? Introduction to Stylistics
A linguistic approach to literary understanding
Zhang Huahong School of Foreign Studies
Brown, Curtis: Philosophy of Language Talib, Ismail S.: Literary Stylistics Tinkler, John F.: History and Development of Prose Style 徐有志. 2005. 《英语文体学教程》.高等教育出版社. Crystal, D. 1979. Investigating English Style. London: Longman. Leech, G.N. 2003. Style in Fiction. New York: Longman. Leech, G.N. 1969. A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry. London: Longman. Halliday, M.A.K.1964. Descriptive Linguistics in Literary Studies. Peer, W.V. Stylistics and Psychology Eagleton, T. 2004. Literary Theory. London: Blackwell. Thornborrow, J. & Wareing, S. 2000. Patterns in Language. London: Routledge. Widdowson, H.G.1975. Stylistics and the Teaching of literature. London: Longman. Wright, L. & Hope, J. 2000. Stylistics: A Practical Coursebook. London: Routledge.
1. 2. 3. 4. The significance of the study The suggested way of study Means of course evaluation Teaching and learning focus
The significance of the course
? ? ? ? ? ? 1.Arts as means of human expression 2.Literature as a mirror of society 3.Language as a mirror of thought 4.Language as a carrier of culture 5.Style as a means of expressing thoughts and feelings of the author
Suggested Format of Course Paper
I. Abstract II. Key words III. Body 1. Brief account of the author 2. Brief account of the essay 3. Major theme of the essay 4. Linguistic presentation of the theme a. Lexical features b. Syntactic features c. Phonological features d. Semantic features/figures of speech 5. Conclusion IV. Reference
Format of Reference
? 主要参考文献条目排列顺序如下： ? [序号]作者.文献题名[文献类型标识]*.(出版地:) ? 出版者，出版年.起始页码.例： ? Reference: ? Levinson, S. Pragmatics [M]. Cambridge: ? Cambridge University Press, 1983. 15-20. ? 方永德.美国英语中的种族贬语[J].外国语， ? 1995(1):68-72. ? *参考文献类型标识： ? [N]报纸文章；[J]期刊文章； [M]专著； ? [D]学位论文；[C]论文集；
1.What is stylistics? 1) D. Crystal: Linguistics is the academic discipline that studies language scientifically, and stylistics, as a part of this discipline, studies certain aspects of language variation. Investigating English Style
2)G. N. Leech: Stylistics is a linguistic approach to literature, explaining the relation between language and artistic function, with motivating questions such as ―why‖ and ―how‖ more than ―what‖. ? Style in Fiction ? A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry
3)W. V. Peer: Stylistics is developed from Russian Formalism via Prague Structuralism, following the concept of ―estrangement‖―deviation from normal usages‖. ? Stylistics and Psychology
4)Halliday: Linguistics is not and will never be the whole of literary analysis, and only the literary analyst—not the linguist—can determine the place of linguistics in literary studies. But if a text is to be described at all, then it should be described properly, by the theories and methods developed in linguistics, whose task is precisely to show how language works. Descriptive Linguistics in Literary Studies
5)H. G. Widdowson: Stylistics involves both literary criticism and linguistics, as its morphological making suggests: the “style” component relating it to the former and the “istics” component to the latter. Stylistics is a means of relating disciplines and subjects, as shown in the following diagram: Disciplines: linguistics literary criticism ↖ ↗ Stylistics Subjects: ↙ ↘ (English) language (English) literature Style and the Teaching of literature
6)H. H. Zhang: Stylistics is an intensive study of literary text on an advanced level, by making out the particular effect of the particular choice of language in literary communication……………………………. 2. What is style? According to Thomas S. Kane in Writing Prose: Style is a pattern of linguistic features distinguishing one piece of writing from another, or one category of writings from another. Therefore,
? 1)Style includes the writer‘s way of thinking about his subject and his characteristic way of presenting it for a particular reader and purpose. ? 2)Style results from linguistic choices, which effectively express the writer‘s unique thought and feeling. ? 3)Style is a means of discovery for both writer and reader.
? 4)Style sharpens expressive meaning as well as referential meaning, intensifying the tone of writing, making prose more persuasive. ? 5)Style is not mere ornament; rather it conveys important subtleties of meaning and evaluation, which define the nature of the writer, his basic attitudes, his presuppositions, his moral stance, and his relation to his subject and his reader.
? According to David Crystal in Investigating English Style: ? There are four commonly occurring senses of the term STYLE: ? 1)the language habits of one person: Shakespeare, James Joyce, Hemingway UNIQUENESS. ? 2) the language habits shared by a group at one time: the Augustan poets, the Old English ‘heroic’ poetry.
? 3) say the right thing in the most effective way—good manners: ‘clear’ or ‘refined’ style. ? 4) evaluation and description of literature in literary criticism or appreciation: ‘good’ ‘effective’ beautiful’ writing. ? According to G. N. Leech in Style in Fiction, ? there are some controversial views of style: ? 1).Dualism: between form and meaning ―style as choices of Manner rather than Matter, of Expression rather than Content‖; as a ―way of writing‖ or a ―mode of expression‖ originates from Aristotle‘s literary theory.
? Style as the ―dress of thought‖, claimed by Renaissance and rationalism, makes it some kind of ―adornment‖ of thought or meaning. The Aesthetics of form (parallelism, alliteration…) tends to attract the reader‘s attention more than the meaning does, as seen in poetic lines. ? Style as ―manner of expression‖, as Richard Ohman put it, ―A style is a way of writing‖ in which ―the words on the page might have been different, or differently arranged, without a corresponding difference in substance.
? 2).Monism: ―It is like body and soul: form and content to me are one‖ (Flaubert Dec. 12,1857) originates from Plato‘s literary theory. ? As argued by David Lodge, in Language of Fiction (1966), it is impossible ? to paraphrase literary writing; ? to translate a literary work; ? to divorce the general appreciation of a literary work from the appreciation of its style, for the inevitable loss of the hidden, metaphorical meaning.
? 3).Pluralism: analyzing style in terms of functions, characterized by Halliday‘s three major functions of ―ideational‖, ―interpersonal‖ and ―textual‖………………………………….... ? 3.What is the main purpose of stylistics? ? 1)to analyze language habits----to identify, from the general mass, those features restricted to certain kinds of social context ? 2)to explain why such features have been used as opposed to others
? 3)to classify these features into categories based upon a view of their function in the social context ? By ?features‘ we mean particular choice of words, sequence of words, or way of utterance, so-called stylistically distinctive features ? 4.How is stylistics related to psychology? ? Writing is an imitation of human thought ? 1)the function of punctuation --- segmentation ---room for feedback
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
↗ (6a) Next WEEK I’m starting a job in ↘ LONDON. ↗ ↘ (6b) Next WEEK I’m starting a JOB in ↘ LONDON.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
↗ (7a) Next MONDAY I’m spending the day ↘ in LONDON. ↗ (7b) Next MONDAY I’m spending the ↘ ↘ DAY in LONDON.
The organization of written language into graphic units is rather similar. The contrast between (6a) and (6b) can be captured in writing by the use of an extra punctuation mark: (8a) Next week, I’m starting a job in London. (8b)Next week, I’m starting a job—in London. But because graphic units tend to be longer than tone units, (8b) seems unusually emphatic, and perhaps the normal written rendering would have no internal punctuation at all: .
(8c)Next week, I’m starting a job in London. However, the same general principles of segmentation apply to both speech and writing. Note the absurdity of (9):Next Monday, I’m spending the day—in London.
2)the significance of sentence length ---force/weight 3)periodic structure ---producing tension and suspense
(1)The truth is that they have suffered through negligence. (2)That they have suffered through negligence is the truth. (3)Sophia sailed into the room with her eyes ablaze. (4)With her eyes ablaze, Sophia sailed into the room. Parenthetical dependent constituents belong to the anticipatory category: (5)Sophia, with her eyes ablaze, sailed into the room.
4)loose structure---producing relaxation and comfort (1)This morning I was troubled with my Lord Hinchingbroke’s sending to borrow $200 of me; but I did answer that I had none, nor could borrow any; for I am resolved I will not be undone for any body, though I would do much for my lord Sandwich, for it is to answer a bill of exchange of his; and I perceive he has made use of all other means in the world to do it, but I am resolved to serve him, but not ruin myself.
To sum up, periodic structure and loose structure are two poles between which styles of sentence structure can vary. Looking back over the history of English prose, we can say that the most neutral style of writing is one that combines both anticipatory and trailing elements, and thus achieves a balance between ?art‘ and ?nature‘.
5)the last is the most important for written language---end-focus/climax principle:
Governed by end-weight principle, we will prefer It is advisable for us to be able to tell documentary English from spoken English. to To be able to tell documentary English from spoken English is advisable for us. Instead of That he was prepared to go to such lengths astounded me. we choose to write I was astounded that he was prepared to go to such lengths.
Governed by end-focus principle, the nuclear tone‘s neutral position is at the end of the tone unit, especially on the last lexical item, or ?content word‘: (1a) She completely DENIED it. (1b)She denied it COMPLETELY. (2a) He’s gradually IMPROVING. (2b) He’s improving GRADUALLY. The difference this makes is brought out if we imagine (1a) and (1b) as answers to the following questions respectively:
(3a) Did Joan admit the offence? No, … (3b) Did Joan deny the offence? Yes, … End-focus has important implications in syntax, where the ordering of the elements of the message is largely determined. It can, for example, influence the choice between active and passive sentences: (4a) John wrote the whole BOOK. (4b) The whole book was written by JOHN. In other words, the reader naturally looks for new information at the end of the graphic unit.
This conclusion can be tried out on the following: (5a) Instead of morphine, the patient was given opium. (5b) Instead of morphine, opium was given to the patient. The principle of end-focus predicts that the reader will find (5a) a ?happier‘ sentence than (5b)
6)the first is the most important for spoken language A speaker is rarely able to plan the whole of his utterance in advance, so he tends to begin with the thing which is uppermost in his mind. This ?first is most important‘ principle accounts for some syntactic inversions and dislocations characteristic of ordinary speech: ‘That dinner you cooked last night—I really enjoyed it’; ‘Got a cold have you?’; ‘Relaxation you call it!’
The same factor accounts for frequent disregard in spoken English of the end-focus principle: for example, the last sentence quoted would be pronounced: ↘ RELAXATION you call it! 7)simple and complex sentences We can make the general point that complex sentences are to be preferred if the aim of the writer is to present us with a complex structure of ideas, a complex reading experience.
?The complex form gives and withholds information, subordinates some ideas to other more important, coordinates those of equal weight, and ties into a neat package as many suggestions, modifiers, and asides as the mind can attend to in one stretch.‘ A succession of simple sentences, on the other hand, leaves only sequence to play with. Compare the following:
(1a) Jim threw the ball. The ball broke a window. The noise attracted the owner’s attention. The owner scolded Jim. (1b) Throwing the ball, Jim broke a window. The noise attracted the attention of the owner, who scolded him. (1c) When Jim threw the ball and broke the window, he was scolded by the owner, whose attention was attracted by the noise. Obviously, (1a) represents a na? narrative ve style with no indication of the relationship between events, or their relative importance.
