kl800.com省心范文网

GMAT阅读范文(224篇,超全)


目 录

1

109 题Argument范文 ................................................................................. 13
1. The following appeared as part of an annual report sent to stockholders by Olympic Foods, a processor of frozen foods..................................................................................................13 2. The following appeared in a memorandum from the business department of the Apogee Company. ........................................................................................................................14 3. The following appeared in a memorandum issued by a large city’s council on the arts.............14 4. The following appeared in a report presented for discussion at a meeting of the directors of a company that manufactures parts for heavy machinery. .....................................................15 5. The following appeared in an announcement issued by the publisher of The Mercury, a weekly newspaper. ......................................................................................................................16 6. The following appeared as part of an article in a magazine devoted to regional life. ................17 7. The following appeared in the health section of a magazine on trends and lifestyles................18 8. The following appeared in the editorial section of a corporate newsletter. ...............................18 9. The following appeared in the opinion column of a financial magazine. ..................................19 10. The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper.....................................21 11. The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper.....................................22 12. The following appeared as part of a promotional campaign to sell advertising space in the Daily Gazette to grocery stores in the Marston area. ...................................................................23 13. The following appeared as part of a campaign to sell advertising time on a local radio station to local businesses. ..............................................................................................................24 14. The following appeared as part of a newspaper editorial......................................................25 15. The following appeared as a part of an advertisement for Adams, who is seeking reelection as governor. .........................................................................................................................26 16. The following appeared as part of an article in the education section of a Waymarsh City newspaper. ......................................................................................................................27 17. The following appeared in an article in a consumer-products magazine.................................28 18. The following is an excerpt from a memo written by the head of a governmental department. .......................................................................................................................................29 19. The following appeared as part of an article in the travel section of a newspaper. .................30 20. The following appeared in an article in a health and fitness magazine. .................................31 21. The following appeared as part of an editorial in an industry newsletter................................32 22. The following appeared in the editorial section of a newspaper. ...........................................33 23. The following appeared in a speech delivered by a member of the city council......................34 24. The following appeared in a memo from the customer service division to the manager of Mammon Savings and Loan. .............................................................................................35

by Gemj

2

目 录
25. The following appeared as part of an article in a magazine on lifestyles................................36 26. The following appeared in a memorandum from a member of a financial management and consulting firm.................................................................................................................37 27. The following appeared in a newspaper editorial. ................................................................38 28. The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper.....................................39 29. The following was excerpted from the speech of a spokesperson for Synthetic Farm Products, Inc. .................................................................................................................................40 30. The following appeared in a newspaper story giving advice about investments. ....................41 31. The following appeared as part of the business plan of an investment and financial consulting firm.................................................................................................................................42 32. The following appeared in the editorial section of a West Cambria newspaper. ......................43 33. The following is part of a business plan being discussed at a board meeting of the Perks Company. ........................................................................................................................44 34. The following appeared as part of a plan proposed by an executive of the Easy Credit Company to the president. ..............................................................................................................44 35. The following appeared as part of a recommendation from the financial planning office to the administration of Fern Valley University..............................................................................45 36. The following appeared in an article in a college departmental newsletter ............................46 37. The following appeared as part of an article in the business section of a local newspaper. .....47 38. The following appeared in the editorial section of a campus newspaper. ...............................48 39. The following appeared in an Avia Airlines departmental memorandum. ...............................49 40. The following appeared as part of an article in a weekly newsmagazine. ..............................50 41. The following appeared as part of an article in a trade publication. ......................................51 42. The following appeared in the opinion section of a national newsmagazine...........................52 43. The following appeared in an article in the health section of a newspaper.............................53 44. The following is part of a business plan created by the management of the Megamart grocery store. ..............................................................................................................................54 45. The following appeared as part of a column in a popular entertainment magazine. ...............54 46. The following appeared in a memorandum from the directors of a security and safety consulting service.............................................................................................................55 47. The following appeared as part of an article in the business section of a local newspaper. .....56 48. The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper.....................................57 49. The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper.....................................57 50. The following appeared as part of a business plan recommended by the new manager of a

by Gemj

目 录

3

musical rock group called Zapped......................................................................................58 51. The following appeared in a magazine article on trends and lifestyles...................................59 52. The following editorial appeared in the Elm City paper. ........................................................60 53. The following appeared as part of an editorial in a weekly newsmagazine. ...........................61 54. The following appeared in an Excelsior Company memorandum. ..........................................62 55. The following appeared as part of an article in a health club trade publication. .....................63 56. The following appeared as part of an article in a popular arts and leisure magazine. .............63 57. The following is from a campaign by Big Boards, Inc., to convince companies in River City that their sales will increase if they use Big Boards billboards for advertising their locally manufactured products.....................................................................................................64 58. The following appeared as part of an article on government funding of environmental regulatory agencies. .........................................................................................................65 59. The following appeared as part of an article in a popular science magazine. .........................66 60. The following appeared as part of a recommendation by one of the directors of the Beta Company. ........................................................................................................................67 61. The following appeared in the letters-to-the-editor section of a local newspaper....................68 62. The following appeared as part of an article in the business section of a local newspaper. .....68 63. The following appeared in a memorandum from the Director of Human Resources to the executive officers of Company X. ......................................................................................69 64. The following appeared in a memorandum from the vice president of Road Food, an international chain of fast-food restaurants. .......................................................................70 65. The following appeared in the promotional literature for Cerberus dog food..........................71 66. The following appeared in an article in a travel magazine. ...................................................72 67. The following appeared in a memorandum to the planning department of an investment firm. .......................................................................................................................................73 68. The following appeared in a memorandum from a company’s marketing department. ...........74 69. The following appeared in a memorandum from the president of a company that makes (旧题 有修饰词Glabrous) shampoo. ............................................................................................75 70. The following appeared as part of a recommendation from the business manager of a department store. ............................................................................................................75 71. The following appeared in a letter to the editor of a regional newspaper...............................76 72. The following appeared as part of an editorial in a campus newspaper. ................................77 73. The following appeared as part of a memorandum from a government agency. ....................78 74. The following appeared as part of an article in an entertainment magazine. .........................79

by Gemj

4

目 录
75. The following appeared in a letter to the editor of a popular science and technology magazine. .......................................................................................................................................79 76. The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper.....................................80 77. The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper. ....................................81 78. The following appeared in the editorial section of a monthly business newsmagazine............82 79. The following appeared as part of a company memorandum................................................83 80. The following appeared in the editorial section of a daily newspaper.....................................84 81. The following appeared in the editorial section of a newspaper in the country of West Cambria. .......................................................................................................................................84 82. The following appeared as part of a memorandum from the vice president of Nostrum, a large pharmaceutical corporation...............................................................................................85 83. The following appeared as part of an article on trends in television. .....................................86 84. The following appeared as part of an article in the business section of a daily newspaper. .....87 85. The following appeared as part of an article in a photography magazine. .............................88 86. The following appeared as part of a letter to the editor of a local newspaper. .......................89 87. The following appeared in an ad for a book titled How to Write a Screenplay for a Movie.......90 88. The following appeared in a memorandum from the ElectroWares company’s marketing department......................................................................................................................91 89. The following is taken from an editorial in a local newspaper................................................92 90. The following appeared as part of an article in a local newspaper.........................................93 91. The following appeared in a proposal from the development office at Platonic University. ......94 92. The following appeared as part of an article in the business section of a local newspaper. .....94 93. The following appeared in a memorandum from the manager of KMTV, a television station. ..95 94. The following appeared as part of an article in a computer magazine. ..................................96 95. The following was excerpted from an article in a farming trade publication. ..........................97 96. The following appeared in a letter to prospective students from the admissions office at Plateau College. ...............................................................................................................98 97. The following appeared in a memorandum sent by a vice-president of the Nadir Company to the company’s human resources department. ....................................................................99 98. The following appeared as part of an article in a trade magazine for breweries. .................. 100 99. The following appeared in an editorial from a newspaper serving the town of Saluda. ......... 100 100. The following appeared as part of an article in the book section of a newspaper. .............. 101 101. The following appeared as an editorial in a magazine concerned with educational issues. .. 102 102. The following appeared as part of a business plan created by the management of the Take

by Gemj

目 录

5

Heart Fitness Center. ...................................................................................................... 103 103. The following appeared in a letter from a staff member in the office of admissions at Argent University....................................................................................................................... 104 104. The following appeared as part of a memorandum from the loan department of the Frostbite National Bank. ............................................................................................................... 105 105. The following appeared as part of a letter to the editor of a local newspaper..................... 106 106. The following appeared in a memo to the Saluda town council from the town’s business manager. ....................................................................................................................... 107 107. The following appeared in a memorandum written by the assistant manager of a store that sells gourmet food items from various countries............................................................... 108 108. The following appeared in a memorandum from the director of research and development at Ready-to-Ware, a software engineering firm. ................................................................... 108 109. The following appeared in a memorandum from the vice-president of the Dolci Candy Company. ...................................................................................................................... 109

115 题ISSUE范文 .................................................................................... 111
1. In some countries, television and radio programs are carefully censored for offensive language and behavior. In other countries, there is little or no censorship. ....................................... 111 2. “It is unrealistic to expect individual nations to make, independently, the sacrifices necessary to conserve energy. International leadership and worldwide cooperation are essential if we expect to protect the world’s energy resources for future generations.” ............................. 111 3. “Corporations and other businesses should try to eliminate the many ranks and salary grades that classify employees according to their experience and expertise. A ‘flat’ organizational structure is more likely to encourage collegiality and cooperation among employees.” ........ 112 4. “Of all the manifestations* of power, restraint in the use of that power impresses people most.” ..................................................................................................................................... 113 5. “All groups and organizations should function as teams in which everyone makes decisions and shares responsibilities and duties. Giving one person central authority and responsibility for a project or task is not an effective way to get work done.” ................................................. 114 6. “There is only one definition of success — to be able to spend your life in your own way.” .... 114 7. “The best way to give advice to other people is to find out what they want and then advise them how to attain it.”.................................................................................................... 115 8. “For hundreds of years, the monetary system of most countries has been based on the exchange of metal coins and printed pieces of paper. However, because of recent developments in technology, the international community should consider replacing the entire system of coins and paper with a system of electronic accounts of credits and debits.”....... 116 9. “Employees should keep their private lives and personal activities as separate as possible from the workplace.” .............................................................................................................. 117 10. “In any enterprise, the process of making or doing something is ultimately more important

by Gemj

6

目 录
than the final product.”................................................................................................... 117 11. “When someone achieves greatness in any field — such as the arts, science, politics, or business — that person’s achievements are more important than any of his or her personal faults.”........................................................................................................................... 118 12. “Education has become the main provider of individual opportunity in our society. Just as property and money once were the keys to success, education has now become the element that most ensures success in life.” ................................................................................... 119 13. “Responsibility for preserving the natural environment ultimately belongs to each individual person, not to government.” ........................................................................................... 120 14. “Organizations should be structured in a clear hierarchy in which the people at each level, from top to bottom, are held accountable for completing a particular component of the work. Any other organizational structure goes against human nature and will ultimately prove fruitless.” ..................................................................................................................................... 120 15. “Nations should cooperate to develop regulations that limit children’s access to adult material on the Internet.” *.......................................................................................................... 121 16. “Public buildings reveal much about the attitudes and values of the society that builds them. Today’s new schools, courthouses, airports, and libraries, for example, reflect the attitudes and values of today’s society.” ......................................................................................... 122 17. “Some people believe that the best approach to effective time management is to make detailed daily and long-term plans and then to adhere to them. However, this highly structured approach to work is counterproductive. Time management needs to be flexible so that employees can respond to unexpected problems as they arise.” ........................................ 123 18. “If the primary duty and concern of a corporation is to make money, then conflict is inevitable when the corporation must also acknowledge a duty to serve society.” .............................. 124 19. Some employers who recruit recent college graduates for entry-level jobs evaluate applicants only on their performance in business courses such as accounting, marketing, and economics. However, other employers also expect applicants to have a broad background in such courses as history, literature, and philosophy................................................................................ 124 20. “In this age of automation, many people complain that humans are becoming subservient to machines. But, in fact, machines are continually improving our lives.”................................ 126 21. “Job security and salary should be based on employee performance, not on years of service. Rewarding employees primarily for years of service discourages people from maintaining consistently high levels of productivity.” ........................................................................... 127 22. “Clearly, government has a responsibility to support the arts. However, if that support is going to produce anything of value, government must place no restrictions on the art that is produced.” ..................................................................................................................... 128 23. “Schools should be responsible only for teaching academic skills and not for teaching ethical and social values.” .......................................................................................................... 128 24. “A powerful business leader has far more opportunity to influence the course of a community

by Gemj

目 录

7

or a nation than does any government official.”................................................................ 129 25. “The best strategy for managing a business, or any enterprise, is to find the most capable people and give them as much authority as possible.” ...................................................... 130 26. “Location has traditionally been one of the most important determinants of a business’s success. The importance of location is not likely to change, no matter how advanced the development of computer communications and others kinds of technology becomes.”........ 131 27. “A company’s long-term success is primarily dependent on the job satisfaction and the job security felt by the company’s employees.” ...................................................................... 131 28. “Because businesses use high-quality advertising to sell low-quality products, schools should give students extensive training in how to make informed decisions before making purchases.” ..................................................................................................................................... 132 29. “Too many people think only about getting results. The key to success, however, is to focus on the specific task at hand and not to worry about results.” ................................................. 133 30. “Companies benefit when they discourage employees from working extra hours or taking work home. When employees spend their leisure time without ‘producing’ something for the job, they will be more focused and effective when they return to work.” .................................. 134 31. “Financial gain should be the most important factor in choosing a career.” .......................... 134 32. “You can tell the ideas of a nation by its advertisements.”.................................................. 135 33. “People are likely to accept as a leader only someone who has demonstrated an ability to perform the same tasks that he or she expects others to perform.” ................................... 136 34. “All citizens should be required to perform a specified amount of public service. Such service would benefit not only the country as a whole but also the individual participants.”............ 136 35. “Business relations are infected through and through with the disease of short-sighted motives. We are so concerned with immediate results and short-term goals that we fail to look beyond them.” ........................................................................................................................... 137 36. “Businesses and other organizations have overemphasized the importance of working as a team. Clearly, in any human group, it is the strong individual, the person with the most commitment and energy, who gets things done.” ............................................................. 138 37. “Since science and technology are becoming more and more essential to modern society, schools should devote more time to teaching science and technology and less to teaching the arts and humanities.”...................................................................................................... 138 38. “Courtesy is rapidly disappearing from everyday interactions, and as a result, we are all the poorer for it.” ................................................................................................................. 139 39. “It is difficult for people to achieve professional success without sacrificing important aspects of a fulfilling personal life.”.............................................................................................. 140 40. “With the increasing emphasis on a global economy and international cooperation, people need to understand that their role as citizens of the world is more important than their role as citizens of a particular country.”....................................................................................... 141

