Part 1 A Brief Introduction to Stylistics
? 1)Discuss the position of stylistics in linguistics and applied linguistics.
Language Teaching Stylistics Soico Tra Pragmatics
Theoretical Linguistic s
Linguistics can be defined as the scientific study of language. It contains two parts: theoretical linguistics (phonology, phonetics, morphology, syntax and semantics) and applied linguistics (pragmatics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, etc). Applied linguistics can be defined in two ways. In its narrow sense, it only refers to language teaching. In its broad sense, it refers to any activities which employ linguistic theories. Stylistics is just one branch of applied linguistics.
2) Speak out anything you know related to stylistics.
? ? ? ?
figure of speech, style, discourse, text, etc.
2. Examples ? In order to have a complete understanding of stylistics, we will first of all look at the following examples to see what stylistics does. ? (1) A Grief Ago ? ------ Dylan Thomas：A Grief Ago ? (2) I kissed thee eer I killed thee. ? ------ Shakespeare：Othello ? (3) 先喝鲜过瘾 ? ------ 汇源鲜果饮广告
The first example is from Dylan Thomas‘s poemA Grief Ago.doc. We can see the line is a typical example of deviation( 偏 离 ), which means the breaking of normal rules of linguistic structure, whether phonological, graphological, lexical, syntactic or semantic. The phrase breaks two rules of the normal use of English. Firstly syntactically after the indefinite article ―a‖, there should be a countable noun which can be pluralized, not an uncountable noun which can not be pluralized. ―Grief‖ is an uncountable noun; however, the indefinite article ―a‖ is used before it. Therefore, the indefinite article ―a‖ clashes syntactically with the uncountable noun ―grief‖.
Secondly, semantically ―ago‖ usually modifies a noun to do with time, such as ―day, week, month, year‖, but ―grief‖ is a noun which has to do with emotion. Therefore, the post-modifying adverb ―ago‖ clashes semantically with the head word ―grief‖.
The highly deviant nature of the phrase attracts much attention from the reader to itself, and thus makes it possible for the poet to express what cannot be expressed through the normal use of language. We can say, by deviation, Thomas appears to be measuring ―time‖ in term of ―emotion‖. Why does the author want to measure time in term of grief? What does the author want to express by the way? What is the function of the expression? Do you know some ancient ways to measure time? By water, sand, rope…
Therefore it is not unreasonable to suggest that the speaker of the poem may have experienced grief repeatedly so that he can measure time in terms of it.
The second line is extracted from Shakespeare‘s play: Othello. It is a typical example of repetition( 重 复 ), which can be defined as the overuse of a particular linguistic feature. We can analyze the repetition of the line from the following three aspects. (1) Lexically, the words ―I‖ and ―thee‖ are repeated.
(2) Phonologically, the words ―kissed‖ and ―killed‖ are repeated in a number of ways. (a)Alliteration（押头韵）: repetition of /k/ sound. the repetition of previous initial consonant. (b) Assonance （ 半 韵 、 元 音 叠 韵 ） : the repeated vowel /i/. the repetition of vowel but with a different end consonant. (c) Syllable structure: both kiss and kill have the same syllable structure: cvcc (c: consonant, v: vowel). (d) The second morpheme ―-ed‖: as the past tense marker (the inflectional morpheme)
(3) Syntactically, (a) the two clauses have the same sentence type: S + V + O, (b) in the same tense: past tense. (c) the two words ―kissed and killed‖ play the same grammatical function: both as predicators within parallel clause.
Therefore we may find that the line ―I kissed thee eer I killed thee‖ combines contrast and similarity. On the one hand, ―kissed‖ and ―killed‖ have opposite connotation, the former being associated with love, and the latter with hatred and aggression. On the other hand, the sentence as a whole suggests that they are similar by the repetitions of so many aspects, which implies that the two words kissed and killed are compatible actions. As a result, on a wider scale, this parallelism (repetition) summarizes with great concentration the paradox of Othello‘s jealousy, and the irony of his final tragedy.
The final example comes from an advertisement on a bottle containing fresh juice. In order to attract consumers, we can see that the producer of the advertisement write the five Chinese words 先喝先过 瘾 in a different way. Firstly the second word 先 is replaced by another phonologically same / identical word 鲜, which gives consumers an impression that the juice in the bottle is fresh, thus causes them to choose the juice. Here we may easily find the producer of the advertisement creates the phrase ―先喝鲜过瘾” from the normal expression ― 先喝先过瘾” . The method is called parody.
Secondly these words are printed in different colors and different word sizes. The word 鲜 is printed in green while the other four in blue. Meanwhile the word 鲜 is printed in bigger/larger word size. We can see the author of the advertisement deviates from the normal use of language in producing the advertisement in order to achieve certain goal: to attract his or her consumers by impressing them significantly.
3. Style & stylistics 3.1 style
? 3.1.1 Xu Youzhi’s view ? According to Xu Youzhi, the word style has been used in many ways. ? Style may refer to a person’s distinctive language habits, or the set of individual characteristics of language use, as Shakespeare’s style, Miltonic style, the style of James Joyce. ? Style may refer to a set of collective characteristics of language use, that is, language habits shared by a group of people at a given time, as Elizabethan style, in a given place, as Yankee humor, amidst a given occasion, as the style of public speaking.
Style may refer to the effectiveness of a mode of expression, which is implied in the definition of style as “saying the right thing in the most effective way” or “the good manners” as a clear or refined style. Style may refer solely to a characteristic of “good” or “beautiful” literary writing among literary critics as grand style, ornate style, lucid style, plain style etc. given to literary works. According to Mr. Xu, style can be regarded as the language habits of a person or group of persons in a given situation. As different situation tend to yield different varieties of a language which in turn display different linguistic features, so style may be seen as the various characteristic uses of language that a person or group of persons make in various social contexts.
3.1.2 Liu Shisheng’s view(1998) Liu Shisheng’s study shows us that the word style has three aspects of meaning (1998:8): 1) the manner of expression in writing and speaking, which changes at all times according to the actual situational elements, eg. the participants, time, place, topic etc. of the communicative event, from very formal to very informal. 2) The register, which refers to the special variety of language used by a particular social group that may have a common profession, eg. doctors, lawyers, teacher, or the same interest, eg. stamp collectors, football fans, etc.
3)The set of linguistic features that seem to be characteristic of a text, eg, the style of Keats’s “Ode to a Nightingale” or of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, or of an author, eg, Shakespearean style or Miltonic style. These aspects of dictionary meaning only account for the broadest sense of the concept of style. In practice, generations of stylists have enriched the concept so much that the issue of the style becomes more and more complex. There have been many views of style, but there is no one that is generally acknowledged. Then Liu lists 31 views of style (1998:9-11).
3.1.3 Wang Shouyuan’s view According to Wang Shouyuan (2000:1122), to carry out a stylistic analysis, it is necessary to first of all be clear about what it is in literary text that should be described. However the question of what style is is an issue that has caused heated dispute.
1) style as deviation One of the views mentioned by Widdowson is that the distinctiveness of a literary text resides in its departure from the characteristics of what is communicatively normal. This had led to approach to style as deviance.
One of the chief proponents, and perhaps the earliest, of the concept of style as deviance was Jan Mukarovsky, a leading linguist and literary critic of the Prague School in the 1930s. His famous essay Standard Language and Poetic Language has been regarded as a classic in stylistics. In this essay, he states that “the violation of the norm of standard, its systematic violation is what makes possible the poetic utilization of language; without this possibility there would be no poetry”. According to Mukarovsky, normal used of language “automatize” language to such an extent that its speakers no longer see its expressive or aesthetic power; poetry must “deautomatize” language by breaking the rules of everyday language.
To demonstrate what Mukarovsky’s statements mean,
let us first quote a classic example, the phrase “a grief ago” from a poem of that name by Dylan Thomas. The phrase violates two rules of English: a)the indefinite article a clashes syntactically with the uncountable noun grief, because it normally modifies a countable noun; b)the postmodifying adverb ago clashed semantically with the head word grief, for it usually is able to modify a noun to do with time, such as days, weeks, years, months etc. But grief is a word which expresses emotion. The highly deviant nature of the phrase attracts much attention from the reader to itself, and thus makes it possible for the poet to express what can not be expressed through the normal use of language. Thomas here seems to be measuring time in terms of emotion. Therefore it is not unreasonable to suggest that the speaker of the poem may have experiences grief repeatedly so that he can measure time in terms of it.