There are occasions, however, where simple sentences are just what is needed: (2a) She saw there an object. That object was the gallows. She was afraid of the gallows. (Joseph Conrad, The Secret Agent, Ch 12) These three sentences occur at the climactic point in the novel where Mrs. Verloc realizes the full consequence of her action in murdering her husband. The dramatic force of this step-by-step revelation would be dissipated in a complex sentence such as :
?She saw there an object she was afraid of— the gallows‘ or ?The object she saw there—the gallows—frightened her‘ Contrast the very different effect of: (3) The tireless resilient voice that had just lobbed this singular remark over the Bella Vista bar window-sil into the square was, though its owner remained unseen, unmistakable and achingly familiar as the spacious flower-boxed balconied hotel itself, and as unreal, Yvonne thought. (Malcolm Lowry, Under the Volcano, Ch 2)
Here we are presented with a more difficult and adventurous reading experience than the three simple sentences of (2a). We also have a sequence of impressions, but they are integrated in a single complex awareness of a number of things which must be going on in the mind of Yvonne, beginning with the voice (the immediate object of perception), moving on to the attendant circumstances of that perception (expressed in subordinate clauses), then to the impression the voice made (?unmistakable…familiar…unreal‘),
and finally to the perceiver herself, Yvonne. The two passages contrast in ordering: (2a) working from the person (?She‘) to the percept (?the gallows‘), and (3) working from the percept (?the…voice‘) to person (?Yvonne‘). But this is incidental to the contrast between simplicity and complexity: the difference between experiencing events one by one, and experiencing them as an articulate and complex whole.
8)coordination and subordination The major devices for linking ideas together into a complex sentence are coordination and subordination. Coordination gives clauses (and other units) equal syntactic status, whereas subordination places one clause in a dependent status, as part of the main clause. Subordination is thus a syntactic form of salience, since the effect of making a clause subordinate is to background it:
to demote the phenomenon it describes into a ?subservient circumstance‘ which cannot be understood except in terms of its part in the main clause. Often a subordinate clause is less salient in the sense of expressing information which is at least partially known or presupposed in advance. In the following sentence, for instance, When Jim threw the ball and broke the window, he was scolded by the owner, whose attention was attracted by the noise.
The effect of placing two events in a subordinate clause (?When Jim threw the ball and broke the window‘) is to imply that the hearer already knows something about them. A similar effect would be created by the relative clause ?The ball which Jim threw‘. We thus may enunciate a general principle of subordination (which is not without its exceptions): If A is subordinate to B, then A is the circumstantial background against which B is highlighted.
It is one of the more routine virtues of prosewriting that a writer brings about, by coordination and subordination, an appropriate salience and back-grounding of parts of the sentence. But as with other rhetorical principles, this principle of subordination may be violated: Curley’s fist was swinging when Lennie reached for it. (John Steinbeck, Of Mice and Men, Ch 3)
On the face of it, Steinbeck would have done better to write something like: As Curley’s fist was swinging, Lennie reached for it. But what he did write fits in very well with his overall strategy in the novel, that of absolving Lennie of responsibility for his actions. By downgrading Lennie‘s part in the fight, he makes it seem an inadvertent and blameless reaction to Curley‘s onslaught. A more complex example of a similar kind is this:
The system worked just fine for everybody, especially for Doc. Daneeka, who found himself with all the time he needed to watch old Major—de Coverley pitching horseshoes in his private horseshoe-pitching pit, still wearing the transparent eye patch Doc. Daneeka had fashioned for him from the strip of celluloid stolen from Major’s orderly room window months before when major—de Coverley had returned from Rome with an injured cornea after renting two apartments there for the officers and enlisted men to use on their rest leaves. (Joseph Heller, Catch 22)
There seems to be something rather perverse about the structure of this sentence: the elements which we feel deserve to be in the foreground are subordinated, and therefore backgrounded. The sentence begins with the subject, verb and complement of the main clause, and then nose-dives into a chain-like structure of subordinate clauses (especially non-finite clauses), each dependent on its predecessor.
The syntactic chaining expresses a chain of bizarre relationships between one character and another, in keeping with the eccentric design of this novel, in which characters and events are linked through apparently irrational peculiarities of behavior.
5.What is involved in the methodology of the study?
1)linguistic description. 2)stylistic analysis so as to minimize the intuitive element in criteria of analysis: a. comparison and contrast in the observation of linguistic description of a literary text b. quantitative study of frequency and distribution c. linguistic deviation from the norm--foreground as against the background --prominence
6.What are the preliminary conditions for the study of stylistics? 1)awareness of prescriptive grammar 2)strong sense of English rhetoric 3)basic knowledge of phonetics, phonology, lexicology, syntax, graphology and semantics 4)understanding of literature as the three dimensional rather than two dimensional
How is stylistics applied to the teaching of English? 1.lexical level: paraphrase 2.syntactic level: structural transformation 3.adverbial mobility 4.sentence type 5.sentence complexity 6.sentence length 7.theme and form 8.the nature of literary stylistics as applied linguistics
LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION Frequency and distribution of linguistic features for quantitative analysis is the focus of our interest in linguistic observation. 1.What are the supposed levels of analysis? 1)phonetic and graphic former--the study of the characteristics and potential utility of human vocal noise Latter--the study of written or printed shapes of human vocal noise. Stress is laid on the physical characteristics of the language.
2)phonological and graphological former--the study of sound system of a given language latter--the study of a language‘s written system, or orthography Stress is laid on the contrasts made within the linguistic system—repetition of segmental sounds in a specific distribution, patterns of rhythm, intonation and other non-segmental elements, distinctive uses of punctuation, capitalization, spacing…
3)grammatical and lexical former—to study the result of the organization of sounds and letters and to analyze the internal structure of sentences and the way they function in sequences. latter--to study the attributes of single lexical items (vocabulary), the choice of specific lexical items in a text, their distribution in relation to one another, and their meaning. Form-meaning relationship is under serious consideration.
4)semantic the descriptive study of the linguistic meaning of a text over and above the meaning of the lexical items taken singly: patterns of thematic development, the distribution of concepts in a text as a whole, the use of characteristic figures of speech, semantic correlations. 2.How different is the nature of ?meaning‘ expressed at the semantic level from that at the lexical level? Semantic contrasts are less systematic and definable, and are all-inclusive.
Vocabulary contrasts are relatively discontinuous, finite, and localized. 3.Why do we separate linguistic description into the abovementioned four levels? To focus our attention more closely on a particular aspect of language organization 4.What are principles of scaling the importance of stylistic features? Frequency and uniqueness (or salience) shown by contrast, which gives rise to quantitative description of the given text.
5.What are the major concerns of grammatical observation? 1)inter-sentential relationships sentence-linking features: ellipsis, anaphora, the use of concord, lexical repetition, adverbial contrast, contrastive tone, The most distinctive sentence-linking features: frequent use or absence of anaphora the use of specific patterns of paragraphing 2)sentence typology and structure complete sentences: major sentences (grammatically complete)
a. b. c. d.
simple compound complex mixed minor sentences (grammatically incomplete; fragments) a. a subordinate structure b. an element of clause structure c. a combination of elements of clause structure d. a non-finite construction
3)clause typology and structure What are the major concerns of distinctive features at clause level observation? a. the proportion of nouns to verbs b. the frequency of pronouns as against nominal groups c. the frequency of clauses working as complement d. the frequency of nominal groups working in clusters e. the ordering of elements of structure in relation to one another
f. the frequency of inversion g. the frequency of the adverbial occurring initially, medially, or finally h. the proportion of adverbials as against other elements 4)group typology and structure What is the advantage of the choice of nominal groups over verbal groups? Greater potentiality for modification creates stronger stylistic contrasts in terms of complexity 5)word typology and structure
Apart from the message being communicated, what other kind of information does the utterance give us? 1.Does it tell us which specific person used it? (individuality) 2.Does it tell us where in the country he is from? (Regional dialect) 3.Does it tell us which social class he belongs to? (Class dialect) 4.Does it tell us during which period of English he spoke or wrote it, or how old he was? (Time)
5.Does it tell us whether he was speaking or writing? (Discourse medium) 6.Does it tell us whether the speaking or writing is an end in itself, or a means to a further end? (Simple v complex discourse medium) 7.Does it tell us whether there was only one participant in the utterance, or whether there was more than one? (Discourse participation) 8.Does it tell us whether the monologue and dialogue are independent, or are to be considered as part of a wider type of discourse? (Simple v complex discourse participation)
9.Does it tell us which specific occupational activity the user is engaged in? (Province) 10.Does it tell us about the social relationship existing between the user and his interlocutors? (Status) 11.Does it tell us about the purpose he had in mind when conveying the message? (Modality) 12.Does it tell us that the user was being deliberately idiosyncratic? (Singularity) 13.Does it tell us none of these things? (Common-core)
? Deviance: a statistical notion as the difference between the normal frequency of a feature, and its textual frequency. ? Prominence: psychological saliency as the phenomenon of linguistic highlighting, which provides not only the basis for a reader?s subjective recognition of a style but also the condition for recognition that a style is being used for a particular literary end.
? Literary relevance (foregrounding): artistically motivated deviation. ? Either qualitative deviation from lexical/grammatical norm ? Or quantitative deviation from some expected frequency.
? The consistency and systematic character of foregrounding work together as the distinguishing mark of literary language. ? The three notions of saliency can be placed in an ordered relation as follow: ? (X) literary relevance (foreground) →psychological prominence ? →statistical deviance (Y) ? NOTE:X covers Y, and Y can be used to suggest X, but Y does not necessarily suggest X.
? Relative (primary) norm: the norm of a group, of a given writer; legal norm, spoken norm, written norm; lexical, grammatical, phonological, graphical norm. ? Secondary norm: the norm which is odd and ?attained? by stylistic consistency in a text, which established by deviance from the primary (relative) norm. ? Internal deviation: features of language, within a given text, that depart from the norms of the text.
? Pervasive features are an essential background, against which local features (internal deviation) become contrastively salient.
? Variations in style: a multiplicity of styles within the same work corresponding to the hero?s development, as shown in the following paragraphs from Dickens? Dombey and son. ? 1. the description of father and son at the latter?s birth, so formal in its rhetorical design, balancing each element of the father and the son:
Dombey was about eight-and-forty years of age. Dombey was rather bald, ? and very bald, and though a handsome well-made man, too stern and pompous in appearance, to be prepossessing.
Son about eight-and-forty minutes. Son was rather red, and very red, though (of course) an undeniably fine infant, somewhat crushed and spotty in his general effect, as yet.
On the brow of Dombey, Time and his brother Care had set some marks, as on a tree that was to come down in good time --remorseless twins they are for striding through their human forests, notching as they go--
while the countenance of Son was crossed with a thousand little creases, which the same deceitful Time would take delight in smoothing out and wearing away with the flat part of his scythe, as a preparation of the surface for his deeper operations
2.the scene of the son, Paul?s death, with simple syntax and vocabulary to express the simple images of the child?s mind, intensifying the reader?s sympathy: ? Paul had never risen from his little bed (1). He lay there, listening to the noises in the street, quite tranquilly; not caring much how the time went, but watching it and watching everything about him with observing eyes (2). When the sunbeams stuck into his room through the rustling blinds, and quivered on the opposite wall like golden water, he knew that evening was coming on, and that the sky was red and beautiful (3).
? As the reflection died away, and a gloom went creeping up the wall, he watched it deepen, deepen, deepen into night (4). Then he thought how the long streets were dotted with lamps, and how the peaceful stars were shining overhead (5). His fancy had a strange tendency to wander to the river, which he knew was flowing through the great city; and now he thought how black it was; and how deep it would look, reflecting the hosts of stars—and more than all, how steadily it rolled away to meet the sea (6). ?