by Gemj

8

目 录
41. “The best way to preserve the natural environment is to impose penalties—whether fines, imprisonment, or other punishments—on those who are most responsible for polluting or otherwise damaging it.” .................................................................................................. 141 42. “Scientists are continually redefining the standards for what is beneficial or harmful to the environment. Since these standards keep shifting, companies should resist changing their products and processes in response to each new recommendation until those recommendations become government regulations.” ........................................................ 142 43. “The most important reason for studying history is not that knowledge of history can make us better people or a better society but that it can provide clues to solving the societal problems that we face today.”........................................................................................................ 143 44. “All companies should invest heavily in advertising because high-quality advertising can sell almost any product or service.” ....................................................................................... 144 45. “The most effective way for a businessperson to maximize profits over a long period of time is to follow the highest standards of ethics.”........................................................................ 145 46. Businesses are as likely as are governments to establish large bureaucracies, but bureaucracy is far more damaging to a business than it is to a government.......................................... 146 47. The primary responsibility for preventing environmental damage belongs to government, not to individuals or private industry.......................................................................................... 146 48. In matching job candidates with job openings, managers must consider not only such variables as previous work experience and educational background but also personality traits and work habits, which are more difficult to judge.......................................................................... 147 49. “Ask most older people to identify the key to success, and they are likely to reply ‘hard work.’ Yet, I would tell people starting off in a career that work in itself is not the key. In fact, you have to approach work cautiously—too much or too little can be self-defeating.”................ 148 50. How far should a supervisor go in criticizing the performance of a subordinate? Some highly successful managers have been known to rely on verbal abuse and intimidation. ............... 149 51. “The presence of a competitor is always beneficial to a company. Competition forces a company to change itself in ways that improve its practices.”............................................ 149 52. “Successful individuals typically set their next goal somewhat—but not too much—above their last achievement. In this way, they steadily raise their level of aspiration.”......................... 150 53. “The term ‘user-friendly’ is usually applied to the trouble-free way that computer software moves people from screen to screen, function to function. However, the term can also refer to a government office, a library, public transportation, or anything designed to provide information or services in an easy, friendly way. Just as all societies have many striking examples of user-friendly services, so do they abound in examples of user-unfriendly systems.” Identify a system or service that you have found to be either “user-friendly” or “user-unfriendly.”............................................................................................................ 151 54. “Popular entertainment is overly influenced by commercial interests. Superficiality, obscenity, and violence characterize films and television today because those qualities are commercially

by Gemj

目 录

9

successful.” .................................................................................................................... 152 55. “Never tell people how to do things. Tell them what to do, and they will surprise you with their ingenuity.”...................................................................................................................... 153 56. “The secret of business is to know something that nobody else knows.” ............................. 153 57. “Everywhere, it seems, there are clear and positive signs that people are becoming more respectful of one another’s differences.”........................................................................... 154 58. “What is the final objective of business? It is to make the obtaining of a living—the obtaining of food, clothing, shelter, and a minimum of luxuries—so mechanical and so little time-consuming that people shall have time for other things.”........................................... 155 59. “Juvenile crime is a serious social problem, and businesses must become more involved in helping to prevent it.” ..................................................................................................... 156 60. “Employers should have no right to obtain information about their employees’ health or other aspects of their personal lives without the employees’ permission.” ................................... 156 61. “Even at its best, a government is a tremendous burden to business, though a necessary one.” ..................................................................................................................................... 157 62. “What education fails to teach us is to see the human community as one. Rather than focus on the unique differences that separate one nation from another, education should focus on the similarities among all people and places on Earth.” ........................................................... 158 63. “As government bureaucracy increases, citizens become more and more separated from their government.” ................................................................................................................. 159 64. “The goal of business should not be to make as big a profit as possible. Instead, business should also concern itself with the wellbeing (n. 福利) of the public.”................................ 159 65. “The rise of multinational corporations is leading to global homogeneity*. Because people everywhere are beginning to want the same products and services, regional differences are rapidly disappearing.” ..................................................................................................... 160 66. “Manufacturers are responsible for ensuring that their products are safe. If a product injures someone, for whatever reason, the manufacturer should be held legally and financially accountable for the injury.” ............................................................................................. 161 67. “Work greatly influences people’s personal lives—their special interests, their leisure activities, even their appearance away from the workplace.” ............................................................ 162 68. “Since the physical work environment affects employee productivity and morale, the employees themselves should have the right to decide how their workplace is designed.” ................... 162 69. “The most important quality in an employee is not specific knowledge or technical competence. Instead, it is the ability to work well with other employees.” ............................................. 163 70. “So long as no laws are broken, there is nothing unethical about doing whatever you need to do to promote existing products or to create new products.”............................................. 164 71. “Commercialism has become too widespread. It has even crept into schools and places of worship. Every nation should place limits on what kinds of products, if any, can be sold at

by Gemj

certain events or places.” ................................................................................................ 164 72. “Companies should not try to improve employees’ performance by giving incentives—for example, awards or gifts. These incentives encourage negative kinds of behavior instead of encouraging a genuine interest in doing the work well.”.................................................... 165 73. People often give the following advice: “Be yourself. Follow your instincts and behave in a way that feels natural.” .......................................................................................................... 166 74. “The people we remember best are the ones who broke the rules.”.................................... 167 75. “There are essentially two forces that motivate people: self-interest and fear.” .................... 167 76. “For a leader there is nothing more difficult, and therefore more important, than to be able to make decisions.” ............................................................................................................ 168 77. Although “genius” is difficult to define, one of the qualities of genius is the ability to transcend traditional modes of thought and create new ones. .......................................................... 169 78. Most people would agree that buildings represent a valuable record of any society’s past, but controversy arises when old buildings stand on ground that modern planners feel could be better used for modern purposes. ................................................................................... 169 79. “The ability to deal with people is as purchasable a commodity as sugar or coffee, and it is worth more than any other commodity under the sun.” .................................................... 170 80. “As individuals, people save too little and borrow too much.” ............................................. 171 81. “No one can possibly achieve any real and lasting success or ‘get rich’ in business by conforming to conventional practices or ways of thinking.”................................................ 172 82. “Business and government must do more, much more, to meet the needs and goals of women in the workplace.”........................................................................................................... 172 83. “We shape our buildings and afterwards our buildings shape us.”....................................... 173 84. “A business should not be held responsible for providing customers with complete information about its products or services; customers should have the responsibility of gathering information about the products or services they may want to buy.” ................................... 174 85. “Advertising is the most influential and therefore the most important artistic achievement of the twentieth century.” ................................................................................................... 175 86. “Whether promoting a product, an event, or a person, an advertising campaign is most effective when it appeals to emotion rather than to reason.” ............................................. 175 87. “As technologies and the demand for certain services change, many workers will lose their jobs. The responsibility for those people to adjust to such change should belong to the individual worker, not to government or to business.” ...................................................................... 176 88. “Each generation must accept blame not only for the hateful words and actions of some of its members but also for the failure of other members to speak out against those words and actions.” ........................................................................................................................ 177 89. “The study of history is largely a waste of time because it prevents us from focusing on the

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

challenges of the present.”.............................................................................................. 177 90. “People often complain that products are not made to last. They feel that making products that wear out fairly quickly wastes both natural and human resources. What they fail to see, however, is that such manufacturing practices keep costs down for the consumer and stimulate demand.” ........................................................................................................ 178 91. “Government should establish regulations to reduce or eliminate any suspected health hazards in the environment, even when the scientific studies of these health hazards are incomplete or contradictory.” ................................................................................................................ 180 92. “Employees should show loyalty to their company by fully supporting the company’s managers and policies, even when the employees believe that the managers and policies are misguided.” ..................................................................................................................................... 181 93. “To be successful, companies should trust their workers and give them as much freedom as possible. Any company that tries to control employees’ behavior through a strict system of rewards and punishments will soon find that such controls have a negative effect on employee morale and, consequently, on the company’s success.” ..................................................... 181 94. “If parents want to prepare their children to succeed in life, teaching the children self-discipline is more important than teaching them self-esteem.” ......................................................... 182 95. “Companies are never justified in employing young children, even if the child’s family would benefit from the income.” ............................................................................................... 183 96. “In order to understand a society, we must examine the contents of its museums and the subjects of its memorials. What a society chooses to preserve, display, and commemorate is the truest indicator of what the society values.” ............................................................... 184 97. “In business, more than in any other social arena, men and women have learned how to share power effectively.” .......................................................................................................... 184 98. “In order to accommodate the increasing number of undergraduate students, college and universities should offer most courses through distance learning, such as videotaped instruction that can be accessed through the Internet or cable television. Requiring students to appear at a designated time and place is no longer an effective or efficient way of teaching most undergraduate courses.”......................................................................................... 185 99. “If a nation is to ensure its own economic success, it must maintain a highly competitive educational system in which students compete among themselves and against students from other countries.”............................................................................................................. 186 100. “In order to force companies to improve policies and practices considered unethical or harmful, society should rely primarily on consumer action—such as refusal to buy products—rather than legislative action.” ......................................................................... 187 101. “The automobile has caused more problems than it has solved. Most societies would probably be much better off if the automobile had never been invented.”........................................ 188 102. “An advanced degree may help someone get a particular job. Once a person begins working, however, the advanced degree and the formal education it represents are rarely relevant to

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

12

目 录
success on the job.”........................................................................................................ 189 103. “Most people today place too much emphasis on satisfying their immediate desires. The overall quality of life would be greatly improved if we all focused instead on meeting our long-term needs.”........................................................................................................... 189 104. “The value of any nation should be measured more by its scientific and artistic achievements than by its business successes.” ...................................................................................... 190 105. “All archeological treasures should remain in the country in which they were originally discovered. These works should not be exported, even if museums in other parts of the world are better able to preserve and display them.” ................................................................. 191 106. “The most effective way for managers to assign work is to divide complex tasks into their simpler component parts. This way, each worker completes a small portion of the task but contributes to the whole.” ............................................................................................... 192 107. “People are overwhelmed by the increasing amount of information available on the computer. Therefore, the immediate goal of the information technology industry should be to help people learn how to obtain the information they need efficiently and wisely.” ............................... 192 108. “Employees should not have full access to their own personnel files. If, for example, employees were allowed to see certain confidential materials, the people supplying that information would not be likely to express their opinions candidly.” ................................... 193 109. “All personnel evaluations at a company should be multi-directional — that is, people at every level of the organization should review not only those working ‘under’ them but also those working ‘over’ them.”...................................................................................................... 194 110. “The most effective business leaders are those who maintain the highest ethical standards.” ..................................................................................................................................... 195 111. “Because of recent advancements in business and technology, the overall quality of life in most societies has never been better than at the present time.”........................................ 196 112. “In most fields—including education, politics, and business—the prevailing philosophy never stays in place very long. This pattern of constantly shifting from one theoretical position to another is an inevitable reflection of human nature: people soon tire of the status quo.” .... 196 113. “It is essential that the nations of the world increase spending on the building of space stations and on the exploration of other planets, even if that means spending less on other government programs.” .................................................................................................. 197 114. “Technology ultimately separates and alienates people more than it serves to bring them together.”....................................................................................................................... 198 134. “Although many people object to advertisements and solicitations that intrude into their lives through such means as the telephone, the Internet, and television, companies and organizations must have the right to contact potential customers and donors whenever and however they wish.” ....................................................................................................... 199

by Gemj
在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

109 题Argument范文 1. The following appeared as part of an annual report sent to stockholders by Olympic Foods, a processor of frozen foods. “Over time, the costs of processing go down because as organizations learn how to do things better, they become more efficient. In color film processing, for example, the cost of a 3-by-5-inch print fell from 50 cents for five-day service in 1970 to 20 cents for one-day service in 1984. The same principle applies to the processing of food. And since Olympic Foods will soon celebrate its twenty-fifth birthday, we can expect that our long experience will enable us to minimize costs and thus maximize profits.” Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. In your discussion be sure to analyze the line of reasoning and the use of evidence in the argument. For example, you may need to consider what questionable assumptions underlie the thinking and what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken the conclusion. You can also discuss what sort of evidence would strengthen or refute the argument, what changes in the argument would make it more logically sound, and what, if anything, would help you better evaluate its conclusion.
Citing facts drawn from the color-film processing industry that indicate a downward trend in the costs of film processing over a 24-year period, the author argues that Olympic Foods will likewise be able to minimize costs and thus maximize profits in the future. In support of this conclusion the author cites the general principle that “as organizations learn how to do things better, they become more efficient.” This principle, coupled with the fact that Olympic Foods has had 25 years of experience in the food processing industry leads to the author’s rosy prediction. This argument is unconvincing because it suffers from two critical flaws. First, the author’s forecast of minimal costs and maximum profits rests on the gratuitous assumption that Olympic Foods’ “long experience” has taught it how to do things better. There is, however, no guarantee that this is the case. Nor does the author cite any evidence to support this assumption. Just as likely, Olympic Foods has learned nothing from its 25 years in the food-processing business. Lacking this assumption, the expectation of increased efficiency is entirely unfounded. Second, it is highly doubtful that the facts drawn from the color-film processing industry are applicable to the food processing industry. Differences between the two industries clearly outweigh the similarities, thus making the analogy highly less than valid. For example, problems of spoilage, contamination, and timely transportation all affect the food industry but are virtually absent in the film-processing industry. Problems such as these might present insurmountable obstacles that prevent lowering food-processing costs in the future. As it stands the author’s argument is not compelling. To strengthen the conclusion that Olympic Foods will enjoy minimal costs and maximum profits in the future, the author would have to provide evidence that the company has learned how to do things better as a result of its 25 years

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

of experience. Supporting examples drawn from industries more similar to the food-processing industry would further substantiate the author’s view.

2. The following appeared in a memorandum from the business department of the Apogee Company. “When the Apogee Company had all its operations in one location, it was more profitable than it is today. Therefore, the Apogee Company should close down its field offices and conduct all its operations from a single location. Such centralization would improve profitability by cutting costs and helping the company maintain better supervision of all employees.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
In this argument the author concludes that the Apogee Company should close down field offices and conduct all its operations from a single, centralized location because the company had been more profitable in the past when all its operations were in one location. For a couple of reasons, this argument is not very convincing. First, the author assumes that centralization would improve profitability by cutting costs and streamlining supervision of employees. This assumption is never supported with any data or projections. Moreover, the assumption fails to take into account cost increases and inefficiency that could result from centralization. For instance, company representatives would have to travel to do business in areas formerly served by a field office, creating travel costs and loss of critical time. In short, this assumption must be supported with a thorough cost-benefit analysis of centralization versus other possible cost-cutting and/or profit-enhancing strategies. Second, the only reason offered by the author is the claim that Apogee was more profitable when it had operated from a single, centralized location. But is centralization the only difference relevant to greater past profitability? It is entirely possible that management has become lax regarding any number of factors that can affect the bottom line such as inferior products, careless product pricing, inefficient production, poor employee expense account monitoring, ineffective advertising, sloppy buying policies and other wasteful spending. Unless the author can rule out other factors relevant to diminishing profits, this argument commits the fallacy of assuming that just because one event (decreasing profits) follows another (decentralization), the second event has been caused by the first. In conclusion, this is a weak argument. To strengthen the conclusion that Apogee should close field offices and centralize, this author must provide a thorough cost-benefit analysis of available alternatives and rule out factors other than decentralization that might be affecting current profits negatively.

3. The following appeared in a memorandum issued by a large city’s council on the arts. “In a recent citywide poll, fifteen percent more residents said that they watch television programs about the visual arts than was the case in a poll conducted five years ago. During these past five years, the number of people visiting our city’s art museums has increased by a similar percentage. Since the corporate

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

funding that supports public television, where most of the visual arts programs appear, is now being threatened with severe cuts, we can expect that attendance at our city’s art museums will also start to decrease. Thus some of the city’s funds for supporting the arts should be reallocated to public television.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
In this argument the author concludes that the city should allocate some of its arts funding to public television. The conclusion is based on two facts: (1) attendance at the city’s art museum has increased proportionally with the increases in visual-arts program viewing on public television, and (2) public television is being threatened by severe cuts in corporate funding. While this argument is somewhat convincing, a few concerns need to be addressed. To begin with, the argument depends on the assumption that increased exposure to the visual arts on television, mainly public television, has caused a similar increase in local art-museum attendance. However, just because increased art-museum attendance can be statistically correlated with similar increases in television viewing of visual-arts programs, this does not necessarily mean that the increased television viewing of arts is the cause of the rise in museum attendance. Moreover, perhaps there are other factors relevant to increased interest in the local art museum; for instance, maybe a new director had procured more interesting, exciting acquisitions and exhibits during the period when museum attendance increased, in addition, the author could be overlooking a common cause of both increases. It is possible that some larger social or cultural phenomenon is responsible for greater public interest in both television arts programming and municipal art museums. To be fair, however, we must recognize that the author’s assumption is a special case of a more general one that television viewing affects people’s attitudes and behavior. Common sense and observation tell me that this is indeed the case. After all, advertisers spend billions of dollars on television ad time because they trust this assumption as well. In conclusion, I am somewhat persuaded by this author’s line of reasoning. The argument would be strengthened if the author were to consider and rule out other significant factors that might have caused the increase in visits to the local art museum.