Another frequently quoted example is e.e.cummings’ poem anyone lived in a pretty how town. This poem show not only the extremity of rule violations in poetry, but also the systematicity of violations. Here is part of the poem: anyone lived in a pretty how town (with us so floating many bells down) spring summer autumn winter he sang his didn’t he danced his did Women and men (both little and small) Cared for anyone not at all They sowed their isn’t they reaped their same sun moon star rain
To avoid complications let us limit our discussion here only to the use of auxiliaries in the poem fragment. There are three auxiliaries in the part of the poem: didn’t, did, and isn’t. They are all used in positions where we normally employ common nouns and therefore, they obviously violate a syntactic rule. Each of these auxiliaries on its own, we may find, does not seem to make much sense. However, because they are used systematically, that is, in the same way, we are able to impose some kind of interpretation upon them. Here didn’t and did can be taken as antonyms. A possible interpretation, we could construct for the last two lines of the first stanza, therefore, may go as follows: all the year around, he greeted with equal happy things, acts or actions of opposite consequences that came to him.
The approach of style as deviance as introduced above has the advantage of helping us to see and keep in mind that there is a difference between everyday language and the language of literature. It also helps us realize that deviant features provide important clues for interpretation. It also has a number of disadvantages. The chief disadvantage is that it is difficult to define the nature and the status of the norm from which style of a text deviates. Another disadvantage is that of “encouraging the linguist to look at the language of grammatically highly deviant authors like e.e.cummings at the expense of the relatively non-deviant ones such as T.S. Eliot. More generally it tends to undervalue all non-deviant language, both within literature and without. Therefore the theoretical assumption that aesthetic effects can be achieved through deviance needs to be questioned.
2) style as choice By style as choice is meant that style results from a tendency of a speaker or writer to consistently choose certain structures over others available in the language. With the view we can distinguish between style and language by saying that language is the sum total of the structures available to the speaker, while style concerns the characteristic choices in a given context.
Style as choice is often considered to be a matter of form or expression, that is, as choice among different ways of expressing a predetermined context. However it only takes a moment or two to reflect that writer also choose content. In the discussion of Enkvist’ paper, On the Place of Style in Some Linguistic Theories, it is pointed out that “Hemingway elects to write about men of action --- bull fighter, deep-sea fishermen, soldiers, big-game hunters --- is as much a stylistic fact as his habit of writing in short, simple sentences, preferring the dramatic to the interior monologue point of view in narration, etc.
The evidence of choice-making can be found in authors’ manuscripts. Here we will cite an interesting case which was once considered by Short. In writing The Eve of St Agnes, Keats first produced the line, “As though a rose should close and be a bud again”. But as he re-read the line, he substituted the word “shut” for “close”: “As though a rose should shut and be a bud again”. On a first casual reading we may get the impression that since the two words (close and shut) are synonyms, the replacement of one with the other does not make much difference, and therefore is unnecessary.
But when we scrutinize the two versions, we may decide that shut is a much better choice. The word close in the first version connects backwards to rose to form an internal thyme, which add some poetic quality to the line, since internal rhyme is one of those features associated traditionally and typically with poetry. However, this connection is made only within the first part of the line. Furthermore, the connection does not in any way reinforce the meaning of the connected words, nor indeed that of the entire line. Therefore we may say that it is rhyme for rhyme’s sake.
In contrast with close, the choice of shut is appropriate and significant in three respects. a) It connects forward phonetically to bud, thus forming a semi-rhyme or assonance. It also connects backward to should phonetically and visually and to rose with which it forms the next immediate constituent. Because the above connections run across both parts of the line instead of just one, the unity of the line is greatly strengthened. b) The phonetic connection it forms with bud underlines the semantic connection between the two words, for shut semantically relates to bud in terms of the shape of the flower（bud shut), while close does not have this relation(?????).
C) When we compare the choice of shut with the choice of close phonetically, there is another interesting point to be made. Notice that the vowel / Λ/ before a voiceless consonant /t/ in the word shut takes a much shorter duration to produce than the diphthong /au/ before a voiced consonant /z/ in the word close. Notice also that the consonant /t/ is a plosive which is produced with a rapid release of compressed air leading to short and sharp explosion, while the consonant /z/ is a sibilant(齿 擦音) which is produced with the blade of the tongue making almost complete contact with the alveolar ridge （齿垠） but leaving a narrow groove along its median line. Therefore, the production of the word shut may produce a sense of suddenness and abruptness in contrast with the production of the word close. This greatly reinforces the meaning of the line.
贾 岛 的 诗 句 ： 僧 推 / 敲 月 下 门 is the same case. (Homework: Ask them to look for more information about Jia Dao’s poem)
To say that style is choice is not the same as saying that it is always conscious choice. The effect of conscious choice is no doubt more apparent in literature than in other types of discourse, yet a sense of the “best way of putting something” in any type of discourse can be purely intuitive or even habitual. If a writer had to make choice consciously all the time at different linguistic levels, it is not difficult to imagine how long it would take to produce anything at all, and consequently how little literature we would have in today’s literature storehouse.
The view that style is choice is a broader view. It may in some way subsume the view of style as deviance, for deviance is only one aspect of the language of literature. However, like the view of style as deviance, it also has limitations. For example, it implies that every linguistic element in a text is a choice of the writer and therefore should be included in a discussion of the style of the text it is in (Wright, Laura & Jonathan Hope, 2000, Stylistics: A Practical Course book. 就是这样 , we can only summarize that every linguistic element in a text is the potential choice of the writer) . But this is obviously not the case. Our experience and intuition tell us that in interpreting a text, only a certain number of elements are interesting and relevant to the interpretation. The stylistician must select those features that are most relevant to his discussion and ignore the irrelevant ones in order to make a coherent and convincing interpretation.
3) style as foregrounding We have examined two views of style at some length. Each view as we have found has its own strengths and weaknesses. There is a further view of style which appears to be a compromise between them. This is the view of style as foregrounding. The term foregrounding is concept of pictorial arts, referring to that part of the composition that appears to be closest to the view. The concept was applied to literature first by the pre-war Prague School linguists and literary critics, such as Mukarovsky, to refer to the unexpected departures from the accepted norms. This was discussed above when we examine the view of style as deviance.
The proponents of the view of style as foregrounding extended the concept to include both the deviant features and those linguistic phenomena which are not deviant, but nevertheless striking. The latter are what Leech refers to as “the opposite circumstance, in which a writer temporarily renounces （refuse, give up） his permitted freedom of choice, introducing uniformity where there would normally be diversity”. Consider the following parallel structure for example: When he laughed, respectable senators burst with laughter And when he cried the little children died in the streets --- From: W.H.Auden, Epitaph on a Tyrant
Auden could have chosen a different structure for each line, yet he limited himself to the same option. The parallel structure here draws the attention of the reader and makes him see the semantic connection (?????contrast) between the two lines. Therefore this is a type of foregrounding.
The view of style as foregrounding is explained in Short’s article Who Is Stylistics?: A. When a writer writes he is constantly involved in making linguistic choices --- choices between one word and another, one structure and another, and so on. B. Examination of the choices that he makes (as opposed to the ones that he rejects) can help us to understand more fully the meaning he is trying to create and the effects he is striving to achieve. C. He can make choices both inside and outside the language system. Choices outside the language system are deviant and thus produce foregrounding. D. Overregularity of a particular choice within the system (eg. Parallel) also produces foregrounding. (From Short, in Foreign Language No.5/84, p.21)
The notion of style as foregrounding, which seems to be an integration of the two views already discussed, may theoretically raise problems similar to those that the other approaches have. However it has two obvious advantages over the other approaches: 1) it can account for certain aspects of non-deviant language in literature which the approach of style as deviance fails to do; 2)compared with the view of style as choice, the view of style as foregrounding leaves much less to personal judgment, that is, the identification and selection of stylistically relevant features for analysis are less of a problem for those taking the view of style as foregrounding.
Leech points out: “Foregrounding is a useful, even crucial concept in stylistics, providing a bridge between the relative objectivity of linguistic description and the relative subjectivity of literary judgment. It is a criterion by which we may select from a mass of linguistic detail, those features relevant to literary effects.”
1.3.4 Our view
We can see from the above statements that importance is attached to the concept of choice. However the most weight is given to two major types of choices, that is, choices that are deviant and those that are overregular, for they both produce foregrounding. This is to say that it is foregrounding features that are stylistically relevant and merit consideration in a stylistic analysis. In other words, style is foregrounding.
