语,谓语动词用过去完成时; (C) “时间 名词 + ago”在句中作状语,谓语动词用一般过去式。如:He said his first teacher had died at least 10 years before. Xiao Hua left school 3 years ago. (D) “一??就” 表示 的几个句型: Hardly / No sooner / Scarcely had + 主语 + 过去分词 + when / than / before + 一般过去时。如:We had no sooner been seated than the bus started. = No sooner had we been seated than the bus started. ②在 before 或 after 引导的时间状语从句中用一般过去时态代替过去完成时。 After he (had)left the room, the boss came in. We arrived home before it snowed. (6)过去将来时考点分析。 参照一般将来时对比:用 would do、was / were going to do sth.表过去将来;come、go、leave 等过去进行时表过去将来时;was / were to do sth.和 was / were about to do sth.表过去将来。 (7)过去进行时考点分析。 ①过去某一时刻正在进行的动作或某一阶段内发生或频繁发生。 ②某一动作发生时另一动作正在发生, 其中一个在由 when 或 while 引导的时间状语从句中。 (8)现在完成时考点分析。 ①现在完成时除可以和 for、 since 引导的状语连用外, 还可以和下面的介词短语连用: during / in /over the last(past)few years (months, weeks)、in recent years 等。 ②下列句型中常用现在完成时 It is (has been) + 一段时间 + since 从句 This(That / It)is the first(second?)time that + 完成时 This(That / It)is the only ? + that + 完成时 This(that / It)is the best / finest / most interesting ? + that 从句 + 完成时 ③在时间或条件状语从句中,现在完成时可以代替一般将来时。如: I shall post the letter as soon as I have written it. If you have done the experiment, you will realize the theory better. Don‘t get off the bus until it has stopped. (9)注意几组时态的区别: ①一般过去时与现在完成时:时间上有差异:凡有过去时间的均用过去时态,不能用完成时 态,如含有 ago、last year、just now、the other day 等。 结果上有差异:现在完成时强调的是对“现在”的影响和结果,动作到现在刚完成或还在继 续;一般过去时强调的是动作发生在“过去” ,和现在毫无关系。 ②过去完成时与一般过去时:过去完成时强调的是“过去的过去” ;如出现同一主语连续几

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个动作( “连谓” )形式则只用一般过去时即可。 2、被动语态考查要点简述 被动语态的构成方式:be + 过去分词,口语只也有用 get / become + 过去分词表示。被动语 态的基本用法: 不知道或没必要提到动作的执行者是谁时用被动语态。 强调或突出动作的承 受者常用被动语态(by 短语有时可以省略) 。 (1)使用被动语态时应注意的几个问题。 ①主动变化被动时双宾语的变化。看下列例句。 My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday. An interesting book was given to me(by my friend)on my birthday. I was given an interesting book (by my friend)on my birthday. ②主动变被动时,宾补成主补(位置不变)(作补语的)不定式前需加 to。 ; The boss made him work all day long. He was made to work all day long(by the boss) ③短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉“尾巴” 。 The children were taken good care of (by her). Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to. ④情态动词和 be going to、be to、be sure to、used to、have to、had better 等结构变被动语态, 只需将它们后面的动词原形变为 be +过去分词。 ⑤当句子的谓语为 say、believe、expect、think、know、write、consider、report 等时,被动 语态有两种形式: (A)谓语动词用被动语态,动词不定式作主补。 (B)用 it 作形式主语, 真正的主语在后面用主语在后面用主语从句来表示。如: People say he is a smart boy. It is said that he is a smart boy. He is said to be a smart boy. People know paper was made in China first. It is known that paper was made in China first. Paper was known to be made in China first. 类似句型有:It is said / known / suggested / believed / hoped/ thought that ? (2)不能用被动语态的几种情况。 ①所有的不及物动词或不及物动词词组不能用于被动语态之中。 ②表示状态的谓语动词,如:last、hold、benefit、contain、equal、fit、join、mean、last、look like、consist to 等。 ③表示归属的动词,如 have、own、belong to 等。 ④表示“希望、意图”的动词,如:wish、want、hope、like、love、hate 等。 ⑤宾语是反身代词或相互代词时谓语动词用主动语态,不能用被动语态。 ⑥宾语是同源宾语,不定式、动名词等谓语动词不用被动语态。 ⑦有些动词以其主动形式表示被动意义,特别是当主语是物时,常见的动词有 sell、write、 wash、open、lock 等。 (3)主动形式表被动意义。 ①当 feel、look、smell、taste、sound 等后面接形容词时;当 cut、read、sell、wear、write 等词带状语修饰语时;当动词表示“开始、结束、关、停、转、启动”等意义时。 This kind of cloth washes easily.这种布易洗。 These novels won’t sell well.这些小说不畅销。 My pen writes smoothly.我的钢笔写起来很流畅。

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The door won’t lock.门锁不上。 The fish smells good.鱼闻起来香。 ②当 break out、take place、shut off、turn off、work out 等动词表示“发生、关闭、制定”等 意思时。 The plan worked out successfully. The lamps on the wall turn off. ③want, require, need 后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义。 ④be worth doing 用主动形式表示被动含义。 ⑤在“be + 形容词 + to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。 This kind of water isn‘t fit to drink. The girl isn‘t easy to get along with. 另外:be to blame(受谴责),be to rent(出租)也用主动形式表被动。 (4)被动形式表示主动意义的几种情况。 ①be seated 坐着 He is seated on a bench.(He seats himself on a bench.)坐在凳子上。 ②be hidden 躲藏 He was hidden behind the door.(He hid himself behind the door.)他藏在门后。 ③be lost 迷路 ④be drunk 喝醉 ⑤be dressed 穿着 The girl was dressed in a red short skirt. (5)被动语态与系表结构的区别 被动语态强调动作;系表结构表主语的特点或状态。如: The book was sold by a certain bookstore.(被动语态) The book is well sold.(系表结构) 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. Visitors ________not to touch the exhibits.(NMET 2001) A.will request B.are requested C.are requesting D.request 解析:答案为 B。此题的时态是不难判断的,因为说的是一条规定,所以用一般现在时,而 visitor 与 request 之间是动宾关系,即 request visitors not to touch the exhibits,究竟是谁要求他 们这样做呢?不清楚,也不必知道,因此需要用被动语态。分析 visitors 与 request 之间的关 系是此题的解题关键。 2. Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology __________ so rapidly.(NMET 2001) A.is changing B.has changed C.will have changed D.will change 解析:答案为 A。此题考查现在进行时态的用法。句意为“选择一部移动电话不是一件容易 的事,因为科技发展得十分迅速。 ”本句的主句一般现在时表达的是目前的情况,而“科技 发展迅速”也是现阶段正存在的一种状态,不是在过去,也不是在将来,因此只能用现在进 行时表达。 3. All the preparations for the task ___________, and we’re ready to start.(2000 年春季高考) A.completed B.complete

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C.had been completed D.have been completed 解析:答案为 D。现在完成时表示过去年做的事对现在的影响。从 and we’re ready to start 句意可知,一切准备工作已经就绪,可以开始工作了。complete 是及物动词,与句子的主语 是被动关系,所以需要用被动语态表达。注意①分清 complete 与主语之间的关系;②结合 语境选择正确时态。 考点十:动词短语考点盘点 1.break vt. A. 打破、打碎、打断 Who broke the window into pieces? He fell and broke his leg. Try not to break the silence. B.违反 He often breaks his promise/his word/ the law/ the rule. C.习语 break away 突然离开 break away from sb.脱离、离开、背弃 break down 中断、粉碎、发生故障、 (身体)跨了、 (机器)坏了 break forth 迸发、爆发、发泄 break in 闯进、打断 break in on sb.打断某人的谈话 break into?闯入、侵占 break?into pieces 打碎 break off 折断、突然中断 break?open 撬开 break out 爆发 break through?突破 break?up 开垦、破碎、解散、分解 break with sb.与某人断交 break sb's heart 使某人心碎 2.bring A. vt. 带来、拿来(由远而近) Bring me the paper, please. He forgot to bring his umbrella. May I bring her to see you? Shall I bring the books upstairs? After we were seated, she brought out dishes. B.习语 bring?about 造成、导致 bring? down 打落(飞机、禽鸟等) 、降低(物价、温度等) bring? forward 提出 bring?in 引进、介绍、收获 bring?into being 实现、使产生 bring?into effect/practice 实行、贯彻 bring?out 出版、发表 bring?to an end/ a stop/ a close 使终止、结束