4. The following appeared in a report presented for discussion at a meeting of the directors of a company that manufactures parts for heavy machinery. “The falling revenues that the company is experiencing coincide with delays in manufacturing. These delays, in turn, are due in large part to poor planning in purchasing metals. Consider further that the manager of the department that handles purchasing of raw materials has an excellent background in general business, psychology, and sociology, but knows little about the properties of metals. The company should, therefore, move the purchasing manager to the sales department and bring in a scientist from the research division to be manager of the purchasing department.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

In response to a coincidence between falling revenues and delays in manufacturing, the report recommends replacing the manager of the purchasing department. The grounds for this action are twofold. First, the delays are traced to poor planning in purchasing metals. Second, the purchasing manager’s lack of knowledge of the properties of metals is thought to be the cause of the poor planning. It is further recommended that the position of the purchasing manager be filled by a scientist from the research division and that the current purchasing manager be reassigned to the sales department. In support of this latter recommendation, the report states that the current purchasing manager’s background in general business, psychology, and sociology equip him for this new assignment. The recommendations advanced in the report are questionable for two reasons. To begin with, the report fails to establish a causal connection between the falling revenues of the company and the delays in manufacturing. The mere fact that falling revenues coincide with delays in manufacturing is insufficient to conclude that the delays caused the decline in revenue. Without compelling evidence to support the causal connection between these two events, the report’s recommendations are not worthy of consideration. Second, a central assumption of the report is that knowledge of the properties of metals is necessary for planning in purchasing metals. No evidence is stated in the report to support this crucial assumption. Moreover, it is not obvious that such knowledge would be required to perform this task. Since planning is essentially a logistical function, it is doubtful that in-depth knowledge of the properties of metals would be helpful in accomplishing this task. In conclusion, this is a weak argument. To strengthen the recommendation that the manager of the purchasing department be replaced, the author would have to demonstrate that the falling revenues were a result of the delays in manufacturing. Additionally, the author would have to show that knowledge of the properties of metals is a prerequisite for planning in purchasing metals.

5. The following appeared in an announcement issued by the publisher of The Mercury, a weekly newspaper. “Since a competing lower-priced newspaper, The Bugle, was started five years ago, The Mercury’s circulation has declined by 10,000 readers. The best way to get more people to read The Mercury is to reduce its price below that of The Bugle, at least until circulation increases to former levels. The increased circulation of The Mercury will attract more businesses to buy advertising space in the paper.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
A newspaper publisher is recommending that the price of its paper, The Mercury, be reduced below the price of a competing newspaper, The Bugle. This recommendation responds to a severe decline in circulation of The Mercury during the 5-year period following the introduction of The Bugle. The publisher’s line of reasoning is that lowering the price of The Mercury will increase its readership, thereby increasing profits because a wider readership attracts more advertisers. This line of reasoning is problematic in two critical respects. While it is clear that increased circulation would make the paper more attractive to potential advertisers, it is not obvious that lowering the subscription price is the most effective way to gain

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

new readers. The publisher assumes that price is the only factor that caused the decline in readership. But no evidence is given to support this claim. Moreover, given that The Mercury was the established local paper, it is unlikely that such a mass exodus of its readers would be explained by subscription price alone. There are many other factors that might account for a decline in The Mercury’s popularity. For instance, readers might be displeased with the extent and accuracy of its news reporting, or the balance of local to other news coverage. Moreover, it is possible The Mercury has recently changed editors, giving the paper a locally unpopular political perspective. Or perhaps readers are unhappy with the paper’s format, the timeliness of its feature articles, its comics or advice columns, the extent and accuracy of its local event calendar, or its rate of errors. In conclusion, this argument is weak because it depends on an oversimplified assumption about the causal connection between the price of the paper and its popularity. To strengthen the argument, the author must identify and explore relevant factors beyond cost before concluding that lowering subscription prices will increase circulation and, thereby, increase advertising revenues.

6. The following appeared as part of an article in a magazine devoted to regional life. “Corporations should look to the city of Helios when seeking new business opportunities or a new location. Even in the recent recession, Helios’s unemployment rate was lower than the regional average. It is the industrial center of the region, and historically it has provided more than its share of the region’s manufacturing jobs. In addition, Helios is attempting to expand its economic base by attracting companies that focus on research and development of innovative technologies.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
In this argument corporations are urged to consider the city of Helios when seeking a new location or new business opportunities. To support this recommendation, the author points out that Helios is the industrial center of the region, providing most of the region’s manufacturing jobs and enjoying a lower-than-average unemployment rate. Moreover, it is argued, efforts are currently underway to expand the economic base of the city by attracting companies that focus on research and development of innovative technologies. This argument is problematic for two reasons. To begin with, it is questionable whether the available labor pool in Helios could support all types of corporations. Given that Helios has attracted mainly industrial and manufacturing companies in the past, it is unlikely that the local pool of prospective employees would be suitable for corporations of other types. For example, the needs of research and development companies would not be met by a labor force trained in manufacturing skills. For this reason, it’s unlikely that Helios will be successful in its attempt to attract companies that focus or research and development of innovative technologies. Another problem with the available work force is its size. Due to the lower than average unemployment rate in Helios, corporations that require large numbers of workers would not find Helios attractive. The fact that few persons are out of work suggests that new corporations will have to either attract new workers to Helios or pay the existing workers higher wages in order to

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

lure them away from their current jobs. Neither of these alternatives seems enticing to companies seeking to relocate. In conclusion, the author has not succeeded in providing compelling reasons for selecting Helios as the site for a company wishing to relocate. In fact, the reasons offered function better as reasons for not relocating to Helios. Nor has the author provided compelling reasons for companies seeking new business opportunities to choose Helios.

7. The following appeared in the health section of a magazine on trends and lifestyles. “People who use the artificial sweetener aspartame are better off consuming sugar, since aspartame can actually contribute to weight gain rather than weight loss. For example, high levels of aspartame have been shown to trigger a craving for food by depleting the brain of a chemical that registers satiety, or the sense of being full. Furthermore, studies suggest that sugars, if consumed after at least 45 minutes of continuous exercise, actually enhance the body’s ability to burn fat. Consequently, those who drink aspartame-sweetened juices after exercise will also lose this calorie-burning benefit. Thus it appears that people consuming aspartame rather than sugar are unlikely to achieve their dietary goals.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
In this argument the author concludes that people trying to lose weight are better off consuming sugar than the artificial sweetener aspartame. To support this conclusion the author argues that aspartame can cause weight gain by triggering food cravings, whereas sugar actually enhances the body’s ability to burn fat. Neither of these reasons provides sufficient support for the conclusion. The first reason that aspartame encourages food cravings is supported by research findings that high levels of aspartame deplete the brain chemical responsible for registering a sense of being sated, or full. But the author’s generalization based on this research is unreliable. The research was based on a sample in which large amounts of aspartame were administered; however, the author applies the research findings to a target population that includes all aspartame users, many of whom would probably not consume high levels of the artificial sweetener. The second reason that sugar enhances the body’s ability to burn fat is based on the studies in which experimental groups, whose members consumed sugar after at least 45 minutes of continuous exercise, showed increased rates of fat burning. The author’s general claim, however, applies to all dieters who use sugar instead of aspartame, not just to those who use sugar after long periods of exercise. Once again, the author’s generalization is unreliable because it is based on a sample that clearly does not represent all dieters. To conclude, each of the studies cited by the author bases its findings on evidence that does not represent dieters in general; for this reason, neither premise of this argument is a reliable generalization. Consequently, I am not convinced that dieters are better off consuming sugar instead of aspartame.

8. The following appeared in the editorial section of a corporate newsletter. “The common notion that workers are generally apathetic about management

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

issues is false, or at least outdated: a recently published survey indicates that 79 percent of the nearly 1,200 workers who responded to survey questionnaires expressed a high level of interest in the topics of corporate restructuring and redesign of benefits programs.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
Based upon a survey among workers that indicates a high level of interest in the topics of corporate restructuring and redesign of benefits programs, the author concludes that workers are not apathetic about management issues. Specifically, it is argued that since 79 percent of the 1200 workers who responded to survey expressed interest in these topics, the notion that workers are apathetic about management issues is incorrect. The reasoning in this argument is problematic in several respects. First, the statistics cited in the editorial may be misleading because the total number of workers employed by the corporation is not specified. For example, if the corporation employs 2000 workers, the fact that 79 percent of the nearly 1200 respondents showed interest in these topics provides strong support for the conclusion. On the other hand, if the corporation employs 200,000 workers, the conclusion is much weaker. Another problem with the argument is that the respondents’ views are not necessarily representative of the views of the work force in general. For example, because the survey has to do with apathy, it makes sense that only less apathetic workers would respond to it, thereby distorting the overall picture of apathy among the work force. Without knowing how the survey was conducted, it is impossible to assess whether or not this is the case. A third problem with the argument is that it makes a hasty generalization about the types of issues workers are interested in. It accords with common sense that workers would be interested in corporate restructuring and redesign of benefits programs, since these issues affect workers very directly. However, it is unfair to assume that workers would be similarly interested in other management issues—ones that do not affect them or affect them less directly. In conclusion, this argument is not convincing as it stands. To strengthen it, the author would have to show that the respondents account for a significant and representative portion of all workers. Additionally, the author must provide evidence of workers’ interest other management topics—not just those that affect workers directly.

9. The following appeared in the opinion column of a financial magazine. “On average, middle-aged consumers devote 39 percent of their retail expenditure to department store products and services, while for younger consumers the average is only 25 percent. Since the number of middle-aged people will increase dramatically within the next decade, department stores can expect retail sales to increase significantly during that period. Furthermore, to take advantage of the trend, these stores should begin to replace some of those products intended to attract the younger consumer with products intended to attract the middle-aged consumer.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

Sample essay 1: The argument that department retail sales will increase in the next 10 years and thus department stores should begin to replace products to attract middle-aged consumers is not entirely logically convincing, since it omits certain crucial assumptions First of all, the argument ignores the absolute amount of retail expenditure of middle-aged and younger consumers devoted to department store products and services. Although younger consumers spend a smaller percentage of their retail expenditure to department store products than do the middle-aged consumers, they might actually spend more in terms of the absolute amount. Even if middle-aged consumers are spending more than younger ones in department stores, the argument ignores the possibility that the trend may change within the next decade. Younger consumers might prefer to shop in department stores than in other types of stores, and middle-aged consumers might turn to other types of stores, too. This will lead to a higher expenditure of younger consumers in department stores than that of middle-aged consumers. Besides, the argument never addresses the population difference between middle-aged consumers and younger ones. Suppose there are more younger consumers than the middle-aged ones now, the total population base of younger consumers will be bigger than that of the middle-aged ones if both of them grow at the same rate in the next decade. Thus there will be a bigger younger consumer base. Based on the reasons I listed above, the argument is not completely sound. The evidence in support of the conclusion does little to prove the conclusion since it does not address the assumptions I have already raised. Ultimately, the argument might have been more convincing by making it clear that the absolute population of middle-aged consumers are higher than that of the younger consumers and the number will continue to grow in the next decade, and that the middle-aged consumers will continue to spend more money in department stores than younger consumers do in the next decade. Sample essay 2: The argument that retailers should replace some of the products intended to attract the younger consumers with products intended to attract the middle-aged consumers is not entirely logically convincing, since it ignores certain crucial assumptions. First, the argument omits the assumption that the business volumes of both the middle-aged consumers and the younger consumers are the same. If the business volume of the middle-aged consumers’ 39% is smaller than that of the younger consumers’ 25%, the retail sales will not increase during the next decade. Second, even if the business volumes of both the middle-aged consumers and the younger consumers were the same in the last decade, the increase of the middle-aged people in the next decade is not the same as the increase of the retail expenditure, for the retail trade depends more on such factors as the economic circumstances, people’s consuming desire. Finally, the argument never assumes the increase of the younger consumers within the next

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

decade. If the younger consumers increase at the same rate and spend the same amount of money on the goods and services of department stores, the retailers should never ignore them. Thus the argument is not completely sound. The evidence in support of the conclusion that the growing number of middle-aged people within the next decade does little to prove the conclusion—that department stores should begin to replace some of their products to attract the middle-aged consumers since it does not address the assumptions I have already raised. Ultimately, the argument might have been strengthened by making it clear that the business volumes of both types of consumers are the same and comparable, that the increase of a certain type of consumers are correlated with the increase of the retail sales, and that the growth rate of the younger consumers are the same as that of the middle-aged consumers. Sample essay 3: Based on an expected increase in the number of middle-aged people during the next decade, the author predicts that retail sales at department stores will increase significantly over the next ten years. To bolster this prediction, the author cites statistics showing that middle-aged people devote a much higher percentage of their retail expenditure to department-store services and products than younger consumers do. Since the number of middle-aged consumers is on the rise and since they spend more than younger people on department-store goods and services, the author further recommends that department stores begin to adjust their inventories to capitalize on this trend. Specifically, it is recommended that department stores increase their inventory of products aimed at middle-aged consumers and decrease their inventory of products aimed at younger consumers. This argument is problematic for two reasons. First, an increase in the number of middle-aged people does not necessarily portend an overall increase in department-store sales. It does so only on the assumption that other population groups will remain relatively constant. For example, if the expected increase in the number of middle-aged people is offset by an equally significant decrease in the number of younger people, there will be little or no net gain in sales. Second, in recommending that department stores replace products intended to attract younger consumers with products more suitable to middle-aged consumers, the author assumes that the number of younger consumers will not also increase. Since a sizable increase in the population of younger consumers could conceivably offset the difference in the retail expenditure patterns of younger and middle-aged consumers, it would be unwise to make the recommended inventory adjustment lacking evidence to support this assumption. In conclusion, this argument is unacceptable. To strengthen the argument the author would have to provide evidence that the population of younger consumers will remain relatively constant over the next decade.

10. The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper. “This past winter, 200 students from Waymarsh State College traveled to the state capitol building to protest against proposed cuts in funding for various state college programs. The other 12,000 Waymarsh students evidently weren’t so concerned about their education: they either stayed on campus or left for winter

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

break. Since the group who did not protest is far more numerous, it is more representative of the state’s college students than are the protesters. Therefore the state legislature need not heed the appeals of the protesting students.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The conclusion in this argument is that the state legislature need not consider the views of protesting students. To support this conclusion, the author points out that only 200 of the 12,000 students traveled to the state capitol to voice their concerns about proposed cuts in college programs. Since the remaining students did not take part in this protest, the author concludes they are not interested in this issue. The reasoning in this argument is flawed for two reasons. First, the author assumes that because only one-tenth of the students took part in the protest, these students’ views are unrepresentative of the entire student body. This assumption is unwarranted. If it turns out, for example, that the protesting students were randomly selected from the entire student body, their views would reflect the views of the entire college. Without information regarding the way in which the protesting students were selected, it is presumptuous to conclude that their opinions fail to reflect the opinions of their colleagues. Second, the author cites the fact that the remaining 12,000 students stayed on campus or left for winter break as evidence that they are not concerned about their education. One obvious rejoinder to this line of reasoning is that the students who did not participate did so with the knowledge that their concerns would be expressed by the protesting students. In any case, the author has failed to demonstrate a logical connection between the students’ alleged lack of concern and the fact that they either stayed on campus or left for winter break. Without this connection, the conclusion reached by the author that the remaining 12,000 students are not concerned about their education is unacceptable. As it stands, the argument is not well reasoned. To make it logically acceptable, the author would have to demonstrate that the protesting students had some characteristic in common that biases their views, thereby nullifying their protest as representative of the entire college.

