一、句子成份 英语句子成分有主语,谓语,宾语,宾语补足语,表语,定语,状语等。 顺序一般是主语,谓语,宾语,宾语补足语,而表语,定语,状语的位置要根据情况而定。 1、主语:表示句子主要说明的人或事物,一般位于句首。但在 there be 结构、疑问句(当主语不疑问词时)和 倒装句中,主语位于谓语、助动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、代词、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形 容词和主语从句等表示。例如: Country music has become more and more popular.(名词) We often speak English in class.(代词) One-third of the students in this class are girls.(数词) To swim in the river is a great pleasure.(不定式) Smoking does harm to the health.(动名词) The rich should help the poor.(名词化的形容词) What we are going to do has not been decided.(主语从句) It is necessary to master a foreign language.(it 作形式主语,真正的主语为后面的不定式) 2、谓语:谓语说明主语的动作,状态或特征。可以有不同的时态,语态和语气。 1)简单谓语: We study for the people. 2)复合谓语: I can speak a little English. We are reading books. He has gone to Beijing.. 3、表语: 它位于系动词(比如 be)之后,说明主语身份,特征,属性或状态。 My sister is a nurse. Is it yours?(代词) The weather has turned cold.(形容词) The speech is exciting.(分词) Three times seven is twenty one?(数词) His job is to teach English.(不定式) His hobby(爱好)is playing football.(动名词) The ruler must be in your box.(介词短语) Time is up. The class is over.(副词) The truth is that he has never been abroad.(表语从句) 4、宾语: 宾语表示动作行为的对象,跟在及物动词之后, We like English. How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.(数词) They helped the old with their housework yesterday.(名词化形容词) It began to rain.(不定式短语) I enjoy listening to popular music.(动名词短语) I think(that)he is fit for his office.(宾语从句) 有些及物动词可以带两个宾语,往往一个指人,一个指物,指人的叫间接宾语,指物的叫直接宾语。 He gave me some ink. 有些及物动词的宾语后面还需要有一个补足语,意思才完整,宾语和它的补足语构成复合宾语。如: We make him our monitor(班长). 5、宾补: 就是宾语补足语,就是补充说明宾语的 I see you crossing the street His father named him Dongming.(名词) They painted(涂漆) their boat white.(形容词) Let the fresh(新鲜的) air in.(副词) You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you.(不定式短语) We saw her entering the room.(现在分词)

We found everything in the lab in good order.(介词短语) 6、定语: 在句中修饰名词或代词的成分叫定语。 He is a new student. 但副词,动词不定式,介词短语等作定语时,则放在被修饰的词之后。 The bike in the room/over there/ is mine. Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词) China is a developing(发展中) country; America is a developed(发达) country.(分词) There are thirty women teachers is our school.(名词) His progress(进步)in English made us surprised.(代词) Our monitor(班长) is always the first to enter the classroom.(不定式短语) He is reading an article(文章) about how to learn English.(介词短语) 7、状语: 修饰动词,形容词,副词以及全句的句子成分,叫做状语。状语一般放在被修饰的词之后或放在句尾。 副词作状语时可放在被修饰的词前或句首。 He lives in London. Light travels most quickly.(副词及副词性词组) He has lived in the city for ten years.(介词短语) He is sorry to trouble(麻烦) you.(不定式短语) He is in the room making a model plane.(分词短语) Once(一旦 0 you begin, you must continue.(状语从句) 状语种类如下: How about meeting again at six?(时间状语) Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.(原因状语) I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.(条件状语) Mr Smith lives on the third floor.(地点状语) She put the eggs into the basket with great care.(方式状语) She came in with a dictionary in her hand.(伴随状语) In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.(目的状语) He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.(结果状语) She works very hard though she is old.(让步状语) I am taller than he is.(比较状语) 一、指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分: 1. The students got on the school bus. 2. He handed me the newspaper. 3. I shall answer your question after class. 4. His job is to train swimmers. 5. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing. 6. His wish is to become a scientist. 7. Hewants to finish the work in time. 8. Tom came to ask me for advice(建议). 9. He found it important to master English. 10. Do you have anything else to say? 11. Would you please tell me your address? 12. He sat there, reading a newspaper. 13. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy. 14. He noticed(注意到) a man enter the room. 15. The apples tasted sweet.