3. in the same chapter, at the point of death, Dickens breaks into the declamatory rhetoric for moments of high dram: The golden ripple on the wall came back again, and nothing else stirred in the room (1). The old, old fashion! (2) The fashion that came in with our first garments, and will last unchanged until our race has run its course, and the wide firmament is rolled up like a scroll (3). The old, old fashion—Death! (4) Oh thank GOD, all who see it, for that older fashion yet, of immortality! (5) And look upon us, angels of young children, with regards not quite estranged, when the swift river bears us to the ocean! (6)
A: Lexical categories
? 1.GENERAL. Is the vocabulary simple or complex? formal or colloquial? descriptive or evaluative? general or specific? How far does the writer make use of the emotive and other associations of words, as opposed to their referential meaning? Does the text contain idiomatic phrases, and if so, with what kind of dialect or register (iii) are these idioms associated? Is there any use of rare or specialized vocabulary? Are any particular morphological categories noteworthy (e.g. compound words, words with particular suffixes)? To what semantic fields. do words belong?
The checklist of lexical categories and their stylistic functions respectively----a.Nouns-abstract society/idea, or concrete house/cat? What kinds of abstract nouns occur (referring to events war/eruption, perceptions understanding/consciousness, processes development, moral virtue or social responsibility, qualities bravery)? What use is made of proper names? Are there any collective nouns people/staff?
b.Adjective-referring to what attribute? physical woolen, psychological joyful, visual hilly square/snowy, auditory bubbling/sizzling, sensory slippery/smooth, color dark/red, referential big dog/white house, emotive exited/happy, evaluative good/fat/ bad/lazy? gradable young/tall/useful or non-gradable atomic/British? attributive an utter fool or predicative he is ashore ? restrictive the exact answer? intensifying the simple truth/a complete victory/a slight effort? stative tall/long or dynamic abusive/ambitious?
c.Verbs–Are they stative cost/believe/remain, or dynamic walk/arrive? Do they refer to movements climb/jump/slide, physical acts spread/smell/taste/laugh, or speech acts persuade/decline/beg, psychological states or activities think/feel/imagine/know/love. or perceptions see/hear/feel? Are they transitive shut the door, intransitive the door shuts, or linking be/sound/seem/taste/ smell? Are they factive know/regret/forget/remember or non-factivebelieve/assume/consider/suppose/ think/ imagine?
d.Adverbs—what semantic functions do they perform? Manner anxiously/ carefully/ loudly/ willingly? place away/along/across/upstairs/elsewhere? direction backwards/forward/up/down/in/out? time ago/already/finally/shortly/immediately? degree almost/completely/partly/deeply/much? Are there any significant use of sentence adverbs? 1) adjuncts like happily, proudly, now, outside? 2) conjuncts like so, therefore, however? 3) disjuncts like certainly, obviously, frankly?
B: Grammatical categories ? I SENTENCE TYPES. Does the author use only statements (declarative sentences), or does he also use questions, commands, exclamations. or minor sentence types such as sentences with no verb)? If these other types are used, what is their function? ? SENTENCE COMPLEXITY. Do sentences on the whole have a simple or a complex structure? What is the average sentence length (in number of words)? What is the ratio of dependent to independent clauses complexity vary strikingly from one sentence to another? Is complexity mainly due to (i) coordination, (ii) subordination, (iii) parataxis (juxtaposition of clauses or other equivalent structures)?
In what parts of a sentence does complexity tend to occur? For instance, is there any notable occurrence of anticipatory structure (e.g. of complex subjects preceding the verbs, of dependent clauses preceding the subject of a main clause)? 3 CLAUSE TYPES. What types of dependent clause are favored:relative clauses, adverbial clauses, different types of nominal clauses (that—clauses, wh—clauses, etc)? Are reduced or non-finite clauses commonly used, and if so, of what type are they (infinitive clauses, —ing clauses, —ed clauses, verbless clauses)?
? 4 CLAUSE STRUCTURE. Is there anything significant about clause elements (eg frequency of objects, complements, adverbials; of transitive or intransitive verb constructions)? Are there any unusual orderings (initial adverbials, fronting of object or complement, etc)? Do special kinds of clause construction occur? (Such as those with preparatory it or there)? ? 5 NOUN PHRASES. Are they relatively simple or complex? Where does the complexity lie (in premodification by adjectives, nouns, etc, or in postmodification by prepositional phrases, relative clauses, etc)? Note occurrence of listings (eg
? 6 VERB PHRASES. Are there any significant departures from the use of the simple past tense? For example, notice occurrences and the functions of the present tense; of the progressive aspect (eg was lying); of the perfective aspect (eg has/had appeared);modal auxiliaries (eg can, must, would). ? 7 OTHER PHRASE TYPES. Is there anything to be said about other phrase types: prepositional phrases, adverb phrases adjective phrases? ? 8 WORD CLASSES. Having already considered major or lexical word classes, we may here consider minor word classes (?function words?): prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns, determiners, auxiliaries,
? Are particular words of these types used for particular effect (eg the definite or indefinite article; first person pronouns I, we, etc; demonstratives such as this and that; negative words such as not, nothing, no) ? ? 9 GENERAL. Note here whether any general types of grammatical construction are used to special effect e.g. comparative or superlative constructions; coordinative or listing constructions; parenthetical. constructions; appended or interpolated structures such as occur in casual speech. Do lists and coordinations (e.g. lists of nouns) tend to occur with two, three or more than three members?
C: Figures of speech, etc ? Here we consider the incidence of features which are fore-grounded by virtue of departing in some way from general norms of communication by means of the language code; for example, exploitation of regularities of formal patterning, or of deviations from the linguistic code. For identifying such features, the traditional figures of speech (schemes and tropes) are often useful categories.
? 1 GRAMMATICAL AND LEXICAL SCHEMES. Are there any cases of formal and structural repetition (anaphora, parallelism, etc) or of mirror— image patterns (chiasmus)? Is the rhetorical effect of these one of antithesis, reinforcement, climax, anticlimax, etc ? 2 PHONOLOGICAL SCHEMES. Are there any phonological patterns of rhyme ...alliteration, assonance, etc? Are there any salient rhythmical patterns? Do vowel and consonant sounds pattern or cluster in particular ways? How do these phonological features interact with meaning?
? 3 TROPES. Are there any obvious violations of, or departures from the linguistic code? For example, are there any neologisms (such as Americanly)? deviant lexical collocations (such as portentous infants)? semantic, syntactic, phonological, or graphological deviations? ? Such deviations will often be the clue to special interpretations associated with traditional figures of speech such as metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, paradox, irony. If such tropes occur, what kind of special interpretation is involved (eg metaphor can be classified as personifying, animizing, concretizing, synaesthetic, etc)?
? Because of its close connection with metaphor, simile may also be considered here. Does the text contain any similes, or similar constructions (eg ?as if? constructions)? What dissimilar semantic fields are related through simile? D: Context and cohesion Finally, we take a preliminary look at features which will be more fully dealt with in the following. Under COHESION ways in which one part of a text is linked to another are considered: for example, the wan which sentences are connected. This is the internal organization of the text. Under CONTEXT we consider the external relations of a text or a part of a text, seeing it as a discourse presupposing a social relation between its participants (author and
? reader; character and character, etc), and a sharing by participants of knowledge and assumptions. I.COHESION. Does the text contain logical or other links between sentences (eg coordinating conjunctions, or linking adverbials)? Or does it tend to rely on implicit connections of meaning? ? What sort of use is made of cross—reference by pronouns (she, it, they, etc)? by substitute forms (do, so, etc), or ellipsis? Alternatively, is any use made of elegant variation — the avoidance of repetition by the substitution of a descriptive phrase (as, for example, ?the old lawyer? or ?her uncle? may substitute for the rep?etition of an earlier ?Mr. Jones?)? Are meaning connections reinforced by repetition of words and phrases or by repeatedly
using words from the same semantic field? 2.CONTEXT. Does the writer address the reader directly, or through the words or thoughts of some fictional character? What linguistic clues (firstperson pronouns I, me, my, mine) are there of the addresser-addressee relationship? What attitude does the author imply towards his subject? If a character?s words or thoughts are represented, is this done by direct quotation: direct speech), or by some other method (eg indirect speech. free indirect speech)? Are there significant changes of style according to who is supposedly speaking or thinking the words on the page?
Chapter 4 Levels of style: How does language serve as an analogy of human perception of the objective world? Written language serves as the graphic analogy go the process of human perception. Simple words and simple structures serve as a reflection of simple mental activities. The operation of language as a coding system can be seen as follows:
SPOKEN LANGUAGE speaker semantic level hearer encodes syntactic level decodes phonological level WRITTERN LANGUAGE writer semantic level reader ? encodes syntactic level decodes ? graphological ? level
MODEL OF REALITY ? message writer semantic level encodes syntactic level ? graphological ? level ? text
MODEL OF REALITY message semantic level reader syntactic level decodes graphological level
SPOKEN LANGUAGE WRITTERN LANGUAGE speaker semantic level hearer writer semantic level reader encodes syntactic level decodes encodes syntactic level decodes phonological graphological ? level level
MODEL OF REALITY ? message ? writer semantic level ? encodes syntactic level ? graphological ? level ? text
MODEL OF REALITY message semantic level reader syntactic level decodes graphological level
? ? ? ? ? ?
From the sentence, The discreet door shut with a click, we can find the variations of: A. The semantic level The discreet door shut with a bang. The discreet door closed with a click. There was a click as the discreet door shut. The discreet door was shut with a click. The door discreetly shut with a click.
? B. The syntactic level: the arrangement of the ordering of parts of speech truly reflects the sequence of the happening of the event in the mind of the writer as well as the reader.6. The discreet door shut with a click. ? 7. With a click the discreet door shut. ? 8. The discreet door clicked shut. ? C. The graphological level: punctuation is the visual analogy of the phonological effects created by the speaker in leaving room for the listener?s participation. ? 9. The discreet door shut—with a click. ? 10. With a click, the discreet door shut.
? Levels and functions (A) Plurality of coding levels (B) Plurality of functions
Semantic Syntactic Graphological Ideational Interpersonal Textual
Deviation is the quantitative foregrounding of a prominent pattern of choices within the code that shades into the qualitative foregrounding which changes the code itself. This includes the schemes, which are structural patterns, and tropes, which are violations of meanings, such the effect of metaphor. Look at the fantasy created in the following, a description of Titus Groan?s childhood as heir to the phantasmagorical mansion of Gormenghast:
? Who are the characters? (1) And what has he [Titus] learned of them and of his home since far day when he was born to the Countess of Groan in a room alive with birds? (2) ? He has learned an alphabet of arch and aisle: the language of dim stairs and moth-hung rafters (3). Great halls are his dim playgrounds: his fields are quadrangles: his trees are pillars (4). And he has learned that there are always eyes (5). Eyes that watch (6). Feet that follow, and hands to hold him when he struggles, to lift him when he falls (7). Upon his feet again he stares unsmiling (8). Tall figures elbow (9). Some in jewellery; some in rags (10). ? The characters (11).
The quick and the dead (12). The shapes, the voices that throng his mind, for there are days when the living have no substance and the dead are active (13). To emphasize the ?poetic? style of the passage, let us observe that the schematic patterning is extensive on the phonological as well as on the syntactic level with a rhythmic regularity which enables it to be written out and scanned as poetry in a quasi-blank-verse meter: He has learned an alphabet of arch and aisle: The language of dim stairs and moth-hung rafters.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Great halls are his dim playgrounds: his fields Are quadrangles: his trees are pillars. And he has learned that there are always eyes. Eyes that watch. Feet that follow, And hands to hold him when he struggles, To lift him when he falls. Upon his feet again he stares unsmiling. Tall figures elbow. Some in jewellery; some in rags. The characters. The quick and the dead. The shapes, The voices that throng his mind, for there are days When the living have no substance and the dead Are active.