Therefore, in our course, we will accept the foregrounding theory of style, and the style will be treated as the stylistic features which are foregrounding. The view of style as choice and the view of style as deviation provide us with definite features and help us get the idea of which features are foregrounding. We can see that the linguistic features, whether they belong to deviance, choice, or the communicatively normal linguistic features, whether they may appear in literary texts or in non-literary texts (in any register), if they are foregrounding and help authors to express their real intentions or the real meaning of the work, they may be treated as style. We may study two kinds of style in our course: the language habits (stylistic features) of a person or a group of persons and the language habits (stylistic features) of certain register.
Style can be treated as the sum of stylistic features which are foregrounding in a text or which belong to an individual person or group. Foreground refers to figuratively most noticeable position or part in a text. To foreground means to put something or someone in the most essential part of the description or narration, other than in a background position.
The view of style as choice and the view of style as deviation*** by providing us with definite features, help us get the idea of which features are foregrounding. Therefore, we can see that when the linguistic features, whether they belong to deviance, choice, or the communicatively normal linguistic features, whether they may appear in literary texts or in non-literary texts, when foregrounded, help authors or speakers to express their real intentions or the theme of a text, they may be treated as stylistic features, and the sum of these features may as well be treated as style.
? What is stylistics? ? The study of style. ? It is a branch of applied linguistics which studies style in a text or discourse, and how it helps authors or speakers to express their real intentions or the theme of a text.
4. Stylistic features
? How to define stylistic features? ? As we discuss the term style, we show our view that style can be treated as stylistic features which are foregrounding. Therefore, we can see that the linguistic features, whether they belong to deviate, or the communicatively normal linguistic features, whether they may appear in literary texts or in non-literary texts (in any register), if they are foregrounding and help authors to express their real intentions or the theme of the work, they may be treated as stylistic features.
? In short, stylistic features refer to linguistic features which contribute to the expression of the theme of a text or the realization of a speaker’s real intention.
4.1 Normal linguistic features
? Normal linguistic features choice
Three levels of stylistic features A situational variety of language can be seen as a complex of features describable by reference to a number of contextual categories. The categories, in turn, can be defined with reference to sets of linguistic features distinctive of a situation, which operate at some or all the levels of language. These situationally bound features are stylistically significant features --what we call stylistic features. In order to find out all the items of stylistic significance in a text, we can collect data from one level of its language to another.
2.1 At the first level The first level --- phonology and graphology will be discussed under the headings of phonological features and graphological features respectively. 2.1.1 Phonological features Since we have segmentals --- sounds broken into smallest units: consonants and vowels, and suprasegmentals (also prosodic features) --- sounds that extend over longer stretches of spoken text, coexisting with the segmentals that occupy those stretches, such as stress, rhythm, and intonation, we will discuss phonological features in two aspects: segmental features and supra-segmental features.
1. Segmental features Individual sounds can be stylistically significant in several ways. 1) Onomatopoeia: the use of words which imitate natural sounds, like cuckoo for the bird that utter this cry, moo for sounds made by a cow, bang for the noise with the opening of the door as in the sentence ―The door banged open.‖ The use of these isolated sounds may reflect aspects of reality
2)Sound symbolism: certain sound clusters may relate to sound symbolism referring to the sounds felt to be in some way appropriate to the meaning expressed. For instance, the initial slin words like slide, slip, slither, slush, sluice, sludge, sleak is often symbolic of slipperiness, ash in words like bash, crash, smash, trash suggests violent impact. (For more detailed study, see also papers in Foreign Language Teaching).
3) Repetition of sounds may arouse addressee‘s sensitivity to the sound quality of a text. The methods used for repetition of sounds may include alliteration, assonance, rhyme, consonance, reverse rhyme, pararhyme etc.
a)Alliteration（头韵）: repetition of the previous initial consonant, as in Round the rock runs the river. b) Assonance （元音叠韵） : repetition of the stressed vowel but with a different end consonant, as in sharper and garter, plain and plate. c) Rhyme（押韵）: repetition of the vowel with the same end consonant, as in feat and beat and sweet. d)Consonance（假韵）: syllables ending with the same consonant/consonants are described as having consonance, as in will and all. e) Reverse rhyme（倒尾韵） describes syllables sharing the vowel and initial consonant (rather than the vowel and the final consonant as is the case in rhyme), as in with and will. f) Pararhyme （ 类 尾 韵 ） refers to the fact that two syllables have the same initial and final consonants but different vowels, as in love and live.
Exercise: analyze the following two lines from Marlowe‘s poem ―The Passionate Shepherd‖ and determine all the different kinds of sound patterns. (See Thornborrow, 2000:31) Come live with me and be my love And we will all the pleasures prove
The answer: assonance (come, love), consonance (will, all), alliteration (me, my), pararhyme (live, love), reverse rhyme (with, will), half rhyme (love, prove),
2 Supra-segmental features Distinctive features can mainly be found running over a sequence of sound segments. These features are supra-segmental features. 1) Stress (word stress and sentence stress) Stress is the prominence (the force and intensity of air coming from the lung --- loudness) given to one part of a word or longer utterance. Word stress is important in making a difference in meaning in word, compounds and phrases (Dai weidong 1998). For example: extract, impact, content, convert, record, permit, protect, blackboard, greenhouse, toy factory etc.
Stress in connected speech is subject to the speaker‘s will and the meaning he or she wishes to convey, such as the use of contrastive stress which is capable of highlighting any word in a sentence, even a word or part of a word that is not usually stressed. For instance (each word in the sentence can be stressed and express d different meaning): Bill and I won the competition. I am a student. Stress each word in the sentences in turn and determine how the meaning of the sentence is changed.
2) Rhythm Rhythm is the pattern formed by the stress perceived as peaks of prominence or beats. Strongly stressed syllables occur at somewhat regular intervals of time, thus form rhythm. It exists not only in poetry language, but also in speech. In verse, the regularity of rhythm is hightened, and we will discuss it later. In speech there are generally three types of rhythm: a) a type which requires all or most of the contentwords fully stressed and is pronounced in a rather leisurely and deliberate way; b)a type which has some content-words unstressed and is pronounced in a rather brisk and lively way; and c)a type which requires only a few stress fro special prominence so as to convey a particular attitude or emphasis.
3) Intonation Pitch is the level of voice, high or low. Intonation is the distinctive pattern of rise and fall in pitch, taking place during connected speech.Tonic syllable (语调) is the syllable on which a change of pitch begins. The first prominent syllable is the onset, commonly preceded by one or more unstressed syllables pronounced on a low pitch. There are five basic tones in English: fall, rise, moderate rise, fall-rise, and rise-fall. Different tones convey different meanings. Take OH for example, with a moderate rise, it may express initial receipt of information; with a falling pitch, it may express disappointment; with a fast rising pitch, puzzlement; with a fall and then a rise, excitement; with a rise-fall, dismay.
4) Pitch height and pitch range The point on the pitch scale at which a stressed syllable occurs in relation to the previous syllable is what we call pitch height. The amount of pitch movement has a normal range pattern. With a wide or narrow range, various attitude such as excitement, warmth can be shown. This width of pitch movement on the tonic syllable or from stress to stress is called pitch range.
In speech, fluctuation in pitch height and pitch range can involve the audience deeper in what is being conveyed and add to its dramatic effect.
5) Pause Pause is the temporary stop or silence in the flow of speech utterance together with the tone unit. Voiced pause such as /m/, /a:/. /am/ often shows the normal non-fluency of causal or spontaneous speech, or the speaker‘s signal that he or she is not yet through, or sometimes the speaker‘s hesitation or nervousness. Silent pause occurs regularly in line with grammatical structure: at the end of sentences of clauses, or word groups, or at the boundary between words. Yet it is also stylistically significant for some spoken varieties of English, when the speaker uses it to involve the audience deeper in what she or he is talking about, or when he or she is too excited. Public speaking, drama, and film lay heavy store by pause.
6) Tempo Tempo refers to the relative speed of utterance. A slow tempo is related to special care and seriousness whereas a fast tempo suggests an off-hand dismissal or cheerful levity. Also when a speaker is excited or impatient, she or he tends to speak at a quicker tempo. When hesitant, doubtful or low-spirit, she or he tends to slow down. Thus an utterance: ―What did you tell her just now? See how upset she is!‖ may convey the anger and reproach of the speaker when said in a fast tempo, or his or her disappointment and pain when said in a slow tempo.