英语句子看上去纷繁庞杂,但仔细观察不外乎五个基本句式。这五个基本句式可以演变出多种复杂的英语句子。 换言之,绝大多数英语句子都是由这五个基本句式生成的。这五个基本句式如下: S 十 V 主谓结构 主语 + 不及物动词 S 十 V 十 P 主系表结构 主语 + 连系动词 +表语 S 十 V 十 O 主谓宾结构 主语 + 及物动词 +宾语 S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2 主谓双宾结构 S 十 V 十 O 十 C 主谓宾补结构 基本句型一: S 十 V 主谓结构 [讲解] (1)不及物动词不能直接加宾语。如 agree, lie, work, argue, belong, come, go, reply 等。 (2) 不及物动词加一个介词后构成动词短语可以加宾语。如 agree with, lie in, work at, belong to, come across, go to 等。 (3) 有些动词既是及物动词又是不及物动词。如 begin, sell, write, wash, answer, read 等。例如: The meeting begins at half past nine. (不及物动词) The professor began his speech directly. (及物动词) The books of this kind sell well and he will sell them. (第一个 sell 为不及物动词,而第二个是及物动词)。 主语和不及物动词(短语)是组成本句型不可缺少的必要成分。在实际运用中,不及物动词往往与副词、介词及其它 相关成分有相对稳定的搭配关系。 常见的不及物动词有 appear apologize arrive argue agree belong come die disappear exist fall happen occur take place rise go get fail feel fight look live look listen work study prove remain rest seem stand stay succeed turn turn out 等等。 [练习] 1. 指出划线部分动词的词性,是及物动词还是不及物动词。 (1) Speak aloud so that everyone can follow you. ( ) (2) Besides Japanese, he can also speak Spanish. ( ) (3) His father used to work hard to make much money. ( ) (4) I intended to lie to him, but failed. ( ) (5) Unfortunately, I failed the driving test. ( ) 2. 在每一空格上填上恰当的介词。 (1) I don’t agree _____ you completely. I have my own opinion. (2) The dictionary is not Tom’s. It belongs _____ me. (3) Use your head, and you will think _____ some ways to solve the problem. (4) To improve my English, I work hard _____ it. (5) Look _____ the cloudy sky! It is going to rain. 3. 1)My head__________. (ache ) 我头疼。 2)The students ____________________. (listen) 学生们正在听。 3) ______________________________. 我们努力学习。 4) The red sun ____________________ in the east.(rise) 一轮红日从东方升起。 5) The Second World War ____________________ in 1939. (break out) 1939 年爆发了第二次世界大战。 6) The boy _________________________the window. (look) 那个男孩朝窗外看去。 7) 她再次向我道歉。 _______________________________________ (apologize) 8)事故是昨天晚上发生的。 _____________________________________ 9) 我们的英语老师教得很好。 _____________________________________ 10) 五年前宋杰住在合肥。