? In the following chapters of PART II, we shall aim to give an account of the relation between stylistic choice and significance within a functional framework.. While chapter 5 serves as a introduction, chapters 6, 7, and 8 form the nucleus of our investigation of aspects of style: ? Chapter 6: Work as MESSAGE ? (ideational function) ? Chapter 7: Work as TEXT ? (textual function) ? Chapter 8: Work as DISCOURSE ? (interpersonal function)
? Chapter 5 Language and the fictional world ? The language of literature cannot be understood without a proper appreciation of how ordinary language works and the acceptance of untruth is the hallmark of literature. The fictional nature of fiction writing is a special case of the ordinary referential, truth-reporting function of language. ? Realism: There is no such thing as a ?completely realistic? piece of fiction, for whenever a writer uses language, he seizes on some features of ?reality? which are crucial for his purpose and disregards others as does a photographer. Look at the following description of an event which might have been described by another writer in the use of the verb hear: ?Bach?‘ said Lord Edward in a whisper.
Pongileoni‘s blowing and the scraping of the anonymous fiddlers had shaken the air in the great hall, had set the glass of the windows looking on to it vibrating; and this in turn had shaken the air in Lord Edward‘s apartment on the further side. The shaking air rattled Lord Edward‘s membrane tympani the interlocked malleus, incus and stirrup bones were in motion so as to agitate the membrane of the oval window and raise an infinitesimal storm in the fluid of the labyrinth. The hairy endings of the auditory nerve shuddered like weeds in a rough sea; a vast number of obscure miracles were performed in the brain, and Lord Edward ecstatically whispered ?Bach!‘ He smiled with pleasure, his eyes lit up.
? The eccentric effect of this description brings home very clearly the point that realism is a relative concept; relative to the purpose of the writer and the effect on the reader. ? Existing shared knowledge of the reality counts in the understanding that in fiction. ? Language is a vehicle for abstraction and differentiation, serving symbolism through specification of detail. The following newspaper report, in its narrative function, comes a step closer to fictional discourse; one could imagine it being the basis for a short story:
? A French Foreign Legion deserter in Northern Corsica shot dead a West German tourist and critically injured his wife. He then kidnapped their daughter and another girl, but freed them unharmed, and killed himself when surrounded by police—Reuter. ? Verisimilitude: specifically detailed concretion of reality which is closely connected with another aspect of realism, credibility: a fiction tends to be credible to the extent that it overlaps with our ?real? model of reality.
? The combination of verisimilitude and credibility is a stock-in-trade of mainstream ?realistic? fictionwriting; but it is not to be dismissed as having no artistic function. A writer? quest for authenticity may be taken to painstaking extremes, as when Joyce, working on Ulysses, wrote to his aunt in Dublin: ? Is it possible for an ordinary person to climb over the area railings of no. 7 Eccles St, either from the path or the steps, lower himself down from the lowest part of the railings till his feet are within 2 feet or 3 of the ground and drop unhurt? I saw it done myself but by a man of rather athletic build. I require this information in detail in order to determine the wording of a paragraph.
? But there occasions where verisimilitude and credibility work in opposite directions as shown in Gulliver‘s Travels, IV.1 : ? I left my poor wife big with child, and accepted an advantageous offer made me, to be captain of the Adventure, a stout merchantman, of 350 tons… We set sail from Portsmouth upon the 2nd day of August 1710; on the 14th we met with Captain Pocock, of Bristol, at Teneriffe, who was going to the Bay of Campechy, to cut logwood. ? The seemingly unbelievable factuality takes place against the background of the believable setting of a ship? log, which is an instance, at the level of the fictional world, of the artistic device of foregrounding through defeated expectancy.
As an author is at liberty to deliberately keep what information he wishes in his fictional creation, a reader has to guess what is implies in the fiction. Real speech and fictional speech: Language is used to imitate, rather than simply to report, what is going on in the fictional world, and therefore, fictional speech may aspire to a special kind of realism, a special kind of authenticity, in representing the kind of language which a reader can recognize as being characteristic of a particular situation. Normal non-fluency: hesitation pauses, false starts and syntactic anomalies are features of being nonfluent in the sense of lacking an ideal delivery, and yet normal in the sense of occurring habitually in speech, as illustrated in the following conversation:
A: We‘ve got these—exercises and you‘ve got to take the er butt and erm hold point it away up there and of course (laughter) our aim used to shut it up and down it came. B: Well I er joined for these—reasons and plus the er driving you get taught you‘re taught to drive. C: Well erm also my father says I need a bit of discipline you know. A: Doesn‘t (matter what you do) B: (You won’t get any) there (honestly it’s just terrific) C: (No that’s why I’m joining) to make him think. I‘m getting discipline.
? A: Oh it‘s great fun there isn‘t it? ? B: Oh but wait – have you – been on a erm drilling yet? ? C: No. ? B: You just wait. ? Features of non-fluency occur whenever our planning falls behind our delivery, and syntactically, conversation tends towards coordination rather than subordination of clauses, for coordination simplifies the planning of sentence structure. However, the author of a literary fiction does not aim at a completely realistic representation of the features of ordinary conversation, as shown in the following passage, with no cases of normal non-fluency,
? from D. H. Lawrence?s short story The HorseDealer‘s Daughter, when Mabel and her brother must leave their home because of the collapse of the horse-dealing business started by their father: ? ?Have you had a letter from Lucy?‘ Fred Henry asked his sister. (1) ? ?Last week,‘ came the neutral reply. (2) ? ?And what does she say?‘ (3) ? There was no answer. (4) ? ?Does she ask you to go and stop there?‘ persisted Fred Henry. (5) ? ?She says I can if I like.‘ (6)
? ?Well, then, you‘d better. (7) Tell her you‘ll come on Monday.‘ (8) ? This was received in silence. (9) ? ?That‘s what you‘ll do then, is it?‘ said Fred Henry, in some exasperation. (10) ? But she made no answer. (11) ? The undercurrent of this dialogue is a conflict of will between the rough and overbearing man and the proud and determined girl. ? As features of non-fluency are normally overlooked by participants in real life conversation, they can be omitted from fictional conversation without impairing the realistic effect.
? However, when features of non-fluency do occur in fiction, they tend to have a communicative purpose, as illustrated in Kingsley Amis?s Lucky Jim, when Welch, the bumbling history professor, with an unusual vigor, tries to defuse a quarrel between his objectionable son Bertrand and Jim Dixon who has committed the social mistake of taking Bertrand?s present girl friend for his previous one: ? ?I‘m terribly sorry if I‘ve made a mistake, but I was under the impression that Miss Loosmore here had something to do with… ? He turned to Margaret for aid, but before she could speak Welch, of all people, had come in loudly with:
? ?Poor old Dixon, ma-ha-ha, must have been confusing this…this young lady with Sonia Loosmore, a friend of Bertrand‘s who let us all down rather badly some time ago. I think Bertrand must have thought you were…twitting him or something, Dixon; ba-ha-ha.‘ ? ?Well, if he‘d taken the trouble to be introduced, this wouldn‘t have happened,‘ Bertrand said, still flushed. ?instead of which, he…‘ ? ?Don‘t worry about it, Mr. Dixon.‘ The girl cut in. ?It was only a silly little misunderstanding. I can quite see how it happened. My name‘s Christine Callaghan. Altogether different, you see.‘
? ?Well, I‘m…thanks very much for taking it like that. I‘m very sorry about it, really I am.‘ ? As fictional dialogue imitates the very thing it consists of language, the hesitations, interruptions and false start in the above conversation truly represent the characters? reactions to an embarrassing situation. ? Dialect: the particular set of linguistic features shared by a subset of the speech community, and ? Idiolect: the linguistic ?thumbprint? of a particular person, are most noticeable on the graphological level for an author to adopt the goal of authenticity,
? in which the true picture of life is represented by seemingly ungrammatical and non-standard language, as illustrated in the following: 1.?And how long hev this news about me been knowed. Pa‘son Tringham?‘ 2.?Tak‘ these in tuh t’maister, lad,‘ he said. ?un bide theare; Aw’s gang up tuh my awn rahm.‘ 3.?Is this place of abomination consecrated ground?‘ ? ?I don‘t know nothink of consequential ground,‘ says Jo, still starting… ? ?Is it blessed?‘ ? ?I‘m blest if I know,‘ says Jo, staring more than ever; ?but I shouldn‘t think it warn’t. Blest?‘ repeats Jo, something troubled in his mind.
? ?It an’t done it much good if it is. Blest? I should think it was t’othered myself. But I don‘t know nothink! ? As idiolect can be an expression of character, speech is a revealing indicator of character so that a common resort of novelists is to imaginary speech, as a way of conveying the hidden intention of a person?s behavior, as shown in the following part of Smollett?s portrait of Sir Giles Squirrel: ? The baronet‘s disposition seemed to be cast in the true English mould. He was sour, silent and contemptuous; his very looks indicated a consciousness of superior wealth, and he never opened his mouth, except to make some
? dry, sarcastic, national reflection…In a word, though his tongue was silent on the subject, his whole demeanor was continually saying, ‘You are all a pack of poor, lousy rascals, who have a design upon my purse:’tis true, I could buy your whole generation; but, I won’t be bubbled, d’ye see; I am aware of your flattery, and upon my guard against all your knavish pranks; and I come into your company for my own amusement only.’ ? [Tobias Smollett, The Adventures of Ferdinand Count Fathom, Ch 22] ? Similarly, observable reality is symbolic of deeper realities of mood and spirit, as seen in the following description of Josiah Bounderby?s appearance with the style of speaking:
? A man made out of a coarse material, which seemed to have been stretched to make so much of him. A man with a great puffed head and forehead, swelled veins in his temples, and such a strained skin to his face that it seemed to hold his eyes open, and lift his eyebrows up. A man with a pervading appearance on him of being inflated like a balloon, and ready to start. A man who could never sufficiently vaunt himself a self-made man. A man who was always proclaiming, through that brassy speaking-trumpet of a voice of his, his old ignorance and his old poverty. ? [Charles Dickens, Hard Times, Part I, Ch 4]
? When the ?brassy speaking-trumpet? speaks, it comes out with: ? Tell Josiah Bounderby of Coketown, of your district schools and your model schools, and your training schools, and your whole kettleof-fish of schools; and Josiah Bounderby of Coketown, tells you plainly, all right, all correct, – he hadn‘t such advantages… ? His habit of referring to himself in the third person as ?Josiah Bounderby of Coketown? is an indicator of his inflated self-esteem, and the ?stretching? of ?coarse material? seems an exact metaphor not only for his appearance, but for the huffing-and-puffing manner of his speech with repetitive bursts.
? The rendering of the fiction ? Fictional point of view: from the view point of a fictional character. ? Authorial point of view: from the view point of the author. ? In the following passage from Bennett?s Clayhanger, we have a clear impression of seeing things from Edwin?s point of view: ? Edwin went to the doorway of the drawing-room and stood there. Clara, in her Sunday bonnet, was seated at the ancient piano; it had always been she who had played the accompaniments. Maggie, nursing one of the babies, sat on another chair, and
leaned towards the page in order to make out the words. She had half-forgotten the words, and Clara was no longer at ease in the piano part, and their voices were shaky and unruly, and the piano itself was exceedingly bad. A very indifferent performance of indifferent music! And yet it touched Edwin. He could not deny that by its beauty and by the sentiment of old times it touched him. He moved a little forward in the doorway. Clara glanced at him, and winked. Now he could see his father. Darius was standing at some distance behind his daughters and his grandchild, and staring at them. And the tears rained down from his red eyes, and then his emotion overcame him and he blubbered, just as the duet finished.
? Fictional sequencing: the order in which a character comes to learn about the components of the fiction tends to be the psychological sequencing, as illustrated in the passages above and following: ? Gabriel had not gone to the door with the others. He was in the dark part of the hall gazing up the staircase. A woman was standing near the top of the first flight, in the shadow also. He could not see her face but he could see the terracotta and salmon-pink panels of her skirt which the shadow made appear black and white. It was his wife. ? Descriptive focus: a description with concentration on one aspect while ignoring another.