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bring? to mind 使想起、回忆起 bring?together 集合;召集 bring?up 养育、呕吐 bring?to victory 使走向胜利 bring?to safety 带到安全地带 3.catch A. vt. 抓住、逮住、挂住 He caught my hand and held it tightly. We caught ten monkeys in all. The nail caught my coat. 但是 vi. 挂住 His coat caught on a nail. The kite caught in a tree. B.赶上、搭上 We'll hurry and catch the 10:30 bus. C.听懂 Pease repeat it. I didn't quite catch you. Do you catch my meaning? D.染上 He caught a bad flu. E.(出其不意地)撞上、碰上 She caught him smoking. Some boys were caught stealing flowers from the garden. F. 给撞上、碰上 The ship was caught in a hurricane. One night we were caught in a thunderstorm. Hurry up and don't get caught in a storm. G.习语 catch at sth. 想抓住、设法抓住 catch sb. by surprise 出其不意抓住 catch/get/seize/take hold of?(突然)抓住、抓牢 catch sb's attention/eye 吸引某人注意 catch sight of?看到、发现 catch the point of?抓住?的要点 catch up 赶上 catch up with?赶上? 补上 COME 4.Do A. aux. v. (1) 帮助构成一般过去时或一般现在时的疑问或否定式 They do not believe it. When id they arrive there? (2) 用在肯定句和祈使句中加强语气 I do miss you, Mum. She does sing well. Do be on time. So she did come after all. (3) 用来表示前边提到的动作(以免重复) ---May I come round in the evening? ---Yes, please do. I knew he would help us, and he did. (4) 用于某些倒装句中 Only then did I realize he had been wrong.

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Never did he know anything about it. B. 做 vt. Can I do anything for you? We often do our homework together. The glass is broken. who did it? We did some reading last night. She did most of the talking. C. vi. (1) 表示生活、学习等情况 How do you do? They did very well in English but badly in maths. How did you do in the exam? How are you doing? (2) 行了、够了、可以 Talking with your mouth full won't do. On e piece of bread will do. (3) 做、办 Do as you are told to. When in Rome, do as the Romans do. Let her do as she likes. D.习语 do?with?处理 What have you done with my bike? can do with?将就用 I can do with the old bed. do something about?对?采取措施 do sb. a favor=do a favor for sb.帮某人个忙 do away with?废除、破除、去掉 do sb. good/harm/wrong= do good/harm/wrong to sb. 对某人有益/有害/冤枉某人 do one's best/ bit/part=do everything/all/what one can 尽力 do ?up 包扎、扣(纽扣) do without?没有?也行、不需要 have something to do with?与?有关 do right/wrong 做得对/做错了 come A. vi.来 She is coming in no time. Here comes the soup. He came running all the way. 逐渐 He has come to love the stories by William Shakespeare. He has come to realize the importance of good English. B. link v. His dream finally came true. C.习语 come about 发生 come across?偶遇;偶尔发现

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come along 一道来;一起去;进步;赶快 come at?袭击 come by? 获得 How did you come by these pictures? come away 脱离;折断 come back 回来;复员;恢复 come down 倒下;跌落;传下来 come down with?患(病) come (in) first/second 得第一/二 come forth 出来;涌现 come forward 前进;自告奋勇;涌现 come from? 出身于;来自 come in/ into sight 出现;被看见 come into being/ existence 发生;产生;出现 come into effect/ force 开始生效;开始实施 come into power/ office 上台;掌握政权 come into use 开始使用 come off 脱落;发生 come on(风雨等)到来;演出;赶快 come out 长出来;出版 come out against? 起来反对 come out with? 讲出;泄露(秘密等) come to= come to oneslef 苏醒过来 come to ?总计;谈到 His earnings comes to $182,000 a year. When it comes to football, everyone likes David Beckham. come a conclusion 得出结论;告一段落 come to a sto/ an end 停止 come to nothing 毫无结果;失败 come to the point 说到要点;抓住关键 come up 走近;长出;流行 come upon?碰见 5.feel 感觉、觉得 A. (1) vt Do you feel any pain when I press here? Facing this situation, they felt both joy and fear. (2) link v. I don't feel very well today. The busier he is, the happier he feels. The desk feels smooth. (3) vt. 接复合宾语 I felt someone go upstairs. I felt a great weight taken off my mind after the exam. She felt their eyes watching her when she came to the stage. She felt herself (to be) right.

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I felt it my duty to help you. He felt it necessary to talk about his own shortcomings. (4) vt. 宾语从句 He felt strongly that we should take some action about the bad practice. B. vt. 摸 He felt the pot and it felt very hot. C.习语 feel like doing sth.想要 feel one's way 摸索前进 feel sb's pulse 切脉 feel as if/ as though 感觉似乎 She felt as if she were a member of the family. feel quite oneself 觉得身体很好 6.find A. vt. (1) 发现 I found a wallet on the street corner yesterday. He found her in danger.=He found that she was in danger. I found him (to be) a tough guy.=I found that he was a tough guy. This method was found to be practical.=It was found that the method was practical. I find it interesting to read these stories.= I find that it is interesting to =read these stories. I found a dog killed in the park.= I found that a dog had been killed in the park. I found a man breaking into a warehouse.= I found that a man was breaking into a warehouse. (2) 找到 Have you found the book you have been looking for? B.习语 find?out 查清楚;弄明白;了解;打听 find one's way to sp.设法赶到;进入 They found their way to the front of the crowd. The news found its way to a lot of people. find fault with sb. 对某人吹毛求疵;挑剔 find oneself?发现自己?、不自觉地? They found themselves in a difficult situation. Then I found myself surrounded by some boys. He found himself walking in the direction to the park.他发现自己不知不觉地在往公园的方向 走。 7.get A. vt.得到、弄来 Where did you get these good ideas? Let me go get the doctor. Will you get me a ticket?=Will you get a ticket for me? He got a poor wage. Let's get something to eat. B.习语 get about(消息)传开 A rumor(谣传) got around that Fu Biao was ill in hospital. get?across 讲清楚;渡过 I wonder how to get my new ideas across.

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get ahead of?领先 get along 进展、过活、相处 get away 逃掉 get away from?避免、摆脱、离开 get back 回来 get?back 收回、找回 get behind 落后 get ?down 记下来 get down to (business/ work/ studies)认真做 get to know/ realize/love/like 逐渐地了解/爱上 get in 进来 get?in 收进来、请来 get off 起飞、下车、出发 get?off 脱下 get on?上车/船/飞机等;继续进行;相处 get?out 拔出、洗掉、出版 get out 传出 News got out that you were leaving. get over?克服、摆脱 get rid of?消灭、摆脱、除掉 get round?绕过、回避 get somewhere 有结果/成就 get through?做完、结束;看完、用完 get together 聚会、联欢 get up 起床、举办 The students are going to get up a concert on May Day. have got=have 有 have got to=have to 不得不 8.give vt. 给 Who is going to give the talk? He was given a good beating last night. 习语 give?away 泄露、送掉、分配 give?back 归还、报复 give...forth 发出;发表 give in 屈服、让步 give?in 交上 give in to sb./ sth.屈服于;对?让步 give?off 放出、发出(光、热、气味等) give oneself up to doing sth. 献身于、专心于 give up 放弃、投降 give?up 停止、戒掉 give way to sb.让步;让位于 As winter gave way to spring, days were getting longer. given that 假定;已知 give sb. a hand 帮某人忙 give rise to 导致 9.go A. vi. 走 He has gone back home a newspaper. Pride goes before a fall.

