The Design Response to a Wash of Green: Whole Systems and Life Cycle Thinking, by Simon Lockrey

increasing wants, without a thought as to how that consumption impacts the environment. Last century, the raw materials consumed by one person in the US increased five fold (Matos and Wagner 1998). This looks more ominous when combined with the fact that only around 15-20 % of the world is highly developed to a US or western style of consumption (UN, 2009). One approach is for design to lower the user's consumption, without degrading the consumer's experience. The question is whether the new breed of 'eco' products adds to the crisis, or makes a real difference. They may be adding to the crisis if the design method follows the 'rules of thumb' for that infiltrated the design community in last two decades. The reality is that these techniques do have potential to make a difference, but are often ineffective. Take design for disassembly. A designer in an appliance company designs a product for disassembly although there is no effective product stewardship scheme to collect the parts from reclaimed models. The design driven benefit is not delivered, rendering the methodology a waste of time. It is also well and good to reduce the weight of components and thus the embodied energy of the same appliance, however if the bulk of the impacts are generated during use from electricity (like an electric kettle), then the strategy most likely has negligible benefit in reducing environmental load. Likewise by making parts from commonised, recyclable materials, the likelihood is that there is no post consumer recycling stream or infrastructure in place to handle the majority of parts and materials, due to the commercial reality of recycling. This design for environment mentality has long been detached from the benefit it has aimed to deliver upon. There is a light at the end of this tunnel. There are ways to make a difference, and there is evidence these methods are filtering through the design world. Life cycle thinking or applying a 'whole systems' approach can make 'paradigm shifts' in the reduction of environmental impacts of a product or service, without reducing perceived quality, or increasing cost.

The Keep Cup, a reusable cup for the takeaway espresso market. What a great idea: a 'green' product to make a difference, make one happy, and assist in performing the menial tasks that litter an otherwise hectic day. Or is it? Consumer decision-making is beginning to follow a distinctly 'green' trend, which is fantastic in principle but often contrived in reality. What does this mean for the designer who imagines, designs and creates these goods that cater for growing consumer demand in 'sustainability?' There lies the contradiction between designing for the consumption obsessed market and designing to the core principles of sustainability, where environmental, economic and social aspects are somewhat detached from a consumer driven market. According to Ezio Manzini, design theorist from the famed Politecnico di Milano, we have a crisis of the commons (common areas, goods, etc), a lack of contemplative time (a time poor existence, longer hours at work, etc), and most relevant to designers, a proliferation of remedial goods (Manzini 2003). The latter sees products solving every perceived problem imaginable. Whether it is a toothbrush that oscillates the plaque off in half the time, or a breakfast bar filling the five-minute bus ride, we have become increasingly, unconsciously used to products feeding our

As these ideas infiltrate design methodology, certain products shine as considered, sustainable shifts in the current 'wash of green'.

Cheviot Bridge's sustainable wine packaging. Cheviot Bridge The romantics among us would never have thought Shiraz would prosper in a Tetra Pak, a packaging form traditionally reserved for juice and milk. However some producers such as have, with a reduced packaging weight of almost 10 times a conventional bottle (unfilled). This dematerialisation enables huge embodied energy, carbon and water use reductions on the packaging, not to mention reduced haulage impact after filling (particularly for export, 1.05 kg rather than 1.5 kg per unit), and a smart palletisation shape for shipping and storage. The decision to move to a paper board packaging mode derived from extensive life cycle research, cost comparison and product testing (which funnily enough, contrary to some stigma, highlighted longer shelf life) to measure the potential benefits. The weight reduction, combined with an additional 250 mL of wine to the customer

(the product is delivered in 1 L), delivers a quality driven outcome, with a raft of environmental and economic benefits due to life cycle thinking. Dyson's Airblade.