? ? ?
Physical description: focus on physical properties, such as size, shape, color, movement, speed, etc. Abstract description: focus on mental and social properties, abstract concepts. Compare the following: A man in a gilded headdress walked forward, smiling, and raised his hand to them. They were greeted by the chief of the tribe. The chief walked forward and raised his hand in greeting. The effect of concentrating on physical description in human matters and refraining from ?ordinary world‘ inferences can be one of estrangement,
? as can be found in Gulliver?s description of his first encounter with the Yahoos: ? Their heads and breasts were covered with a thick hair, some frizzles, and others lank; they had beards like goats, and a long ridge of hair down their backs and the fore-parts of their legs and feet; but the rest of their bodies were bare, so that I might see their skins, which were of a brown buff color. They had no tails, and were accustomed to sit as well as to lie down, and often stood on their hind feet…The females were not so large as the males; they had long lank hair on their heads, but none on their faces, nor anything more than a sort of down on the rest of their bodies. The hair of both sexes was of several colors, brown, red, black, and yellow.
? In contrast to the above objective physical description, the following subjective sensory description has its affective impact with simile and metaphor: ? A hot burning stinging tingling blow like the loud crack of a broken stick made his trembling hand crumble together like a leaf in the fire: and at the sound and the pain scalding tears were driven into his eyes. His whole body was shaking with fright, his arm was shaking and his crumpled burning livid hand shook like a loose leaf in the air. A cry sprang to his lips, a prayer to be let off. But though the tears scalded his eyes and his limbs quivered with pain and fright he held back the hot tears and the cry that scalded his throat.
? Chapter 6 ---- Mind style: the way one thinks, views, perceives, understands; the choice of structure and lexis reflects the way a writer views the fictional reality. ? 1.It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking 13.(Oddity from the world we know) ? 2.Bob Cowley‘s outstretched talons gripped the black deep-sounding chords. ? (Synaesthesia: sensation produced in part of body by stimulus elsewhere.) ? To examine the effect of changes in participant relations closely let us look at the middle clause of the following sentence:
3. The reflexes are taking over; the left foot comes down with firm even pressure on the clutch pedal while the right feeds in gas. (automatic) 4. he comes down with his left foot with firm even pressure… (automatic) 5. he presses his left foot down with firm even pressure… (non-automatic, conscious) 6. he presses down with firm even pressure… ? (non-automatic, unconscious) 7. the left foot presses itself down with firm even pressure… (non-automatic, conscious) 8. the left foot presses down with firm even pressure… (non-automatic, unconscious)
? ? 1. ?
The use of a bodily part instead of a person as an actor can play down the blame attributed to a character for his actions, as seen in the following: She screamed then, and Lennie‘s other hand closed over her mouth and nose. Three normal mind styles: As a matter of fact(direct): with simple lexical and syntactic structure, like a picture: His eyes were very dark brown and there was a hint of brown pigment in his eyeballs. His cheekbones were high and wide, and strong deep lines cut down his cheeks, in curves beside his mouth.
His lower lip was long, and since his teeth protruded, the lips stretched to cover them, for this man kept his lips closed. His hands were hard, with broad fingers and nails as thick and ridged as little clam shells. The space between thumb and forefinger and the hams of his hands were shiny with callus. Compare the preference for state verbs (be) with the choice of non-factive, psychological verbs in the following sentence: His hands looked hard, with broad fingers and nails which seemed as thick as…
2. Movement as reaction to the outside events(lacking directness): with complex syntax and diction reflecting emotional states and feelings, as found in James Joyce?s description of Lenehan at the beginning of Two Gallants: ? The other, who walked on the verge of the path and was at times obliged to step on to the road, owing to his companion‘s rudeness, wore an amused, listening face. He was squat and ruddy. A yachting cap was shoved far back from his forehead, and the narrative to which he listened made constant waves of expression break forth over his face from the corners of his nose and eyes and mouth.
Little jets of wheezing laughter followed one another out of his convulsed body. His eyes, twinkling with cunning enjoyment, glanced at every moment towards his companion‘s face. ? Compare the following sentence describing Corley, the other of the two gallants: ? He walked with his hands by his sides, holding himself erect and swaying his head from side to side. 3. Social relations and quality of character: complexity arising from heavy appositive structure, as seen Henry James? The Birthplace:
? Their friend, Mr. Grant-Jackson, a highly preponderant pushing person, great in discussion and arrangement, abrupt in overture, unexpected, if not perverse in attitude, and almost equally acclaimed and objected to in the wide midland region to which he had taught, as the phrase was, the size of his foot—their friend had launched his bolt quite out of the blue and had thereby so shaken them as to make them fear almost more than hope. ? Some unusual mind styles 1. Pathetic fallacy: attribution of human characteristics to inanimate nature, suggesting the elimination of the division between animate man and inanimate nature, thus the harmonious oneness of man and his environment, as found in Hardy?s
description of Egdon Heath at the beginning of The Return of the Native: The spot was, indeed, a near relation of night, and when night showed itself an apparent tendency to gravitate together could be perceived in its shades and the scene. The sombre stretch of rounds and hollows seemed to rise and meet the evening gloom in pure sympathy, the heath exhaling darkness as rapidly as the heavens precipitated it. And so the obscurity in the air and the obscurity in the land closed together in a black fraternization towards which each advanced half-way.
The place became full of watchful intentness now; for when other things sank brooding to sleep the heath appeared slowly to awake and listen. Every night its Titanic form seemed to await something; but it had waited thus, unmoved, during so many centuries, through the crises of so many things, that it could only be imagined to await one last crisis—the final overthrow. 2. Realignment of a major conceptual boundary, as seen in William Faulkner?s short story The Bear, where proper names are given to the beast, the man and the mix-blood dog:
There was a man and a dog too this time. Two beasts, counting Old Ben, the bear, and two men, counting Boon Hogganbeck, in whom some of the same blood ran which ran in Sam Fathers, even though Boon‘s was a plebeian strain of it and only Sam and Old Ben and the mongrel Lion were taintless and incorruptible. 3. Co-existence of human and divine beings, as in John Cowper Powys?s A Glastonbury Romance: At the striking of noon on a certain fifth of March, there occurred within a causal radius of Brandon railway station and yet beyond the deepest pools of emptiness between the uttermost stellar systems
one of those infinitesimal ripples in the creative silence of the First Cause which always occur when an exceptional stir of heightened consciousness agitates any living organism in this astronomical universe. Something passed at that moment, a wave, a motion, a vibration too tenuous to be called magnetic, too subliminal to be called spiritual, between the soul of a particular human being who was emerging from a third-class carriage of the twelve-nineteen train from London and the divine-diabolic soul of the First Cause of all life. An extremely unusual mind style, as shown William Faulkner?s description of a game of golf in The Sound and the Fury:
? Through the fence, between the curling flower spaces, I could see them hitting (1). They were coming toward where the flag was and I went along the fence (2). Luster was hunting in the grass by the flower tree (3). They took the flag out, and they were hitting (4). Then they put the flag back and they went to the table, and he hit and the other hit (5). Then they went on, and I went along the fence (6). Luster came away from the flower tree and we went along the fence and they stopped and we stopped and I looked through the fence while Luster was hunting in the grass (7). ? ?Here, caddie.‘(8) He hit (9). They went away across the pasture (10). I held to the fence and watched them going away (11).
? ?Listen at you, now.‘ Luster said (12). ?Ain‘t you something, thirty-three years old, going on that way (13). After I done went all the way to town to buy you that cake (14). Hush up that moaning (15). Ain‘t you going to help me find that quarter so I can go to the show tonight‘ (16). ? They were hitting little, across the pasture (17). I went back along the fence to where the flag was(18). It flapped on the bright grass and the trees (19). ? ?Come on,‘ Luster said (20). ?We done looked there (21). They ain‘t no more coming right now (22). Let‘s go down to the branch and find that quarter before them niggers finds it.‘(23)
? It was red, flapping on the pasture (24). Then there was a bird slanting and tilting on It (25). Luster threw (26). The flag flapped on the bright grass and the trees (27). I held to the fence (28). ? Chapter 7 ---- Distinction between discourse and text ? Discourse: linguistic communication seen as a transaction between speak and hearer, as an interpersonal activity whose form is determined by its social purpose. ? Text: linguistic communication (either spoken or written) seen as a message code in its auditory or visual medium of linear sequence.
? Linearity of text: speech occurs linearly in time, and writing, occurs linearly in space. ADDRESSER----DISCOURSE----ADDRESSEE ? initiates by ? MESSAGE MESSAGE ? encoded decoded ? into into ? ----TEXT----
? ICONICITY: the imitation principle in literature; literary expression tends to have not only a presentational function (directed towards the reader?s role as decoder) but a representational function (miming the meaning that it expresses); language, for all its arbitrariness, is in various ways an iconic mirror of reality. It is in the nature of literature to exploit these iconic possibilities: to bring about associations between form and meaning which are ordinarily dormant. ? Look at the following description, by Joseph Conrad in The Secret Agent, of Mrs. Verloc?s murder of her unsuspecting husband, which shows subtle handling of psychological time:
? He saw partly on the ceiling and partly on the wall the moving shadow of an arm with a clenched hand holding a carving knife. (1) It flickered up and down (2). Its movements were leisurely (3). They were leisurely enough for Mr. Verloc to recognize the limb and the weapon (4). ? They were leisurely enough for him to take in the full meaning of the portent, and to taste the flavor of death rising in his gorge (5). His wife had gone raving mad—murdering mad (6). They were leisurely enough for the first paralyzing effect of this discovery to pass away before a resolute determination to come out victorious from the ghastly struggle with that armed lunatic (7).
? They were leisurely enough for Mr. Verloc to elaborate a plan of defense, involving a dash behind the table, and the felling of the woman to the ground with a heavy wooden chair (8). But they were not leisurely enough to allow Mr. Verloc the time to move either hand or foot (9). The knife was already planted in his breast (10). ? The following sentence of abnormal psychological sequencing demonstrates a linguistic technique sharing something in common with expressionism in art and imagism in poetry: ? Through an open window a streak of ruddy sunlight caresses the rump of a naked lady who reclines calm as a hardboiled egg on a bed of spinach in a giltframed picture behind the bar.
Juxtaposition may be iconic in the sense that words which are close in the text may evoke an impression of closeness or connectedness in the function—not only closeness of time, but psychological or locative relatedness, as could be seen in the following sentences: 1. A schooner manned by forty men sailed into Portsmouth harbor. 2. A schooner sailed into Portsmouth harbor manned by forty men. 3. There were six men at the table in the lunch room eating fast with their hats on the backs of their heads.