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B. link v. He went hungry for a week. His face went pale when he heard the news. This guy went wild/ crazy/ mad after the loss of his wife. Don't ever eat the bread. It has gone bad. C.习语 go after?设法得到;追求 go along 向前发展 We'll learn as we go along. go back on one's word/ promise 失信 go back to?追溯到 This custom goes back to Roman times. go beyond?超过 go down 下落;减弱 go up 增长;提高 go into?研究;从事 go off 爆炸; (电、水等)停掉 go ahead 继续进行;去做吧 go all out 全力以赴 go and do sth.= go to do sth. go down on one's knees 跪下 go in for 喜爱;从事 go on 发生;持续 go on to do sth.接着做(另一件事情) go on doing sth.继续做(同一件事情) go on with sth. .继续做(同一件事情,可以有间隔) go out 熄灭;过时 go over sth.浏览;复习;审阅 go through?经历;检查; go shopping/ fishing/ skiing/ skating/ begging/ boating/ swimming/ fox hunting/ sightseeing/ mountain climbing go from bad to worse 每况愈下 go from door to door be gone 丢了;走了;一去不复返 Gone are the days when we studied together happily. have a go 试一下 go out of one's way to do sth. 不辞辛劳去做??. go to hell 见鬼去吧 go to sleep 睡着 go through with?.把??.进行到底 go well with?与??相配/协调 go without?不吃/用??过日子 Sometimes they went for days without washing their faces. 10.have 句型 1 have sb./ sth. do sth. Let's have them stand facing the wall. 句型 2 have sb./ sth. doing We had the fire burning all night. I won't have you talking to your dad like that! 句型 3 have sb./ sth. done I will have my radio fixed. He had his wallet stolen.

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句型 4 have sth. to do I have a letter to write. 句型 5 have to do sth. I have to get up early every day. 习语 与动词同行的名词连用,表示动作:have a talk with? have a look/ glance/ glimpse at have a meeting/ discussion/ operation/ haircut have an English lesson have a swim/ wash/ rest/ try/ smoke/ taste/ dream/ walk have a cold/ cough/ headache/ pain have lunch/ some beer have a good/pleasant/ tough/ bad/ hard/ difficult terrible time They had a hard time solving the problem. have fun have a word/a few words with sb. have words with sb. have something/ nothing/ a lot to do with… have sth. on had better (not) do sth. have something with sb.随身携带 have a baby have a test/ talk/ speech/ lecture/ chat have had enough of 厌倦 have sth. back 要回 have one's own way 按照自己的意思办;我行我素 have sth. to oneself 完全由自己使用 You can have the house entirely to yourself. 11.hold A. vt.拿着;握着 Holding my hand, he tried to calmed me down. Hold the line, please. 容纳 How much water can the tank hold? 拥有;占有 He held the position for years. 举行 Chinese film weeks will be held in other places. B.习语 hold?back 阻碍;忍住;保留 hold?down 控制; 镇压 hold?forth 提出; hold?in memory 记住 hold on 坚持下去; (电话)别挂 hold on to?抓住不放 hold out 坚持到底;维持;伸出 We must hold out, and the enemy will give up. They were ready to hold out a friendly hand. hold to sth.紧紧抓住;坚持(路线、道路、看法等) hold?together 合在(一起) ;团结(在一起) hold?up 举起;耽搁;耽误 The storm held us up, so we were late for the meeting. Their wages were help up or reduced for no reason.

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12.keep A. vt. (1)保留 I'll keep a seat for you. (2)养活;饲养 He has a large family to keep. He keeps some chicken. (3)使??处在??状态 Sorry to have kept you waiting. Let's keep the door open but keep the windows closed. You must keep us well informed Mr. Xue always keeps us busy. Close the door to keep the cold out. Let's keep the room in order. B. link v. 保持 We must keep fit.=We must keep in good health. Keep calm in time of danger. C.习语 keep a record of 登记;记录 keep a secret 保密 keep watch 注意;提防 keep one's promise/word 履行诺言 keep the law/rule 遵守法律/法规 keep?apart 使分离 keep away 不接近;避开 keep?back 扣下;阻止;留下;忍住(眼泪等) keep birthday/ Christmas 庆祝生日/圣诞等 keep body and soul together 维持生活 keep?down 控制;缩减 keep sb. doing sth. 使??.坚持做 keep silence 保持安静;保持沉默 keep sth. to oneself 把??据为己有 keep sb. from doing sth. 阻止;使免于;抑制 keep hold of?抓住不放 keep ?in mind 记住 keep doing sth. 继续做;不断地做 keep on doing sth. 不停地做;反复地做 keep?out 不许??.入内 keep out of?不参与 keep sb. company 与某人做伴; 陪伴某人 keep to sth.坚持;固守(习惯等) keep?under control 使得以控制 keep in touch with?与保持联系 keep up 坚持;继续 keep up with?跟上 keep watch 守望;站岗 13.know A. vt. (1)知道 I have known him since childhood. (2)懂得 Do you know Japanese? B.习语

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be known as?通称为;以著称;被认为是 be known for?因而出名 be known to sb.为某人所了解 become well known 出名 for all/anything/ everything I know 据我所知 It is well known that?众所周知 know about/ of 了解;知道 know?for certain 确实知道 know sb. by name 仅知道某人的名字(不认识) know sb. by sight 与某人面熟(不熟悉) know/learn ?by heart 背诵 make?known/public 公告;发表;表示 know/ tell right from wrong 辨别是非 know no limits 是无限的 A man's life is limited, but service to the people knows no limits. 14.leave A. vi.离开;离去 He left in a hurry without telling anyone. When are you leaving? B. vt.(1)留下 She asked us to leave our address. (2)使处在某种状态 Sorry to have left some questions unanswered. He left the window open. She left the baby crying bitterly. The illness left him rather weak. (3)剩下 We have only three months left. C.习语 leave?about 乱放 leave?alone 放任不管 leave?behind 留下;遗下 leave A for B 离开 A 去 B leave hold of?放弃;松手 leave nothing to be desired 尽善尽美 leave ?off 停止 leave ?out 省去;遗漏 leave?over 留下;剩下 leave room for 留下??余地 15.look A. vi. 看 He looked happily at his great grandchildren playing about him. B. link v.看起来 He looks cheerful and carefree. C.习语 have/take a look a?看一看 have a look of?好像;仿佛 look about 四下环顾 look about for?四下寻找 look after?照看;目送

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look ahead 考虑未来;预做准备 look as if?似乎;好象 look at?看 look away from?转移目光 look back 回头看 look back on/ upon?回忆;回顾 look down on/ upon?俯视;蔑视 look for?寻找 look forward to doing sth. 期待;展望 look in(随便)看望 He looked in on Mr. Smith on his way to work. He went to look in at the fish farm. look into?窥视;调查 look like?看起来像 look on 旁观 look on A as B 认为 A 是 B look out 向外看; 注意;警戒 look out for?提防 look ?over 审阅; 翻阅 look through?透过??看去; 彻底调查;从头看到底 look up to sb. 尊敬/仰望某人 look up 仰视;胸怀大志 look sth. up 查阅 look sb. in the eye/ face 直视某人 16.make A. vt. (1)做;制造 Cell phones are made in this factory. (2)和表示动作的名词连用,表示动作或活动 make a study of= study make use of= use make an examination of= examine make an explanation of= explain make a fool of=fool make fun of make repairs make a suggestion= suggest make an attempt= attempt make an answer= answer make a decision=decide make preparations for=prepare for make a guess at=guess make a speech make arrangements (3)使(做) ;使(成为) He made us work day and night. We were made to work day and night. Praise make good men better and bad men worse. We made you our monitor. What made you so frightened? This machine makes it possible for us to finish the work in a short time. He made it a rule to get up at six every morning.(规定) (4)有条件成为 She will make a good housewife. Cold tea makes an excellent drink in summer.