2.1.2 Graphological features Graphological features concerns the use of the alphabet, the number system, punctuation, capitalization, headlining, italicizing, bracketing, diagramming, paragraphing, spacing etc. Different registers make particular use of the graphological features: size of print and capitalization in newspaper layouts; various type sizes and styles in dictionaries; placement of blocks in legal document; special line lengths in poetry; different density of punctuation in different texts etc. Much modern advertising employs type size and style, logos, spacing, white space, linelength rhythms, often blending pictures with graphological patterns, making its design an art.
In literature, experiment has been made with aspects of the written medium for expressive effects. This is especially true in poetry, where literary effect is based on design in the visual field --- the novelty in layout, manipulation of sense lines, or the clustering of alphabet symbols into non-verbal patterns. Here we have a poem whose visual element is fundamental to its meaning: She loves me She loves me not She loves She loves me She She loves She --- Emmett Williams (From Xu Youzhi 1992)
How to read it? Unlike other poems that we can hear to understand, this is a poem we must see to understand. The pleasure in the poem comes from solving the visual problem. What is the pattern that produces the poem? This poem has a stripping effect like the stripping away of daisy-petals. Each subsequent repetition of the two base lines of the poem is diminished by one word. So we see that our lover becomes more and more at a loss for words and his mistress eventually prefers her own company. Read diagonally from the bottom left upward to the right, or read vertically, the remaining isolated words will form a statement: She loves me not.
2.2 At the second level The second level is grammar level, which has two components: syntactics and lexis. We will focus on the possible significance of syntactic structure and the distribution of lexical items in a text. 2.2.1 Syntactic features 1. Sentence type Discuss different sentence types: Declarative, interrogative, imperative or exclamatory Simple, compound, complex or compound-complex Complete or elliptical Periodic or loose
(1)The stylistic analysis of sentence types may tell us such things as whether a variety makes use of a particular type of sentence to the exclusion of others. For instance, whether it uses only statements (as in reports, journalism, science thesis), or it also use questions (as in conversation), commands (as in sermons).
(2) The analysis may also show us whether a text consists solely of simple sentences or of a high proportion of elliptical sentences which is characteristic of informal speech or personal letters, whether it shows a preference for a particular kind of complex sentence pattern, as dependent clauses preceding the main clause (periodic sentence) which is the characteristic of writing rather than speech and of formal kinds of prose, as contrasted with loose sentence (a complex sentence in which the main clause comes first, often found in speech or informal kind of prose.
(3) The analysis may tell us whether there is any repetition of the same structural pattern, which is called parallelism, and a feature of prose styles and public oratory for emphasis, such as: Out of sight, out of mind. He came, he saw, he conquered. It was the best of times, it was the worst of time, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness … --- Dickens: A Tale of Two City
(4) The analysis may show us whether there is any question which does not expect an answer, since it really asserts something that is known to the addressee, and cannot be denied. This is called rhetorical question, eg If winter comes, can spring be far behind? Wasn‘t I on the scene of crime?
(5) The analysis may reveal the average sentence length in a text. Shorter sentences are often found in speech or on other informal occasions, such as advertising, new headlines, slogans, whereas longer sentences are used in writing or on other formal occasions such as science theses, official documents, formal speeches.
2. Clause type Discuss different clause types: Independent clause or dependent clause Non-finite structures (infinitive / -ing / -ed structures) Coordinate clause or subordinate clause Also clause elements: subject, predicator, object, complement, adverbial
Stylistic analysis of clause types may tell us (1) what types of dependent clauses are favoured: relative, adverbial, nominal (that- or wh-); what types of non-finite structure are common; (2) whether there is anything distinctive about the elements of structure: the proportion of nouns to verbs, frequency of objects, complements, adverbials, frequency of transitive verb constructions; (3) whether there are any unusual orderings such as fronting of object or complement, predicator before subject, initial adverbials, etc.
3. Group type Group type discusses various types of nominal groups and verbal groups. (1) Nominal groups consist of a noun, or pronoun, numeral, some non-finite or nominal structures operating as head with or without modification. There are two types of such groups: premodified nominal groups (head with premodification in front of it, as those seven clever men) and postmodified nominal groups (head followed by postmodification, as visitors from England who arrived last week).
(2) Verbal groups consist of a lexical verb operating as head, with or without one or more auxiliaries preceding it, as in I shall have to go. In terms of complexity of nominal groups, varieties are to be found which have hardly any premodification or postmodification at all, such as in conversation; some are typed by complex premodification as in journalism and science, and others by complex postmodification as in legal document.
Various features of the verbal group relevant from a stylistic angle will indicate (1) whether a variety is restricted in the tense forms it uses as in commentary; (2) whether it is restricted in the use of aspectual contrasts (ie. The distinction between I go and I am going); (3) whether passive forms are frequent as in some types of scientific writing; and (4) whether contracted forms of the verb are common as in casual conversation, advertising, or informal writing.
4. Word type Word type is discussed in terms of traditional morphology: root, prefix and suffix. Under this heading, we may note what distinctive types of word formation are there in a text: (1) frequent compounds, (2) complex affixation, (3) deviant forms such as portmanteau words (also called blending words: words made by combining two words, as motel = motor + hotel), (4) nonce words (words coined for one occasion), (4) conversion (for instance: a noun changes into a verb, as Don’t brother me), (5) puns (humourous use of words which sound the same or of two meanings of the same word, as in Is life worth living? It depends on the liver.
Distinction can be found between texts in which there are many deviant types of word formation as in advertisement and news reporting, and texts in which there are few of those types occurring as in legalese.
2.2.2 Lexical features Under lexicology, we shall discuss the distinction of individual words in a text. 1. General wording inclination The analysis of general wording inclination may show: (1) Whether the vocabulary of a text is simple or complex. (a) The complexity can be measured by the number of morphemes a word has, as un-friend-li-ness has four morphemes, or simply by the number of syllables in a word. (b) Generally the more formal / informative a text is, the more complex its vocabulary.
(2) Whether its vocabulary is descriptive or evaluative. In narrative biography, travelogue etc. its vocabulary tends to be descriptive, while in reviews, project or experiment assessments, certain kinds of journalistic article, etc. evaluative vocabulary plays an important role. (3) Whether its vocabulary is general or specific (as good food contrasted with tasty, nourishing, rich, fresh food). (4) Whether there is any use of rare or specialized or Latinate vocabulary (words like hereinafter that occur in legal language).
(5)Whether there are any idiomatic expressions associated with certain dialects or registers. For instance, many lexical idioms are clearly common in colloquial speech, as ―He‘s kicked the bucket‖; many phrasal verb idioms like make up, do away with, get off are often found in informal rather than formal varieties.
(6) Whether the nouns are abstract or concrete. Nouns like happiness, idea, punishment, and other words referring to events, perceptions, processes, moral qualities, social qualities belong to abstract nouns. Nouns like book, jeep, house, water and other words referring to concrete things or materials belong to concrete nouns.
(7) Whether the verbs are static or dynamic. Verbs referring to the state of affairs like be, have, love, resemble, think, own etc. belong to static verbs. Verbs referring to actions, events, etc. like rain, shine, drink, write, improve, catch, shoot etc. belong to dynamic verbs. (8) Whether the adjectives and adverbs are frequent. This is the case in advertisement.
2. Connotative meaning Connotative meaning refers to all kinds of associative meaning that words may evoke, particularly in certain emotional, situational contexts, over and above the basic or central referential meanings (called denotative meaning) of words. For instance, home has a denotative meaning: a dwelling place, but to many people, it also has a connotative meaning: domesticity (warm, gentle and fragrant feeling); rose is a kind of plant, but it has a connotation of love; night and thunder connote evil or mystery; stars imply steadfastness.
In discussing the lexis of a text, we should notice whether there are words with rich connotative meaning or heavy stylistic coloring. (1) Many words have a favorable meaning (such as slim/slender or plump), (2) many neutral (thin or fleshy), and (3) many derogatory (skinny or fat). Meanwhile we must know that there is an element of subjectivity involved in connotative meaning: words may evoke different connotations to people of different nations, ethnic groups and other social background. For instance, white symbolized purity in the western countries, but is associated with funeral in China.
In literature, connotative meanings are particular exploited and expected, but in the register of science and other technical or informative registers, associated meanings are suppressed with only the desired denotative meanings retained. Indeed, many words have acquired stylistic coloring in their long time of use. Some words are colloquial to be used in intimate conversation, personal letters etc. whereas others are literary to be used in contracts, legal documents, formal letters, etc.