Dyson James Dyson didn't go places by creating a better bag, he decided to create a cyclonic vacuum cleaner based on a saw mill, and the rest is history. This whole systems approach led Dyson to design highly efficient, miniature digital motors for the appliance market around ten years ago. The use life cycle impacts of an electrical appliance generally dwarf the respective material and manufacture impacts. This relates back to the energy, fuels and raw materials consumed in operation of an appliance. By identifying the original motor as a major contributor to inefficiency within the product system, an opportunity for a technology leap was found. Carbon producing, large, heavy,

launched with the DDM, replacing the traditional carbon brushed motor. The cost difference between base models is negligible, while functional and environmental credentials have improved markedly. The new models are smaller and lighter, and remain almost half the weight of competitor machines. The DDM V2 size allows for high speed rotation, not achievable in larger, heavier motors. This produces around twice the power output at around half the weight of traditional motors, the new base model handheld pulling the same suction power as the previous model, using two less batteries. The Dyson Airblade?, which incorporates the first iteration of the DDM, is the first hand dryer to earn the coveted Carbon Reduction Label from the UK Carbon Trust. This achievement relates back to efficiency and whole systems design. By reverting to a polymer chassis compared to aluminium on the first Airblade? release, Dyson cut carbon emissions in raw material, product manufacture and transport by over half, however this is not the preeminent story. Airblade? 'strips' the water off the hands, rather than heating air up and 'evaporating' water like a conventional warm air hand dryer. Airblade? drops the drying time to around 10 seconds, as opposed to up to 30 seconds with competitors which use inefficient carbon brush motors and heated air. Things start to look substantially thrifty without even crunching the numbers. In a press release, the comparison is up to 80% less energy used compared to traditional warm hand dryers (Carbon Trust 2010), which directly relates to carbon emission reductions. This giant gap in energy consumption, combined with product longevity, and a product stewardship scheme, delivers environmental benefits that directly reduce impacts in new Dyson models. The Keep Cup and its many color combinations.

Keep Cup: An LCA Case Study Whilst operating a chain of cafés in Melbourne, Abigail and Jamie Forsyth saw a need and responsibility to address disposable packaging waste generated both to reduce environmental impacts and costs. They estimated that in Australia at least 500 million disposable cups are used and discarded each year with large numbers of adults in urban communities consuming a disposable coffee on a daily basis (National Coffee Association of America found that in 2007, 14% of adults in the United States drank gourmet coffee daily). Although disposable cups are a low margin, the wider impacts of the daily 'take away coffee set' seemed one problem that did not justify the convenience. Others have attempted to either incorporate Post Consumer Recycled (PCR) content or sell reusable products such as 'travel mugs' designed to keep coffee hot for hours. The former has issues with food regulations; the latter is cumbersome and impractical for the savvy, on-the-go consumer, not designed to fit the needs of quality café baristas. The duo engaged industrial design consultancy Niche, with government funding, to create a solution dropping environmental impacts without reducing the consumer's experience. inefficient, failure-prone, brushed motors were replaced by highly efficient, light, fast, small, digital ones. Last year saw the latest Dyson products incorporate a tiny Dyson Digital Motor (DDM) V2 resulting in substantial dematerialisation coupled with ergonomic weight benefits. Handheld vacuums were The result was KeepCup, a reusable cup for the takeaway espresso market. It is the world's first barista standard reusable cup, consisting Polyethylene (PE) lid, Polypropylene (PP) cup, Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) plug, and Silicone ring. It mimics the core geometry and functions of disposable paper cups, including coffee machine modularity, waterproofing, sip slot, lid,

individual coffee detailing, and adds hand insulation (avoiding double cupping), steam plug, branding, and most importantly ergonomics to allow for convenience ie light weight, bag storable, etc. The concept has gained momentum, the cup used all over the Melbourne CBD, Australia, and now globally. 300,000 KeepCups have been sold in twelve months of trading, as adoption of the KeepCup by end users has generated revenue and costs savings for café owners. But is it really making a difference? We did some research here at RMIT Centre for Design. Disposable paper cups (combined with a PE film) have little post consumer demand from reprocessors, and generally end up in Australian landfill. Although the KeepCup promotes recyclability, the fact still remains that the same system is more likely going to spit the various polymers it is made from to landfill, even if the components are separated by the consumer. With this in mind we modeled the 8 oz KeepCup (it is available in various sizes) against a comparable disposable paper cup using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology in a streamlined fashion. The functional unit was 1 take away coffee per day delivered to the consumer over a year, with the cups disposed of to landfill over or at the end of that period. We used raw material, manufacturing, transport, and end of life data from the Australian Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) 2009 and European Ecoinvent 2.0 database. Regional transport routes were considered (shipping from Asia for the disposable cup, lid, and the ring from the KeepCup, trucking from port to consumer), as well as tertiary packaging, and a wash cycle per use for the KeepCup, ranging from a quick rinse with warm water, a fully loaded dishwasher, half loaded dishwasher, and sink washing, the latter three with detergent. We also modeled coffee cultivation, production and brewing in Spain from a study out of Switzerland (Humbert, Loerincik et al. 2009) to see what bearing the KeepCup had in context to the 'whole product