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B.习语 be made from 由??原料制成 be made of 由??材料制成 be made out of 由??制成 be made up of 由??所组成 be made into 被制成?? be made to do sth. 被迫去做 make for=head for =make towards 走向;冲向 make oneself understood/heard 使自己被理解/听到 make?out 理解;看清楚;辨认 make?up 弥补;补偿;起草;捏造;化装;构成,占;言归于好,和解 make a living 谋生 make bed 铺床 make?clear 表明;说明 make ends meet 应付开支;维持生活;使收支相抵 make friends with 与??交朋友 make one's way to sp.向??走去 make room/ way for 为??让路 make sure/certain 一定要;保证做到;核实 Make sure that you get there in time. We must make certain they will come in time. make the best/most of 尽量利用;充分利用 make up one's mind 决心;决定 to make a long story short 长话短说 make sb.'s hair stand on end 使??毛骨悚然 make a fire 生火 17.put A. vt. 放 He put the book where he found it. B.习语 put?across 清楚地表达 put an end/a stop to sth.结束;消灭 put?aside 把放在一边;抛弃;积蓄 put?away 把收起来;储存备用; put?back 把放回原处;拨回(钟表的指针等) put?down 放下;镇压;记下;削减 put?forth 发表;提出 put?forward 提出;建议;拨快(钟表的指针等) put?in 插话;伸进 put?off 推迟;延期;脱(衣服等) put?on 穿上;增加(体重等) ;上演 put?out 放出;熄灭;出版;生产 put?right 改正(错误) ;整理;治愈 put sb. at ease 使某人放心、安心、宽心 put through?完成; put A through to B 把 A 接通 B(电话)

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put?together 合计;装配(机器等) ;把??放在一起 put?up 举起;挂起;搭起;上演;陈列;张贴 put up with?忍受 put?into practice 把应用到实践中去 put sb. to bed 打发睡觉 put sth. to/into use 使得以应用 put?into English 把翻译成英语 put in a word for sb.为某人进言 put sb. in charge 使某人负责 put sth. in order 使井井有条 put on airs 摆架子 put sb. to death/test 处死/考验 18.run A. vi. (1)跑 They came running to meet us. (2)行驶 The train was running at 80 miles an hour. (3)流 All the rivers will run into the sea. We mustn't let the water run to waste. His nose is running all day because he has a bad cold. B. vt. 管理;经营 They have run six factories. He runs the school well. C. link v. 变得 The river began to run dry. Our food supply is running low. His blood ran cold at the news. Their money is running short. The garden was running wild. D.习语 run a fever 发高烧 run after sb./ sth.追求 run away 逃跑 run for?竞选 run into?邂逅;偶遇 run on 滔滔不绝往下说 run out(某物)用完 run out of?用完(某物) run short(某物)短缺 run short of?短缺(某物) run up to?合计为;高达 run a risk 冒险 run across?邂逅;偶遇 run ahead of?领先于 run away with?带??而逃走 run against?邂逅;偶遇;违反 run at?袭击;冲向 run over 溢出; run over?.过目;浏览 run smooth 进展顺利 run through?花光;用尽;略谈 run up 迅速成长; (物价)上涨 run upon?邂逅;偶遇 19.see A. vt. (1)看到;看见 I saw the accident with my own eyes.

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I've never seen you look so well. Just now I saw someone going upstairs. When we got there, we saw a house being built. Last night I saw a dog killed by a car. I'm glad to see all of you happy. I could see that they need my help. *The year 1949 saw the founding of the People's Republic of China. (2)看望;接见 I went to see a friend of mine last Sunday afternoon. I'll be seeing you this evening. (3)了解;明白 He asked to look and see if he missed anything. Now you see what I mean? B. 习语 see sb. home 送某人回家 see about sth.负责处理?? I'll see about the tickets for the concert. see?for oneself 自己看;体验一下 see into?了解;调查 see much/a lot/nothing/little of?常/很少/从不见到 see sb. off 送行 see through?看穿;识破 see sb. through 支持某人到底 see to sth.处理;料理 There was much to see to. He has to see to the luggage. see to it that?注意做到;务必要 See to it that you do not fall when skating. as far as I can see 踞我所知 see sb. out 送某人出门 see that 因为,从??一点来看 20.send A. vt. (1)寄(信) ,发(电报) They sent me some pictures. I have a telegram to send to Bob. (2)(派人)送 Let's send the radio there to be repaired. He sent his regards to you. (3)派遣 He asked to be sent to work in Tibet. (4)使??.变得 The bad news sent him mad/ out of mind. The sight of the Red Army sent the enemy running in all directions. B.习语 send for 去请 send A for B 派 A 去请 B send?forth 发出 The sun sends forth light and heat. send?off 送行

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send?out 发出(光、热、气味、烟雾等) send?up 发射 send sb. away 解雇;逐出 send?over 播出;播送 21.set A. vi. 下落 It will be cooler when the sun has set. B. vt. (1)放置;摆设 She set the dish on the table. Let's set the clock by the radio signal. (2)规定;确定 He set a strict rule for himself. Have they set the time for the meeting? (3)使某人做事或处在某种状态 With only a few words he set us laughing. What he said set me thinking. He set all the prisoners free. That set all our doubts at rest.这消除了我们所有的怀疑。 C.习语 set about doing sth.= set out to do sth.开始做 set an example 做出榜样 set?apart 拨出;留出 A room has been set apart for the purpose. set?aside 拨出;积蓄;不理会 set?back 往回拨;使倒退 set?down 放下;写下;制定 set fire to sth.= set sth. on fire 放火烧 set foot in?进入;踏上 set?forth 列举;提出;动身;起程 set?in order 整顿 set?loose 释放;解开 set off 动身 set?off 燃放(鞭炮、烟花等) ;引起 set one's mind/ heart on?下定决心 set out 动身;出发 set?out 列举 He set out his reasons for what he had done. set sail 启航 set? to work 使开始工作 He set to work at once writing the book. He set everyone to work together. set?up 立起来;成立;修建 set?upside down 颠倒过来 22.show A. vt. (1)拿给人看 Show me your ticket, please! Can you show me a bigger one? (2)说明;表明

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Her eyes showed that she was lying. Show us how to use this machine. That shows how ignorant we are. (3)表现;显露 He showed courage in face of danger. (4)放映;展出 A new film is being shown at this cinema. (5)带领 Show them in, please. I'll show you into my room. B.习语 show off 炫耀;表现自己 This guy likes showing off. show?off 炫耀 I don't like the way he shows off his knowledge. show one's face 露面 show oneself 出席;显露出来 His anger showed itself in his voice. show up 出现;出席 show?up 暴露,揭露 This only served to show up their weakness. 23.speak A. vi.说;发言 He spoke with me about his childhood. He was too hurt to speak to us. I've never spoken of these things to anyone before. He spoke at the meeting yesterday. Action speaks louder than words. She spoke in broken English. B. vt.说 She speaks good French. Trust me that I am speaking the truth. C.习语 speak for?代表??说话;为??辩护 I can only speak for myself. speak out 大胆讲出来 speak out against?发言反对 He spoke out against what he thought was unjust. speak up 坦率说出自己的看法;说话大声些 speak highly/well/highly/ill/badly of?称赞/非议 generally/strictly/broadly/roughly/frankly speaking=to speak generally, etc.一般来说,严格地讲, 广义地讲,严格地讲,老实地说 be spoken of as?被说成为 nothing to speak of?不值一说;没有说的价值 24.stand A. vi. (1)站 Come and sit by my side if you love me. (2)立于 The house stands between the two large trees. There stood a strange man right behind me. B. vt. (1)放 Stand the ladder against the wall. (2)忍受 If you can't stand the heat, get out of the kitchen.

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C.习语 stand against?反对 They all stood against the war. stand at attention/ease 立正/稍息 stand behind sb. 支持 stand by 支持;袖手旁观;准备行动 We'll stand by you through thick and thin. You mustn't stand by and do nothing about it. stand for?代表,表示;主张 X often stands for an unknown number. We stand for self-reliance(自力更生). stand on one's own feet 依靠自己 stand out 突出;显著 Her talent stood out in comparison with the others. stand aside 站开;不参与;靠边站 stand back 向后退 stand still 站住;停顿 stand up 站起;起立 25.take A. vt. (1)拿 Taking a sheet of paper, she began to write. (2)带(往某处) After that she took us to Rome. (3)吃、喝、吸 Take a little more bread. He took some medicine. (4)乘坐 They took a taxi home. (5)采取,接受,选择 He took a doctor's degree. After lots of thinking, she took the job. (6)测量;照(像) ;记录 Let me take your blood pressure. We took a few pictures of the hill. (7)对待;接受 You cannot take this too seriously. (8)需要 How long does it take to finish washing these dishes? (9)攻下 They took the town by surprise. B.习语 take a chance 碰碰运气 take one's seat 坐下;就座 take advantage of 利用;占便宜 take aim at?瞄准 take?apart 拆开;拆卸 take part in?参加 take A as B 当成 take?back 收回 take?away 拿开 take?by surprise 突然袭击 take care 当心 take care of?照顾;负责 take charge of?负责 take delight/ pleasure/ interest /pride in?喜欢、以??自豪 take?down 记下来;记录 take effect 生效 take A for B=take A to be B 认为 A 是 B take?for granted 视为当然,想必是 Some students take it for granted that English is easy to learn.