11. The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper. “In the first four years that Montoya has served as mayor of the city of San Perdito, the population has decreased and the unemployment rate has increased. Two businesses have closed for each new business that has opened. Under Varro, who served as mayor for four years before Montoya, the unemployment rate decreased and the population increased. Clearly, the residents of San Perdito would be best served if they voted Montoya out of office and reelected Varro.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The recommendation endorsed in this argument is that residents of San Perdito vote current mayor Montoya out of office, and re-elect former mayor Varro. The reasons cited are that during Montoya’s four years in office the population has decreased while unemployment has increased, whereas during Varro’s term unemployment declined while the population grew. This argument involves the sort of gross oversimplification and emotional appeal typical of political rhetoric; for this reason it is unconvincing.

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

First of all, the author assumes that the Montoya administration caused the unemployment in San Perdito as well as its population loss. The line of reasoning is that because Montoya was elected before the rise in unemployment and the decline in population, the former event caused the latter. But this is fallacious reasoning unless other possible causal explanations have been considered and ruled out. For example, perhaps a statewide or nationwide recession is the cause of these events. Or perhaps the current economic downturn is part of a larger picture of economic cycles and trends, and has nothing to do with who happens to be mayor. Yet another possibility is that Varro enjoyed a period of economic stability and Varro’s own administration set the stage for the unemployment and the decline in population the city is now experiencing under Montoya. Secondly, job availability and the economic health of one’s community are issues that affect people emotionally. The argument at hand might have been intentionally oversimplified for the specific purpose of angering citizens of San Perdito, and thereby turning them against the incumbent mayor. Arguments that bypass relevant, complex reasoning in favor of stirring up emotions do nothing to establish their conclusions; they are also unfair to the parties involved. In conclusion, I would not cast my vote for Varro on the basis of this weak argument. The author must provide support for the assumption that Mayor Montoya has caused San Perdito’s poor economy. Moreover, such support would have to involve examining and eliminating other possible causal factors. Only with more convincing evidence could this argument become more than just an emotional appeal.

12. The following appeared as part of a promotional campaign to sell advertising space in the Daily Gazette to grocery stores in the Marston area. “Advertising the reduced price of selected grocery items in the Daily Gazette will help you increase your sales. Consider the results of a study conducted last month. Thirty sale items from a store in downtown Marston were advertised in the Gazette for four days. Each time one or more of the 30 items was purchased, clerks asked whether the shopper had read the ad. Two-thirds of the 200 shoppers asked answered in the affirmative. Furthermore, more than half the customers who answered in the affirmative spent over $100 at the store.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The conclusion of this argument is that advertising the reduced price of selected items in the Daily Gazette will result in increased sales overall. To support it, the author cites an informal poll conducted by sales clerks when customers purchased advertised items. Each time one or more of the advertised items was sold, the clerks asked whether the customer had read the ad. It turned out that two-thirds of 200 shoppers questioned said that they had read the ad. In addition, of those who reported reading the ad, more than half spent over $100 in the store. This argument is unconvincing for two reasons. To begin with, the author’s line of reasoning is that the advertisement was the cause of the purchase of the sale items. However, while the poll establishes a correlation between reading the ad and purchasing sale items, and also indicates a correlation, though less significantly, between reading the ad and buying non-sale items, it does not establish a general causal relationship between these events. To establish this relationship, other factors that could bring about this

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

result must be considered and eliminated. For example, if the four days during which the poll was conducted preceded Thanksgiving and the advertised items were traditionally associated with this holiday, then the results of the poll would be extremely biased and unreliable. Moreover, the author assumes that the poll indicates that advertising certain sale will cause a general increase in sales. But the poll does not even address the issue of increased overall sales; it informs us mainly that, of the people who purchased sales items, more had read the ad than not. A much clearer indicator of the ad’s effectiveness would be a comparison of overall sales on days the ad ran with overall sales on otherwise similar days when the ad did not run. In sum, this argument is defective mainly because the poll does not support the conclusion that sales in general will increase when reduced-price products are advertised in the Daily Gazette. To strengthen the argument, the author must, at the very least, provide comparisons of overall sales reports as described above.

13. The following appeared as part of a campaign to sell advertising time on a local radio station to local businesses. “The Cumquat Cafe began advertising on our local radio station this year and was delighted to see its business increase by 10 percent over last year’s totals. Their success shows you how you can use radio advertising to make your business more profitable.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
In an attempt to sell radio advertising time, this ad claims that radio advertising will make businesses more profitable. The evidence cited is a ten percent increase in business that the Cumquat Cafe has experienced in the year during which it advertised on the local radio station. This argument is unconvincing because two questionable assumptions must be made for the stated evidence to support the authors conclusion. The first assumption is that radio advertising alone has caused the increase in business at the Cumquat Cafe. This assumption is questionable because it overlooks a number of other factors that might have contributed to the Cumquat’s success. For example, the Cumquat might have changed owners or chefs; it might have launched a coupon ad campaign in the local print media; or it might have changed or updated the menu. Yet another possibility is that a local competitor went out of business. These are just a few of the factors that could help explain the Cumquat’s growth. Because the author fails to eliminate these possibilities, the assumption in question need not be accepted. Even if it is granted that radio advertising is responsible for the Cumquat’s success, another assumption must be made before we can conclude that radio advertising will result in increased profits for businesses in general. We must also assume that what is true of the Cumquat will likewise be true of most other businesses. But there are all kinds of important differences between cafes and other businesses that could affect how radio audiences react to their advertising. We cannot safely assume that because a small restaurant has benefited from radio advertising, any and all local businesses will similarly benefit. In conclusion, it would be imprudent for a business to invest in radio advertising solely on the basis

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

of the evidence presented. To strengthen the conclusion, it must be established that radio advertising was the principal cause of increased business at the Cumquat. Once this is shown, it must be determined that the business in question is sufficiently like the Cumquat, and so can expect similar returns from investment in radio ad time.

14. The following appeared as part of a newspaper editorial. “Two years ago Nova High School began to use interactive computer instruction in three academic subjects. The school dropout rate declined immediately, and last year’s graduates have reported some impressive achievements in college. In future budgets the school board should use a greater portion of the available funds to buy more computers, and all schools in the district should adopt interactive computer instruction throughout the curriculum.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
Sample essay 1: The argument that the school board should buy more computers and adopt interactive computer instruction is not entirely logically convincing, since it ignores certain crucial assumptions. First, the argument assumes that the decline of school dropout and the achievements of last year’s graduates’ results from the adoption of interactive computer instruction. However, there are several reasons why this might not be true. For example, achievements could have been made in other subjects than the ones with interactive computer instruction. Or last years’ graduates might not have been given the interactive computer instruction. Or the decline of the rate of dropout could be attributed to stricter discipline applied last year. Second, even supposing the Nova High School’s decline of the dropout and last year’s graduates’ achievements benefit directly from the usage of interactive computer instruction, the success of the instruction in one school may not ensure the success in other schools. If it does not suit other schools, the instruction will not work. Finally, even if the decline of the rate of dropout and the achievements of the last year’s graduates’ are the direct results of the interactive computer instruction, we still do not know whether the school can afford to apply the instruction on all the subjects or to all the students. If the school does not have sufficient fund and has to cut budgets on other projects such as the library, the quality of the school’s education will also compromise. Thus, the argument is not completely sound. The evidence in support of the conclusion that the dropout rate declined and last year’s graduates made impressive achievements does little to prove the conclusion that other schools should use a greater portion of their funds to apply the instruction since it does not address the assumptions I have already raised. Ultimately, the argument might have been strengthened by making it clear that the decline of the dropout rate and the achievements of the graduates are the direct results of interactive computer instruction, that the instruction is also applicable to other schools in the district, and that the instruction is affordable to all the schools in the district. Sample essay 2:

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

The editorial recommends that the school board of Nova High spend a greater portion of available funds on the purchase of additional computers and adopt interactive computer instruction throughout the curriculum. Two reasons are offered in support of this recommendation. First, the introduction of interactive computer instruction in three academic subjects was immediately followed by a decline in the school dropout rate. Second, last year’s graduates experienced impressive achievements in college. This argument is unconvincing for two reasons. To begin with, this argument is a classic instance of “after this, therefore because of this” reasoning. The mere fact that the introduction of interactive computer instruction preceded the impressive performance of recent graduates and the decline in the dropout rate is insufficient to conclude that it was the cause of these events. Many other factors could bring about these same results. For example, the school may have implemented counseling and training programs that better meet the needs of students who might otherwise leave school to take jobs. In addition, the school may have introduced programs to better prepare students for college. Secondly, the author assumes that the impressive achievements of last year’s graduates bear some relation to the introduction of interactive computer instruction at Nova High. However, no evidence is offered to support this assumption. Lacking evidence that links the achievements of the recent graduates to the interactive instruction, it is presumptuous to suggest that the computer instruction was in some way responsible for the students’ impressive performance. In conclusion, the recommendation that Nova High spend a greater portion of available funds on the purchase of additional computers and adopt interactive computer instruction throughout the curriculum is ill-founded. To strengthen this recommendation the author would have to demonstrate that the decline in the dropout rate and the impressive performance of recent graduates came about as a result of the use of computer-interactive instruction. All that has been shown so far is a correlation between these events.

15. The following appeared as a part of an advertisement for Adams, who is seeking reelection as governor. “Re-elect Adams, and you will be voting for proven leadership in improving the state’s economy. Over the past year alone, seventy percent of the state’s workers have had increases in their wages, five thousand new jobs have been created, and six corporations have located their headquarters here. Most of the respondents in a recent poll said they believed that the economy is likely to continue to improve if Adams is reelected. Adams’s opponent, Zebulon, would lead our state in the wrong direction, because Zebulon disagrees with many of Adams’s economic policies.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
This political advertisement recommends re-electing governor Adams because he has a proven leadership role in improving the state’s economy. In support of this reason the author cites these statistics: in the past year, most state workers’ wages have gone up; 5,000 new jobs have been created; and six corporations have located in the state. Another reason offered for re-electing Adams is a recent poll, which indicates that most respondents believe the state economy would continue to improve if he were re-elected. Finally, the author claims that rival Zebulon would harm

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

the state’s economy because he disagrees with Adams’ fiscal policies. This argument is fraught with vague, oversimplified and unwarranted claims. To begin with, the statistics are intended to support the main claim that the state is economically better off with Adams as governor. But these statistics are vague and oversimplified, and thus may distort the state’s overall economic picture. For example, state workers’ pay raises may have been minuscule and may not have kept up with cost of living or with pay for state workers in other states. Moreover, the 5,000 new jobs may have been too few to bring state unemployment rates down significantly; at the same time, many jobs may have been lost. Finally, the poll indicates that six new corporations located in the state, but fails to indicate if any left. Next, the poll cited by the author is described in the vaguest possible terms. The ad does not indicate who conducted the poll, who responded, or how the poll was conducted. Until these questions are answered, the survey results are worthless as evidence for public opinion about Adams or his economic policies. Finally, while we have only vague and possibly distorted evidence that the state is better off with Adams, we have absolutely no evidence that it would be worse off with Zebulon. Given that the state economy is good at the moment, none of the author’s reasons establishes that Adams is the cause of this. And neither do they establish that the state wouldn’t be even better off with someone else in office. In conclusion, this argument is weak. To strengthen the argument, the author must provide additional information about the adequacy of state workers’ pay raises, the effect of the 5,000 jobs on the state’s employment picture, the overall growth of corporations in the state, and other features of the state economy. Also, the author must support the claims that Adams’ actions have caused any economic improvement and that in the future Adams will impart more economic benefit than would Zebulon.

16. The following appeared as part of an article in the education section of a Waymarsh City newspaper. “Throughout the last two decades, those who earned graduate degrees found it very difficult to get jobs teaching their academic specialties at the college level. Those with graduate degrees from Waymarsh University had an especially hard time finding such jobs. But better times are coming in the next decade for all academic job seekers, including those from Waymarsh. Demographic trends indicate that an increasing number of people will be reaching college age over the next ten years; consequently, we can expect that the job market will improve dramatically for people seeking college-level teaching positions in their fields.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
Demographic trends that indicate an increase in the number of college-aged people over the next ten years lead the author to predict an improved job market for all people seeking college-level teaching positions in their academic disciplines. Moreover, the author argues that since Waymarsh University students with advanced degrees had an especially difficult time finding teaching jobs in the past, these trends portend better times ahead for Waymarsh graduates. This argument is

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

problematic in three important respects. First, the author assumes that an increase in the number of college-aged people over the next decade will necessarily result in an increase in the number of people who attend college during this period. While this is a reasonable assumption, it is by no means a certainty. For example, a world war or economic depression in the next decade would certainly nullify this expectation. Second, even if we grant the preceding assumption, we must also consider the additional assumption that increased university enrollments will lead to an increase in teaching positions in all fields. However, it might turn out that some teaching specialties are in greater demand than others in the future, resulting in a disproportionate number of teaching positions available in various fields. Consequently, persons trained in some fields might find it more difficult, if not impossible, to find teaching jobs in the future. Finally, little can be foretold regarding the employability of Waymarsh graduates in the future based on the information provided in the argument. Lacking information about the reasons why Waymarsh graduates had an especially difficult time finding teaching jobs, it is difficult to assess their prospects for the future. It is probable, however, that since Waymarsh has had an especially hard time placing graduates in the past, the mere fact that more jobs are available will not, by itself, ensure that Waymarsh graduates will have an easier time finding teaching jobs during the next decade. In conclusion, this argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the argument, the author must provide evidence that the only major trend in the next decade will be an increase in the number of people reaching college age. Regarding the future prospects for Waymarsh graduates, the author must provide evidence that there were no idiosyncratic reasons that prevented them from finding jobs in the past.

17. The following appeared in an article in a consumer-products magazine. “Two of today’s best-selling brands of full-strength prescription medication for the relief of excess stomach acid, Acid-Ease and Pepticaid, are now available in milder nonprescription forms. Doctors have written 76 million more prescriptions for full-strength Acid-Ease than for full-strength Pepticaid. So people who need an effective but milder nonprescription medication for the relief of excess stomach acid should choose Acid-Ease.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
This ad recommends non-prescription Acid-Ease over non-prescription Pepticaid for relief of excess stomach acid. The only reason offered is that doctors have written 76 million more prescriptions for the full-strength prescription form of Acid-Ease than for full-strength Pepticaid. While this reason is relevant, and provides some grounds for preferring Acid-Ease over Pepticaid, it is insufficient as it stands because it depends on three unwarranted assumptions. The first assumption is that the prescription form of Acid-Ease is more popular among doctors. But this might not be the case, even though doctors have written 76 million more prescriptions for Acid-Ease. Acid-Ease may have been available for several more years than Pepticaid; and in the years when both products were available, Pepticaid might have actually been prescribed more

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

often than Acid-Ease. The second assumption is that doctors prefer the prescription form of Acid-Ease for the reason that it is in fact more effective at relieving excess stomach acid. However, doctors may have preferred Acid-Ease for reasons other than its effectiveness. Perhaps Acid-Ease is produced by a larger, more familiar drug company or by one that distributes more free samples. For that matter, the medical community may have simply been mistaken in thinking that Acid-Ease was more effective. In short, the number of prescriptions by itself is not conclusive as to whether one product is actually better than another. The third assumption is that the milder non-prescription forms of Acid-Ease and Pepticaid will be analogous to the full-strength prescription forms of each. But this might not be the case. Suppose for the moment that the greater effectiveness of prescription Acid-Ease has been established; even so, the non-prescription form might not measure up to non-prescription Pepticaid. This fact must be established independently. In conclusion, this ad does not provide enough support for its recommending non-prescription Acid-Ease over non-prescription Pepticaid. To strengthen its argument, the promoter of Acid-Ease would have to show that (1) the comparison between the number of prescriptions is based on the same time period; (2) its effectiveness is the main reason more doctors have prescribed it, and (3) the comparative effectiveness of the two non-prescription forms is analogous to that of the prescription forms.