functionally it is thoughtfully designed, evident in the now global appeal. Although KeepCup is most likely not going to be recycled in the Australian context, the shift from disposable to reusable adds environmental credibility, significantly reduces waste, cuts the economics down to size, and enables a social shift, a welcome change for a society now used to throwaway culture. Paris Vélib Wide spread change in avoiding behaviours that embody high consumption may be some way off. Design has been instrumental in delivering some of the first tentative steps in facilitating individual and community action in this respect. Take the Paris Vélib, a bike share program introduced in 2007 to promote cycling as opposed to other transport modes throughout Paris for short journeys. By diverting investment traditionally earmarked for carbon intensive transport modes, like more roads, a highly design oriented system delivers the low consumption alternative. If success is measured in use alone, 42 million rentals by 2009 speak loudly. The system works as a whole, with infrastructure, communications and servicing the key in delivering this success, producing a product that would continue to be used and reduce impacts inherent in other transport modes. The bikes, stands and 1451 bike stations (one every 300 meters) designed by JC Decaux stay true to core design principles of 'form follows function' and user centred methodology. Stations release only functioning bikes to users, a smart system alerting well resourced and mobile service staff of faults through diagnostic checks when bikes 'check-in'. This computer monitoring system is also used to monitor bike location for potential theft and station overloading, with bikes actively moved too and from understocked and overloaded stations. Locks guarantee integrated bike and station security. Bespoke components and economic deterrents dissuade potential thieves; with credit cards debited a deposit on a user's non return of a bike. Economic incentives also drive timely travel, with free bike use in the first half hour. Compared to short trip alternatives such as cars or public transport, this product driven system delivers substantial dematerialisation through lower embodied energy and shared amenities, as well as massive comparative drops in fuel and electricity use. Social interaction is generally inherent in the cycling fraternity; however this is also aided through infrastructure design. Finally, the Vélib negates the problem of storage required when a bike is owned in a bustling city. Like any public system, there have been problems with vandalism and theft; however the success of the Vélib is evident as use patterns remain high and similar bike sharing schemes flourish across Europe, and are proliferating globally.

The results were determined using the LCA Australian Impact Method. The KeepCup compared to the disposable paper cup (not including the coffee) depending upon the wash type (the sink seeing the smallest through to quick rinse seeing the biggest environmental impact reductions), sees a 71-92% reduction in global warming potential, a 71-95% reduction in water use, and a 95-96% reduction in landfill waste over the year. Although the 'take away latté set' consumer will still purchase the coffee whether in a disposable or reusable option, it is interesting to see how the previously stated savings compare when included with the impacts relating to coffee, which would in general dilute the savings of the container on its own. The KeepCup compared to disposable paper cup (including coffee) sees a 36-47% reduction in global warming, a 64-85% reduction in water use, and a 91-92% reduction in landfill waste annually. Although these are streamlined results using existing LCI data (a full LCAs may be more accurate, although often results are of a similar quantum), the figures indicate Keepcup would drastically reduce environmental impacts of consumers in drinking coffee, although in the grand scheme of things this would account for a very small proportion of a consumers overall impacts annually. This just seems like common sense, reusing rather than disposing, although this begs the question how the Keepcup strategy could apply to more resource intensive services such as heating, cooling, cooking, food, housing, and transport; if social rituals adapt. The KeepCup aesthetics are clean, and

Paris Vélib bicycle rental system. Picture by austineven.