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take hold of?抓住;握住 take?in 订阅;欺骗;领会;接(活干) take?into consideration 把??纳入考虑范围内 take it easy 别紧张;放开些;放松些 take note/notice of?注意;留心 take notes 记录 take?off 脱掉;起飞;打折扣 take office 上任;就职 take on?雇佣;呈现 take one's time 从容从事;慢慢来 take?out 取出;洗掉 take pains/trouble to do sth.不辞辛劳地做 take place 发生;举行 take root 生根 take shape 成型 take the chair 主持会议 take the place of?代替 take turns to do sth.= take turns in doing sth.轮流做 take?up 拿起;从事;接受;占(时间、空间、注意力等) take warning from?引以为戒;吸取教训 be taken ill/sick 生病 take a short cut 走捷径 26.talk A. vi. 谈话;讲话 He is talking loudly in the front of the classroom. B.习语 talk away 不停地讲;通过谈话消除 talk back (to sb.)还嘴;顶嘴 talk big 吹牛 talk sb. into doing sth.劝说干 talk sb. out of doing sth. 劝说不干 talk out 说完 talk to sb.与谈话;责备 talk ?over 讨论 talk of?谈到 talk about?谈论;讲 talk together 商量;谈判 27.tell A. vt. (1)告诉;讲 Tell me your name. He told us what had happened to him. I'll tell you what to do next. Don't tell me. Let me guess. Do as you are told to. (2)判断 I really can't tell the differences between them. I can hardly tell Kate from her twain sister. =I can hardly tell Kate and her twain sister apart. B.习语 tell A and apart= tell A from B 区分开 A 与 B to tell the truth 说老实话 tell sb. about/ of sth.向某人讲起?? tell the world?公开讲;宣扬 tell a lie 说谎 tell a white lie 说善意的谎言

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tell it like it is 实话实说 there is no telling?难以预料 There is no telling when he will return. I'll tell you what.让我告诉你真相/怎么去做。 Never tell me!别瞎扯了! You are telling me!还要你告诉我(我早知道了) ! 28.think A. vi.想,思考 Give me some time to think. He told us to try to think in English. B. vt.认为;想 I never thought you could complete the work so soon. I don't think I can get away now. Where do you think we can get this book? She isn't as slow as you think she is. I think the book worth reading again. This kind of computer is thought (to be) too hard to operate. We all think her a good learner. I thought it our duty to offer them some medical care. I think it a great honor to speak here. C.习语 think about?考虑 think of?想到;想起;为着想;打算 This picture made us think of the days in the army. He couldn't think of anything to say. She is always thinking of others. She is thinking of going downtown this afternoon. What do you think of this movie? think highly/well/a lot/ a great deal/much/poorly/ill/badly/little/nothing of 对评价高/低 think of A as B 认为 A 是 B think?out/up 想出 think?over 仔细考虑 think twice before?要三思后再?? just think?想想看(表示惊讶) Just think of the price! wouldn't/couldn't think of?绝不能考虑/想象(做这样的事) I couldn't think of disturbing them at this our of night. think hard 沉思 29.turn A. vi. 转弯,转身,转动 The planet turns round the sun. I turned and saw a boy running away. B. vt. (1)转向,转动 Please turn your eyes this way. Nothing can turn us from our purpose. (2)翻转;翻身 The doctor turned him over and looked at his back.

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C. link v.变得 Her face turned pale at the news. His hair is turning grey. The weather suddenly turned cold. Later he turned doctor. D.习语 turn a deaf ear to sth. 不听;不理睬 turn a blind eye to sth. 不看;不理睬 They turned a deaf ear to the people's sufferings. They turned a blind eye to our demands. turn? aside 避开;转变方向 turn?away 转变方向; (转脸)不睬;打发走 turn back 转过身来;赶回去 turn?down 拒绝;驳回;旋小 turn?in 归还;缴还 turn A into B 把 A 变成 B turn?off 解雇;关上 turn?on 开;攻击 turn out 关上;解雇;证明是,结果是,实际情况是 The day turned out fine. He turned out to be a traitor. It turned out that he had never been there. turn one's back on?对不理睬 turn one's head 使头晕/昏 turn one's stomach 使作呕 turn?over 移交;打翻;翻阅 I turned over the keys to Mr. Smith. He turned over all the tables in anger. He turned over one page or two and gave up. turn to sb. for help/advice 求助于 turn to?翻到 turn up 露面。出席 turn?up 旋大;查(字典等) He turned up the dictionary and found the explanation. turn?upside down/ inside out 颠倒, 翻过来 30.work A. vi. (1)工作 He was forced to work from morning till night. (2)(机器等)开动 Soon the machine worked a gain smoothly. (3)(办法、计划等)行得通,进行(情况) His method worked. It's a good idea, but it won't work. The treatment works like magic. B.习语 work at?干(某活动) ,研究等 She is busy working a new invention. work away 不停地干 work on?从事 We're working on some wood-cuts. work?out 制订;想出;计算 work?up 准备,酝酿 work on?对起作用;激发

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work with?对??行得通 考点十一:`数词 一.概念: 数词分两类:基数词和序数词.表示数目的词叫基数词,表示须序的词叫序数词. 二.相关知识点精讲 1.基数词 1)基数词一般可写成如 345 或 three hundred and forty-five. 2)基数词一般是单数形式,但遇下列情况,常用复数: a. 与 of 短语连用,表示概数,不能与具体数目连用,如 scores of people 指许多人; b. 在一些表示"一排"或"一组"的词组里.例如: They arrived in twos and threes. 他们三三两两的到了. c. 表示"几十岁". d. 表示"年代",用 in +the +数词复数. e. 在乘法运算的一种表示法里,如 Three fives is(are)fifteen. 2.序数词 序数词的缩写形式如 first---1st second---2nd thirty-first---31st 等. 3.数词的用法 1)倍数表示法 a. 主语+谓语+倍数(或分数)+ as + adj. + as.例如 I have three times as many as you. 我有你三倍那么多. b. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ the size (amount,length?) of?.例如: The earth is 49 times the size of the moon. 地球是月球的 49 倍. c. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ 形容词(副词)比较级+ than?.例如: The grain output is 8 percent higher this year than that of last year. 今年比去年粮食产量增加 8%. d. 还可以用 by+倍数,表示增加多少倍.例如: The production of grain has been increased by four times this year. 今年粮食产量增加了 4 倍. 2)分数表示法的构成:基数词代表分子,序数词代表分母.分子大于 1 时,分子的序数词用单数, 分母序数词用复数.例如: 1/3 one-third; 3/37 three and three-sevenths. 考点十二:代词: 命题规律 1.五年高考有关代词考点分布: it 用法,替代词,不定代词,其他代词 2.近五年代词的考点仍集中在不定代词上,考查角度有两个: 1) 考查他们在特定结构中的用法,如 anyone, both, neither, nothing 等于定语从句相结合。 2) 考查 any, some, all, none, other, another 等不定代词在特定语境中的意义和功能差别。 3.试题注重了情景干扰,注重了特定语言环境中上,下文的联系,而且题干的语义结构趋 于复杂,强调与其其他相关语法知识相结合。正确把握句意,分析句试结构在解题中起着很 重要的作用。 命题趋势 1. 过去的热点仍在,新热点逐步呈现。如对不定代词的考查,而对 it 的考查热点在逐步