4. With their hats on the backs of their heads, there were six men at the table in the lunch room eating fast. 5. There were six men, with their hats on the backs of their heads, at the table in the lunch room eating fast. 6. He seized the nurse‘s hand and shook it showing all his uneven teeth in a smile. 7. Showing all his uneven teeth in a smile, he seized the nurse‘s hand and shook it. ? Syntactic iconicity: iconicity has a power like that of metaphor: it rests on the intuitive recognition of similarities between one field of reference (the form
? of language) and another; this is iconic on two levels: the syntax dramatizes its own meaning, and the syntax is an icon of the author?s particular skill in the whole work. The iconic rule of syntax can be illustrated in the following sentence, in which the syntactic icon of digression it praises at once is a parenthetical constituent: ? For in this long digression which I was accidentally led into, as in all my digressions (one only excepted) there is a masterstroke of digressive skill, the merit of which has all along, I fear, been overlooked by my reader,--not for want of penetration in him,--but because ‘tis an excellence seldom looked for, or expected indeed, in a digression;--and it is this:
That though my digressions are all fair, as you observe,--and that I fly off from what I am about, as far and as often too as any writer in Great Britain; Yet I constantly take care to order affairs so that my main business does not stand still in my absence. [Lawrence Sterne, Tristram Shandy,. Vol 1, Ch 22]
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Chapter 8 Discourse and discourse situation Four levels of discourse Addresser1 Addressee1 (Author) Message (Reader) Addresser2 Addressee2 (Implied author) Message (Implied reader) Addresser3 Addressee3 (Narrator) Message (Interlocutor) Addresser4 Addressee4 (Character) Message (Character) Language is a vehicle of communication; rhetoric of discourse is the way to carry the message, and
literature is a kind of discourse where the writer can assume relatively little about the receiver of his message or the context in which it will be received. Implied reader: since the author can assume knowledge which any particular reader might not necessarily have, we have to conclude that the addressee in literary communication is not the reader, but the mock reader, or what is conventionally called implied reader; in the interpretation of literary work readers? existing knowledge from physical and reading experience counts, including social, moral, cultural, and historical knowledge, as in the case of the meaning of drawers in James Joyce?s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Ch 4:
Her long slender bare legs were delicate as a crane‘s and pure save where an emerald trail of seaweed had fashioned itself as a sign upon her flesh. Her thighs, fuller and soft-hued as ivory, were bared almost to the hips, where the white fringes of her drawers were like feathering of soft white down. ? The term drawers, when applied to articles of ladies? clothing, can hardly be used today without eliciting a grin. ? Implied author: just as there is an implied reader between the reader and the work, so there is what he has called implied author between the author and the text. ? Authors and narrators
? I-narrator implies that author and narrator set apart, making the mood personal, subjective and involving to the reader. (telling between ?I? and ?you?) ? Third-person-narrator implies that author and narrator are merged and the narrator seems knowing everything, making the mood impersonal and objective. (showing with absence of ?I? and ?you?) Rhetorical questions in the third person narration imply that both an asker and an addressee have the power to react and reply, allowing novelists to make direct addresses to the reader, inviting their judgments; the reader can share the wondering with the author, as in the following cases:
1. Has Mr. Tulkinghorn been disturbed? His windows are dark and quiet, and his door is shut. It must be something unusual indeed to bring him out of his shell. Nothing is heard of him, nothing is seen of him. What power of cannon might it take to shake that rusty old man out of his immovable composure? 2. Instead of wondering at this result of misery in Mr. Casaubon, I think it quite ordinary. Will not a tiny speak very close to our vision blot out the glory of the world, and leave only a margin by which we see the blot? I know no speck so troublesome as self. 3. The bias of human nature to be slow in correspondence triumphs even over the present quickening in the general pace of thing: what wonder then that in 1832 old Sir Godwin Lydgate was slow to write a
? letter which was of consequence to others rather than to himself? ? The style of direct address to the reader is marked also by the change of tense from normal past to the generic, ?timeless? present, and by the change from third to first person. ? Narrators and characters The use of third-person narration generally separates the level of character discourse from that of narrator discourse, in which the narrator is omniscient, and the conversations between the characters are ultimately a part of the message from the author to the reader, as shown in the following case:
? ?You have done your best to kill me with fear,‘ cried Signora Teresa. She wanted to say something more, but her voice failed her. Linda raised her eyes to her face for a moment, but old Giorgio shouted apologetically: ? ?She is a little upset.‘ ? Outside Nostromo shouted back with another laugh: ? ?She cannot upset me.‘ ? But the choice of a first-person narration allows a further kind of merger of roles, as shown in the following extract from Richardson?s Clarissa, when Anna has locked herself in her room to write to Clarissa about Lovelace but is interrupted by her mother:
? If this ever-active, ever-mischievous monkey of a man, this Lovelace, contrived as you suspect—But here comes my mother again (1).—Ay, stay a little longer, my manna, if you please (2). I can but be suspected! (3). I can but be chidden for making you wait (4); and chidden I am sure to be, whether I do or not, in the way you, my good manna, are Antony‘d into (5). ? Bless me! – how impatient she is! – how she thunders at the door! (6). This moment, madam (7). How came I to double-lock myself in! What have I done with the key? (8). Deuce take the key! (9). Dear madam! You flutter one so! (10).
? This a typical example of ambiguity and complexity of interpersonal relationship, consisting of an interlacing of remarks made directly to Clarissa about the situation, reports of what Anna says to her mother and thoughts that she addresses to herself, all apparently reported at the moment they are made: ? Addresser1 Addressee1 ? (Anna) (Clarissa) ? Message ? ? Addresser2 Addressee2 Addresser3 Addressee3 ? (Anna) (Anna?s mother) (Anna) (Anna) ? Message Message
? Point of view and value language Discoursal point of view: the relationship, expressed through discourse structure, between the implied author or some other addresser, and the fiction. This leads on naturally to consideration of other critical terms such as irony, tone and distance, which imply attitude and judgment, in which the use of language expresses some element of value, as shown in the following description of Mr. and Mrs. John Dashwood, from Jane Austen?s Sense and Sensibility, a large proportion of nouns and adjectives convey ?good? or ?bad? meanings:
He was not an ill-disposed young man, unless to be rather cold hearted, and rather selfish, is to be ill-disposed: but he was, in general, well respected; he conducted himself with propriety in the discharge of his ordinary duties. Had he married a more amiable woman, he might have been made still more respectable than he was: -- he might even have been made amiable himself; for he was very young when he married, and very fond of his wife. But Mr. Dashwood was a strong caricature of himself; -- more narrow-minded and selfish. How an author may direct a reader?s value responses to the characters and events in a novel can be shown as follows:
? Moral: ill-disposed, cold hearted, selfish, narrowminded, (not) amiable ? Social: propriety, duties, respected, respectable ? Emotive: fond ? MORAL SOCIAL EMOTIVE ? High High High ? Mr. D Mrs. D ? Mr. D ? Mr. D ? Mrs. D ? Low Low Low ? A rather more complex characterization is found Jane Austen?s description of Emma in her Emma,
? which presents an attractive but not perfect girl: ? Emma Woodhouse, handsome, clever, and rich, with a comfortable home and happy disposition, seemed to unite some of the best blessings of existence… ? The inference that wealth and comfort do not guarantee happiness, which might be the result of an accidental birth can be made from the two parallel structures plus the non-factive verb seem. ? Multiplicity of values: the multi-faceted nature of our value picture is a matter not only of coexisting spheres of value, but of coexisting levels of discourse., as found in Faulkner?s The Sound and the Fury, where the standards of judgment on one level contrast with those on another level,
? when Jason, the first person narrator, trying to beat his niece, is hindered by the aged servant Dilsey: ? ?I aint gwine let him [beat you],‘ Delsey says, ?Don‘t you worry, honey.‘ She held to my arm. Then the belt came out and I jerked loose and flung her away. She stumbled into the table. She was so old she couldn‘t do any more than move hardly. But that‘s all right: we need somebody in the kitchen to eat up the grub the young ones can‘t tote off. She came hobbling between us, trying to hold me again. ?Hit me, den,‘ she says, ?ef nothin else but hitting somebody wont do you. Hit me,‘ she says. ? ?You think. I won‘t? I says…
The reader?s response is on two levels: we respond as interlocutors to Jason?s self-incriminating monologue, and also as implied readers participating in the implied author?s judgment on it. The assumption of agreement, known as the ?secret communion, between addresser and addressee can be one of the features which distinguishes fictional discourse from other kinds of discourse (conversation, political propaganda). Irony：the ?secret communion? between author and reader is the basis of irony which involves a contrast between a point of view stated or implied in some part of the fiction, and the assumed point of view of the author, and hence of the reader, as seen in the following collocative clase in syntax and lexis:
1. Heark ye, Clinker, you are a most notorious offender – You stand convicted of sickness, hunger, wretchedness, and want. 2. He had a good healthy sense of meum, and as little of tuum as he could help.(note: meum implies selfishness while tuum implies generosity) 3. Smith said that Roy was a time server (1). He said he was a snob (2). He said he was a humbug (3). Smith was wrong here (4). The most shining characteristic of Alroy Kear was his sincerity (5). No one can be a humbug for five-and twenty years (6). Hypocrisy is the most difficult and nerveracking vice that any man can pursue; it needs an unceasing vigilance and a rare detachment of
? spirit (7). It cannot, like adultery or gluttony, be practiced at spare moments; it is a whole-time job (8). ? The repeated parallelism ?X said that Y was a Z? in (1)—(3) is the clue to a rhetorical build-up. The irony would be much weaker if such patterning were eliminated, as in the following paraphrase, which, by the reordering, also loses the dramatic effect of gradually enticing the reader towards a sudden reversal of judgment: ? Smith was mistaken in saying that Roy was a timeserver, a snob, and a humbug, for sincerity was Alroy‘s most shining characteristic…
1. ? 2. ?
Authorial tone: the attitude taken by an (implied ) author towards his readers, and towards (parts of) his message; it takes on a multiplicity of values, among which irony is one point. Author takes the role of a guide, a mentor, or stage-manager, controlling the reader?s response by such means as Directly addressing to the reader about the contents of the fiction: Instead of wondering at this result of misery in Mr. Casaubon, I think it quite ordinary. Rhetorical question appealing to the reader directly: Will not a tiny speck very close to our vision blot
out the glory of the world, and leave only a margin by which we see the blot? 3. Concealed propositions between the lines, as in George Eliot?s Daniel Deronda, an account of the wealthy Grandcourt?s courtship of Gwendolen, where the author implies that she is less impressed than Grandcourt?s interlocutors by his taciturnity and warns the readers that Gwendolen will suffer a disastrous blind marrage: Grandcourt‘s speeches this morning were, as usual, all of that brief sort which never fails to make a conversational figure when the speaker is held important in his circle. Stopping so soon, they gave sign of a suppressed and formidable ability to say more, and have also the meritorious
? quality of allowing lengthiness to others. ? The subtlety of flexibility and authorial tone can be found in the following passage, where in George Eliot?s description of Gwendolen?s uncle Mr. Gascoigne, three points of view exist: 1. the overtly sympathetic stance of the author, 2. the negative attitude imputed to ‘bitter observers’, and 3. the implied simultaneously sympathetic and ironic attitude of the implied author: ? Words of moral commendation: virtues, clerical, benignity, preached, parish ? Words of social commendation: advantages, success, worldliness, agreeable,
? Undercurrent of irony: a man of God evaluated in terms of advantages of outward appearance and manner. ? He had some agreeable virtues, some striking advantages, and the failings that were imputed to him all leaned toward the side of success (1). ? One of his advantages was a fine person, which perhaps was even more impressive at fifty-seven than it had been earlier in life (2). There were no distinctively clerical lines in the face, no official reserve or ostentatious benignity of expression, no tricks of starchiness or of affected ease: in his Inverness cape he could not have been identified except as a gentleman with handsome dark features,
a nose which began with an intention to be aquiline but suddenly became straight, and iron-grey hair (3). Perhaps he owed this freedom from the sort of professional make-up which penetrates skin tines and gestures and defies all drapery, to the fact that he had once been Captain Gaskin, having taken orders and a diphthong but shortly before his engagement to Miss Armyn (4). If anyone objected that his preparation for the clerical function was inadequate, his friends might have asked who made a better figure in it, who preached better or had more authority in his parish? (5). He had a native gift for administration, being tolerant both of opinions and conduct, because he felt himself able to overrule them, and was free from the irritations of
conscious feebleness (6). …Indeed, the worst imputation thrown out against him was worldliness: it could not be proved that he forsook the less fortunate, but it was not denied that the friendships he cultivated were of a kind likely to be useful to the father of six sons and two daughters; and bitter observers – for in Wessex, say ten years ago, there were persons whose bitterness may now seem incredible – remarked that the color of his opinions had changed in consistency with this principle of action (7). But cheerful, successful worldliness has a false air of being more selfish than the acrid unsuccessful kind, whose secret history is summed up in the terrible words, ?Sold, but not paid for‘ (8).