(1) Slang: colloquial usage characteristic of some social dialect (2) Archaisms: color a text with antiqueness, and hence solemnity, found in the language of liturgy like firthwith, ye, thou, takest, etc. or in legal language like witnessth, aforesaid etc. and especially in poetic language. (3)Neologism: often found in news reporting, scientific writings and popular literary writing. (4) Jargon: chiefly used in science and technology. (5) Argot: related to certain groups of people such as thieves. All the above five kinds of words have their stylistic coloring or connotative meanings.
3. Collocation The term collocation can be explained in two ways: traditional way and functional way. In its traditional sense, it refers to the habitual or expected co-occurrence of words (搭 配), for instance, in the morning, good morning, do away with, get rid of etc. Here we can find that the term collocation is discussed from the syntactic point of view. That is, a lexical item of a particular word class tends to collocate with another lexical item. There is a fixed syntactic-lexical relation between them. Moreover, collocation also has an inexplicable feature. Why should one lexeme collocate with another lexeme? Usually there is no way to account for this. We can not collocate one lexeme with another at random.
In its functional sense, it refers to the words which frequently occur in certain situations (同现). The habitual collocation of voice with active and passive, mood with declarative, imperative and interrogative, and subject with predicator, and object in English linguistics distinguishes from the voice that is raised, the mood that can be bad or good, and the subject of a discussion. In the same way, the words force, mass and energy in the English of physics have predicatable collocates which distinguish them from the force that collocates with police or third, the mass that collocates with riot, and energy of a young man.
Here we can notice that collocation is used as a term describe a group of words which occur together habitually in a language. It is generally known as ―the mutual expectancy of words‖. One can expect that words such as letter, mail, stamp, parcel, envelope will co-occur in a dialogue between a clerk and a client in a post office. And one would never be shocked if he heard words such as lesson, class, text, exercise, question, answer, examination, test in a classroom.
Therefore, we can say that habitual collocations are a recognizable feature of registers, for example, desirable residence in the advertisement, soaring price in the press. Words having similar collocational range belong to the same lexical set or field. The study of the characteristic lexical sets of a text will help reveal its major theme.
2.3 At the third level The third level belongs to semantic level. It will concentrate on how (1) the cohesive devices and (2) rhetorical devices contribute to the meaning of a text as a whole.
1. Cohesion A text is a stretch of language which forms a unity by means of its linguistic cohesion (the means of linking sentences together into larger units) and semantic cohesion (natural o reasonable connection in content). In other words, a text both coheres in its real-world context and is internally coherent (One coheres with the situation, another coheres with the linguistic devices). We naturally think of it as being realized in a string of utterances or sentences, such as scientific articles, a recipe, a poem, a lecture. In fact, even a single sentence o word can be a text that is appropriately coherent in actual use For example, a road sign bearing the word ―STOP‖, or a shou such as ―HELP!‖ or ―FIRE!‖, which is tied to a specific situation, is syntactically complete itself.
Therefore we may find that cohesion refers to the way language links within the text itself and with the situation --- the various phonological, grammatical, lexical, semantic means of making sentences into paragraphs and chapters. There are two kinds of cohesive ties: explicit and implicit.
Implicit coherent tie, which can be regarded as semantic cohesion, works best for the sequence of events and reason, as in: The policeman held up his hand. The car stopped. (cohering with the situation) He died three years ago. He was buried in London. (when…) Go and visit your mother; it‘s Spring Festival. (cohering with the situation) John hurried to the hospital. He had just had a heart attack. (time and cause)
Explicit connectivity, also called linguistic cohesion, aids clarity and underlines the structure of an argument. Roughly there are three types of explicit cohesion. 1) Transitional words or phrases Transitional words or phrases are usually exploited to show time, place, reason, addition, comparison, contrast, emphasis, exemplification, result, summary, etc. (Exercise XIV, Unit 4, Book 2 in Advance English). They include conjunctions, adverbial conjunctions, preposition phrases and other elements.
(1) time: then… eg. They‘ll be there in ten minutes. Meanwhile, we will have some coffee. (2) place: (3) reason: consequently, for, because… eg. She did not know the rules. Consequently she dies. (4) addition: (5) comparison: (6) contrast: (7) emphasis: (8) exemplification: (9) result: (10)summary:
The importance of transitional words or phrases lies in the fact that they can best show the train of thought and the focus of meaning in text.
2) Grammatical devices (1) Ellipsis Ellipsis, omission of an utterance or grammatical structure, is a common means of explicit cohesion, usefully avoiding unnecessary repetition, eg. You like swimming and Mary (likes) jogging. (verb) When the hard clay is swept clean as a floor and the fine sand around the edges (is) lined with tiny, irregular grooves, anyone can come and sit and look up into the elm tree and wait for the breezes that never come inside the house. --- Everyday use for your grandmamma (linking verb)
(I) haven‘t seen you for a long time. (subject) (Is there) anything wrong? (verb and guiding word) (It is) nice to see you again. (subject and linking verb) Do you understand? Yes. (I understand) (clause) You don‘t have to make a trip for that. I didn‘t (have to make a special trip for that) (part of predicate) My father planned (all these houses) and my brother built all these houses. (object) From the above examples, we may find every element of a sentence can be omitted.
(2) Substitution Substitution involves the replacement of one expression by another, which stands for it, eg. I have a red pen, and you have a blue one.(one = pen) I lost my watch. Get a new one for me.(one = watch) I‘ll have two poached eggs on toast. I‘ll have the same.(the same = two poached eggs on toast) Substitution is also found with verbs (do) and clauses (so), also involving ellipsis, eg. My father went to the party and my sister did too. (did = went to the party) Do you think she will come tomorrow? I don‘t think so.(so = she will come tomorrow clause) Are the Greens coming to dinner? I hope so. (so = they are coming)
He can cook as well as she does. (does = cooks) I like watching TV, so does my wife. (so does = likes watching TV) Mary didn‘t come, did she? Yes, she did. (did = came) He can speak French fluently, but I can‘t do so. (do so = speak French fluently)
(3) Co-reference （照应） Co-reference describes the relations between two nominal groups that have the same reference, ie. identify the same thing. It is often defined in terms of the means of referring to something elsewhere in the text --- either already mentioned, which is called anaphora or forward reference （前指或上指 ）, or yet to come, which is called cataphora or backward reference （后指或下指）. For instance: Listen to this: you must finish your homework in time. (cataphora) She does not know this: her grandfather died from ―the poor man‘s friend‖, pneumonia. This is the house Jack built. He who hesitates is lost. I would never have believed it. They have accepted the whole scheme.
The children next door stole a toy from my son. Their mother told them to return it, but they said it was theirs. Peter had a wife but he couldn‘t keep her. I will put you into the prison. How would you like that? By the study, we may realize that backward reference is far commoner than forward reference and is signaled by the third person pronouns and by the definite article or demonstratives（指示代词）.
3) Lexical devices (1) Lexical reiteration(词汇重复) Lexical reiteration is a means of cohesion achieved through the repetition of key words, or through the use of synonyms, near-synonyms, hyponyms and general words, so that the theme of the text is highlighted. Some even argued the use of antonyms may also achieve cohesion. Algy met a bear in the forest. The bear was hungry. (same word) I am always afraid of bears. I met a bear yesterday. (different forms of a same word: plural and singular) I strove with none, for none was worth my strife. (different forms of a word family or words sharing the same root) The reiteration of key words can make the text coherent, the theme stand out, the readers‘ impression deep.
Synonyms and antonyms (they are not restrained by the part of speech) can also function as coherent devices, eg. It was the noise of trotting horses. His dismounted and led his horse as quickly as he could along the right-hand road. The sound of the cavalry grew rapidly near…. He fell asleep(adj). What woke(verb) him was a loud crash. Everyone cheered(verb). The leader acknowledged the applause(noun).
The use of hyponyms After an hour or so --- the sun was rapidly sinking, the white clouds had turned red, the hills were violet, the woods purple, the valleys black --- a trumpet sounded. (colour)
(2) Lexical collocation Words which usually occur in certain situation (in a classroom, in the post office, in the bank) belong to a collocation and they may play a coherent role in a text, eg. Ice, cold, snow, white, night, star, candle, flame, flicker.
A summary of cohesion In the analysis of cohesion, it shows that: (1) Distinctiveness could be the frequent use of anaphora and ellipsis as in conversation. (2) The frequent use of lexical reiteration as in science articles or technical manual. (3) Informal kind of transitional words or phrases (and, so, to start with, for one thing, for another, in any case) are used in informal speech or colloquial style of writings. (4) The formal kind of transitional words or phrases(however, consequently, firstly, secondly, furthermore, in conclusion) are used in formal speech or serious writing.