_____________________________________ 11) 一天,她欢快地走进我的房间。 _____________________________________ Key:1. 不及物动词:(1)、(3)、(4); 及物动词:(2)、(5)。2. (1) — (5) with, to, up, at, at 补充: 少数不及物动词后面能跟一个相同意义的名词作宾语这个名词和前面的动词在词根上是相同的或者在意 义上是相近的这样的宾语就叫做同源宾语。 常见的能带同源宾语的动词有 lead live die sleep dream breathe smile laugh fight run sing 等。 例如: 4. Under the leadership of the Party the peasants lead a happy life. 5. I dreamed a terrible dream last night. 6. Our soldiers fought a wonderful fight against the floods last August. 7. He died a glorious death. 基本句型二: S 十 V 十 P 主系表结构常见的系动词有: be(是); get(变得), become(成为), turn(变得), look(看起来), feel(感到), smell(闻起来), taste(尝起来), sound(听起来), seem(似乎) 说明: 本结构是由主语+系动词+表语组成,主要用以说明主语的特征,类属,状态,身份等。 1. 系 动 词 的 三 种 分 类 : 在 初 中 阶 段 , 我 们 学 过 的 表 示 “ 保 持 或 状 态 ” 类 的 有 ( 1 ) 表 示 特 征 和 存 在 状 态 的 be, seem, feel, appear, look, smell, taste, sound. (2)表示状态延续的 remain, stay, keep, continue, stand. (3)表示状态变化的 become, get, turn, go, run, fall, come, grow. 1) We should __________ __________ any time. 我们在任何时候都应该保持安静。 2) 这种食物尝起来很糟糕。_________________________________________________. 3) Spring comes. It is ______________________________. 春天到了,天气变得越来越暖和。 4) Don't have the food. _______________________________.不要吃那种食物,它已经变质了。 5) The fact __________ ___________. 这个事实证明是正确的。 2.可以充当表语的有形容词、名词、副词(短语)、介词短语、表语从句、分词(短语)等。例如: 1)In order to _________(保持健康), he takes exercise everyday. (形容词作表语) 2)In my mind, mother is_________. (我的英雄)(名词作表语) 3)Look! Your pet dog is_________.(在那) (副词作表语) 4)The schoolbags comein different sizes. (介词短语作表语) 5)You’ve changed a lot. You are not what you were. (表语从句作表语) 6)Many passengers __________________(受伤) in the accident. (过去分词作表语) 7)The machine__________________(持续/保持运转) for a long time. (现在分词短语作表语) Keys:1.1)keep silent 2) the food tastes terrible 3) warmer andwarmer 4)it goes bad 5) proves right 2.1)keep healthy 2) my hero3) there 6)got injured 7) keeps running 使用系动词应注意的地方:第一,没有被动语态;第二,一般没有进行时(除了 feel 以外);第三,有些动词既是 系动词又是普通动词。如:keep, grow, taste, feel, get, smell 等。第四,非谓语一般用现在分词(这一点仅作了解, 高中阶段将涉及。) 例如:After two-day’s treatment, he felt well again. (不用 was felt) He remains an excellent engineer in the factory. (不用 is remained) 比较以下句子: The pet dog keeps clean. It is kept by Johnson.(keeps 是系动词,而 kept 是及物动词) We grew some trees around our school and they grow green now. (grew 是及物动词,而 grow 是系动词) Just now I felt the table and it felt smooth. (第一个 felt 是及物动词,而第二个是系动词) [练习] 选择一个合适的词或根据汉语提示填空,注意动词的适当形式。 (1) I __________(remain / keep / stay) a nurse while he has __________(turn / become) engineer.