18. The following is an excerpt from a memo written by the head of a governmental department. “Neither stronger ethics regulations nor stronger enforcement mechanisms are necessary to ensure ethical behavior by companies doing business with this department. We already have a code of ethics that companies doing business with this department are urged to abide by, and virtually all of these companies have agreed to follow it. We also know that the code is relevant to the current business environment because it was approved within the last year, and in direct response to specific violations committed by companies with which we were then working—not in abstract anticipation of potential violations, as so many such codes are.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
In this argument, the head of a government department concludes that the department does not need to strengthen either its ethics regulations or its enforcement mechanisms in order to encourage ethical behavior by companies with which it does business. The first reason given is that businesses have agreed to follow the department’s existing code of ethics. The second reason is that the existing code is relevant to the current business environment. This argument is unacceptable for several reasons. The sole support for the claim that stronger enforcement mechanisms are unnecessary comes from the assumption that companies will simply keep their promises to follow the existing code. But, since the department head clearly refers to rules violations by these same businesses within

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

the past year, his faith in their word is obviously misplaced. Moreover, it is commonly understood that effective rules carry with them methods of enforcement and penalties for violations. To show that a strengthened code is unnecessary, the department head claims that the existing code of ethics is relevant. In partial clarification of the vague term “relevant,” we are told that the existing code was approved in direct response to violations occurring in the past year. If the full significance of being relevant is that the code responds to last year’s violations, then the department head must assume that those violations will be representative of all the kinds of ethics problems that concern the department. This is unlikely; in addition, thinking so produces an oddly short-sighted idea of relevance. Such a narrow conception of the relevance of an ethics code points up its weakness. The strength of an ethics code lies in its capacity to cover many different instances of the general kinds of behavior thought to be unethical—to cover not only last year’s specific violations, but those of previous years and years to come. Yet this author explicitly rejects a comprehensive code, preferring the existing code because it is “relevant” and “not in abstract anticipation of potential violations.” In sum, this argument is naive, vague and poorly reasoned. The department head has not given careful thought to the connection between rules and their enforcement, to what makes an ethics code relevant, or to how comprehensiveness strengthens a code. In the final analysis, he adopts a backwards view that a history of violations should determine rules of ethics, rather than the other way around.

19. The following appeared as part of an article in the travel section of a newspaper. “Over the past decade, the restaurant industry in the country of Spiessa has experienced unprecedented growth. This surge can be expected to continue in the coming years, fueled by recent social changes: personal incomes are rising, more leisure time is available, single-person households are more common, and people have a greater interest in gourmet food, as evidenced by a proliferation of publications on the subject.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
Recent social changes in the country of Spiessa lead the author to predict a continued surge in growth of that country’s restaurant industry. Rising personal incomes, additional leisure time, an increase in single-person households, and greater interest in gourmet food are cited as the main reasons for this optimistic outlook. All of these factors are indeed relevant to growth in the restaurant industry; so the prediction appears reasonable on its face. However, three questionable assumptions operative in this argument bear close examination. The first dubious assumption is that the supply of restaurants in Spiessa will continue to grow at the same rate as in the recent past. However, even in the most favorable conditions and the best of economic times there are just so many restaurants that a given population can accommodate and sustain. It is possible that the demand for restaurants has already been met by the unprecedented growth of the past decade, in which case the recent social changes will have little impact on the growth of the restaurant industry.

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

A second assumption is that the economic and social circumstances cited by the author will actually result in more people eating out at restaurants. This assumption is unwarranted, however. For example, increased leisure time may just as likely result in more people spending more time cooking gourmet meals in their own homes. Also, single people may actually be more likely than married people to eat at home than to go out for meals. Finally, people may choose to spend their additional income in other ways—on expensive cars, travel, or larger homes. A third poor assumption is that, even assuming people in Spiessa will choose to spend more time and money eating out, no extrinsic factors will stifle this demand. This assumption is unwarranted. Any number of extrinsic factors—such as a downturn in the general economy or significant layoffs at Spiessa’s largest businesses—may stall the current restaurant surge. Moreover, the argument fails to specify the “social changes” that have led to the current economic boom. If it turns out these changes are politically driven, then the surge may very well reverse if political power changes hands. In conclusion, this argument unfairly assumes a predictable future course for both supply and demand. To strengthen the argument, the author must at the very least show that demand for new restaurants has not yet been exhausted, that Spiessa can accommodate new restaurants well into the future, and that the people of Spiessa actually want to eat out more.

20. The following appeared in an article in a health and fitness magazine. “Laboratory studies show that Saluda Natural Spring Water contains several of the minerals necessary for good health and that it is completely free of bacteria. Residents of Saluda, the small town where the water is bottled, are hospitalized less frequently than the national average. Even though Saluda Natural Spring Water may seem expensive, drinking it instead of tap water is a wise investment in good health.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
Sample essay 1: The argument that drinking Saluda Natural Spring Water instead of tap water is a wise investment in good health is not entirely logically convincing, since it lacks certain supporting factors. Firstly, the argument assumes that Saluda Natural Spring Water is the major reason why residents of Saluda are less frequently hospitalized than the national average. However, there is little evidence that this water is the only difference between this place and the rest of the country. And the reason why people in other places are more hospitalized are numerous and varied. There are so many other factors that would bring people in other places to hospitals, such as accidents, food contamination, illnesses, etc. Secondly, the argument also assumes that the minerals in Saluda National Spring Water are the key minerals for the good health of the residents of Saluda. However, this may not be true. We need not only minerals to keep good heath but also various vitamins. Besides, our body needs more minerals than those contained in Saluda Natural Spring Water.

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

Finally, even if the Saluda water is the major reason why the residents of Saluda are less hospitalized, the argument still omits the fact that there is more than one way to keep drinking water free from bacteria. For instance, the most common practice is to boil water up to 100 degree Celsius and keep it at that degree for more than 5 minutes. Therefore drinking Saluda water to keep good health is not the only alternative. Thus, the argument is not completely sound. The evidence in support of the conclusion that the Saluda residents are less hospitalized does little to prove the conclusion that drinking Saluda Natural Spring Water is a wise investment in good health since it omits the assumptions I have just raised. The argument might have been strengthened by making it plain that Saluda Natural Spring Water is the major reason why the residents of Saluda are less hospitalized, that the water contains all the major minerals essential for the human body, and that there is no other way to keep water from bacteria. Sample essay 2: In this argument the author concludes that drinking Saluda Natural Spring Water (SNSW) is preferable to drinking tap water. Three reasons are offered in support of this conclusion: SNSW contains several of the minerals necessary for good health, it is completely tree of bacteria, and residents of Saluda—the town where it is bottled—are hospitalized less frequently than the national average. This argument is unconvincing because it relies on a variety of dubious assumptions. The first questionable assumption underlying this argument that tap water does not contain the minerals in question and is not completely free of bacteria. This assumption is not supported in the argument. If tap water is found to contain the same minerals and to be free of bacteria, the author’s conclusion is substantially undermined. A second assumption of the argument is that the water residents of Saluda drink is the same as SNSW. Lacking evidence to the contrary, it is possible that Saluda is not the source of the bottled water but is merely the place where SNSW is bottled. No evidence is offered in the argument to dispute this possibility. Finally, it is assumed without argument that the reason residents are hospitalized less frequently than the national average is that they drink SNSW. Again, no evidence is offered to support this assumption. Perhaps the residents are hospitalized less frequently because they are younger than the national average, because they are all vegetarians, or because they exercise daily. That is, there might be other reasons than the one cited to account for this disparity. In conclusion, this is an unconvincing argument. To strengthen the conclusion that SNSW is more healthful than tap water, the author must provide evidence that tap water contains harmful bacteria not found in SNSW. Moreover, the author must demonstrate that the residents of Saluda regularly drink the same water as SNSW and that this is why they are hospitalized less frequently than the national average.

21. The following appeared as part of an editorial in an industry newsletter. “While trucking companies that deliver goods pay only a portion of highway maintenance costs and no property tax on the highways they use, railways spend

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

billions per year maintaining and upgrading their facilities. The government should lower the railroad companies’ property taxes, since sending goods by rail is clearly a more appropriate mode of ground transportation than highway shipping. For one thing, trains consume only a third of the fuel a truck would use to carry the same load, making them a more cost-effective and environmentally sound mode of transport. Furthermore, since rail lines already exist, increases in rail traffic would not require building new lines at the expense of taxpaying citizens.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The conclusion of this editorial is that the government should lower property taxes for railroad companies. The first reason given is that railroads spend billions per year maintaining and upgrading their facilities. The second reason is that shipping goods by rail is cost-effective and environmentally sound. This argument is unconvincing for several reasons. First of all, the argument depends upon a misleading comparison between railroad and truck company expenditures. Although trucking companies do not pay property tax on roads they use, they do pay such taxes on the yards, warehouses and maintenance facilities they own. And while trucking companies pay only a portion of road maintenance costs, this is because they are not sole users of public roads. Railroad companies shoulder the entire burden of maintenance and taxes on their own facilities and tracks; but they distribute these costs to other users through usage fees. In addition, the author assumes that property taxes should be structured to provide incentives for cost-effective and environmentally beneficial business practices. This assumption is questionable because property taxes are normally structured to reflect the value of property. Moreover, the author seems to think that cost-effectiveness and environmental soundness are equally relevant to the question of tax relief. However, these are separate considerations. The environmental soundness of a practice might be relevant in determining tax structuring, but society does not compensate a business for its cost-efficiency. Splitting the issues of cost-efficiency and environmental impact highlights an ambiguity in the claim that railway shipping is more appropriate. On the one hand, it may be appropriate, or prudent, for me to ship furniture by rail because it is cost-effective; on the other hand, it might be appropriate, or socially correct, to encourage more railway shipping because it is environmentally sound. The argument thus trades on an equivocation between social correctness on the one hand, and personal or business prudence on the other. In sum, this argument is a confusion of weak comparisons, mixed issues and equivocal claims. I would not accept the conclusion without first determining: (1) the factors relevant to tax structure, (2) whether specific tax benefits should accrue to property as well as to income and capital gains taxes, (3) whether railway shipping really does provide greater social benefits, and (4) whether it is correct to motivate more railway shipping on this basis.

22. The following appeared in the editorial section of a newspaper. “As public concern over drug abuse has increased, authorities have become more vigilant in their efforts to prevent illegal drugs from entering the country. Many

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

drug traffickers have consequently switched from marijuana, which is bulky, or heroin, which has a market too small to justify the risk of severe punishment, to cocaine. Thus enforcement efforts have ironically resulted in an observed increase in the illegal use of cocaine.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The conclusion in this argument is that increased vigilance by drug enforcement authorities has resulted in an increase in the illegal use of cocaine. The author reaches this conclusion on the grounds that drug traffickers have responded to increased enforcement efforts by switching from bulkier and riskier drugs to cocaine. Presumably, the author’s reasoning is that the increased enforcement efforts inadvertently brought about an increase in the supply of cocaine which, in turn, brought about the observed increase in the illegal use of cocaine. This line of reasoning is problematic in two important respects. In the first place, the author has engaged in “after this, therefore because of this” reasoning. The only reason offered for believing that the increased vigilance caused the increase in cocaine use is the fact that the former preceded the latter. No additional evidence linking the two events is offered in the argument, thus leaving open the possibility that the two events are not causally related but merely correlated. This in turn leaves open the possibility that factors other than the one cited are responsible for the increase in cocaine use. In the second place, the author assumes that an increase in the supply of cocaine is sufficient to bring about an increase in its use. While this is a tempting assumption, it is a problematic one. The presumption required to substantiate this view is that drug users are not particular about which drugs they use, so that if marijuana and heroin are not available, they will switch to whatever drug is available—cocaine in this case. The assumption does not seem reasonable on its face. Marijuana, heroin, and cocaine are not alike in their effects on users; nor are they alike in the manner in which they are ingested or in their addictive properties. The view that drug users’ choice of drugs is simply a function of supply overlooks these important differences. In conclusion, the author has failed to establish a causal link between increased enforcement efforts and the observed increase in illegal cocaine use. While the enforcement activities may have been a contributing factor, to show a clear causal connection the author must examine and rule out various other factors.

23. The following appeared in a speech delivered by a member of the city council. “Twenty years ago, only half of the students who graduated from Einstein High School went on to attend a college or university. Today, two thirds of the students who graduate from Einstein do so. Clearly, Einstein has improved its educational effectiveness over the past two decades. This improvement has occurred despite the fact that the school’s funding, when adjusted for inflation, is about the same as it was twenty years ago. Therefore, we do not need to make any substantial increase in the school’s funding at this time.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
This speaker draws the conclusion that there is no need to substantially increase funding for

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

Einstein High School. To support this conclusion, the speaker claims that Einstein has improved its educational efficiency over the past 20 years, even though funding levels have remained relatively constant. His evidence is that two-thirds of Einstein’s graduates now go on to college, whereas 20 years ago only half of its students did so. This argument suffers from several critical problems. To begin with, we must establish the meaning of the vague concept “educational efficiency.” If the term is synonymous with the rate of graduation to college, then the statistics cited would strongly support the argument. But, normally we are interested in something more than just the numbers of students who go on to college from a high school; we also want to know how well the school has prepared students for a successful college experience—that is, whether the school has provided a good secondary education. Thus, for the speaker the term “educational efficiency” must essentially carry the same meaning as “educational quality.” Given this clarification, one of the speaker’s assumptions is that the rate of graduation to college has increased because Einstein is doing a better job of educating its students. However, the fact that more Einstein graduates now go on to college might simply reflect a general trend. And the general trend might have less to do with improved secondary education than with the reality that a college degree is now the standard of entry into most desirable jobs. But even if the quality of education at Einstein had improved, would this be a compelling reason to deny Einstein additional funding? I don’t think so. It is possible that the school has managed to deliver better education in spite of meager funding. Teachers may be dipping into their own pockets for supplies and other resources necessary for doing their job well. Perhaps the quality of education at Einstein would improve even more with additional financial support. In sum, this argument does not establish the conclusion that additional funding for Einstein is unnecessary. To do so, the speaker would have to provide evidence that the quality of education at Einstein has improved. This could be done by examining student assessment scores or by tracking students through their college careers to see how many successfully graduate and find jobs. In addition, the speaker would also have to show that Einstein is doing a good job with adequate financial support, and not merely in spite of insufficient funding.

24. The following appeared in a memo from the customer service division to the manager of Mammon Savings and Loan. “We believe that improved customer service is the best way for us to differentiate ourselves from competitors and attract new customers. We can offer our customers better service by reducing waiting time in teller lines from an average of six minutes to an average of three. By opening for business at 8:30 instead of 9:00, and by remaining open for an additional hour beyond our current closing time, we will be better able to accommodate the busy schedules of our customers. These changes will enhance our bank’s image as the most customer-friendly bank in town and give us the edge over our competition.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The customer-service division of Mammon Savings and Loan recommends that the best way for the bank to attract new customers and differentiate itself from its competitors is to improve its

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

service to customers—specifically, by reducing waiting time in teller lines, opening for business 30 minutes earlier, and closing an hour later. These improvements, it is argued, will give the bank the edge over its competitors and make it appear more customer-friendly. For the most part this recommendation is well-reasoned; a few concerns must be addressed, however. First, the author assumes that Mammon’s competitors are similar to Mammon in all respects other than the ones listed. In fact, Mammon’s competitors may be more conveniently located to customers, or offer other services or products on more attractive terms than Mammon. If so, Mammon may not gain the edge it seeks merely by enhancing certain services. Secondly, the author assumes that the proposed improvements will sufficiently distinguish Mammon from its competitors. This is not necessarily the case. Mammon’s competitors may already offer, or may plan to offer, essentially the same customer-service features as those Mammon proposes for itself. If so, Mammon may not gain the edge it seeks merely by enhancing these services. Thirdly, the author assumes that Mammon can offer these improved services without sacrificing any other current features that attract customers. In fact, Mammon may have to cut back other services or offer accounts on less attractive terms, all to compensate for the additional costs associated with the proposed improvements. By rendering its other features less attractive to customers, Mammon may not attain the competitive edge it seeks. In conclusion, Mammon’s plan for attracting new customers and differentiating itself from its competitors is only modestly convincing. While improvements in customer service generally tend to enhance competitiveness, it is questionable whether the specific improvements advocated in the recommendation are broad enough to be effective.