2. Rhetorical devices Traditionally, figures of speech are divided into two parts: schemes （ 编 排 ） and tropes （ 转 义 ） .Schemes comprise those figures which arrange words into patterns of foregrounded regularity of form such as alliteration, parallelism; while tropes refer to those figures which twist words away from their usual meanings or collocations to produce deviations such as metaphor, oxymoron, hyperbole and irony.
1) Figurative meaning Figurative meaning is a very common type of extension of meaning for a word or an expression through sense association. It can be used to make statements more concrete, lively, beautiful and rich in humor. Such meaning can be in (a) metaphor, (b) metonymy, and (c) synecdoche. (a) Metaphor: the use of words to indicate something different from their literal meaning, as The world is a stage. I’ll make him eat his words. He has a heart of stone. Not all metaphors are nouns. Verbs can also be used metaphorically as How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon the bank. Such use often gives life to an inanimate, non-human thing; it is called personification, as The pitiless cold bites shrewdly.
There are three elements in a metaphor: tenor （本体）, vehicle（喻体） and ground （本体 和喻体的相似点）. Tenor refers to the literal meaning, vehicle refers to the figurative meaning, and ground refers to the likeness perceived between the tenor and the vehicle. Leech (1969, 151) points out that every metaphor is implicitly of the form ―X is like Y in respect of Z‖ (X is the tenor, Y is the vehicle, and Z is the ground).
(b) Metonymy: the name of one thing is applied to another closely associated with it, as I have read some of Shakespeare.(Shakespeare stands for Shakespeare’s writings). (c) Synecdoche: a part of something is used to signify the whole or vice versa, as strings for stringed instruments, China for Chinese team. Synecdoche is often found in proverbs as in Many hands make light work.(hands, one part of human, stand for man).
2) Absurdity Absurdity refers to a combination of two expressions which are semantically incompatible or a statement which is apparently self-contradictory. The formal is oxymoron ( 矛盾 修 辞法 ) and the latter paradox (自相矛盾法). They often shock reader into a fresh awareness of something that is otherwise received as commonplace, and they allow the literary writer to express a certain truth or message through apparent falsehood. For example:
Dudley Field Malone called my conviction as ―victorious defeat‖ --- The trial that rocked the world in Unit 10, Advanced English Book 2. Why, then, O brawing love, O loving hate, O anything! Of nothing first create. O heavy lightness! Serious vanity! Mis-shapen chaos of well-seeming forms! Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health! --- Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet, I.i A miserable merry Christmas As the wretched creature mumbled and chuckled in her hideous merriment, the undertaker turned to go away. --- Dickens: Oliver Twist
[(4) refers to an old woman who is described in the novel as behaving in many ways like an idiot. The surface contradiction of the two words hideous merriment aptly shows the extent of the old woman‘s idiocy.]
The major again pressed to his blue eyes the tips of the fingers that were disposed on the edge of the wheeled chair with careful carelessness, after the Cleopatra model and Mr. Dombey bowed. --- Dombey and Son [(5) shows the apparent semantic clash in the two antonyms careful and carelessness. The grouping together of the two antonyms vividly and unreservedly demonstrates the pretence and affectedness of the major.]
Paradox is a kind of extended oxymoron, for example: More haste, less speed. Man is born free and everywhere is in chains. Nurse: His name is Romeo, and a Montague. The only son of your great enemy. Juliet: My only love sprung from my only hate. Too early seen unknown and known too late! Prodigious birth of love that it is to me, That I must love a loathed enemy. --- Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet
The statement that my only love sprung from my only hate is absurd because love and hate have opposite meanings, and it is inconceivable that love can spring from hate. In the play, however, Juliet has fallen madly in love with the son of the family she has been brought up to hate. Thus, the paradox here effectively expresses Juliet‘s mixed feelings for what she has done and at the same time duly anticipate her final tragedy.
It was a bright, cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen. --- Orwell: Nineteen Eighty-Four (4) is a statement that is extremely absurd for in reality no clock strikes beyond twelve. Through the use of the paradox, Orwell seems to hint that the whole story will be absurd.
3) Honest deception Honest deception refers to the deliberate use of overstatement (called hyperbole), or understatement (called litotes), or words which are clearly opposite to what one really means (called irony).
(a) Hyperbole distorts the truth by great exaggeration, and is often used for emphasis, or implying an intensity of feeling and add interest and vividness to conversation, eg. It made my hair stand on end. Her blood boils.
A Red, Red Rose As fair art thou, my bonnie lass So deep in luve am I And I will luve thee still, my dear, Till a‘ the seas gang dry, Till a‘ the seas gang dry, my dear, And the rocks melt wi‘ the sun! And I will luve thee still, my dear, While the sands o‘ life shall run --- Robert Burns: A Red, Red Rose
There is a same poem in China: 上邪，我欲与君相知，长命无绝衰。山无陵，江 水为竭，冬雷阵阵，夏雨雪，天地合，乃敢与君绝 ！——古乐府诗：《上邪》 It is quite obvious that all the seas will never become dry and the rocks will unlikely melt with sun. however, we can notice that the speaker here is expressing a genuinely felt emotion. What he tries to say to his beloved is that he will forever live her. The hyperbolic expressions here strongly emphasize the promise of undying love.
(1) For she was beautiful --- her beauty made The bright world dim, and everything beside Seemed like the fleeting image of a shade. --- Shelley The overstatement her beauty made the bright wor dim expresses the speaker‘s great admiration for th female figure. What the poet intends to say is that sh was extraordinarily beautiful.
(b) Litotes often takes the form of a negative phrase or statement to express the opposite (whether praising or damning), eg. It is not bad (instead of it is good) She is no oil painting. The face wasn‘t a bad one; it had what they called charm. In social interactions litotes is often a useful indirect strategy for reason of modesty or politeness, eg. The applicant‘s academic record is not over impressive …
(c) Irony is often used for wit and humor, sometimes for ridicule and sarcasm. A well famed instance of irony is the opening sentence of Jane Austin‘s Pride and Prejudice: It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife. Actually the universal truth is nothing but that a single woman wants a rich husband.
4) Ambiguity (Xu Youzhi: three kinds, Wang Shouyuan: four kinds: P77) By the term ambiguity we mean the case of ―more than one cognitive meaning for the same piece of language‖ (Leech, 1969:205). (1) Ambiguity can be purely phonetic, resulting from homophony, that is, words that have the same pronunciation but differ in form and meaning. This is the case when a poem or story is written to be heard not to be seen. Consider the example in the following lines:
When I am dead, I hope it may be said ―His sins were scarlet, but his books are read.‖ --- Belloc: On his Books
When we have heard these lines we would have two simultaneous interpretations of the last lexical item: the past participle of the verb ―read‖ which related to his book, and the adjective ―red‖ relating to its hyponym scarlet in the first half of the same line.
(2) Most cases of ambiguity are at the level of lexis, resulting from either homonymy(同形异 义) or polysemy（一词多义）, eg. Ben Battle was a warrior bold, And used to war‘s alarm; But a cannon-ball took off his legs, So he laid down his arms --- Thomas Hood
The lexical item arms is ambiguous. It can refer to the upper limbs of the said warrior as well as the weapons he carries. The use of this word greatly enriches the meaning of the poem, and at the same time brings about a humorous effect. Franklin: Hancock‘s right. This is our passport to the gallows. But there is no backing out now. If we don‘t hang together, we shall assuredly hang separately.
The playwrights here deliberately exploit the use of hang to mean both ―put to death with a rope around the neck‖ (as in punishment for a crime) and ―remain united‖ (an idiom with the word together). In this way, they have succeeded in making Franklin a witty, humourous and highly literary
4.2 Deviational features
? Some stylisticians hold the view that style is deviation. Leech (1069) lists several types of deviation forms in stylistic analysis. ? How to define the term deviation? ? It refers to the departure from normal use of language. ? Deviational features refer to the features outside linguistic systems.
1. Lexical deviation Lexical deviation refers almost exclusively to neologisms （ 新 词 ） or the coinage of new words. The new words that the writer invents are usually made up for use on only one particular occasion, and can therefore be called ―nonceformation‖(临时造词). By this we do not mean that we can rule out the possibility that some of these words may eventually get into the English word-stock and be used widely.