? ? ? ? ? ?
Chapter 9 Conversation in the novel What?s the nature and function of conversation? a means for the author to convey message to readers a means to realize author-reader communication How is variation of presentation of conversation related to author-reader communication? It affects the degree of authorial control over the character and the amount of freedom allowed for character- reader conversation. Pragmatics and conversation
? Speech act: the way utterances are made (appreciatively, affirmatively, neutrally, depreciatively, declarative, interrogative, imperative), which relates utterance meaning to context, and which is in principle independent of syntactic and semantic categories. ? Semantics is concerned with the representation, through the language system, of referential ?reality?. ? Pragmatics is concerned with the enactment, through language, of ?situational reality?. ? Pragmatic analysis of language: the investigation into that aspect of meaning derived from the way utterances are used and how they relate to the context in which they are uttered, rather than from
? the formal properties of words and constructions. ? The relevance of speech act analysis to our understanding of conversation in the novel can be seen in a passage from Jane Austen?s Pride and Prejudice, when Mrs. Bennet, whose zeal for matchmaking has been frustrated by her daughter?s rebuff of Mr. Collins, addresses her unsympathetic husband: ? ?O Mr. Bennet, you are wanted immediately; we are all in an uproar. You must come and make Lizzy marry Mr. Collins, for she vows she will not have him, and if you do not make haste he will change his mind and not have her…(1)
? ?I have not the pleasure of understanding you,‘ said he, when she had finished her speech. ?Of what are you talking?‘ (2) ? ?Of Mr. Collins and Lizzy. Lizzy declares she will not have Mr. Collins, and Mr. Collins begins to say that he will not have Lizzy.‘ (3) ? ?And what am I to do on the occasion? ... It seems a hopeless business‘ (4) ? ?Speak to Lizzy about it yourself. Tell her that you insist upon her marrying him.‘ (5) ? Mr. Bennet rang the bell, and Miss Elizabeth was summoned to the library. ? ?Come here, child,‘ cried her father as she appeared. ? ?I have sent for you on an affair of importance.
? I understand that Mr. Collins has made you an offer of marriage. Is it true?‘ (6) ? Elizabeth replied that it was (7). ?Very well – and this offer of marriage you have refused?‘ (8) ? ?I have, sir.‘ (9) ? ?Very well. We come to the point. Your mother insists upon your accepting it (10). Is it not so, Mrs. Bennet?‘ (11) ? ?Yes, or I will never see her again.‘ (12) ? ?An unhappy alternative is before you, Elizabeth. From this day you must be a stranger to one of your parents. Your mother will never see you again if you do not marry Mr. Collins, and I will never see you again if you do. (13)
? The interpersonal force of what is said above can be conveyed by using speech act verbs: ? Mrs. Bennet told Mr. Bennet that he was wanted…; ? She then exhorted him to make Lizzy marry…; ? And she explained to him that Lizzy vowed she would not have Mr. Collins…; ? She warned him that if he did not make haste…(1); ? Mr. Bennet claimed that he did not understand…; ? He asked her what she was talking about…(2); ? Mrs. Bennet repeated that…(3)
? Speech acts, as units on the pragmatic level of analysis, which have their conditions of appropriacy subject to society and time, do not have to correspond to easily recognizable units of syntactic or textual analysis. ? Speech acts have conditions of success; a command or a question is successful if it elicits an appropriate response. Thus, as we can see throughout the passage above, the conditions of success for Mrs. Bennet?s speech acts are unfulfilled: her demand is ignored, her assertions are (by implication) doubted, and her threat is finally thwarted.
? Conversational implicatures: the extra meanings that we infer, and which account for the gap between overt sense and pragmatic force. ? Four conversational maxims (Cooperative principles): ? The maxim of quantity (with required amount of information) ? The maxim of quality (with truth based on solid evidence) ? The maxim of relation (relevance to the point) ? The maxim of manner (free from ambiguity, obscurity and wordiness)
? These maxims are often violated without being detected by the hearer, or even violated deliberately so as to be obvious to all the participants in the conversation: ? ?What about the wife – you‘ve tried her?‘ ? ?Several times.‘ ? ?Can‘t she help?‘ ? The other shrugged his shoulders. ? ?She hasn’t so far.‘(ambiguous, lacking right amount, but true) ? ?You think she knows something?‘
? The violation of manner and quantity is to avoid the violation of quality, as can also be seen in the following: ? ‘He’s supposed to be a cousin by marriage of Tom Betterton.’ ? (ambiguous, more than right amount, but true) ? ?Supposed?‘ ? ?Let us say, more correctly, that if he is who he says he is, he is a cousin of the late Mrs. Betterton.‘ ? The violation of quantity and quality can be seen in the following:
? ?Hush, hush! He‘s a human being, (self-evident, redundant message)‘ I said. ?Be more charitable; there are worse men than he is yet!‘ ? ?He’s not a human being,‘ she retorted, ?and he has no claim on my charity. I gave him my heart, and he took and pinched it to death, and flung it back to me.‘ (not true, only metaphor) ? The violation of quality and relation can be seen in the following from The Spy Who Came in Froom the Cold, when Liz asks Leamas if he has any feelings for the innocent East German to whom he has contributed: ? ?But what about Fiedler – don‘t you feel anything for him?‘
? ?This is a war,‘ Leamas replied. (not true, not relevant to the point of the question) ? Violation of the cooperative principle can also found in The loneliness of the Long Distance Runner, when the detective quizzes Smith on the break-in that has just taken place in Papplewick Street. Both participants know that Smith is responsible, and also that the policeman cannot prove it: ? ?Well, you know where Papplewick Street is, don‘t you?‘ the copper asked me taking no notice of mam. ? ?Ain’t it off Alfreton Road?‘ I asked him back, helpful and bright.
?You know there‘s a baker‘s half-way down on the left-hand side, don‘t you?‘ ? ?Ain’t it next door to a pub, then?‘ I wanted to know. He answered me sharp: ?No, it bloody well ain‘t.‘ Coppers always lose their tempers as quick as this… ? Two important points have been illustrated in the above passages of dialogue: 1. Implicature can be seen as the basis of traditional rhetorical figures such as metaphor, hyperbole and irony, ways of ?failing to say what one means?; the motivation for such indirectness lies in personal factors which are at odds with the principle of cooperation.
2. Pragmatic force is not so much a function of the situation itself objectively considered, as of the way participants understand the situation. ? Pragmatics and thought ? Thought, as the way one addresses himself, is a form of suspended action, or even a form of suspended interaction between characters, as reflected in the following passage from Virginia Woolf?s Mrs. Dalloway, when Mrs. Dempster is pondering the figure of Maisie Johnson, whom she can see across the park: ? That girl, thought Mrs. Dempster (who saved crusts for the squirrels and often ate her lunch in Regent‘s Park), don‘t know a thing yet (1).
She had had a hard time of it, and couldn‘t help smiling at a girl like that (2). You’ll get married, for you’re pretty enough, thought Mrs. Dempster (3). Get married, she thought, and then you’ll know (4)…. For really, what with eating, drinking, and mating, the bad days and good, life had been no mere matter of roses (5)…. But, she implored, pity. Pity, for the loss of roses. Pity she asked of Maisie Johnson, standing by the hyacinth beds (6). ? The thought acts behave in the way of speech acts as follows: ? She advises Maisie that she will get married (3). ? She warns her that it is not a good idea (4)
Even when there is no apparent addressee for a character?s thoughts, pragmatic analysis can still be a useful tool of interpretation. The maxim of relation is particularly pertinent in describing the sequencing of apparently unrelated pieces of information in Joycean ?stream of consciousness? writing Ulysses, when the thoughts of Leopold Bloom (He) is reflected: A kidney oozed bloodgouts on the willowpatterned dish: the last (1). He stood by the nextdoor girl at the counter (2). Would she buy it too, calling the items from a slip in her hand (3) Chapped: washing soda (4). And a pound and a half of Denny’s sausages (5). His eyes rested on her vigorous hips (6). Woods his name is (7).
? Wonder what he does (8). Wife is oldish (9). New blood (10). No followers allowed (11). ? ‘Conversation’ between authors and readers ? Generic present is a clear marker of author-reader implicature: when the author breaks away from the narrative past, and adopts the maxim-like present tense, the general truth might be author?s intention, as in the beginning of Jane Austen?s Pride and Prejudice: ? It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife. ? Dramatic irony is produced from the above authorial commentary on the social conventions of
? money and marriage. ? Phatic communion: informationless sentences used to convey general sociability, which can also produce dramatic irony, as can also be found in the following dialogue of the two newlyweds embarrassed by their situation: ? ?Well!‘ the young man said. ? ?Well!‘ she said. ? ?Well, here we are,‘ he said. ? ?Here we are,‘ she said. ?Aren‘t we?‘ ? ?I should say we were,‘ he said. ?Eeyop. Here we are.‘ ? ?Well!‘ she said.
?Well!‘ he said. ?Well. How does it feel to be an old married lady?‘ Dynamics of turn-taking: a dimension of understanding human behavior in conversation, as seen in the follow exchange from Ken Kesey?s One Flew Over the Cuckoo?s Nest, when Nurse Duckett of the mental hospital exercises rigid control over her patients. The reader obviously disapproves of her authorization in the turns she takes: ?Am I to take it that there‘s not a man among you that has committed some act that he has never admitted?‘ She reached in the basket for the log book. ?Must we go over past history?‘
? That triggered something, some acoustic device in the walls, rigged to turn on at just the sound of those words coming from her mouth. The Acutes stiffened. Their mouths opened in unison. Her sweeping eyes stopped on the first man along the wall. ? His mouth worked, ?I robbed a cash register in a service station.‘ ? She moved to the next man. ? ?I tried to take my little sister to bed.‘ ? Her eyes clicked to the next man; each one jumped like a shooting-gallery target. ? ?I – one time – wanted to take my brother to bed.‘
? Conversational tone: tone in the speech of characters, which plays a particular role in indicating the social stance of speaker to hearer, in dramatizing personal relationships, where the dynamics of conversation are reflected variously in the politeness, familiarity, or rudeness of tone adopted by one character towards another. ? References to people: the way in which one character addresses or designates another, a revealing indicator of tone that suggests social distance. In order to see how pragmatic analyses enable us to explain and justify the intuitive reaction of a reader to fictional dialogue,
? we can turn to another passage from the novel set in the mental hospital and we can see, by violation of the maxim of cooperation and by delicate choice of lexis and modes of syntax, the intention of each of the speakers, the distance between the speakers are implied: ? The guys file by and get a capsule in a paper cup – throw it to the back of the throat and get the cup filled with water by the little nurse and wash the capsule down (1). On rare occasions some fool might ask what he‘s being required to swallow (2). ? ?Wait just a shake, honey; what are these two little red capsules in here with my vitamin?‘ (3)
? I know him (4). He‘s a big, griping Acute, already getting the reputation of being a troublemaker (5). ? ?It‘s just medication, Mr. Taber, good for you (6). Down it goes, now.‘ (7) ? ?But I mean what kind of medication (8). Christ, I can see that they‘re pills –--‘ (9) ? ?Just swallow it all, shall we, Mr. Taber – just for me?‘ (10) She takes a quick look at the Big nurse to see how the little flirting technique she is using is accepted, the looks back at the Acute (11). He still isn‘t ready to swallow something he don‘t know what is, not even just for her (12).