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形成。 2. 加强在特定语境中代词与其他相关语法的综合考查。 3. 2008 年高考预测 各地在对单项选择的语法考查中对代词则百考不“厌” 。分析各类考题尤其是高考题,可以 看出对代词的考查一直是一个热点,且考查手法更加灵活,要求更高,所以在 2008 年高考 中, 代词仍将为考查的热点。 不定代词 one, the one, ones, the ones 与指示代词 this, that, these, those, it 的用法区别、代词的肯定与否定、全部与部分的用法以及反身代词的惯用语(例如 help oneself, please yourself, by (for, of) oneself, enjoy oneself 等将会是未来高考的命题重点。 突破方法 代词在具体的语境中运用起来往往具有很大的灵活性, 高考英语试题对代词的考查更是灵活 多变。我们应从以下几方面入手来把握代词的解题规律 1.明确指代。在解答代词题目时,我们应首先分析前后文,明确代词所指代的对象,从而避 免误判。具体说来应从以下几方面考虑: (1)代词指代的是人还是物; (2) 代词指代的是 可数名词还是不可数名词; (3)代词指代的是特指还是泛指概念; (4) 代词指代的概念是 表示两者之间还是三者或三者以上。 (5) 代词所表示的是肯定还是否定概念。 2.理清逻辑。需要通过分析上下文所蕴涵的逻辑关系才能做出正确判断。具体说来应从以下 方面去考虑:(1) 代词所表示的范围; (2) 代词表示的是全部否定还是部分否定。 3 吃透语境。 考查的是代词在具体语境中的灵活运用, 这样的题目须分析在具体的语境中运 用起来往往具有很大的灵活性,高考英语试题对代词的考查更是灵活多变。 2008 年高考预测 各地在对单项选择的语法考查中对代词则百考不“厌” 。分析各类考题尤其是高考题,可以 看出对代词的考查一直是一个热点,且考查手法更加灵活,要求更高,所以在 2008 年高考 中, 代词仍将为考查的热点。 不定代词 one, the one, ones, the ones 与指示代词 this, that, these, those, it 的用法区别、代词的肯定与否定、全部与部分的用法以及反身代词的惯用语(例如 help oneself, please yourself, by (for, of) oneself, enjoy oneself 等将会是未来高考的命题重点。 知识清单 代词是用来指代人或事物的词。代词可分为下列八类: 一、人称代词( Personal Pronouns ) we , I , you , they, us, me, etc. 二、物主代词( Possessive Pronouns ) our, my ,your, their, his, her, etc. 三、反身代词(Reflective Pronouns) ourselves, myself, yourselves, yourself , herself , etc. 四、相互代词( Reciprocal Pronouns ) each other ,one another , etc. 五、指示代词( Demonstrative Pronouns ) this , that , these , those , such , etc. 六、疑问代词( Interrogative Pronouns ) what, when, who, where, whose, etc. 七、关系代词( Relative Pronouns) what, when, who, where, whose , etc. 八、不定代词( Indefinite Pronouns ) any , some ,every , many , much , a little , etc. 一.人称代词: 人称代词分主格和宾格两种,前者在句子中担任主语,后者担任动词或介词的宾语。 They study German. / Please pass me the ruler. ①人称代词的用法: a.当代词成对地使用或一个代词与一个名词搭配使用时,两个部分的句法功能必须一致。Li Hong and I went shopping yesterday. It was our teacher who smoothed away the difference between you and me. 注:人称代词的排列一般为:第二人称,第三人称,第一人称。 you, he and I them and us

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如有其他代词时,其他代词排列于人称代词之后,如:he, I and some others b.人称代词用作表语时,如说明主语,一般要用主格,如说明宾语则要用宾格。 If I were she, I would take your advice. I would share the room with you if you were him. ②"It"的用法。 a.用作人称代词,代替前文提到过的事物。 Where is the cat? It's in the kitchen. Jack is ill. Have you heard about it? My book is missing. I can't find it anywhere. b.用以代替指示代词 this, that。 What's this? -- It's a frog. /Whose pen is that? -- It's mine. c.表示时间,天气,距离等。 A lovely day, isn't it? /It's two o'clock. It's about two li from here to our school. d.用作形式主语,形式宾语,代替不定式短语,动名词或从句。 It's no use talking with him about that. It took me twenty minutes to get there. We think it important that college students should master at least one foreign language. e.用在强调结构中。为了强调句子的某一成分(通常是主语,宾语或状语) ,常用强调结构 "It is (was) + 被强调成分 + that(或 who)?"。 It was Liu Ming that I saw in the street this morning. It was in the classroom that he told me about it. 二.物主代词 形容词性物主代词只能作定语,例: My brother often does his homework in his room. 我的弟弟常在他房间里做作业。 The newly-built house is our laboratory. 那幢新建的房子是我们的实验室。 Anything has its character individually. 任何事物都有其各自的特征。 名词性物主代词则可以在句中充当主语、宾语、表语。它的意义= 形容词性物 主代词+名词;或者说它相当于名词。例: His dictionary is English-Chinese, but mine is English-English. 他的词典是英汉的, 我的是全英 的。 We each bought a new book. Yours is about management and mine is about the American history. 我们一人买了一本书。你的是关于管理的,我的是关于美国历史的。 三。反身代词的作用 反身代词在句子中可作宾语: 当它作动词宾语时, 动作的执行者与承受者往往是同一个人或 同一件事物;当它作介词 by 的宾语时,则表示强调。例: The prisoner killed himself by taking poison. 犯人服毒自杀了。 He finished the work by himself. 他独自完成了那件工作。 反身代词在句子中也可作同位语,用来加强名词或代词的语气,强调某人亲自、 本人;这时它可能在名词、代词之后,也可能在句子末尾。例: The students will clean the classroom themselves. 学生们将自己打扫教室。 I myself heard him say it . 我亲耳听他说的。 四.相互代词 each other ,one another.前者通常指两者之间的“相互” ,后者侧重三者或三者以 上的“相互” ,也可指两者之间的“相互” 。

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五.指示代词 this/these 一般用来指时间和空间上较近的人或物;that/those 常指时间和 空间上较远的人或物。 进行比较时,that 可代替不可数名词或单数名词以避免重复;those 可代替复数名词以 免重复。 六。疑问代词: 用于构成特殊疑问句,其中 what, which, whose 兼有形容词特征,可以和名词连用。 What job do you want to find? /Whose girl is she? Which subject is your best one? 所有疑问代词都可以起名词作用,在句子中担任成分。 Who told you? /Whom are you waiting for? Whose are those books? 在学习疑问代词时,对以下几组词注意区别: 1) which 和 what 两者均可与名词连用,就人或物提问。但是 which 一般用于有一定选择范围的情况,what 用于无选择范围或究竟是什么还不清楚的情况。 Which colour do you like-green, red, yellow or brown? What colour is her dress? What writers do you like best? 2)which 和 who 两者都可作代词,它们的区别是不管选择的范围是大还是小,which 一般 用作指物。 Which would you like to eat -steak or fish? Who won the game -Smith or Johnson ? 当有一定选择范围时,which one 代替 who 作宾语. Which one do you like better, your mother or your father? Which of 可和人称代词或指人的名词连用,如: Which of you has taken away my English book? 3)连接代词 who, whom, whose, which, what, whatever, whoever 等,除起连接作用外,还可以 在从句中担当主语,宾语,定语,表语等成分。如: The question is who can operate the new machine.(引导表语从句--作主语) They asked whose idea this was.(引导宾语从句--作定语) When you are older, you can watch whatever programme you like. (引导宾语从句--作定语) I'll give my ticket to whoever wants it. (这里 whoever 可看成"anyone who",or"the person who"). 七.关系代词 关系代词是一种引导从句并起连接主句和从句作用的代词.关系代词有 who, whose, whom, that, which. 它们在句中可用作主语,表语,宾语,定语. 在主句中,它们还代表着从句所修饰的 那个名词或代词. 八。 不定代词: ①all / both a.both 用于两个人或事物,all 用于两个以上的人或事物,均可作主语。 All (of us) like fruits. /Both (of them) are good at English. b.用作同位语。作主语同位语时须注意它们的位置不同,位于行为动词之前;位于 be 动词 之后。