In creating new words, the writer is not so much breaking the rules of word-formation, instead, they just extend these rules. For example, in English, there is a rule of word formation which allows the prefix unto be attached to a noun or a verb or an adjective to convey the meaning ―not‖ as in ―unease‖, ―unimportant‖, ―unusual‖, and ―unrest‖. However, the rule can only be applied to a limited number of cases. When we read the following line: Unwish through curving, wherewhen till unwish returns on unself --- e.e.cummings: A Complete Poem
We would be struck by such unusual use and take it as an extension of the expressive possibility of language. In the process of coining new words, writers usually extend three major rules of word formation: affixation, compounding and conversion. 1.1 Affixation Affixation is the addition of a prefix or suffix to an item which already exists in the language. The following lines contain some typical examples of words coined by extension of this rule:
(1) And I Tiresias have foresuffered all --- T.S.Eliot
The nonce word foresuffered is coined by adding the prefix ―fore-― to the item ―suffer‖. The prefix foreconveys the meaning beforehand and is normally reserved for joining with such items as see, tell, and warn. According to Leech, the novel use here encapsulates (condenses) a newly formulated idea: it is possible to anticipate mystically the suffering of the future, just as it is possible to foresee or foretell or to have foreknowledge the future events.
(2) There was a balconyful of gentlemen.
In the example, the coinage baconyful is the result of the addition of the suffix –ful to the item balcony. The suffix –ful when used to form adjectives which have the meaning ―as much as will fill the thing specific‖, and is usually added to items such as bowl, basket or spoon. The coinage balconyful here affords a vivid description of the number of people staying on the balcony, thus making the work interesting to read.
(3) We left the town refreshed and rehatted.
Rehatted in (3) is formed by attaching the prefix re- to the item hat. As can be easily seen, this coinage is in phonetic harmony with its parallel refreshed and thus produces a humourous and comic effect.
(4) All thanks to the miracle of the microcomputer, the supercheap chip that can should a vast array of boring, time-consuming tasks. How to analyze it?
What is the situation in Chinese? 胡适：她 山东大学的胡教授：平也
? 构词形式 Prefixes:老+ ? 黑+ ? 非+ ? suffixes:+子 ? +门、们 ? +主义
? Compounding is the combination of two or more items to make a single compound one. Consider the following examples: ? (1) While I, joy-jumping, empty-eyed sang on the day my father died. ? --- Edwin Brook ? What is your attitude towards your father? Does your attitude to your father change in your life? As a child and as an adult?
Joy-jumping in (1) is a compound made up on the pattern of noun + -ing participle. However, it is different from the compounds of the same pattern such as music-loving, for music-loving can be paraphrased as having love for music whereas joy-jumping cannot be paraphrased as having joy for jumping. The word is, in fact, coined from the idiom jump for joy which means jump because of joy. The extension of the compound rule on an idiom here can makes the situation described in the poem much more ironical. This ironical effect is further reinforced and developed by another coinage emptyeyed, which communicates the meaning that there are no tears in the eyes of the speaker I. This word is invented on the same pattern as clean-shaven and newly-laid.
(2) Babes wake Open-eyed --- W.H.Davies Babes: school children The coinage open-eyed in (2) is similar to the nonce word empty-eyed in (1) in that each can be considered as a verbless adjective clause performing the grammatical function of subject complement. However, open-eyed expresses a result, in this instance, the surprise or astonishment caused by the mingled (mixed) loud noise of shouting, screaming and barking when school is out. Empty-eyed, in contrast, only expresses a state.
They were else-minded then, altogether, the --- G.M.Hopkins
The example in Hopkins‘ line is formed by extension of the word-formation rule, that is, adv or adj + -ed participle. At first glance, it may seem to be synonymous with absentminded. But a close examination reveals that there is some difference in meaning. When we speak of a person being absent-minded we mean that he is either thinking of something other than what requires his attention, or simply resting himself, doing no thinking. However, the coinage else-minded conveys only the first layer of meaning of absent-minded. Thus it avoids ambiguity and more accurately captures the state of mind of those gentlemen in question.
? What is the situation in Chinese? ? Overlapping in Chinese is similar to compounding in English, in my poor opinion. ? AB(V):ABAB ? AB(adj --- adv):AABB ? AB(v+o):AAB ? 构形形态：重叠 ? 动词：研究、学习：ABAB ? 唱歌、跳舞、喝酒：AAB ? 副词：老实：AABB ? 形容词则不可：老实
? Another means of extending the vocabulary in English is functional conversion, which might be better described as zero affixation. Functional conversion is the adaptation of an item to a new grammatical function without changing its form. ? A simple example: ? There is a meeting tomorrow, who will chair it? ? Let us take a look at the following examples:
―Don‘t be such a harsh parent, father!‖ ―Don‘t father me!‖--- H.G.Wells The noun father is changed into a verb and used by the Father in a retort to his child to express his annoyance and discontent. The retort is made all the more forceful by the fact that the statement may be interpreted in two ways which are both relevant to the situation. These two possible interpretations are: ―Don‘t call me father!‖ and ―Don‘t speak to me as if you were the father!‖ (1)
(2) I was explaining the Golden Bull to his Royal Highness, ―I‘ll Golden Bull you, you rascal!‖ roared the Majesty of Prussia. --- Macaulay In (2), the noun phrase Golden Bull is turned to a verb to convey the meaning, to fight someone like a golden bull. Since Golden Bull is used as a proper noun in the preceding sentence, the conversion of it into a verb makes the passage highly cohesion. It also vividly manifests the boorishness (rudeness) of the Majesty of Prussia.
(3) That hearts That spaniel‘d me at heels, to whom I give Their wish, do discandy, melt their sweets On blossoming Caesar, and this pine is bark‘d That overtopped them all. --- Shakespeare
The verb spaniel‘d in (3) is a conversion from spaniel, referring to a special long-haired breed of hunting dog with floppy ears, a silky coat and a usually docked tail. This coinage brings great immediacy to the scene being described, and gives a vivid picture of those who once followed Antony closely and obediently like a spaniel following its master.
Hophins makes as striking use of this method as other methods of word-formation, as the following examples show: And storms bugle his fame Let him easter in us The just man justices The achieve of, the mastery of the thing It is interesting that in this last example, achieve is chosen in preference to the very common abstract noun achievement, and this choice makes all the difference between poetic vigor and prosaic flatness.
What is the situation in Chinese?
? ? ? ? ?
From n --- adj. 很绅士 很德国 很淑女 芬中看花久了没有味道，我最怕那种神龙不见首尾的人， 于是不敢再跟她柏拉图下去。 ? 有二天，我和一位新同事闲谈。我偶然问道：“你第一 次上课，讲些什么?” 他笑着答我: “我古今中外了一点 钟。”(朱自清《“海阔天空”与“古今中外”》) ? Other examples????????????????????????????????
? Exercise: Analyze the following phrase from Hopkins’s The wreck of the Deutschland ? the widow-making unchilding unfathering deeps
In the line, both compounding and affixation are used to create similar effect. The privative use of un- here in the sense “take off/away from” can be paralleled in unhorse, unfrock, unleash, etc. Widow-making is a compound on the pattern of music-loving, tubthumping, prize-winning, etc. To find out what is involved in the strangeness of a new formation, we must first turn to the general question of the purpose and effect of neologism. It is wrong, at least in most cases, to suppose that the intended meaning could not have been conveyed without lexical invention.
To return to Hopkins‘s the widow-making unchilding unfathering deeps: the cognitive meaning of this could have been rendered as ―the deeps which deprive wives of husbands, children of fathers, and parents of children‖. The long windedness of this paraphrase reveals the degree of compression and economy which can be achieved by affixation and compounding.
According to Leech (1969), there is another, more important factor which is called the ―concept-making‖ power of neologism. If a new word is coined it implies the wish to recognize a concept or property which the language can so far only express by phrasal or clausal description. Eliot‘s foresuffered is not just a new word, but the encapsulation (condensing) of a newly formulated idea: that it is possible to anticipate mystically the suffering of the future, just as it is possible to foresee, foretell, or have foreknowledge of future events.
Similarly, Hoskins‘s three epithets seem to invest the sea with three awe-inspiring qualities. The paraphrase by means of a relative clause simply describes tragic happenings connected with the sea, whereas widow-making, unchilding, unfathering seem to attribute to the sea properties which are as inseparable from it as are the properties of wetness, blueness and saltness.
The oddity of neologism is related to the general usefulness of the concepts they represent: widow-making strikes us as stranger than cloth-making or rabbit-catching, because we would rarely wish to classify aspects of the universe by their tendency to make people into widows, whereas we might quite easily want to characterize objects such as a machine or a snare (trap), by their ability to make cloth or catch rabbits.