25. The following appeared as part of an article in a magazine on lifestyles. “Two years ago, City L was listed 14th in an annual survey that ranks cities according to the quality of life that can be enjoyed by those living in them. This information will enable people who are moving to the state in which City L is located to confidently identify one place, at least, where schools are good, housing is affordable, people are friendly, the environment is safe, and the arts flourish.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The author concludes that City L has good schools, affordable housing, friendly people, flourishing arts and a safe environment. To support this claim the author cites an annual survey that ranks cities according to quality of life. Two years ago City L was listed 14th in this survey. As it stands this argument is unconvincing. First, the author fails to indicate what individual characteristics of cities were used as criteria for the ranking. To the extent that the criteria used in the survey were the same as the features listed by the author in the conclusion, the conclusion would be warranted. On the other hand, if the survey employed entirely different criteria—for example, outdoor recreational opportunities or educational achievement levels of adult residents—then the author’s conclusion would be wholly unwarranted.

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

Secondly, the author provides no indication of how each characteristic was weighted in the ranking. For example, City L may have far and away the most flourishing arts scene among the cities surveyed, but it may have poor schools, unfriendly people, and an unsafe environment. The extent to which the survey accurately reflects City L’s overall quality of life in this case would depend largely on the relative weight placed on the arts as a factor affecting quality of life. Thirdly, the author fails to indicate how many cities were included in the survey. Th more cities included in the survey, the stronger the argument—and vice versa. For example, if 2,000 cities were surveyed, then City L would rank in the top one percent in terms of quality of life. On the other hand, if only 14 cities were surveyed then City L would rank last. Finally, the author’s conclusion depends on the questionable assumption that the conditions listed by the author have remained unchanged in City L since the survey was conducted two years ago. Admittedly, had ten years elapsed the argument would be even weaker. Yet two years is sufficient time for a significant change in the overall economy, the city’s fiscal policies, its financial condition, or its political climate. Any of these factors can affect the quality of schools, the extent to which art is flourishing, or the cost of housing. In conclusion, the author does not adequately support the conclusion. To strengthen the argument, the author must show that the criteria used in the survey were the same as the features listed in the conclusion and were weighted in a way that does not distort the picture in City L. To better assess the argument, we would also need more information about the cities included in the survey, as well as what changes in City L have occurred during the past two years.

26. The following appeared in a memorandum from a member of a financial management and consulting firm. “We have learned from an employee of Windfall, Ltd., that its accounting department, by checking about ten percent of the last month’s purchasing invoices for errors and inconsistencies, saved the company some $10,000 in overpayments. In order to help our clients increase their net gains, we should advise each of them to institute a policy of checking all purchasing invoices for errors. Such a recommendation could also help us get the Windfall account by demonstrating to Windfall the rigorousness of our methods.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
Sample essay 1: The argument that checking all purchasing invoices for errors will not only increase the net gains of the clients but also help the firm get the Windfall account is not entirely logically convincing, since it ignores certain crucial assumptions. First, the argument assumes that instituting a policy of checking all purchasing invoices can help find out the errors and inconsistencies. There are a number of reasons why this might not be true. For example, the people who check the accounts will probably make mistakes as anyone else, intentionally or unconsciously. If they do, checking purchasing invoices will not help avoid errors and inconsistencies.

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

Second, even if the checking can help avoid errors and inconsistencies, it will not necessarily save money for the company, for it is also likely that the accounting department makes no mistakes. If they have no errors, how can the checking save money for the company. Finally, even supposing the checking does save money for the company, the argument ignores the fact that the checking itself costs the company money. If the cost is more than the gains from the errors, the company will lose money. Thus, the argument is not completely sound. The evidence in support of the conclusion that the checking of last month’s invoices has saved the company $10,000 does little prove the conclusion that checking all purchasing invoices for errors will not only increase the net gains of the clients but also help the firm get the Windfall account since it does not address the assumptions I have already raised. Ultimately, the argument might have been strengthened by making it plain that checking all invoices will surely help find out errors, that all the invoices are bound to contain errors, and that the checking itself will not cost much. Sample essay 2: In this argument a member of a financial management and consulting firm reasons that since Windfall Ltd. increased its net gains by checking 10 percent of its purchasing invoices for errors, it would be a good idea to advise the firm’s clients to institute a policy of checking all purchasing invoices for errors. Two potential benefits are foreseen from this recommendation: it could help the firm’s clients increase their net gains, and it could help the firm land the Windfall account. The member’s argument is unconvincing for a couple of reasons. The main problem with the argument is that the conclusion is based upon insufficient evidence. The fact that some of Windfall’s purchasing invoices contained errors might simply be attributable to the sloppy accounting practices of Windfall’s suppliers. Thus, rather than indicating a general problem, the invoice errors might simply be indicative of a problem that is specific to Windfall Ltd. In other words, the evidence drawn from Windfall’s experience is insufficient to support the conclusion that all purchasing invoices are subject to similar errors. Secondly, the evidence offered in the argument suggests only that companies purchasing from the same suppliers that Windfall purchases from are likely to experience similar problems. If the firm’s clients do not purchase from Windfall’s suppliers, checking for errors might turn out to be a monumental waste of time. In conclusion, the author’s argument fails to provide good grounds for instituting the policy of routinely checking purchasing invoices for errors. To strengthen the conclusion the author would have to provide evidence that this is a widespread problem. Specifically, what is required are additional instances of purchasing invoices containing errors that are drawn from various companies.

27. The following appeared in a newspaper editorial. “As violence in movies increases, so do crime rates in our cities. To combat this problem we must establish a board to censor certain movies, or we must limit admission to persons over 21 years of age. Apparently our legislators are not concerned about this issue since a bill calling for such actions recently failed to

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

receive a majority vote.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
Based upon a correlation between increases in movie violence and crime rates in cities, the author argues that to combat crime in cities we must either censor movies that contain violence or prohibit people who are under 21 years of age from viewing them. The author further argues that because legislators failed to pass a bill calling for these alternatives, they are not concerned with the problem of crime in our cities. The author’s reasoning is unconvincing, since it suffers from two critical problems. To begin with, the author’s solution to the problem rests on the claim that portrayals of violence in movies are the cause of crime in the cities. However, the evidence offered is insufficient to support this claim. A mere positive correlation between movie violence and city crime rates does not necessarily prove a causal relationship. In addition, all other prospective causes of city crime such as poverty or unemployment must be ruled out. As it stands, the author’s solution to the problem is based upon an oversimplified analysis of the issue. Another problem with the argument is that the author’s solution assumes that only persons under 21 years of age are adversely affected by movie violence. Ultimately, this means that the author is committed to the view that, for the most part, the perpetrators of crime in cities are juveniles under 21. Lacking evidence to support this view, the author’s solution cannot be taken seriously. In conclusion, the best explanation of the failure of the bill calling for the actions proposed in this argument is that most legislators were capable of recognizing the simplistic analysis of the problem upon which these actions are based. Rather than providing a demonstration of a lack of concern about this issue, the legislators’ votes reveal an understanding of the complexities of this problem and an unwillingness to accept simple solutions.

28. The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper. “Commuter use of the new subway train is exceeding the transit company’s projections. However, commuter use of the shuttle buses that transport people to the subway stations is below the projected volume. If the transit company expects commuters to ride the shuttle buses to the subway rather than drive there, it must either reduce the shuttle bus fares or increase the price of parking at the subway stations.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The author concludes that the local transit company must either reduce fares for the shuttle buses that transport people to their subway stations or increase parking fees at the stations. The reasons offered to support this conclusion are that commuter use of the subway train is exceeding the transit company’s expectations, while commuter use of the shuffle buses is below projected volume. This argument is unconvincing because the author oversimplifies the problem and its solutions in a number of ways. To begin with, by concluding that the transit company must either reduce shuttle fares or increase parking fees, the author assumes that these are the only available solutions to the

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

problem of limited shuttle use. However, it is possible that other factors—such as inconvenient shuttle routing and/or scheduling, safety concerns, or an increase in carpools—contribute to the problem. If so, adjusting fares or parking fees would might not solve the problem. In addition, the author assumes that reducing shuttle fees and increasing parking fees are mutually exclusive alternatives. However, the author provides no reason for imposing an either/or choice. Adjusting both shuttle fares and parking fees might produce better results. Moreover, if the author is wrong in the assumption that parking fees and shuttle fees are the only possible causes of the problem, then the most effective solution might include a complex of policy changes—for example, in shuttle fares, parking fees, rerouting, and rescheduling. In conclusion, this argument is weak because the author oversimplifies both the problem and its possible solutions. To strengthen the argument the author must examine all factors that might account for the shuttle’s unpopularity. Additionally, the author should consider all possible solutions to determine which combination would bring about the greatest increase in shuttle use.

29. The following was excerpted from the speech of a spokesperson for Synthetic Farm Products, Inc. “Many farmers who invested in the equipment needed to make the switch from synthetic to organic fertilizers and pesticides feel that it would be too expensive to resume synthetic farming at this point. But studies of farmers who switched to organic farming last year indicate that their current crop yields are lower. Hence their purchase of organic farming equipment, a relatively minor investment compared to the losses that would result from continued lower crop yields, cannot justify persisting on an unwise course. And the choice to farm organically is financially unwise, given that it was motivated by environmental rather than economic concerns.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
This speaker argues that farmers who invested in organic farming equipment should resume synthetic farming because it is financially unwise to continue organic farming. The speaker cites studies showing that farmers who switched to organic farming last year had tower crop yields. Based on these studies, the speaker concludes that the relatively inexpensive investment in organic farming equipment cannot justify continuing to farm organically. The speaker also claims that continuing to farm organically is financially unwise because it is motivated by environmental, not economic, concerns. The argument suffers from three problems. One problem with this reasoning involves the vague comparative claim that farmers who switched to organic farming last year had lower crop yields. We are not informed whether the survey compared last year’s organic crop yields with yields from previous years or with those from synthetic farms. Moreover, the author provides no evidence about how the survey was conducted. Lacking more information about the survey, we cannot accept the speaker’s conclusion. Secondly, the speaker assumes that the low crop yields for first-time organic farmers last year are representative of crop yields for organic farmers overall. However, more experienced organic farmers might have had much better crop yields last year. Also, the first-time organic farmers

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

might improve their own crop yields in future years. Moreover, last year’s yield may have been unusually low due to poor weather or other factors, and thus not indicative of future yields. Finally, in asserting that organic farming is financially unwise because it is motivated by environmental instead of economic concerns, the speaker unfairly assumes that a practice cannot be both environmentally and economically beneficial. It is possible that, in the long run, practices that help protect the environment will also result in greater economic benefits. For instance, organic farming methods may better protect soil from depletion of the elements that contribute to healthy crops, providing an economic benefit in the long run. In conclusion, the speaker’s argument is poorly supported and is short-sighted. To better evaluate the argument, we would need more information about the how the survey was conducted, especially about the comparison the survey makes. To strengthen the argument, the speaker must present evidence that last years’ crop yields from first-time organic farmers are representative of yields among organic farms in general. The author must also provide evidence that environmentally sound practices cannot be economically beneficial as well.

30. The following appeared in a newspaper story giving advice about investments. “As overall life expectancy continues to rise, the population of our country is growing increasingly older. For example, over twenty percent of the residents of one of our more populated regions are now at least 65 years old, and occupancy rates at resort hotels in that region declined significantly during the past six months. Because of these two related trends, a prudent investor would be well advised to sell interest in hotels and invest in hospitals and nursing homes instead.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
In this argument prudent investors are advised to stop investing in hotels and invest instead in hospitals and nursing homes. The author cites two related trends—an aging population and a decline in hotel occupancy—as grounds for this advice. To illustrate these trends, the author refers to another region of the country, where 20 percent of the population is over 65 years old and where occupancy rates in resort hotels have declined significantly during the past six months. This argument is unconvincing in a couple of important respects. In the first place, the author provides no evidence to support the claim that the population as a whole is aging and that the hotel occupancy rate in general is declining. The example cited, while suggestive of these trends, is insufficient to warrant their truth because there is no reason to believe that data drawn from this unnamed region is representative of the entire country. For example, if the region from which the data was gathered was Florida, it would clearly be unrepresentative. The reason for this is obvious. Florida is populated by a disproportionate number of retired people over 65 years old and is a very popular vacation destination during the winter months. Moreover, resort hotel occupancy in Florida typically declines significantly during the summer months. In the second place, the author has provided no evidence to support the claim that the decline in hotel occupancy is related to the aging of the population. The author appears to believe that the

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

decrease in occupancy rates at resort hotels is somehow caused by the increase in the number of people over age 65. However, the example cited by the author establishes only that these two trends are correlated; it does not establish that the decline in hotel occupancy is due to an increase in the number of people over the age of 65. In conclusion, the author’s investment advice is not based on sound reasoning. To strengthen the conclusion, the author must show that the trends were not restricted to a particular region of the country. The author must also show that the cause of the decline in hotel occupancy is the increase in the number of people over 65.

31. The following appeared as part of the business plan of an investment and financial consulting firm. “Studies suggest that an average coffee drinker’s consumption of coffee increases with age, from age 10 through age 60. Even after age 60, coffee consumption remains high. The average cola drinker’s consumption of cola, however, declines with increasing age. Both of these trends have remained stable for the past 40 years. Given that the number of older adults will significantly increase as the population ages over the next 20 years, it follows that the demand for coffee will increase and the demand for cola will decrease during this period. We should, therefore, consider transferring our investments from Cola Loca to Early Bird Coffee.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
In this argument a consulting firm recommends the transfer of investments from Cola Loca to Early Bird Coffee because, during the next 20 years, coffee demand will increase while cola demand will decrease. This prediction is based on the expectation that the number of older adults will significantly increase over the next 20 years, together with statistics, reportedly stable for the past 40 years, indicating that coffee consumption increases with age while cola consumption declines with increasing age. For three reasons, this financial advice may not be sound. First, the argument assumes that relative supply conditions will remain unchanged over the next twenty years. However, the supply and cost of cola and coffee beans, as well as other costs of doing business as a producer of coffee or cola, may fluctuate greatly over a long time period. These factors may affect comparative prices of coffee and cola, which in turn may affect comparative demand and the value of investments in coffee and cola companies. Without considering other factors that contribute to the value of a coffee or cola company, the firm cannot justify its recommendation. Secondly, the argument fails to account for the timing of the increase in coffee consumption. Perhaps the population will age dramatically during the next five years, then remain relatively flat over the following 15 years. Or perhaps most of the increase in average age will occur toward the end of the 20-year period. An investor has more opportunity to profit over the short and long term in the first scenario than in the second, assuming the investor can switch investments along the way. If the second scenario reflects the facts, the firm’s recommendation would be ill-founded.

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

Finally, the firm unjustifiably relies on the studies that correlate coffee and cola consumption with age. The firm does not provide evidence to confirm the reliability of the studies. Moreover, while the phrase “studies suggest” may appear to lend credibility to these claims, the phrase is vague enough to actually render the claims worthless, in the absence of any information about them. In conclusion, the firm should not transfer investments from Cola Loca to Early Bird Coffee on the basis of this argument. To better evaluate the recommendation, we would need more information about the study upon which it relies. We would also need more detailed projections of population trends during the next 20 years.