(2) Put the meat in the refrigerator (冰箱). It __________ (go / get / turn / become) bad easily. (3) What he said __________(sound / look / smell / taste) reasonable. (4) He feels __________(comfortable / comfortably) working in the air-conditioned office. (5) We do morning exercises to __________(keep / turn / become) healthy. (6) The apple __________(tastes / is tasted) sweet. (7) Please keep __________(安静); The baby has fallen __________(睡着). (8) They work day and night to make their dream come __________(实现). Key: (1) — (4) remain, turned; goes; sounds; comfortable (5) — (8) keep; tastes; quiet, asleep; true 基本句型三: S 十 V 十 O 主谓宾结构 这种句型中的动词应为及物动词或者可以后接宾语的动词短语。 同时句子中有时含有与宾语有关的状语。 作宾语 的成分常是名词、代词、动词不定式、动名词或从句。 a.及物动词+副词,b.不及物动词+介词。 1.含有 away, out, forward, up 等副词的动词词组是可拆分的。如, They carried out the plan successfully.我们还可以说, They carried the plan out successfully. 但我们只能说 As the plan was practical, they carried it out successfully. 动副词组都可以这样用, 如, point out (指出) , carry out (执行) , put forward (提出) , work out (做出, 算出) , find out (找出), give up(放弃), give away(赠送,分发),pick up(拣起), put up(挂上), 等。 2. 而含有介词 at, for, from, into, of, with, to 等的动介词组是不可拆分的。 如, look after (照顾) , look at (瞧) , look for (寻找), belong to(属于), refer to(参考,提及), think of(考虑,评价), send for(派人去请), care for(喜 欢),suffer from(受…之苦), deal with(对付,应付), object to(反对), pay for(付…的钱),等。即我们只能说 think of it,不能说 think it of. in 在动词词组中用作副词,表示“在里面”,“往里进”,“在家”等意思。如,get in(收割),hand in(提交,交进) 。 用作介词,表示“在…地点”, “在…范围”, “在…方面”。 如,persist in(坚持),succeed in (在…成功)。 Off 在动词词组中 用作副词,表示“关闭”,“隔离,离开”,“去掉”,等意思。如,turn off(关掉), switch off(关 掉) , ring off (挂断电话) , keep off (远离) , take off(脱掉) , kick off (踢脱) , carry off (运走) , put off (推迟) , pay off (付清),give off(放出). 用作介词,表示“从…下来”。如,get off(下车), fall off(从…掉下来). On 在动词词组中用作副词,表示“开”,“走开”,“传递”,“穿戴”。 如,turn on(开),move on(走开), pass on(传 递), put on(穿上), have on(穿着). 用作介词,表示“在…上”,“在…方面”。 如,work on(从事于…), operate on(在…上动手术), agree on(同意) 。 表示“上车,上船,上…”, 如,get on(上车,上船),ride on(骑上) 。 表示“依靠”,“以…为基础”, “按照”, 如,depend on(依靠),base on(以…为基础), feed on(以…为食), live on (以…为生计). Over 在动词词组中用作副词,表示“翻转”,“翻倒”,如, turn over(打翻,翻倒),push over(推倒). 表示“过一遍”,“仔细”,“遍及”,如,think over(仔细考虑),look over(仔细查看,研究). 用作介词,表示“从上越过”,如,fly over(从上飞过), jump over(从上跳过).go over(越过,横过)。 表示“为了”,“由于”,如,quarrel over(为…争吵),cry over(因…哭泣). 表示“查看”,“复习”,“检查”,如,go over(检查,复习). 附:许多由及物动词+名词+介词构成的三词动词词组也要跟宾语,如: pay attention to(注意), catch hold of (抓住,握住), catch sight of(看见, 发现),do harm to(对…有害), get rid of (排除,除去), make fun of(取笑,嘲笑),put (one’s) heart into(专心于…), say hello to(打招呼), sing praise for (赞扬,表扬),take care of(照顾), take part in(参加), take pride in(以…自豪,骄傲) 。 [练习] 划出以下句子的主、谓、宾部分。

