Passage 1
What a firefighter’s job is like?
The damage that a fire can cause is obvious/ and this is why the firefighters’ jobs are so important. /② firefighters are usually the first ones responding to any type of emergency and perform many tasks,/ which include putting out burning buildings,/helping out with medical emergencies, vehicle accidents and many other incidents./③They must make sure their equipment is clean/ and all the item they use are in proper working order./④Keeping their skills up to date is necessary./⑤Therefore, they will be continually trained with new equipment and techniques./⑥Because of the extreme conditions/ and the stress associated with the emergency situations that arise,/the firefighters definitely need to stay in shape for the work they must do ./⑦They will stay in the fire station while on duty./⑧Unless they need to work on the trucks or respond to a call,/ they can eat ,sleep, shower and watch TV at the fire station, just like at home.

第一句:fire 在此句中意为“火灾”,是可数名词,且在这里是泛指,所以其前应加不定冠词a;firefighter意为 “消防员”。
第二句:first ones 可缩略成1st 1s,其中1s指代firefighters,注意不要落掉1后面的s;emergency意为“突发事件,紧急情况”。
第四句:该句是动名词短语作主语,谓语动词应用单数is 。
第五句:therefore 可以记为∴,continually 缩略成cont‘ly; techniques缩略成techs.

Passage 2
For a long time, aliens have often been in the news. /They have always been surrounded by mystery / and interest of people all around the world. / People have claimed to have been abducted by aliens. / Some have claimed to have actually seen them. / But is there a sound proof that can prove aliens to be real ?/ Alien sightings have mostly been accompanied by sightings of lights in the night sky./Some of them have also believed that / the lights came from the spaceships used by the aliens./Disk-like objects traveling across the sky /have often been taken as aliens’ vehicles. / At times, people have found blood or hair at the locations/ where aliens were sighted./Researchers say alien sightings could have probably been a result of human imagination accompanied by fear , /and some of these sightings might have
been a result of certain astronomical phenomena. (145 words)

第一句:be in the news 是固定短语,news前要用定冠词 the; alien 在此处意为“外星人”。
第二句:be surrounded by 意为“被……所包围”。
第三句:abduct 意为“绑架,拐走”。
第九句:注意句子是现在完成时,而从句用的是一般过去时;最后一个词sighted 易误听为sited。
第十句:phenomenon 的复数形式是phenomena ,而不是直接加-s 或 -es;astronomical意为“天文的,天文学的”。

Passage 3
Computer eyeglasses
As computer become a more and more vital part of today’s lifestyle and practices,/new medical conditions are developing as a result of their usage./ The most common to date is computer vision problems,/which include eye pain, tired and burning eyes, watering or dry eyes, eye strain./ ?One would never imagine that such a useful and innovative tool could cause so much physical discomfort!/ ?As a result of these, science professionals seized the opportunity/to create computer eyeglasses to ease these common conditions/and make computer usage less painful and more comfortable./…The computer vision problems affect adults as well as children./ Although children normally have different requirements for near and distance vision glasses,/ computer eyeglasses can be used universally for both groups./?Please note that near and distance vision glasses/ should not be used as replacements for computer glasses./?They do not serve the same purpose,/ and in some case will cause more harm than good.(158 words)

Labor Day
International Labor Day, also known as International Workers` Day,/ is scheduled for May 1st of each year./ It is a holiday in celebration of the eight-hour workday./ It evolved from efforts of the labor union movement/ to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers./ It is celebrated as a national holiday across many countries around the world./ The idea for a workers` holiday began in Australia in 1856/ but was celebrated on May 1st in 1886 in Chicago./ In China, Labor Day was extended to three days during the 1990s./ The Chinese government made it a seven-day holiday/ by moving the prior and upcoming weekends together with other activities during this period./ However, China has reduced the Golden Week holiday down to one day in 2008,/ while at the same time reviving some traditional holidays such as Mid-Autumn Festival.