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They all (或 both) agreed with me. /They are all (或 both) very healthy. I know them all (或 both). ②one / it(人称代词) one 代替可数名词, 表示上面所提到的那一类人或物中的一个, 其复数形式带定语时用 ones, 不带定语时用 some。而 it 则用于指代上文提到的那个表示物的名词本身,既可指单数可数 名词也可指不可数名词。 I don't have a watch but I'm going to buy one(或 some). I have a bicycle. My aunt gave it to me. ③no one / none no one 只用于指人,而 none 既可指人也可指物。如果说"若干人(物)之中一个也不",用 "none of",后接复数名词时,谓语可以用复数,也可用单数;后接不可数名词时,谓语用单 数。如: No one told me that he had gone to Shanghai. None of them have(或 has)arrived yet.(不用 no one) None of the money is mine. ④some / any /no /every +(thing, one, body 等。 ) some 类用于肯定句,any 类用于否定和疑问句。 I know nothing of what had happened to him. I have little rice, so I can't lend you any. She is going to buy some new dresses. 注:everyone 和 every one 前者意思是"每个人", everybody 同义, 与 后面不可跟 of 短语, 后者意思是每个人或物, 后面跟 of 短语。试比较: everyone in the classroom(教室里的所有的人) every one of the children(这些孩子中的每一个) every one of the books(这些书中的每一本) ⑤部分否定与全部否定: 当 all, both, each 和 every(body, thing)等表示整体意义的代词与否定词连用时,一般只表示部 分否定,如果表示全部否定,应该用 none, no one, neither, nobody, nothing 等. All of the students were not late for the class. 不是所有学生上课都迟到的。 (现代英语中常写成:Not all the students were late for the class.) None of the students were late for the class.没有一个学生上课迟到的。 具体地说明几个在使用代词时应注意的问题 (一) 指代必须准确无误 我们知道代词是用来指代人或事物的词, 那么如果在使用代词时指代不清楚, 就会引起他人 的误解、费解、甚至不理解.例如: While carrying the paint can from the garage to the house, Marry was afraid that some of it might spill on her new skirt. 当玛莉从车库把油漆罐搬到屋里时,她担心油漆会溅到她的新裙子上。 (二)关于人称代词、反身代词、物主代词在使用这三类代词时,我们要注意它们在句中的 人称、单复数、及性和格的一致性。 (四)物主代词 形容词性物主代词只能作定语,例: My brother often does his homework in his room. 我的弟弟常在他房间里做作业。 The newly-built house is our laboratory. 那幢新建的房子是我们的实验室。

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Anything has its character individually. 任何事物都有其各自的特征。名词性物主代词则可以 在句中充当主语、宾语、表语。它的意义= 形容词性物 主代词+名词;或者说它相当于名词。例: His dictionary is English-Chinese, but mine is English-English. 他的词典是英汉的, 我的是全英 的。 We each bought a new book. Yours is about management and mine is about the American history. 我们一人买了一本书。你的是关于管理的,我的是关于美国历史的。 (五)不定代词 英文中主要有这样一些不定代词:every, each, both, all, either, neither, one, none, little, few, many, much, other, another, some, any, no, 另外还有由 some, any, no 和 every 构成的合成代 词,如:somebody, anything, nothing 等。 1) both , either 和 neither 这三个词都可以用来指两个人或两件事物, 但各自的意义都不相同: 表示"两个都"、 both either 表示"两个中的任何一个"、 neither 表示"两者都不??" 。它们在句中都分别可以作主语、 宾语和定语,both 还可以作同位语。 2) all 在谈到两个以上的人或事物时,或是不可数的事物时,我们都可以用 all ;它在句中可以充 当主语、宾语、定语和同位语。另外,all 指不可数的事物时还可以作表语;有时还可作副 词用,例如: This is all he knew about it. (作表语) 这就是他了解有关这件事的一切。 They were all covered with dust. (作副词) 他们身上尽是尘土。 Her clothes were all wet.(作副词) 她的衣服全湿了。 all 还可以用在一些词组中,如: all day (整天) all night (整夜) all this(所有这些) all the year round (整年) all day long (一天到晚) all the time (一直) 3) each 和 every each 和 every 这两个词在中文里都有"每一个"的意思, 但它们在句子里各自强调的侧重点却 不同: every 从每一个个体着眼而强调"整体"; each 却是把一些东西一个一个地加以考虑, 而 强调"各个" 。every 只能作定语;each 则可以作主语、宾语、定语和同位语。另外,every 可用于[ every other (或 every +数词 ) + 名词 ]的结构中,表示"每隔??"之意思: every other day 每隔一天 every three years 每隔三年 every third year 每隔三年 every other line 每隔一行 every ten miles 每隔十哩 4) one 5) 作不定代词时有复数形式 ones ,代替前面刚提到的人或事物以避免重复,还可以有自 己的定语或冠词;另外还可以用来泛指人,例如: This problem is a difficult one. 这个问题是个不好解决的问题。 I don't like colored envelopes. I like white ones. 我不喜欢花信封,我喜欢白的。 This film is not as good as the one we saw last week .这片子没有我们上周看的好。 Modesty helps one go forward, whereas conceit makes one lag behind. (泛指) 谦虚使人进步, 骄 傲使人落后。 5)some 与 any some 与 any 都相当于"一些"之意,但意思并不强,因此汉译时常可省去"一些"这样的字眼。

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它们作定语时多,这时候 some 多用于肯定句,any 多用于否定句、疑问句或条件句。在表 示请求、 建议、 反问或是希望得到肯定回答的疑问句中, 常用 some 而不用 any 。 另外, some 可与数词连用,表示"大约"的意思。如: Could you mind buying me some envelopes on your way to school? 你能在去上学的路上,帮我 买几个信封吗? Will you give me some paper? 请给我一点纸。 Some hundred teachers have moved into new houses. 约有百位教师搬进了新居。 The bridge was built some two hundred years ago. 这座桥大约建于两百年前。 6)few, a few ; little, a little 的用法 few 和 a few 以及 little 和 a little 是两组差异相同词,但前一组用于可数名词,而后一组却 用于不可数名词;另外 few 与 little 都有"几乎没有"的否定意思,few 用于可数名词,little 用于不可数名词; few 与 a little 表示"几个或一点"的肯定意思, few 用于可数名词 a little a a 用于不可数名词。 六) 其它 1) one?the other 与 some?others ; 这是两组常一起连用的代词短语,指两者之间;前者用 于单数,后者用于复数。如: She has two children. One is a boy; the other is a girl. 她有两个孩子:一个男孩,一个女孩。 They have different ideas about how to spend their weekend. Some think that it is good to have a party. Others prefer to have an outing. 他们对怎么过周末想法不同,有些认为以聚会为好,其 他人却要去郊游。 另外, another 一词泛指"另一个;又一个",不限制于两者之间。例如: I think that it is impossible for me to visit another city this time. 我看,我这次是不可能再去观 光别的地方了。 He is another friend of mine who I got to know in New Zealand. 他是我在新西兰结识另一个朋 友。 2)no 与 none , 这两个词都表示否定意义:no = not any 意在强调"连一个、一点都不",它只能作形容词, 一般与名词连用;而 none 则相当于名词,可独立在句中充当成分,也可与介词短语连用-表示在某一范围内"任何一个也不"。 3) 关于合成不定代词 常用的合成不定代词有以下几组: something 某物,某事, somebody 某人, someone 某人; anything 任何事物, anybody 任何人, anyone 任何人 ; everything 一切事/物,everybody 每个人,everyone 每个人 ; nothing 无事、无物,no one 没有人,nobody 无人 使用合成不定代词时应注意下面几点: A) 当它们用作主语时应看作单数。 B) 它们只能作名词,不能看作形容词而充当定语。 C) 如果它们带有修饰语,修饰语只能放在它们的后面。 6.不定代词:some ,any ,all ,both ,none ,one, each ,either ,neither ,other ,another, something ,anything ,nothing ,anyone ,anybody , someone ,somebody ,nobody 7.关系代词(用于定语从句):who ,whom ,whose,that ,which ,as 考点十三:情景交际:

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命题规律及趋势 话题---社会交往,态度,情感及其他,社会交往是交际用语考查的重中之重。交际用语是每 年高考英语试卷单项选择部分的必考内容,通常都会有 1—2 个题目。题干的呈现形式通常 是对话,挖空设项多出现在交际应答里。 突破方法: 1. 熟悉句型结构,增强理解能力。 2. 进行广泛阅读,积累各种情境中交际应酬的用语从而提高交际能力。 3. 熟悉英中两种文化差异, 掌握两个不同民族的交际习惯方式。 高考中, 经常出现 “貌似” 正确的“中国式”应答的选项, 4. 多看英文电视,电影,多跟外国人交谈,从而提高英语交际运用能力。 做好交际应答,要注意以下几点: 从高考的意义来说,交际应答尽管只是一两分的问题,可在日常的英语应用中,它却十分重 要,千万不可掉以轻心。做好交际应答,要注意以下几点: 一、交际应答要防止“中国式”答语的陷阱 例如:——It’s getting late. I'm afraid I must be going now. ——OK. ______. A. Take it easy B. Go slowly C. Stay longer D. See you 答案 D。 本题考查的交际功能是道别用语。 彼此分手可以说 “See you (again, after, etc.).” “Take care.” “Good-bye.” “Bye.”等。选项 B, “慢点走”是典型的中国式应答。 二、交际应答要把握不同选项的适用语境 例如:——I'm taking my driving test tomorrow. ——____! A. Cheers B. Good luck C. Come on D. Congratulations 答案 B,用来表示在别人做事情之前表达祝愿。A 选项是“干杯”,与情景不适宜;C 项的 意思是“过来”“加油”的意思;D 项表示“祝贺” 、 。因为是明天参加考试,还不知结果, 因此表达“祝贺”不合适。 知识清单 高中阶段出现的交际功能用语,如问候、祝愿、介绍、告别、感谢道歉、邀请、约会、希望、 请求、发表观点、购物、就餐、使用交通工具等,都要有准确的把握。 1.约会表达用语小结 清清楚楚地表达所要约会的时间和地点,明明白白地进行预定的活动。 [典型表达] Are you / will you be free this afternoon? 你今天下午有空吗? How about tomorrow morning? 明天上午怎么样? Shall we meet at the school gate?我们在校门口见面好吗? Yes, I’ll be free then. 好,那时我有空。 No, I won‘t be free then. But I‘ll be free tomorrow. 不行,那时我没空儿。但是我明天有空。 All right. See you then. 好,那时见。 How about going for a drink together? 一起去喝一杯怎么样? What time shall we go? 我们什么时间去? 2.赴宴就餐用语小结 英语中关于赴宴就餐及殷勤款待的常用交际用语有多种。 [典型表达]

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Would you like to have supper with me? 你愿意和我一起吃晚饭吗? That would be nice. Let‘s fix a date. 那太好了,咱们定个日子吧。 I‘d love to, but my brother is coming. 愿意,但是我哥哥要来。 I‘d like to invite you to dinner at my flat. 我想邀请你到我公寓吃饭。 What would you like to eat / drink? 你想吃(喝)点什么? What / How about another piece of bread? 再来一块面包怎么样? Would you like some more beef? 你想再吃点牛肉吗? Do you want to have some chicken? 你想吃一些鸡肉吗? I’m full. / I’ve had enough. 我饱了。 I‘d like two eggs and a glass of milk. 我想要两个鸡蛋和一杯牛奶。 Yes, please, just a little. 好的,只要一点点。 Help yourself. 请自便。/ 请随便吃。 Make yourself at home. 不要客气,请自便。 3.安慰表达方法小结 当别人失意、失败、担心、忧虑时,我们应该给以适当的安慰,使之振作、振奋。你可以说: Don’t be afraid. Cheer up. / Come on. You can do it.等。 4.同意与反对表达方法小结 英语中,当对方提出某种观点、意见或请求时,你要表示恰当而具体的态度。究竟是同意还 是不同意,要有个明确的答复。 5.表扬与鼓励表达方法小结 在西方,人们总会适时地给对方以表扬和鼓励。人们对于别人的赞扬一般会表示高兴,并且 “Thank you!”不离口。 6.问路表达方法小结 谁都有迷路的时候, 谁都有找不到目的地而犯愁的时候。 只要你会使用恰当的问路表达方式, 前途肯定会是光明的。 [典型表达] Excuse me. Where is the Pacific Hotel? 对不起,请问太平洋宾馆在哪儿? Go down this street until you see the tall building. 沿着这条路走,直到你看到那个高楼。 Does this road lead to the Agriculture Bank of China? 这条马路到/通向中国农业银行吗? No. Turn right at the first crossing. 不,在第一个十字路口向右拐。 Excuse me. Which is the way to the No. 1 Middle School? 打扰一下,请问哪条路到一中?

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You can take No. 503 bus. 你可以乘 503 路公交车。 Excuse me. Could you tell me the way to the airport? 打扰了。你能告诉我去飞机场的路吗? It’s over there. It’s in that direction. 在那儿,就在那个方向。 Can you tell me how to get to the People‘s Park? 你能告诉我怎么去人民公园吗? Sorry, I don‘t know. I‘m a stranger here. 对不起,我不知道。我也是刚来这儿。 7.介绍表达方法小结 学会用得体的英语去巧妙地介绍自己和别人,能够使气氛融洽,使大家交流轻松愉快。 [典型表达] May I introduce you to my friend Hang Kai? 我可以把你介绍给我的朋友杭凯吗? Please allow me to introduce you to my classmates. 请允许我把你介绍给我的同学。 I’ d like you to meet my friend, Maria. 我想请你见一见我的朋友玛利娅。 May I introduce myself? I‘m Jim Green. 我做一下自我介绍好吗?我是杰姆?格林。 How do you do? My name is Cui Hengbiao. 你好,我是崔恒标。 I’m Kate. Happy to know you. 我是凯特,很高兴认识你。 I‘d like you to meet Jim. He‘s a friend of mine. 我想请你见一下吉姆,他是我的一个朋友。 8.告别表达方法小结 相见时难别亦难,友情再深终有一别。不要忧伤,不要难过。我们既然要离开,就得学会用 地道的英语来委婉地表达我们的离别之意。 [典型表达] I’m afraid I must be leaving now. 我恐怕得告辞了。 I must be off now. 我必须得走了。 It’s time I met my brother. I have to go now. 是我去见我哥哥的时候了,我现在得走了。 I’m sorry I have to go now. 对不起我得走了。 I think it’s time for us to leave now. 我想现在是我们告辞的时候了。 It was nice meeting you. =Nice to have met you. 遇见你真是太好了。 9.提供帮助用语小结 提供帮助一般分两种情况:职业用语和其他情况。当拒绝别人的帮助时,记得说一句 Thank you all the same.或者 That’s very kind of you, but I can manage it myself. 10.打电话用语小结 许多人害怕用英语打电话或接电话, 一是因为自己的听力和口语水平不够, 还有一个重要的 原因就是电话英语中有许多固定表达方式。 11.责备和抱怨用语小结

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在对方做错了事或者没有能够做好某事的时候, 我们可能会去责备或者抱怨。 值得注意的是, 语气要委婉。当我们受到别人的责备或者抱怨时,我们也要表示歉意。 [典型表达] He is to blame. 他应负责任。 She blamed him for the traffic accident. 她为交通事故责备他。 He shouldn‘t have done it. 他本不该干那件事的。 Why can‘t you do something about it? 你为何不能为那件事出点力? —He couldn’t find the place. 他找不到那个地方。 —You told him how to get there, but perhaps you should have drawn a map. 你告诉了他如何去,但是也许你本应画张地图。 12.建议表达方法小结 如果你所建议的内容是对方容易接受的,且双方关系比较密切,则回答可以很直接、随意; 如果双方关系一般,则回答需要委婉。在拒绝对方的建议时,一般要给出理由。 13.邀请表达方法小结 对于别人的邀请如 Would you like ...? / Can you come to ...?等要作出明确的答复, 同意还是拒 绝要说清楚,同时不要忘了感谢。如果拒绝的话,要表示歉意最好再说明缘由。 14.祝贺表达方法小结 日常生活中,我们经常接受别人的祝愿、祝贺,同时我们也应学习去祝愿、祝贺别人

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