1.4 Parody（仿拟）华先发 (1998, 《外国语》)
? Parody refers to the using of the already existing words, idioms, expressions, thoughts, or styles, but by a slight change adapting them to a new purpose or ridiculously inappropriate subject. For instance: ? (1) For the mighty army of consumers, the ultimate application of the computer revolution are still around the bend of silicon circuit.
2)Britannia rues the waves (Unit 13 in Advanced English book 1)--- Britannia rules the waves 3) And where there are agents, can counteragents be far behind? (Unit 8 in Advanced English book 1) --If winter comes, can spring be far behind? 4) Where there should be gentle waves lapping against the side of the ship, there were nothing but hot dry sand.(Unit 3 in Advanced English book 1) --Where there is a will, there is a way. 5) 同情 --- 钱钟书：同学、同窗 6) 利他主义 --- 鲁迅：利己主义
In Chinese: 1) 同情 --- 钱钟书：同学、同窗 2) 利他主义 ：利己主义 老百姓：小百姓 老头子：小头子 --- 鲁迅 3) ****牛奶 一路领鲜 4）****果汁 鲜喝先过瘾 5）大专辩论赛上： （1）比如台湾的一位名医,他因为收受贿赂而锒 铛入狱,真可谓手术刀与红包齐飞,拜金狂与铁窗一 色啊!（王勃《滕王阁序》一文中的名句：秋 水。。。，落霞。。。）
（2）由于水土流失,我国每年冲走的泥沙已经达到 30 亿吨“所含的氮磷钾相当于全年的化肥产量 , 这真可谓/一江肥水向东流!（李煜虞美人 ）
（3）信息产业仅在 1999年,世界上就用了 300万吨 剧毒物资来提炼硅 ,制造芯片“我们不能只看到无 边钞票滚滚来,而看不见那/一江毒水向东流” （4）对方一辩又告诉我们,他愿意为天下为国家的 公利舍去自己的私利,请问这不是正义吗?对方辩友 “不识义字真面目,只缘身在正义中”啊! （5）对方同学那么强调利,这使我不禁想起一句话, 就叫/忽如一夜贪风来,千树万树钱花开呀!
（6）对方一辩说:/没有治贫,治愚寸步难行“我倒 想问:范仲淹!爱迪生!富兰克林是在怎么样的情况下 成功的呢?如果按照对方的论调,那刚才主席所说的 话就是改成/宝剑锋从黄金出,梅花香自温饱来了”
成千古恨,再回头已是百年身 。 （8）有道是/满园春色关不住,万紫千红出墙来,又 所谓/条条大路通罗马,何必单走独木桥呢?
1.5 Transferred epithet（转移修饰）
? Transferred epithet refers to the transference of an adjective to a noun to which it is not wholly appropriate. ? For instance:
(1) Darrow had whispered throwing a reassuring arm round my shoulder as we were waiting for the court to open.(Unit 10 in Advanced English book 1) (2) Even so, the risk of discovery was beginning to cause her sleepless nights. (3) Helen spoke with lazy calmness. (4) The young man turned to him with a look of disarming frankness which put him instantly on his guard. (5) There was an eloquent pause after the story had been told. Others: a weary way, a happy morning, a restless night
（1）伸长脖子望了半天，公路上连一根汽车毛也没有出现。(《青 春无悔· 云南支边青年生活纪实》) （2）“落教”，时下成都街头流行的对人最高赞誉之词。“虾子 落教”合北京话 “丫挺够哥们儿”，“虾子不落教”又合北京话 “丫挺不仗义”。异曲同工，因为时下的北京也害“文革”，竟是 害得和成都一样有声有色。
1.6 Syllepsis（一语双叙）or Zeugma（轭式搭配）
? Syllepsis, which is similar to zeugma, both of them refers to the phenomenon that one word collocates with two or more words simultaneously, thus producing two meanings: literal meaning and figurative meaning. Therefore we can find syllepsis is based on the polysemantic aspect of a word. For instance: (1) The senator picked up his hat and his courage. (2) He possesses two false teeth and a sympathetic heart.
In the above examples, pick up his hat and possesses two false teeth are literal meaning, while pick up his courage and possessed a sympathetic heart are figurative meaning.
(3) Miss Bolo rose from the table considerably agitated, and went straight home, in a flood of tears and a sedan chair. In a flood of tears: with tears, while in a sedan chair means by car. (4) At noon, Mrs. Turpin would get out of bed and humor, put on kimono, airs, and the water to boil for coffee. Get out of bed: get up, but get out of humor means feeling disappointed. Put on kimono: be dressed in kimono, but put on airs means (pretense 装 腔作势)， put on the water to boil means put the water on fire and make it boil.
5. The goals, components and procedure of stylistic analysis
? Halliday (qtd. in Wang Shouyuan 2000:6) identifies two possible goals of stylistic study. The first is “to show why and how the text means what it does”. According to Halliday, this goal is more immediate and unquestionably attainable. In attaining the goal it is necessary to describe and interpret the text, in the process of which we may find that we have done more than simply show why the text means what we knew it meant already.
The second goal Halliday puts forward is much more difficult to attain. It is that of ―showing why the text is valued as it is‖. This, as Halliday says, might be taken as an aim that is characteristic of stylistics, as distinct from text analysis in general. To attain this goal means that one should be able to say why this text is good and that one is not, or why this text is better than that one. This is indeed a challenging task, since at the moment we know very little of how value inherits in the text.
Now let us consider the components and the procedure of stylistic analysis. Generally a stylistic analysis may involve three components: description, interpretation and evaluation. Description is logically prior to interpretation because a reasonably convincing interpretation of a literary text is only derived from a careful and systematic examination of its language. Interpretation is also logically prior to evaluation, just as Short most humorously puts it, ―It makes no sense to say ?I think X is good because I don‘t understand it‘‖ (1984:15).
Although Halliday (1973) mentioned two phases: analytic and interpretive phases, he makes a further points that the proposed component parts of stylistics should not be taken as forming a rigid procedure of stylistic analysis. Others such as Spitzer (1970), Widdowson (1975) reject the idea of forming a rigid fixed procedure of stylistic analysis. Widdowson (1975) says: ―There is no rigid procedure; the technique is to pick on features in the text which appear to first impressions as unusual or striking in some way and then explore their ramifications(different meanings).‖
根据这一观点，朱永生先生（ 2001 ）具体分析了文体 分析的目标和任务。他认为文体分析的第一个目标是展示 语篇的意义是如何得到表达的，第二个目标是展示语篇为 什么会被认为具有自身的价值。在分析语篇时，我们能做 到的是“使它突出，使它闪闪发光”（to make it stand out and make it glow）。换言之，我们的任务就是通过文体分 析把隐藏在语篇之中的美妙之处寻找出来，并且把我们对 语篇的理解清清楚楚地展现在别人眼前。 文体分析包括两个步骤，第一步是描写语篇中语言使用 的模式，第二步是解释为什么会出现这些模式。
Although there may be different views even to the procedure of stylistic analysis, we might as well follow certain proposal when we analyze a text. In my poor opinion, Xu Youzhi suggests a helpful one for us (1997:56-57). According to Xu, the possible steps are:
1) Work systematically through the text and note down points we feel of some stylistic significance respectively under the various headings. For instance, the contracted forms of verbs such as I‘m, he‘ll, we‘d, etc. will be noted under the heading of grammar as a feature of the verbal groups of the text. Similarly, a coinage may be treated under the heading of word type in lexical features.
2) Quantify the frequency of a linguistic feature. This may be expressed either in precise statistical terms, as ―the contracted verbal forms occur 30 times‖, ―the average sentence length is 10 words‖, or with a rough indication of the frequency, using quantifiers like rarely, commonly, often, very often and so on.
3) Assess the importance of stylistic features. A feature will be more important (a) if it occurs more frequently within the variety, and (b) if it is shared less by other varieties. For instance, the use of the passive voice is a distinctive features of scientific English, because it occurs more frequently than in most other varieties. Another example is the use of the word ―hereinbefore‖ in legal English, it is a unique feature of some legal varieties, as it does not occur in other varieties, though it does not occur very frequently even in legal text either.
4) Make statement about the overall linguistic picture of the text in question, bringing together diverse features to show they form a coherent, integrated pattern, and making judgments about the significance of such patterns in relation to the context of the text as a whole.
Once a text is described in detail and its overall linguistic features and functions are discussed in terms of their relation to certain language variety, we can take it as a kind of norm to study the stylistic features of other text with reference to it, and thus make comparative statements about other varieties of language.
? Any questions?
? When we translate, we should pay attention to all these stylistic features mentioned above.