如:Doing morning exercises benefits our health. (1) I wrote a passage last night. (2) I doubt whether he will join us in the debate. (3) We missed going to college for that reason. (4) What he said touched me greatly. (5) 我昨天看了一部电影。________________________________________________. (6) You place me in a difficult situation.________________________________________。 (7)They finally managed to get along with us. _____________________________________。 (8) They have ________ ________ _________ of the children 这些孩子他们照看得很好。 (9)I don’t like being treated like this.________________________________。 基本句型四 : S 十 V 十间接宾语 “人 ”十直接宾语 “ 物 ”结构 常用的能接双宾语的及物动词 有: give,tell, teach,buy,lend,find,hand,leave,sell, send show,read,pay,make,offer,build,pass,bring,cook,wish,write,refuse 等 间接宾语前需要加 for 的常用动词有: buy, choose, make, order, paint, play(演奏), sing,等。 [练习] 在每一空格上填上一个恰当的介词。 (1) Mother bought a birthday cake ______me. (2) Give another apple______her. She likes it. (3) The company will provide some drinks ______ the volunteers. (1) — (3) for; to; for 4) Yesterday her father _______________ ________ _____ ____________ as a birthday present. 昨天她父亲给她买 了一辆自行车作为生日礼物。 5) The old man ___ ________ ____ __________ _________ in the Long March.(正在给孩子们讲故事) 这种句型还可转换为: 动词 + 直接宾语 + for/ to sb. 20) Please show me your picture. ==Please _________ ________ __________ _____ _____. 请把你的画给我看一 下。 I _______ _______the salt. = I _______the salt _____ _____. he teacher offered some advice on learning English to us.老师给我们一些学英语的建议 The singer sang another song for us.这位歌手唱了另一首歌给我们听 1.Johnson 先生去年教我们德语。 2. 奶奶昨晚给我们讲了一个有趣的故事。 3. Mary 把钱包交给校长了。 4. 请把那本字典递给我好吗? 5. 新式机器将会为你节省许多劳动。 6. 这个学期我已经给父母写过三封信了。 7. 我父亲已经给我买了一辆新自行车。 基本句型五: S 十 V 十 O 十 C 主谓宾补结构 此句型的句子的共同特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补 充成分来补足宾语。call(叫), choose(选), find(发现), make, name, (命名) 1)Keep ________________________________, please. 请让孩子们安静下来。 2)They painted ______ ______ ________. 他们把门漆成绿色。 3)We must ______ ______ ________ ______. 我们必须保持我们的学校洁。 4)He asked me _____ ________ ________ soon. 他要我早点回来。 5)我们发现他是一个懒惰的人。______________________________________________. 注意:动词 have, make, let, see, hear, notice, feel, watch 等后面所接的动词不定式作宾补时,不带 to。 如:6)The boss ________ _______ _________ all day. (迫使他劳动) 7)We saw _____ ____ _____. (他出去)。

接不定式作宾语的动词有:agree ,choose,decide,forget,hope,learn,want,wish,would like 等. 不定式作宾语补足语有三种类型 1、“动词+宾语+(not) to do?” advise,allow,ask,beg,cause,direct,encourage,expect,forbid,force,invite,order,permit,persuade,remind,request,require,teac h,tell,want,warn 等接不定式作宾补的 36 个常用动词 advise sb. to do sth. 建议某人做某事 allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事 ask sb. to do sth. 请(叫)某人做某事 bear sb. to do sth. 忍受某人做某事 beg sb. to do sth. 请求某人做某事 cause sb. to do sth. 导致某人做某事 command sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事 drive sb. to do sth. 驱使某人做某事 elect sb. to do sth. 选举某人做某事 encourage sb. to do sth. 鼓励某人做某事 expect sb. to do sth. 期望某人做某事 forbid sb. to do sth. 禁止某人做某事 force sb. to do sth. 强迫某人做某事 get sb. to do sth. 使(要)某人做某事 hate sb. to do sth. 讨厌某人做某事 help sb. to do sth. 帮助某人做某事 intend sb. to do sth. 打算要某人做某事 invite sb. to do sth. 邀请某人做某事 leave sb. to do sth. 留下某人做某事 like sb. to do sth. 喜欢某人做某事 mean sb. to do sth. 打算要某人做某事 need sb. to do sth. 需要某人做某事 oblige sb. to do sth. 迫使某人做某事 order sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事 permit sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事 persuade sb. to do sth. 说服某人做某事 prefer sb. to do sth. 宁愿某人做某事 request sb. to do sth. 要求某人做某事 remind sb. to do sth. 提醒某人做某事 teach sb. to do sth. 教某人做某事 tell sb. to do sth. 告诉某人做某事 train sb. to do sth. 训练某人做某事 trouble sb. to do sth. 麻烦某人做某事 want sb. to do sth. 想要某人做某事 warn sb. to do sth. 警告某人做某事 wish sb. to do sth. 希望某人做某事 The teacher asked us to finish our homework.老师叫我们完成家庭作业. She wanted him to sing for her friends.她想让他为她的朋友唱歌. The policeman told the boys not to play in the street.警察告诉孩子们别在街上玩耍. 2.在某些短语后也可跟带 to 的不定式作宾补. wait for,call on,depend on,高中范围内,适用于“动词+介词+宾语+to do…”的结构,不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:shout to