Vélib is an elegantly integrated, cost effective design solution allowing users to enact behaviours needed if environmental impacts are to be reigned in, as well as reinvigorating the social fabric of the city. Vélib rejects the remedial with long lasting functional infrastructure, claims back the common in a shared public service, and provides amenities that go some way in reducing congestion

and providing a convenient, communal conveyance that gifts back the free time Manzini believes we have long being lacking in our fast paced, consumer oriented urban existence. People are not going to stop consuming any time soon; however behavior will eventually need to shift if society is serious about being truly sustainable. In the interim, analyse the bigger picture, both as a designer and a consumer. So often designers get caught up in the details, but now stepping back and taking a life cycle and whole systems approach facilitates a future in delivering functional 'paradigm shift' benefits for a product, service, client, and the environment. Ecological parameters are 'locked in' at the design stage, so designers can reduce impacts through materials, efficiency, or in some cases the grander scenario of changing consumer behavior. Designing for low consumption, without increasing price or reducing quality is achievable, and presents a powerful and bright design landscape. To achieve this, designers will have to draw upon their ability to combine technical skills in research, conceptualization, prototyping, and testing, with their greatest weapon, their creativity, because that's what they have done, and will always do best. Acknowledgments to Thomas Blower (Dyson, UK), Hugh Cuthbertson (Cheviot Bridge), Abigail Forsyth (KeepCup), Andrew Carre (CfD), and Stephen Clune (CfD) Simon Lockrey is a Research Fellow at RMIT Centre for Design in Melbourne

作者 西蒙·洛克雷 一个伟大的想法, “绿色”产品使情况与众不同,让人们感到快乐,并且帮助人们执行重要的任务以避 免人们被忙碌的生活搅乱。是这样吗?消费者开始追随独特的“绿色”趋势,在原则上这是很棒的,但在现