? ?Miss, I don‘t like to create trouble (13). But I don‘t like to swallow something without knowing what it is, neither (14). How do I know this isn‘t one of those funny pills that makes me something I‘m not?‘ (15) ? ?Don‘t get upset, Mr. Taber ----‘ (16) ? ?Upset?‘ (17) All I want to know, for the lova Jesus – ‘ (18). ? But the Big Nurse has come up quietly, locked her hand on his arm, paralyses him all the way to the shoulder (19). ?That‘s all right, Miss Flinn,‘ she says (20). ?If Mr. Taber chooses to act like a child, he may have to be treated as such (21). We‘ve tried to be kind and considerate with him (22).
? Obviously, that‘s not the answer (23). Hostility, hostility, that‘s the thanks we get (24). You can go, Mr. Taber, if you don‘t wish to take your medication orally‘ (25). ? ?All I wanted to know, for the ----‘ (26). ? ?You can go.‘ (27) ? He goes off, grumbling, when she frees his arm, and spends the morning moping around the latrine, wondering about those capsules (28). ? Other indicators of politeness: indirectness and unnecessarily long wording. Look at how Mr. Carker, Mr. Dombey?s sinister manager, in addressing Florence, betrays his insincerity and
? hypocritical intentions by an extreme of politeness that make him look like a slave: ? ‘I beg pardon‘, said Mr. Carken, ?a thousand times! But I am going down tomorrow morning to Mr. Dombey, at Leamington, and if Miss Dombey can entrust me with any commission, need I say how very happy I shall be?‘ ? The following speech to Mr. Dombey could all be reduced in plain language to the brief remark ?So you want me to humble her pride, do you?; all the rest is obviously padding:
?And – pardon me – do I misconceive you,‘ said Carker, ?when I think you descry in this, a likely means of humbling Mrs. Dombey‘s pride – I use the word as expressive of a quality which, kept within due bounds, adorns and graces a lady so distinguished for her beauty and accomplishments – and , not to say of punishing her, but of reducing her to the submission you so naturally and justly require?‘ Politeness and formality: Politeness, as shown above, goes well with formal vocabulary, and syntax that tends towards rhetorical formalism. Both politeness and formality convey a sense of distance,
? but a formal style is associated with the distance of serious public communication (particularly written communication), of language ?on its best behavior?. Nevertheless, we see in Mr. Dombey?s speech at Paul?s christening how a formality which is inappropriate to situation can produce an effect very similar to that of over-politeness: ? ?Well, sir,‘ said Mr. Chick, making a desperate plunge, after a long silence, and filling a glass of sherry: ?I shall drink this, if you‘ll allow me, Sir, to little Paul.‘ ? ?Bless him!‘ murmured Miss Tox, taking a sip of wine. ? ?Dear little Dombey!‘ murmured Mrs. Chick.
? ?Mr. John,‘ said Mr. Dombey, with severe gravity, ?my son would feel and express himself obliged to you, I have no doubt, if he could appreciate the favor you have done him. He will prove, in time to come, I trust, equal to any responsibility that the obliging disposition of his relations and friends, in private, or the onerous nature of our position, in public, may improve upon him.‘ ? The tone in which this was said admitting of nothing more, Mr. Chick relapsed into low spirits and silence. ? Mr. Dombey?s pomposity shows in the Latinate diction, particularly of abstract nouns sounding the note of duty rather than of rejoice, also in the elaborate parallelism of his second sentence, which
? ? ?
ironically underlines a division of two parts opposite in nature Mr. Dombey?s own life lamentably fails to recognize: the distinction between one?s public and private self. He has turned the christening into a public meeting. Speech and thought presentation Five modes of speech presentation Direct speech, indirect speech, free direct speech, the narrative report of speech act and free indirect speech (DS, IS, FDS, NRSA, FIS), as illustrated in the following: He said, ?I?ll come back here to see you again tomorrow.? DS
He said that he would return there to see her the following day. IS He said, I?ll come back here to see you again tomorrow. FDS I?ll come back here to see you again tomorrow, he said. FDS ?I?ll come back here to see you again tomorrow.? FDS I?ll come back here to see you again tomorrow. FDS He promised to visit her again the following day. NRSA He would return there to see her again the following day. FIS
He would return there to see her again the following day, he said. FIS Sequence of grades of ‘interference’ in report Narrator Narrator Narrator in total in partial not in control control control of report of report of report at all Varieties of speech presentation NRA NRSA IS FIS DS FDS NRA=Narrative report of action
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Free direct speech, with the absence of the quotation marks and the introductory reporting clause, creates a situation where the characters apparently speak to the reader more immediately without the narrator as an intermediary. See the quick to and fro effect of the conversation between the two waiters and the confusion to which the reader is thrown in Hemingway?s A Clean, Well-lighted Place: ? ?He‘s drunk now,‘ he said. ? ?He‘s drunk every night.‘ ? ?What did he want to kill himself for?‘ ? ?How should I know.‘ ? ?How did he do it?‘ ? ?He hung himself with a rope.‘
? ?Who cut him down?‘ ? Let us see how James Joyce in Ulysses, by running speech and narrative together through the omission of the inverted commas, creates the impression that speech and narrative report are inseparable and relatively indistinguishable aspects of one state: ? --And Xenophon looked upon Marathon, Mr. Dedalus said, looking again on the fireplace and to the window, and Marathon looked on the sea. ? See how Dickens in Bleak House portrays the verdict of accidental death which is brought in at the inquest on Nemo, where lack of quotation marks and reporting clauses produces a kind of ambiguity:
? Now. Is there any other witness? No other witness. ? Very well, gentlemen! Here‘s a man unknown, proved to be in the habit of taking opium in large quantities…. If you think it is a case of accidental death, you will find a verdict accordingly. ? Verdict accordingly. Accidental death. No doubt. Gentlemen, you are discharged. Good afternoon. ? The frequent employment of shortened sentences speeds up the effect of a well-worn ritual which coroner and jury gabble their way heedlessly through with unsuitable haste. ? Narrative report of speech act expresses author?s point of view, comment and attitude.
? Free indirect speech, with the omission of the reporting clause, allows the reported clause to take on some of the syntactic possibilities of the main clause and share some of the features typically associated with DS, and usually occurs in the context of sentences of narrative report when the third-person narrator tells his tale in the past tense, thus taking a free form seeming to be IS, as seen in the portrayal of the lawyer Mr. Shepherd?s speech in Persuasion: ? ‘Then I take it for granted,‘ observed Sir Walter, ?that his face is about as orange as the cuffs and capes of my livery.‘
Mr. Shepherd hastened to assure him, that Admiral Croft was a very hale, hearty, well-looking man, a little weather-beaten, to be sure, but not much; and quite the gentleman in all his notions and behavior; -- not likely to make the smallest difficulty about terms; -- only wanted a comfortable home, and to get into it as soon as possible; -- knew he must pay for his convenience; -- knew what rent a readyfurnished house of that consequence might fetch; -should not have been surprised if Sir Walter had asked more; -- had inquired about the manor; -would be glad of the deputation, certainly, but made no great point of it; -- said he sometimes took out a gun, but never killed; --quite the gentleman.
? Besides the most normal kind of text for FIS as shown above, it is also possible to find more indirect forms appearing in DS aimed at creating an ironic distance between reader and the character?s words, ? The shift from IS to FIS is marked by the absence of the subordinating conjunction that and the subject Admiral Croft, of which the effect is reinforced by the dashes and colloquial lexical forms that show the persuasive flavor of the fussy lawyer, Mr. Shepherd?s original speech, and the intervening power of the narrator. This ability to give the flavor of the character?s words but also to keep the narrator in an intervening position between character and reader makes FIS an extremely useful vehicle for casting an ironic light on what the character says.
? as in the following, where the speech marked with past tense and third-person pronoun occurs immediately after an authorial statement making Mr. Shepherd?s role in the proceedings very apparent: ? Quit Kellynch Hall. The hint was immediately taken up by Mr. shepherd, whose interest was involved in the reality of Sir Walter‘s retrenching, and who was perfectly persuaded that nothing would be done without a change of abode, -- ?Since the idea had been started in the very quarter which ought to dictate, he had no scruple,‘ he said, ?in confessing his judgment to be entirely on that side…‘
? More accurately, the tense and pronoun selection has to be appropriate to the form in which the FIS occurs; examples of FIS can also be found in novels written in the narrative present, as in the coroner?s scene in Bleak House, narrated in the present tense through the eyes of a third-person narrator: ? Name, Jo. Nothing else that he knows on. Don‘t know that everybody has two names. Never heard of such a think. Don‘t know that Jo is short for a longer name. Thinks it long enough for him. He can’t find no fault with it. Spell it? No. He can’t spell it.
? In the above passage there are features of responses to questions, echo questions, idiosyncratic spellings and obvious features of directness which, with the absence of the question produced by the coroner, makes it sound like a monologue under threat. ? In the following scene, we get a compassionate view of Jo while the court is shown as riding roughshod over human values in general and those unfortunates who cannot stand up for themselves in particular: ? ?This won‘t do, gentlemen!‘ says the coroner with a melancholy shake of the head. ? ?Don‘t you think you can receive his evidence, sir?‘ asks an attentive juryman.
?Out of the question,‘ says the coroner. ?You have
heard the boy. ―Can‘t exactly say‖ won‘t do, you know. We can‘t take that in a court of justice, gentlemen. It‘s terrible depravity. Put the boy aside.‘ Boy put aside, to the great edification of the audience, especially of Little Swills, the comic vocalist. Now. Is there any other witness? No other witness. Very well, gentlemen! Here’s a man unknown, proved to have been in the habit of taking opium in large quantities for a year and a half, found dead of too much opium. If you think you have any evidence to lead you to the conclusion that he committed suicide, you will come to that conclusion. If you think it is a case of accidental death, you will find a verdict accordingly.
? FIS can be found in the first person mode in a Inarrator novel, as seen in the following, where the past tense and the response word serve as markers to show the words of Humbert the narrator, who murdered Lolita?s mother in order to gain complete control of his step-daughter and further his plan to seduce her: ? Hardly had the Farlows gone than a blue-chinned cleric called – and I tried to make the interview as brief as was consistent with neither hurting his feelings nor arousing his doubts. Yes, I would devote all my life to the child’s welfare. Here, incidentally, was a little cross that Charlotte Becker had given me when we were both young. I had a female cousin, a respectable spinster in New York.
? There we would find a good private school for Dolly. Oh, what a crafty Humbert! ? The following IS is features with the present tense in subordination and colloquial lexical forms, which turns it into FIS with some indication of the form of words the retired colonel, Tusker uttered: ? He said he must persuade Billy-Boy to build a pool in the hotel compound one day when old Ma Bhoolaboy was out playing bridge so that when her tonga brought her back at night the whole thing would tip in with a bloody great splash. ? The swear word and the exclamation mark in the following respectively are also features of FIS:
? He said that the bloody train had been late. ? He told her to leave him alone! ? The effects and uses of FIS: ironic effect is produced because FIS is normally viewed as a form where the authorial voice is interposed between the reader and what the character says, so that the reader is distanced from the character?s words; see the following where DS is assumed as the norm for the portrayal of speech: ? NRSA IS FIS DS FDS
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
The categorization of thought presentation Does she still love me? (Free Direct Thought: FDT) He wondered, ?Does she still love me?? (Direct Thought: DT) Did she still love him? (Free Indirect Thought: FIT) He wondered if she still loved him. (Indirect Thought: IT) He wondered about her love for him. (Narrative Report of a Thought Act: NRTA)
? Norm ? Both thought and speech presentation modes can be distinguished by features from any of the three levels of grammar, lexis, and graphology.