32. The following appeared in the editorial section of a West Cambria newspaper. “A recent review of the West Cambria volunteer ambulance service revealed a longer average response time to accidents than was reported by a commercial ambulance squad located in East Cambria. In order to provide better patient care for accident victims and to raise revenue for our town by collecting service fees for ambulance use, we should disband our volunteer service and hire a commercial ambulance service.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
In this argument the author concludes that West Cambria can increase revenues and provide better care to accident victims by disbanding the volunteer ambulance service and hiring a commercial one. The author reasons that this change would yield additional revenues because service fees could be imposed for ambulance use. The author also reasons that the city would provide better service to accident victims because a commercial service would respond more quickly to accidents than a volunteer service would. The author’s argument is flawed in two respects. To begin with, the author’s plan for raising revenue for West Cambria is questionable. Unless the service fees are considerable or the accident rate is extremely high, it is unlikely that significant revenues will be raised by charging a fee for ambulance use. Consequently, revenue generation is not a good reason to disband the volunteer service and hire a commercial service. Next, the author’s belief that better patient care would be provided by a commercial ambulance service than by a volunteer service is based on insufficient evidence. The fact that the commercial service in East Cambria has a lower average response time than the volunteer service in West Cambria is insufficient evidence for the claim that this will be the case for all commercial services. Moreover, the author’s recommendation depends upon the assumption that response time to an accident is the only factor that influences patient care. Other pertinent factors—such as ambulance-crew proficiency and training, and emergency equipment—are not considered. In conclusion, this argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the argument the author would have to show that substantial revenue for the town could be raised by charging service fees for ambulance use. Additionally, the author would have to provide more evidence to support the claim that commercial ambulance services provide better patient care than volunteer services.

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

33. The following is part of a business plan being discussed at a board meeting of the Perks Company. “It is no longer cost-effective for the Perks Company to continue offering its employees a generous package of benefits and incentives year after year. In periods when national unemployment rates are low, Perks may need to offer such a package in order to attract and keep good employees, but since national unemployment rates are now high, Perks does not need to offer the same benefits and incentives. The money thus saved could be better used to replace the existing plant machinery with more technologically sophisticated equipment, or even to build an additional plant.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The author of Perks Company’s business plan recommends that funds currently spent on the employee benefits package be redirected to either upgrade plant machinery or build an additional plant. The author reasons that offering employees a generous package of benefits and incentives year after year is no longer cost-effective given current high unemployment rates, and that Perks can attract and keep good employees without such benefits and incentives. While this argument has some merit, its line of reasoning requires close examination. To begin with, the author relies on the reasoning that it is unnecessary to pay relatively high wages during periods of high unemployment because the market will supply many good employees at lower rates of pay. While this reasoning may be sound in a general sense, the particular industry that Perks is involved in may not be representative of unemployment levels generally. It is possible that relatively few unemployed people have the type of qualifications that match job openings at Perks, if this is the case, the claim that it is easier now to attract good employees at lower wages is ill-founded. Secondly, the argument relies on the assumption that the cost-effectiveness of a wage policy is determined solely by whatever wages a market can currently bear. This assumption overlooks the peripheral costs of reducing or eliminating benefits. For example, employee morale is likely to decline if Perks eliminates benefits; as a result, some employees could become less productive, and others might quit. Even if Perks can readily replace those employees, training costs and lower productivity associated with high turnover may outweigh any advantages of redirecting funds to plant construction. Moreover, because the recommended reduction in benefits is intended to fund the retrofitting of an entire plant or the building of a new one, the reduction would presumably be a sizable one; consequently, the turnover costs associated with the reduction might be very high indeed. In conclusion, this argument is not convincing, since it unfairly assumes that a broad employment statistic applies to one specific industry, and since it ignores the disadvantages of implementing the plan. Accordingly, I would suspend judgment about the recommendation until the author shows that unemployment in Parks’ industry is high and until the author produces a thorough cost-benefit analysis of the proposed plan.

34. The following appeared as part of a plan proposed by an executive of the Easy Credit Company to the president.

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

“The Easy Credit Company would gain an advantage over competing credit card services if we were to donate a portion of the proceeds from the use of our cards to a well-known environmental organization in exchange for the use of its symbol or logo on our card. Since a recent poll shows that a large percentage of the public is concerned about environmental issues, this policy would attract new customers, increase use among existing customers, and enable us to charge interest rates that are higher than the lowest ones available.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
In this argument the author concludes that the Easy Credit Company would gain several advantages over its competitors by donating a portion of its profits to a well-known environmental organization in exchange for the use of the organization’s logo on their credit card. The author reaches this conclusion on the basis of a recent poll that shows widespread public concern about environmental issues. Among the advantages of this policy, the author foresees an increase in credit card use by existing customers, the ability to charge higher interest rates, and the ability to attract new customers. While the author’s argument has some merit, it suffers from two critical problems. To begin with, the author assumes that the environmental organization whose logo is sought is concerned with the same environmental issues about which the poll shows widespread concern. However, the author provides no evidence that this is the case. It is possible that very few credit-card users are concerned about the issues that are the organization’s areas of concern; if so, then it is unlikely that the organization’s logo would attract much business for the Easy Credit Company. Next, the author assumes that the public’s concern about environmental issues will result in its taking steps to do something about the problem—in this case, to use the Easy Credit Company credit card. This assumption is unsupported and runs contrary to experience. Also, it is more reasonable to assume that people who are concerned about a particular cause will choose a more direct means of expressing their concern. In conclusion, the author’s argument is unconvincing as it stands. To strengthen the argument, the author must show a positive link between the environmental issues about which the public has expressed concern and the issues with which this particular environmental organization is concerned. In addition, the author must provide evidence to support the assumption that concern about a problem will cause people to do something about the problem.

35. The following appeared as part of a recommendation from the financial planning office to the administration of Fern Valley University. “In the past few years, Fern Valley University has suffered from a decline in both enrollments and admissions applications. The reason can be discovered from our students, who most often cite poor teaching and inadequate library resources as their chief sources of dissatisfaction with Fern Valley. Therefore, in order to increase the number of students attending our university, and hence to regain our position as the most prestigious university in the greater Fern Valley metropolitan area, it is necessary to initiate a fund-raising campaign among the alumni that will

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

enable us to expand the range of subjects we teach and to increase the size of our library facilities.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The financial-planning office at Fern Valley University concludes that it is necessary to initiate a fund-raising campaign among alumni that will enable the university to expand the range of subjects it offers and increase the size of its library facilities. Its argument is based on a five-year decline in enrollments and admission applications together with the claim that students cite poor teaching and inadequate library resources as their chief sources of dissatisfaction with Fern Valley. The conclusion of the financial-planning office is not strongly supported by the reasons given. To begin with, this argument depends on the assumption that providing a greater range of subjects and a larger library will alleviate the students’ chief sources of dissatisfaction. However, the students have not complained about inadequate course offerings or about the size of the library; their complaint is that the existing courses are poorly taught and that library resources are inadequate. Offering more kinds of classes does not improve teaching quality, and increasing a library’s size does nothing to enhance its holdings, or resources. Accordingly, the recommendation does not bear directly on the problem as stated. Secondly, the proposal unfairly assumes that the recent enrollment and application decline was caused by poor teaching and inadequate library resources. It is equally possible that all colleges, regardless of teaching quality and library resources, have experienced similar declines. These declines may have been due to unrelated factors, such as unfavorable economic conditions, or an increase in high-paying computer jobs not requiring a college education. Thirdly, the author provides no support for the claim that students are dissatisfied with the teaching and library resources at Fern Valley. It is possible that the claim is based on hearsay or on scant anecdotal evidence. Without more information about the basis of the claim, we cannot be sure that the financial-planning office is addressing the real problems. In conclusion, the advice of the financial planning office is not well supported. To strengthen the argument, the planning office must provide evidence that students are dissatisfied with the range of subjects and with the library’s size, and that this dissatisfaction is the cause of the recent decline in enrollment and the number of admission applications. To better assess the argument as it stands, we would need to know whether the students’ attitudes were measured in a reliable, scientific manner.

36. The following appeared in an article in a college departmental newsletter “Professor Taylor of Jones University is promoting a model of foreign language instruction in which students receive ten weeks of intensive training, then go abroad to live with families for ten weeks. The superiority of the model, Professor Taylor contends, is proved by the results of a study in which foreign language tests given to students at 25 other colleges show that first-year foreign language students at Jones speak more fluently after only ten to twenty weeks in the program than do nine out of ten foreign language majors elsewhere at the time of

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

their graduation.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
This newsletter article claims that Professor Taylor’s foreign-language program at Jones University is a model of foreign language instruction. This conclusion is based on a study in which foreign language tests were given to students at 25 other universities. The study shows that first-year language students at Jones speak more fluently after just 10 to 20 weeks in the program than do 90 percent of foreign-language majors at other colleges at graduation. Despite these impressive statistics, I am unconvinced by this argument for two reasons. To begin with, the assumption here is that students from Professor Taylor’s program have learned more than foreign language students at other universities. However, we are not given enough information about the study to be sure that this comparison is reliable. For example, the article does not tell us whether the foreign language students at Jones were given the tests; it only reports that the tests in question were “given to students at 25 other colleges.” If Jones students were not tested, then no basis exists for comparing them to students at the other universities. In addition, the article does not indicate whether students at all the universities, including Jones, were given the same tests. If not, then again no basis exists for the comparison. Furthermore, we cannot tell from this article whether the universities in the study, or their students, are comparable in other ways. For instance, Jones might be a prestigious university that draws its students from the top echelon of high school graduates, while the other universities are lower-ranked schools with more lenient admission requirements. In this event, the study wouldn’t tell us much about Professor Taylor’s program, for the proficiency of his students might be a function of their superior talent and intelligence. In conclusion, the statistics cited in the article offer little support for the claim about Taylor’s program. To strengthen the argument, the author must show that the universities in the study, including Jones, were comparable in other ways, that their foreign language students were tested identically, and that Taylor’s program was the only important difference between students tested at Jones and those tested at the other universities.

37. The following appeared as part of an article in the business section of a local newspaper. “Motorcycle X has been manufactured in the United States for over 70 years. Although one foreign company has copied the motorcycle and is selling it for less, the company has failed to attract motorcycle X customers—some say because its product lacks the exceptionally loud noise made by motorcycle X. But there must be some other explanation. After all, foreign cars tend to be quieter than similar American-made cars, but they sell at least as well. Also, television advertisements for motorcycle X highlight its durability and sleek lines, not its noisiness, and the ads typically have voice-overs or rock music rather than engine-roar on the sound track.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The author rejects the claim that the loud engine noise of American-made Motorcycle X appeals

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

to the manufacturer’s customers and explains why they are not attracted to quieter, foreign-made imitations. The author’s rejection is based on two reasons. First, the author points out that foreign cars tend to be quieter than similar American-made cars, yet they sell just as well. Secondly, the author claims that ads for Motorcycle X do not emphasize its engine noise; instead, the ads highlight its durability and sleek lines, and employ voice-overs of rock music rather than engine roar. In my view, these reasons do not establish that the quieter engines of the foreign imitations fail to account for their lack of appeal. To begin with, the first reason rests on the assumption that what automobile customers find appealing is analogous to what motorcycle customers find appealing. This assumption is weak, since although there are points of comparison between automobiles and motorcycles, there are many dissimilarities as well. For example, headroom, smooth ride, and quiet engines are usually desirable qualities in a car. However, headroom is not a consideration for motorcycle customers; and many motorcycle riders specifically want an exciting, challenging ride, not a smooth one. The same may be true of engine noise; it is possible that motorcyclists like what loud engine noise adds to the experience of motorcycle riding. The author’s second reason is also problematic. Although the engine noise of Motorcycle X is not explicitly touted in advertisements, it does not necessarily follow that engine noise is not an important selling feature. Because Motorcycle X has been manufactured in the U.S. for over 70 years, its reputation for engine noise is probably already well known and need not be advertised. Moreover, the advertisers might use rock music on Motorcycle X ad soundtracks for the specific purpose of suggesting, or even simulating, its loud engine noise. In conclusion, this author has not provided convincing reasons for rejecting the claim that quieter engines make foreign-made motorcycles less popular. The author’s analogy involving foreign car sales is weak, and the claim about Motorcycle X advertisements misses the purpose of including rock music in the ads.

38. The following appeared in the editorial section of a campus newspaper. “Because occupancy rates for campus housing fell during the last academic year, so did housing revenues. To solve the problem, campus housing officials should reduce the number of available housing units, thereby increasing the occupancy rates. Also, to keep students from choosing to live off-campus, housing officials should lower the rents, thereby increasing demand.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The author of this article argues that, to reverse declining revenues from campus housing rentals, campus housing officials should decrease the number of available housing units and reduce rent prices on the units. The author’s line of reasoning is that fewer available units will limit supply while lower rents will increase demand, thereby improving overall occupancy rates, and that the resulting increase in occupancy rates will, in turn, boost revenues for the campus. This reasoning is unconvincing for several reasons. To begin with, the author assumes that boosting occupancy rates will improve revenues. All other factors remaining unchanged, this would be the case. However, the author proposes reducing both

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

the supply of units and their rental prices. Both of these actions would tend to reduce revenues. The author provides no evidence that the revenue-enhancing effect of a higher occupancy rate will exceed the revenue-decreasing effect of reduced supply and price. Without such evidence, the argument is unconvincing. Secondly, the author assumes that lowering rents will lead to higher revenues by increasing demand. However, it is possible that demand would decrease, depending on the extent of the rent reduction as well as other factors—such as overall enrollment and the supply and relative cost of off-campus housing. Moreover, even if demand increases by lowering rents, revenues will not necessarily increase as a result. Other factors, such as maintenance and other costs of providing campus housing units and the reduced supply of rental units might contribute to a net decrease in revenue. Thirdly, in asserting that lowering rental rates will increase demand, the author assumes that current rental rates are causing low demand. However, low demand for student housing could be a function of other factors. For instance, the student housing units may be old and poorly maintained. Perhaps students find the campus housing rules oppressive, and therefore prefer to live off-campus; or perhaps enrollments are down generally, affecting campus housing occupancy. In conclusion, the author of this editorial has not argued effectively for a decrease in the number of available campus housing units and a reduction in rental rates for those units. To strengthen the argument, the author must show that a rent reduction will actually increase demand, and that the revenue-enhancing effect of greater demand will outweigh the revenue-reducing effect of a smaller supply and of lower rental rates.

39. The following appeared in an Avia Airlines departmental memorandum. “On average, 9 out of every 1,000 passengers who traveled on Avia Airlines last year filed a complaint about our baggage-handling procedures. This means that although some 1 percent of our passengers were unhappy with those procedures, the overwhelming majority were quite satisfied with them; thus it would appear that a review of the procedures is not important to our goal of maintaining or increasing the number of Avia’s passengers.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The conclusion in this Avia Airlines memorandum is that a review of the airline’s baggage-handling procedures will not further its goal of maintaining or increasing the number of Avia passengers. The author’s line of reasoning is that the great majority of Avia passengers are happy with baggage handling at the airline because only one percent of passengers who traveled on Avia last year filed a complaint about Avia’s procedures. This argument is problematic in two important respects. First, the argument turns on the assumption that the 99 percent of Avia passengers who did not complain were happy with the airline’s baggage-handling procedures. However, the author provides no evidence to support this assumption. The fact that, on the average, 9 out of 1000 passengers took the time and effort to formally complain indicates nothing about the experiences or attitudes of the remaining 991. It is possible that many passengers were displeased but too busy

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

to formally complain, while others had no opinion at all. Lacking more complete information about passengers’ attitudes, we cannot assume that the great majority of passengers who did not complain were happy. Secondly, in the absence of information about the number of passengers per flight and about the complaint records of competing airlines, the statistics presented in the memorandum might distort the seriousness of the problem. Given that most modern aircraft carry as many as 300 to 500 passengers, it is possible that Avia received as many as 4 or 5 complaints per flight. The author unfairly trivializes this record. Moreover, the author fails to compare Avia’s record with those of its competitors. It is possible that a particular competitor received virtually no baggage-handling complaints last year. If so, Avia’s one percent complaint rate might be significant enough to motivate customers to switch to another airline. In conclusion, the author has failed to demonstrate that a review of the baggage-handling procedures at Avia Airlines is not needed to maintain or increase the number of Avia’s passengers. To strengthen the argument, the author must at the very least provide affirmative evidence that most Avia passengers last year were indeed happy with baggage-handling procedures. To better evaluate the argument, we would need more information about the numbers of Avia passengers per flight last year and about the baggage-handling records of Avia’s competitors.