sb.to do,call on sb. to do,count on sb. to do,depend on sb. to do,wait for sb. to do,care for sb. to do,long for sb. to do 等. 例如: The crocodile waited for the monkey to come down again.鳄鱼等着猴子再下来. The chairman called on Mr Brown to speak.主席请布朗先生讲话. I shouldn't care for that man to be my doctor.我不要那人给我看病. He shouted to me to come over. I depend on you to do it. I am counting on you to help me through. 3.不带 to 的不定式作宾补 动词不定式在使役动词(make,let, have)或感官动词(feel,listen to,hear, look at,see,watch,notice)之后作宾补时不 定式需省去 to.为了便于记忆,我们可以这样记“一感”(feel) 、“二听”(listen, hear) 、“三让”(let,make,have) 、“四看”(look at,see,watch,notice).例如: Ifeltsomeone open my door.我感觉有人开了我的门. Please listen to me sing the songagain.请听我把这首歌再唱一遍. You can't letthe boy stand in the sun.你不能让那孩子站在太阳底下. You must watch me carefully do everything.你必须仔细观察我所做的一切. 注意:感官动词后既可跟省略 to 的不定式作宾补,也可跟现在分词作宾补.其区别是:前者强调动作的全过程或经 常性;后者则强调动作在进行(片断).试比较: I heard her sing.我听见她唱了歌. I heard her singing.我听见她在唱歌. 注意:这类句子变为被动结构时,不定式前加 to.请看下列句子,句中划线部分作宾语补足语.例如: A child was seen to enter the building. She was often heard to sing this song. 4.带 to 或不带 to 的不定式作宾补 在动词 help 后可以跟带 to 的不定式作宾补,也可以跟不带 to 的不定式作宾补.例如: He often helps me(to)clean the room.他经常帮助我打扫房间. We helped him(to)mend his bike.我们帮他补自行车胎. 5、“动词+宾语+to be?” consider,declare,discover,feel,find,suppose 等.二、有些动词可跟“宾语+to be…”构成句子,句中的不定式作宾语补足 语.例如: I consider him to be the best candidate. 分析:句中“I”做主语,“consider”作谓语,“him”作宾语,划线部分作宾语补足语.请看下面的句子. I know him to be a liar. I suppose him to be away from home. [巩固训练] 1.I told Bob ____ the TV since it was too late. A.turn off B.turns off C.turning off D.to turn off(2001 陕西) 2.My parents asked me ____ home earlier yesterday. A.get B.getting C.to get D.got(2000 北京朝阳区) 3.The greedy inn-keeper once made the poor hero ____ twice a day. A.dance B.dances C.danced D.to dance(2001 上海) 4.—Is Wei Fang good at singing? —Yes,she is.We often hear ____ her in the next room.