实中这常常是做作的行为。这对于想象,设计,制造这些产品以迎合“可持续性”原则下消费者需求增长的 设计师又意味着什么呢?设计师处于市场和“可持续”原则的矛盾之中,环境,经济,社会等方面的因素和 被市场驱动的消费者是有些脱节的。 埃西奥·曼奇尼是一个来自著名的米兰理工大学的设计理论家,据他在 2003 年说,我们存在公共危机 (包括公共区域和商品等方面) ,我们缺少思考的时间(生活的时间很少,大多的时间用在工作上) ,这与设 计师关系紧密,他们需要制造更多的产品来改善这些情况。最后一个观点认为通过产品解决每一个已发现的 问题是可行的。无论是一把节约一半时间的震动牙刷还是在公交车上解决早餐的早餐棒,我们已经越来越多 的无意识的通过产品来满足我们日益增长的需求。上个世纪,平均一个美国人消耗的原材料增长了五倍。结 合当时世界上只有 15—20%的地区发展到欧美的消费水平,未来的情况就更加不妙了。一种解决方法是通过 设计,在不损害用户体验的前提下降低消耗。问题在于新型的环保产品最终能否改变危机现状。 如果设计遵循过去二十年设计界流行的经验法则,那么这种危机将会加重。这些技术都具有改变这种情 况的可能,但现实情况证明这种可能是无效的。例如可拆卸设计,一个家电公司的设计师设计出可拆卸的产 品,虽然现在没有有效的收集再生模型零件的产品管理方案。设计作为驱动力不能实现利润,这导致方法论 成为浪费时间。当然减轻组件的重量并因此减少一件电器的能源消耗也是一件好事,然而如果是依靠大量电 力产生作用的电器(如电热水器)那么这种消耗的减少在减轻环境负荷方面的作用就微乎其微了。同样是使 用通用的可回收材料,但考虑到目前的商业回收系统的现状,很可能没有处理主要部件和材料的回收系统和 基础。环保设计的理念和实现利益的目标早已分离。 在隧道的尽头还是有光芒存在的。有一些方法可以改变这种情况,并且有证据表明这些方法是经过设计 界检验的。应用生命周期思维或者整体系统方法可以产生模式转变,在不降低质量或增加成本的前提下降低 产品和服务对环境的影响。 由于这些思想对设计方法的渗透,现实中的产品被认为可以在现在的绿色风潮中实现华丽可靠的转变。 Cheviot Bridge 葡萄酒公司 我们绝不会想到浪漫的穗乐仙葡萄酒会因为利乐包而变得广受欢迎,这种包装形式历来游泳来储存果汁 和牛奶的。例如澳洲葡萄酒公司 Cheviot Bridge 就采用比传统酒瓶轻十倍的包装。这种改变为包装节约了 大量的能源,如碳和水,更不必说在运输上的节约(在出口中尤其明显,每瓶装满的酒从 1.5 千克降到 1.05 千克) , 并且新包装的简洁的形状更适合运输和储藏。 将包装转变为纸板的决定来自对生命周期的大量研究, 通过产品测试和比较来评估潜在的利益, 有趣的是, 与一些不合理的倾向相反, 这次更强调延长包装的寿命。 包装质量减少的同时消费者可以多得到 250 毫升的酒(产品净含量一升),这就是通过生命周期思想实现了 环境效益和经济效益。 戴森电机 詹姆斯戴森决定用锯木机原理创造一个气旋是真空吸尘器而不是创造一个更适合旅行的背包,这还有一 段历史。十年前道森运用整体系统思维为家电市场设计高效的小型数码电机。生命周期对家电使用的影响要 大于材料和制造的影响。这又要说回到能源,燃料和原材料在机器运转过程中的消耗问题。当确认原始电机 是造成机器效率低下的主要原因后,我们找到了一个实现技术飞跃的契机。又大又重,低效易坏的炭刷电机 被高效轻小快速的数码电机取代。 去年我们见到了最新的戴森产品——戴森数码电机(DDM)V2,它集轻便和符合人机工程重量于一身。 戴森数码电机取代原来的炭刷电机为手持式吸尘器提供动力。这没有使吸尘器基本的形状发生明显改变,但 是有证据表明这种改变使其在功能性和环保性上有了显著的提高。新的手持式吸尘器更小,更轻,只有竞争 机型的一半重量。DDM V2 的尺寸符合高速旋转的要求,而更大更重的原始电机并无法达到这一要求。DDM V2 重量大概是传统电机的一半,但他能提供大概是其两倍的推动力,新的手持吸尘器在少用两节电池的情况下 可以提供与之前相同的吸力。 戴森 Airblade 是第一个使用 DDM 的产品,也是第一个得到英国碳信托公司的减碳认证的干手机。这个