40. The following appeared as part of an article in a weekly newsmagazine. “The country of Sacchar can best solve its current trade deficit problem by lowering the price of sugar, its primary export. Such an action would make Sacchar better able to compete for markets with other sugar-exporting countries. The sale of Sacchar’s sugar abroad would increase, and this increase would substantially reduce Sacchar’s trade deficit.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The author of this article argues that the country of Sacchar can best solve its current trade deficit problem by lowering the price of its main export, sugar. The line of reasoning is that this action would make Sacchar more competitive with other sugar-exporting countries, thereby increasing sales of Sacchar’s sugar abroad and, in turn, substantially reducing the trade-deficit. This line of reasoning is unconvincing for a couple of reasons. In the first place, this argument is based on an oversimplified analysis of the trade deficit problem Sacchar currently faces. A trade-deficit occurs when a country spends more on imports than it earns from exports. The author’s argument relies on the assumption that earnings from imports will remain constant. However, the author provides no evidence that substantiates this assumption. It is possible that revenues from imports will increase dramatically in the near future; if so, the course of action proposed by the author might be unnecessary to solve Sacchar’s trade deficit problem. Conversely, it is possible that revenues from imports are likely to decrease dramatically in the near future. To the extent that this is the case, lowering sugar prices may have a negligible countervailing effect, depending on the demand for Sacchar’s sugar. In the second place, increasing sales by lowering the price of sugar will not yield an increase in income unless the increase in sales is sufficient to overcome the loss in income due to the lower

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

price. This raises three questions the author fails to address. First, will a price decrease in fact stimulate demand? Second, is demand sufficient to meet the increase in supply? Third, can Sacchar increase the sugar production sufficiently to overcome the deficit? In the absence of answers to these questions, we cannot assess the author’s proposal. In conclusion, the author provides an incomplete analysis of the problem and, as a result, provides a questionable solution. To better evaluate the proposal, we would need to know how revenues from imports are likely to change in the future. To strengthen the argument, the author must provide evidence that demand is sufficient to meet the proposed increase in supply, and that Sacchar has sufficient resources to accommodate the increase.

41. The following appeared as part of an article in a trade publication. “Stronger laws are needed to protect new kinds of home-security systems from being copied and sold by imitators. With such protection, manufacturers will naturally invest in the development of new home-security products and production technologies. Without stronger laws, therefore, manufacturers will cut back on investment. From this will follow a corresponding decline not only in product quality and marketability, but also in production efficiency, and thus ultimately a loss of manufacturing jobs in the industry.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The author of this article warns that stronger laws are needed to protect new kinds of home security systems from being copied and sold by imitators in order to prevent an eventual loss of manufacturing jobs within the industry. This conclusion is based on the following chain of reasoning: With the protection of stronger laws, manufacturers will naturally invest in the development of new home security products and production technologies, whereas without such protection, manufacturers will cut back on investment. If manufacturers cut back on investment, then a decline in product quality and marketability, as well as in production efficiency, will result. This, in turn, will cause the predicted loss of industry jobs. This line of reasoning is unconvincing for several reasons. To begin with, the author assumes that existing copyright, patent and trade secret laws are inadequate to protect home security system design. But the author never explains why these laws don’t offer sufficient protection, nor does he offer any evidence to show that this is the case. Secondly, the argument depends on the twin assumptions that stronger legal protection will encourage manufacturers to invest in home security-system production, while the absence of strong legal protection will have the opposite effect. The author fails to provide any evidence or reasons for accepting these assumptions about cause-and-effect connections between the law and what happens in the marketplace. Moreover, both of these assumptions can be challenged. It is possible that stronger protections would not greatly affect industry investment or jobs overall, but would instead help to determine which companies invested heavily and, therefore, provided the jobs. For instance, a less-restricted market might foster investment and competition among smaller companies, whereas stronger legal protections might encourage market domination by fewer, larger companies.

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

In conclusion, I do not find this argument compelling. The author must provide evidence that home security system designs are not being adequately protected by current patent, copyright or trade secret laws. The author must also provide an argument for the assumptions that stronger laws will create more industry jobs overall, while the absence of stronger laws will result in fewer industry jobs.

42. The following appeared in the opinion section of a national newsmagazine. “To reverse the deterioration of the postal service, the government should raise the price of postage stamps. This solution will no doubt prove effective, since the price increase will generate larger revenues and will also reduce the volume of mail, thereby eliminating the strain on the existing system and contributing to improved morale.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The author concludes that a postage-stamp price increase is needed to reduce the deterioration of the postal service. The author reasons that raising the price of stamps will accomplish this goal because it will generate more revenue, thereby eliminating the strain on the system. The author further reasons that a price increase will also reduce the volume of mail, thereby improving the morale of postal workers. The reasoning in this argument is problematic in three respects. The main problem with the argument is the author’s mistaken assumption that eliminating strain on the system and improving employee morale are mutually achievable by way of an increase in stamp prices. A price increase will generate more revenue only if the volume of mail remains constant or increases. But, if the volume of mail increases or remains constant, worker morale will not be improved. On the other hand, if the price increase reduces the volume of mail, revenues may decrease, and the strain on the system will not be eliminated. Consequently, eliminating the strain on the system and improving the morale of the workers cannot both be achieved by simply raising the price of postage stamps. Secondly, the author’s conclusion that the proposed price increase is necessary to reduce deterioration of the postal service relies on the assumption that no other action would achieve the same result. However, the author provides no evidence to substantiate this assumption. It is possible, for example, that careful cost-cutting measures that do not decrease worker morale might achieve the same goal. It is also possible that other revenue-enhancing measures that do not undermine employee morale are available. Thirdly, the author unfairly assumes that reducing mail volume and increasing revenues will improve employee morale. This is not necessarily the case. It is possible that employee morale is materially improved only by other means, and that additional revenues will not be used in ways that improve morale. It is also possible that a decrease in mail volume will result in a reduction of the size of the labor force, regardless of revenues, which in turn might undermine morale. In conclusion, the author’s proposed solution to the problem of the deterioration of the postal service will not work. Raising postage-stamp prices cannot bring about both of the outcomes the author identifies as being necessary to solve the problem. Before we can accept the argument, the author must modify the proposal accordingly and must provide more information about the

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

relationship between employee morale and mail volume.

43. The following appeared in an article in the health section of a newspaper. “There is a common misconception that university hospitals are better than community or private hospitals. This notion is unfounded, however: the university hospitals in our region employ 15 percent fewer doctors, have a 20 percent lower success rate in treating patients, make far less overall profit, and pay their medical staff considerably less than do private hospitals. Furthermore, many doctors at university hospitals typically divide their time among teaching, conducting research, and treating patients. From this it seems clear that the quality of care at university hospitals is lower than that at other kinds of hospitals.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
In this argument the author concludes that university hospitals provide no better care than private or community hospitals. The author bases this conclusion on the following claims about university hospitals: the ones in this region employ 15 percent fewer doctors; they have a 20 percent lower success rate in treating patients; they pay their staffs less money; they make less profit than community hospitals; and they utilize doctors who divide their time between teaching, research and treating patients. This argument is unconvincing for several reasons. The most egregious reasoning error in the argument is the author’s use of evidence pertaining to university hospitals in this region as the basis for a generalization about all university hospitals. The underlying assumption operative in this inference is that university hospitals in this region are representative of all university hospitals. No evidence is offered to support this gratuitous assumption. Secondly, the only relevant reason offered in support of the claim that the quality of care is lower in university hospitals than it is at other hospitals is the fact that university hospitals have a lower success rate in treating patients. But this reason is not sufficient to reach the conclusion in question unless it can be shown that the patients treated in both types of hospitals suffered from similar types of maladies. For example, if university hospitals routinely treat patients suffering from rare diseases whereas other hospitals treat only those who suffer from known diseases and illnesses, the difference in success rates would not be indicative of the quality of care received. Finally, the author assumes that the number of doctors a hospital employs, its success rate in treating patients, the amount it pays its staff, and the profits it earns are all reliable indicators of the quality of care it delivers. No evidence is offered to support this assumption nor is it obvious that any of these factors is linked to the quality of care delivered to patients. Moreover, the fact that doctors in university hospitals divide their time among many tasks fails to demonstrate that they do a poorer job of treating patients than doctors at other kinds of hospitals. In fact, it is highly likely that they do a better job because they are more knowledgeable than other doctors due to their teaching and research. In conclusion, the author’s argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the argument the author would have to demonstrate that university hospitals in this region are representative of all university

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

hospitals, as well as establishing a causal link between the various factors cited and the quality of care delivered to patients.

44. The following is part of a business plan created by the management of the Megamart grocery store. “Our total sales have increased this year by 20 percent since we added a pharmacy section to our grocery store. Clearly, the customer’s main concern is the convenience afforded by one-stop shopping. The surest way to increase our profits over the next couple of years, therefore, is to add a clothing department along with an automotive supplies and repair shop. We should also plan to continue adding new departments and services, such as a restaurant and a garden shop, in subsequent years. Being the only store in the area that offers such a range of services will give us a competitive advantage over other local stores.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
The management of the Megamart grocery store concludes that adding new departments and services is the surest way to increase profits over the next couple of years. They are led to this conclusion because of a 20 percent increase in total sates, realized after the addition of a pharmacy section to the grocery store. On the basis of this experience, they concluded that the convenience of one-stop shopping was the main concern of their customers. The management’s argument is faulty in several respects. In the first place, the management assumes that the increase in total sales was due to the addition of the pharmacy section. However, the only evidence offered to support this conclusion is the fact that the addition of the pharmacy preceded the increase in sales. But the mere fact that the pharmacy section was added before the increase occurred is insufficient grounds to conclude that it was responsible for the increase. Many other factors could bring about this same result. Lacking a detailed analysis of the source of the sales increase, it would be sheer folly to attribute the increase to the addition of the pharmacy section. In the second place, even if it were the case that the increase in total sales was due to the addition of the pharmacy section, this fact alone is insufficient to support the claim that adding additional departments will increase sales even further. It is quite possible that the addition of the pharmacy section increased sales simply because there was no other pharmacy in the vicinity. The additional proposed departments and services, on the other hand, might be well represented in the area and their addition might have no impact whatsoever on the profits of the store. In other words, there may be relevant differences between the pharmacy section and the additional proposed sections that preclude them from having a similar effect on the sales of the store. In conclusion, the management’s argument is not well-reasoned. To strengthen the conclusion, the management must provide additional evidence linking the addition of the pharmacy section to the increase in total sales. It must also show that there are no exceptional reasons for the sales increase due to the pharmacy section that would not apply to the other proposed additions.

45. The following appeared as part of a column in a popular entertainment magazine. “The producers of the forthcoming movie 3003 will be most likely to maximize

在线一对一外教陪练 www.2uedu.cn 淘宝店:2uedu.taobao.com 雅思QQ群:154366788

their profits if they are willing to pay Robin Good several million dollars to star in it— even though that amount is far more than any other person involved with the movie will make. After all, Robin has in the past been paid a similar amount to work in several films that were very financially successful.” Discuss how well reasoned... etc.
In this argument the author concludes that paying Robin Good several million dollars to star in the movie “3003” is the most likely way for the movie’s producers to maximize their profits. The author’s line of reasoning is that because Robin has been paid similar amounts of money to work in other films that were financially successful, it is likely that “3003” will also be financially successful if Robin stars in it. This argument is unconvincing in two important respects. The main problem with this argument involves the author’s assumption that the financ

GMAT AWA 224篇范文.pdf

GMAT AWA 224篇范文_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区 暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载|举报文档GMAT AWA 224篇范文_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。目 录 1 109 题 ...

GMAT AWA 224篇范文GMAT写作必备.doc

暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载|举报文档 GMAT AWA 224篇范文GMAT写作必备_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。写作之前看的,比较有参考意义目录...

一战GMAT 760,一个半月自学复习心经.doc

暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载 | 举报文档 一战GMAT 760,一个半月自学复习心经_英语...作文也是两周前开始看 AWA 224 篇 范文,其实也就看了前面的 20 多篇大概...

GMAT AWA 224篇范文.doc

暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载|举报文档 GMAT AWA 224篇范文_外语学习_教育专区。gmat目录1 109 题 Argument 范文 ... 13 1. The following appeared as part of...

GMAT阅读精解全文阅读_GMAT阅读精解免费阅读.txt

并有针对性地提供了解题注意事项;第二部分“GMAT阅读强化训练”提供了21组阅读

考前十天冲刺GMAT写作.doc

暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载 | 举报文档 考前十天冲刺GMAT写作_英语考试_外语学习...前两天看了几篇 224 范文,大概有了思路,综合各种范文模板做了自己的开头结尾的...

GMAT资料下载地址大全.doc

《GRE 阅读剖析及全真题解读》(杨继)(7.91M) 下载 (2003 年 10 月 15 ...down.jxue.com/exam/ChaseDream_AWA_Sim.rar (5)GMAT 作文 224 篇(含题目...

民族的-008年中考满分作文224篇doc - 2008年中考满分作文.doc

暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载 民族的-008年中考满分作文224篇doc - 2008年中考满分作文_其它_总结/汇报_实用文档。11 2008 年中考满分作文 124 篇(含目录,更新版...

每一篇阅读理解都是GMAT写作的Issue部分的最好的素材库.doc

每一篇阅读理解都是GMAT写作的Issue部分的最好的素材库_高中作文_高中教育_教育...现在,我们拿 GRE 阅读 NO 题的 NO8-1 这篇文章做 一个示范,来说明一下...

GMAT阅读机经整理:Art生产力.pdf

智课网GMAT备考资 料 GMAT阅读机经整理:Art生产力 3月2日换库后,小编为大家整理这个月的GMAT阅读机经,这篇G MAT阅读机经是关于Art生产力的文章,考生朋友可以...

杀G结束,感叹PACE很重要.doc

杀 G 结束,感叹 PACE 很重要,希望对大家的 GMAT ...224 篇范文破题破了 90 道吧,练笔练了 10 篇...数学很多都是机经,前 3 篇阅读都是机经,太多机经...

【超多超全】GRE英语复习资料大全.rar.doc

新 GRE 作文大讲堂-方法、素材、题目剖析.rar 新 GRE 作文题目分类 .rar 新...阅读 39+3 全攻略.pdf 词汇分类整理.pdf 费费 GMAT 逻辑宝典及解析.rar ...

我是如何一战拿下GMAT 770 的.doc

以下是大神给出的关于 GMAT 超全干货及技 巧,接...所以 IR 没怎么复习,作文也是本周周一才开始准备。...抱歉这篇主要是我个人的经验,如果英文底子本来不太...

GMAT数学机经201-300(更新于1.31)_图文.pdf

GMAT 数学机经 201-300 更新日志 1.22 23:00,更新至 210 1.23 23:50,更新至 240,改正 207 1.24 22:30,更新至 250,改正 224 1.25 22:00,更新至 258,...

对224篇电休克治疗文章的再分析_论文.pdf

暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载 对224篇电休克治疗文章的再分析_临床医学_医药卫

关于出国的考试.doc

笔试当天依 次进行听力、 阅读作文的考查, 在...(2)issue224篇可参照修锐老师的分类(blog 地址:...我将其分类整理后,一共50多个, 全都写好了段子...

GRE 托福 雅思 技术贴.txt

考生将在电脑前依次完成阅读、听力、口语和作文四大...(2)issue224篇可参照修锐老师的分类(blog地址:http...有限的,我将其分类整理后,一共50多个,全都写好...