A.to sing B.sings C.sing D.singing(2001 苏州) (Keys:1—4 DCAC)

6、作宾语补足语的不定式,表示的动作在谓语所表示情况之前发生,就需要用完成形式: He was known to have worked for the International Olympic Committee. 分析:句中“He”做主语,“was known”作谓语,使用了被动语态.由句意可知,“为国际奥委会工作”发生在前,“大家知 道”发生在后.故不定式部分用完成形式,在句中作宾语补足语.请看下面的句子. They are believed to have discussed the problem. 7、作宾语补足语的不定式,表示一个正在进行的动作时需用进行形式: He is believed to be living in Mexico. 分析:句中“He”做主语,“is believed”作谓语,使用了被动语态.由于句子表达主语现在正在发生的情况,故用不定式 的进行形式,句中划线部分作宾语补足语.请看下列句子. Thousands were reported to be working in concentration camps. He is thought to be hiding in the woods. 间或不定式作宾语补足语也可用于完成进行时.例如: She is said to have been doing this work for twenty years. 8、不定式作宾语补足语的被动形式: he didn't want her son to be taken away. 分析:句中“She”做主语,“didn't want”作谓语,“her son”作宾语,由于“her son”与“take away”之间为被动关系,故用被 动形式,句中划线部分作宾语补足语.请看下列句子. I'd like this room to be redecorated. He didn't wish the subject to be mentioned in the letter. 判断类型和句子成分: She came. She likes English. She is happy. The teacher asked me to read the passage. She bought a book for me. She gave John a book. My head aches. She makes her mother angry. The sun was shining. The moon rose. They talked for half an hour. 他们谈了半个小时。 The dinner smells good. 午餐的气味很好。 Everything looks different. 一切看来都不同了。 He is growing tall and strong. 他长得又高又壮。 His face turned red. 他的脸红了。 Who knows the answer? 谁知道答案? He enjoys reading. 他喜欢看书。 I want to have a cup of tea. 我想喝杯茶。He bought you a dictionary. She ordered herself a new dress. 她给自己定了一套新衣裳。 She cooked her husband a delicious meal. 她给丈夫煮了一餐美馔。 I showed him my pictures. I gave my car a wash. 我洗了我的汽车。 He showed me how to run the machine. 他教我开机器。 What makes him think so? 他怎么会这样想? The children are playing happily. The Greens enjoy living in China. He became a famous doctor. 他成为了一名著名的医生。 The apple pie tastes really delicious. 苹果派吃起来真是好吃。

■练习: 1.They knew her very well.They had seen her ___ up from childhood.(1988 全国) A.grow B.grew C.was growing D.to grow 2.The teacher asked us ___ so much noise.(2003 北京)

A.don't make B.not make C.not making D.not to make 3.My advisor encouraged ___ a summer course to improve my writing skills.(2004 北京) A.for me taking B.me taking C.for me to take D.me to take 4.The flu is believed ___ by viruses that like to reproduce in the cells inside the human nose and throat. (2004 上海) A.causing B.being caused C.to be caused D.to have caused 5.-Is Bob still performing? -I'm afraid not.He is said ___ the stage already as he has become an official.(2005 江苏) A.to have left B.to leave C.to have been left D.to be left 6.The mother felt herself ___ cold and her hands trembled as she read the letter from the battlefield.(2006 上海) A.grow B.grown C.to grow D.to have grown 7.Energy drinks are not allowed ___ in Australia but are brought in from New Zealand.(2006 上海) A.to make B.to be made C.to have been made D.to be making 答案: 1.A 2.D 3.D 4.C 5.A 6.A 7.B 考点突破训练 1、I am sorry to have kept you______ A to wait B wait C waited D waiting 2、 I felt somebody ______ me A touch B touched C to touch D touches 3、 He taught me _____ speak English A how should B how C how can I D how to 4、 I shall make your dream ______ A coming truly B come true C to come true D comes true 5、 He told _____ home A us not to go B we not go C us not go D us to not go 6、 I think _____ a good habit to get up early A this B it C that D its 7、 Roses in bloom smell ______ A sweeten B sweetly C sweet D sweetness ( )1. The weather ____. A. wet and cold B. is wet and cold C. not wet and cold D. were wet and cold ( ) 2. The apple tasted ____. A. sweets B. sweetly C. nicely D. sweet ( ) 3. He got up ____ yesterday morning. A. lately B. late C. latest D. latter ( )4. ____ were all very tired, but none of ____ would stop to take a rest. A. We, us B. Us, we C. We, our D. We, we ( )5.I think _____necessary(必要的) to learn English well. A. its B. it C. that D. that is ( ) 6. The dog ____ mad(疯的). A. looks B. is looked C. is being looked D. was looked 判断下列句子是简单句、并列句还是复合句: 1. We often study Chinese history on Friday afternoon. 2. The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom.