成就也是与效率及整体系统思想相关联的。在 Airblade 第一次发行时,戴森通过将聚合物底座还原为铝使产 品在获得原材料,生产和运输过程中的碳排放量较少了超过一半,这是个伟大的成就。Airblade 使水从手上 脱离而不是像传统的暖风干手机那样通过加热空气使水蒸发。 Airblade 大概 10 秒就可以使手干燥, 而使用低 效的炭刷电机的传统暖风干手机大概要超过 30 秒才行。这产生了实质性的节约,而不是仅仅表现在数据上。 在一个碳信托公司 2010 年的新闻稿中,Airblade 比传统暖风干手机节约的能源高达 80%,这直接关系到碳 减排量。能源消耗,产品寿命和产品管理计划的巨大差距使 Airblade 实现了对环境效益的直接积极影响。 可再用咖啡杯:一个 LCA 的案例学习 当阿比盖尔和杰米·福赛斯在墨尔本经营连锁咖啡厅的时候,他们发现有责任去解决一次性包装所产生 的废弃物对环境的影响。他们估计,澳大利亚每年至少有 500 万个一次性纸杯被使用和丢弃,在城市社区, 每天都有大量成年人消费一次性咖啡纸杯(美国咖啡协会研究发现,在 2007 年,14%的美国成年人每天都 享用美味的咖啡) 。尽管一次性纸杯是一个低利润的产业,但是每天带走咖啡器皿的影响更大,这里的主要 问题在于这样并不方便。 一些人试图实现消费后回收制度或者出售可多次使用的产品, 如旅行咖啡杯的设计, 它还可以保温好几个小时。前者有违反食品法规方面的问题,后者是不便的,并且对于精明而忙碌的消费者 来说也是不切实际的,这种设计也不符合追求品质的咖啡调配师的要求。这两个人在政府资金的支持下从事 有关工业设计利基市场的咨询顾问工作,他们试图找到在不减少用户体验的前提下减轻产品对环境影响的方 案。 可再用咖啡杯是适合外卖咖啡市场的可重复使用的产品。这是世界上第一个可以符合咖啡师标准的可再 用杯子,包括聚乙烯(PE)盖,聚丙烯(PP )杯,热塑性聚氨酯(TPU )插头,硅胶圈。它模仿了一次性 纸杯核心特点的形状和功能,包括咖啡机模块化,防水,啜饮槽,盖子,适用咖啡的细节,并增加了手持部 位的分离(避免重复拔开) ,蒸汽插件,品牌,最重要的是具有符合人机工程学的重量,带有储存袋等。这 种杯子不断被人们接受,从墨尔本商业区到整个澳大利亚继而全世界流行。12 个月内,这种杯子在全世界 畅销 300000 个,通过使用这种杯子,作为用户的咖啡馆经营者增加了收入,节约成本。但是它真的改变了 现状吗? 我们在墨尔本皇家理工大学的设计中心做了一些研究。在澳大利亚,具有 PE 膜的一次性纸杯在使用后 很少有再加工的需要,它们一般会被扔到垃圾场里。虽然可再用咖啡杯促进了回收再利用的情况,但现实情 况是它仍然像一次性纸杯一样在用完后被扔进垃圾堆中,虽然消费者也会把杯子的几个部分分解。鉴于此, 我们通过对一个 8 盎司的可再用咖啡杯 (这种杯子有多种大小) 和一次性纸杯的对比进行生命周期评估试验。 试验是一年内每天交给消费者一杯外卖咖啡,在杯子被扔到垃圾堆或者一年后试验结束。我们运用澳大利亚 2009 年的生命周期目录和欧洲 Ecoinvent2.0 数据库来确定原材料,制造,运输和寿命的数据。以下项目均被 考虑在内,包括区域运输路线(从亚洲船运以习性杯子,盖子和可再用咖啡杯的拉环,用货车把这些从港口 运到消费者手中) ,三级包装,每次使用的清洗周期等,清洗周期又细分为用温水快速清洗,在装满的洗碗 机中清洗,在装了一半的洗碗机中清洗和沉淀清洗,后三者均使用洗涤剂。依据瑞士的研究,我们还在西班 牙模拟了咖啡种植,生产,制造的过程以观察在整体产品的背景下这种可再用咖啡杯可能有什么表现。 通过 LCA 的澳大利亚冲击法确定了最终的结果。采用不同洗涤方式的可再用咖啡杯(沉淀清洗的改善 幅度最小而快速清洗的改善幅度最大)与不装咖啡的一次性纸杯的对比显示:在这一年中全球变暖的可能性 上减少了 71—92%,用水减少了 71-95%,垃圾浪费减少了 95-96%。尽管喜欢外带咖啡的消费者不关心商家 用的是可再用咖啡杯还是一次性纸杯,但有趣的是当事情与咖啡相联系时,那些之前标榜自己节约的人会怎 样做,也许他们会将自己容器中的咖啡冲淡一些。相比装有咖啡的一次性纸杯,可再用咖啡杯可以使每年的 全球变暖可能性降低 36-47%,可减少 64-85%的用水,减少 91-92%的垃圾浪费率。 虽然这是使用 LCI 数据 (尽管LCA数据和LCI得到的结果常常相差不大, 但LCA数据会更加精确) 得到的简化结果,这些数据显示,可再用咖啡杯可以大大减少喝咖啡对环境的影响,当然在这个宏大的方案 中每个消费者每年对环境的影响只占有很小的比例。重复使用而不是选择一次性似乎已经成为常识,但这里

有一个问题就是如何使可再用咖啡杯的战略应用到其它大量使用资源的产业上,例如采暖,制冷,烹饪,食 品,住房和运输,当然这要适合社会和宗教的要求。从可再用咖啡杯在全世界的影响力可以看出它在美学上 是简洁的, 在功能上是经过足够思考的合理设计。 尽管在澳大利亚的背景下可再用咖啡杯很可能不能被回收, 但是从一次性纸杯到可再用纸杯的转变可以减少环境污染,极大地减少废物,削减经济规模,并可以促进社 会转型,是对过去社会上浪费习惯的一种可喜的改变。 巴黎 Vélib 公共自行车系统 大范围改变高消费的现状还有一段路要走。设计已经对个人和社会迈出这种改变的第一步起到了促进作 用。以巴黎的 Vélib 公共自行车系统为例,这一个自行车分享计划在2007年开始实施,旨在促进巴黎的 短途自行车旅行。通过转移对传统的碳密集交通方式(如公路)的投资,一个经过严谨设计的导向系统实现 了低消耗的改变。2009年这个系统的租金收入达到4200万,这个数据表明这个计划是成功的。这个 系统将基础设施,通讯和服务统一为一个整体,这保证了这个计划的成功,这些自行车可以被反复利用,并 且减少了其它交通方式所带来的影响。 由JC德科设计的自行车,工作站和1451个自行车站(每300米一个)表现了“形式追随功能” 这一设计法则的核心理念,也符合用户集中的设计思维。工作站为用户提供的自行车都是功能良好的,当自 行车被使用时,只能报警系统会确认它是否完好,流动服务人员也会对自行车进行检查。该计算机系统也可 以用于自行车定位以防止被盗,并且能够监测自行车站是否超载,并且将自行车从车辆充足的站调向不足的 的站。车锁可以保证自行车和车站的安全。这种自行车采用特制的零件,如果租借者不返还自行车,他的信 用卡就会被扣掉余额, 这些都有效防止了自行车被盗。 骑行半小时之内免费的经济鼓励政策推动了及时旅行。 相比于选择汽车或公共交通进行短途旅行,通过更低的能源消耗和共享的特点,这种系统实现了节约环保, 使燃料和电力的使用大大减少。骑车协会一般都会促进社会的交流,当然这也离不开基础设施设计工作的辅 助作用。最后,这个系统解决了在繁忙的都市中自行车所需要的储存空间的问题。公共设施总是存在被破坏 和被盗的情况,但通过这一模式取得成功的巴黎 Vélib 公共自行车系统将会以类似的分享体制在全欧洲甚至 全世界扩散。 Vélib 是一个精心整合的低成本设计方案,它使使用者通过制定自己的行为来减轻对环境的不良影响, 以此重建城市的社会结构。它拒绝使用需要长期维护的基础公共设施,它支持普通的共享式公共服务,并提 供可以减少拥堵实现便捷的设施,拥堵的公共交通减少了我们的空闲时间,而这正是曼奇尼认为在高节奏的 消费导向城市中我们所缺乏的。 人们不愿意很快就停止消耗,尽管但我们必须建设可持续发展社会的时候这种行为必须发生改变。在这 过渡期内,设计师和消费者需要分析一个更长远的情况。所以以前设计师总是注重细节的处理,而现在他们 退一步采用生命周期和整体思想的方法进行设计,这有助于未来实现功能性的模式转变,这对产品、服务、 客户和环境都是有好处的。在设计阶段就要确定生态参数,所以设计师可以通过材料,效率或者改变消费行 为来减少对环境的负面影响。再不涨价和降低质量的前提下的低耗设计是可以实现的,而且这是为设计提供 了一个强大而美好的前景。为了做到这一点,设计师必须充分利用他们的能力,这包括技术研究,概念能力, 成型能力和严谨的测试,以及他们最强大的武器——创造力,因为这些是他们能做到的,他们也将会做到最 好。 感谢 Thomas Blower (英国戴森), Hugh Cuthbertson (Cheviot Bridge 葡萄酒公司), Abigail Forsyth (可再用 咖啡杯), Andrew Carre (CfD), and Stephen Clune (CfD) 作者介绍:西蒙·洛克雷是墨尔本皇家管理学会的设计研究员



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