3. There is a chair in this room, isn’t there? 4. My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven in the evening. 5. He is in Class One and I am in Class Two. 6. He was fond of drawing when he was yet a child. 7. Neither has he changed his mind, nor will he do so. 8. What he said at the meeting is very important, isn’t it? 9. The farmer is showing the boy how to plant a tree. 10. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music.

There be 句型 说明: 此句型是由 there + be + 主语 + 状语 构成,用以表达存在有,一种无主语的有。 它其实是倒装的一种情况,主语 位于谓语动词 be 之后,there 仅为引导词,并无实际语。Be 与其后的主语在人称和数量上一致,有时态和情态变 化。如, 现在有 there is/are … 过去有 there was/were… 将来有 there will be…/there is /are going to be... 现在已经有 there has/have been… 可能有 there might be... 肯定有 there must be …/there must have been... 过去一直有 there used to be … 似乎有 there seems/seem/seemed to be … 碰巧有 there happen/happens/happened to be … 此句型有时不用 be 动词,而用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive,等。 翻译练习: 1. 今晚没有会。 2. 这个村子过去只有一口井。 3. 这个学校有一名音乐老师和一名美术老师。 4. 客人当中有两名美国人和两名法国人。 5. 天气预报说下午有大风。 6. 灯亮着,办公室里肯定有人。 7. 战前这儿一直有家电影院的。 8. 恰好那时房里没人。 9. 从前,在海边的一个村子里住着一位老渔夫。 10. 公共汽车来了。 11. 就只剩下二十八美元了。 12. 在这个山洞前面长着一棵高大的松树。

It 的用法(后续)

简洁版: S (主)+ VT(谓)+ O(宾) + O C(宾补) I make you clear. 1) S + VT + N/Pron + N We named our baby Tom.

常用于这句型的动词有:appoint, call, choose, elect, entitle, find, make, name, nominate(命名) 。 2) S + VT + N/Pron + Adj He painted the wall white. 常用于这句型的动词有:beat, boil, cut, drive, find, get, hold, keep, leave, like, make, paint, see, set, turn, want, wash, wipe, wish 等。 3) S + VT + N/Pron + Prep Phrase She always keeps everything in good order. 4) S + VT + N/Pron + Infinitive I wish you to stay. I made him work 常用于这句型的动词有:a)不定式带 to 的词:advice, allow, ask, beg, cause, choose, command, decide, encourage, expect, force, get, hate, invite, know, leave, like, love, order, permit, persuade, prefer, remain, request, teach, tell, want, warn, wish 等。b)不定式不带 to 的词:feel, have, hear, know, let, listen to, look at, make, notice, see, watch 等。 5) S + VT + N/Pron + Participle (分词) I heard my name called. I feel something moving. 常用于这句型的动词有:catch, feel, find, get, have, hear, imagine, keep, leave, listen to, look at, notice, observe, see, set, smell, start, watch 等。 6) S + VT + N/Pron + Wh-word + Infinitive He show me how to do it. 常用于这句型的动词有:advise, ask, inform, show, teach, tell 等。 7) S + VT + N/Pron + That-clause He told me that the film was great. 常用于这句型的动词有:assure, inform, promise, remind, teach, tell, warm 等。 8) S + VT + N/Pron + Wh-Clause He asked me what he should do. 常用于这句型的动词有:Advise, ask, inform, show, teach, tell.



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