第一句: 组成节日名称的每个单词以及月份的首字母要大写。
第二句:eight-hour 是由数词及量词构成的复合形容词,中间要用连字符,并且量词要用单数形式,记录时eight可以记为8,但正式誊写的时候不能写成8-hour。
第三句:本句谓语使用一般过去时;achievements 略写成achms;evolve from 意为“由……逐步发展而来”。
第九句;组成国家及节日名称的每个单词的首写字母要大写(冠词除外);revive 意为“恢复,使从新流行”

Passage 5
An audiobook is a recording that is primarily spoken word./ It is often based on a recording of commercial printed material ./ It is not necessarily an exact audio version of a book ./ Spoken audio was available in school and public libraries/ and to a lesser extent in music shops ./ It was not until the 1980s that there began a concerted effort to attract book retailers./ As publishers entered the field of spoken-word publishing,/ the transition to book retailers carrying audiobooks became common-place on bookshelves rather than in separate displays./ With the development of portable cassette recorders ,/ audiotapes had become very popular / and by the late 1960s libraries became a source of free audiobooks./ Instructional and educational recordings came first ,/ followed by self-help tapes and then by literature./ In 1975 audiobooks gained popularity with commuters and travelers ./ By the middle of 1980s the audio publishing business grew to several billion dollars a year in retail value.

第一句:audiobook 意为“有声读物”,注意冠词用an ;primarily 可以记为prily;spoken word 意为“朗读(的话语)”。
第四句:spoken audio 意为“口语音频”;从本句开始,短文开始介绍有声读物的发展历史,动词使用过去时;to a lesser extent “较小程度上”,比较级lesser 可记为less-
第五句:concerted 意为“一致的”;retailer意为“零售商”,注意这里使用复数形式。
第六句:spoken word 上文是分开写的,但此处用在publishing 前充当修饰语,所以中间要加连字符,写成spoken-word。
第八句:instructional recording意为“教学录像”;self-help tape 意为“励志磁带”。

Passage 6
Family Life in India
Family life is equally varied in Indian states. /India is a country with many states /in which people are from different cultures , and so on./The languages, clothing, customs, and traditions of people are influenced by the respective regions they live in./Most of the families in India are extended ones, /in which every member has his or her own role, often influenced by age and gender. /Children are cherished and considered as gifts from God. /Children can look forward to continual family support throughout their lives. /However, they are expected to respect their elders and parents, their wishes and family relationships. /The family structure in India is typical, /in which there are many wedding customs, /which have to be strongly followed by people. /Religion, social statues, traditional practices, and regional differences influence family structures. /Indians are more emotionally attached to the members of their family. /Husbands and wives are not allowed to openly display their affection for one another. (160 words)

第三句:注意clothing是服装的总称,其后不加s; respective意为“各自的,独自的”。
第四句:extended 意为“广大的,扩大的”;gender意为“性别”、
第十句:使用速记符号,more速记为>; be attached to 意为“依恋”。

Passage 7
Society’s Influence on Education
Society plays an important role in education, and influences it both positively and negatively ./Social inequalities and unhealthy educational practices are some of the negative influences of society on our lives./Customs and traditions prevent certain sections of society from exercising their fundamental rights /and get in the way of the well-being of society,/shatter the basic ideas of education and social awareness./Some social groups deny women’s right to education,/while others force children to work,/depriving them from a healthy environment /which is good to their growth and development./Education is one of the basic human rights./If social norms come in the way of social welfare,/ it defeats the purpose of education./society is an entity that can’t be separated from us./It is we who make up the society./ It is entirely in our hands whether to add value to our education or devalue it.(149 words)

第2句:不要把Social inequalities误写成Social in equalities。
第3句:well-being 是一个名词,书写的时候中间要有连字符;get/come in the way of 意为“阻碍,妨碍”;shatter 意为“破坏,损害”。
第4句:environment 可以缩写为envirm; deprive 意为“剥夺”。

Passage 8
Choosing the Perfect Hair Color
Coloring your hair is one way to express your individuality./Choosing the right hair color can be confusing/whether you want to cover gray hair or give yourself a new fresh look./?If you are clear about what you want exactly,/it can help while choosing the hair color that is right for you./?You can achieve the most flattering look,/if you consider your skin makeup and eye color./?Hair color that balances your complexion gives the best results./?For covering gray hair, you can select a shade close to your natural hair color./?Hair highlights are another way to improve your overall look./?Highlights can look fascinating and make an attractive impression./?They add depth and dimension to the base color or natural hair./?Diffierent hair colors suit different complexions./11.In order to choose a suitable hair color,/you need to identify the right combination.


Passage 9
Traditional Brazilian Clothing
Brazil is known internationally for its stylish and sophisticated clothing. Brazil clothes are comfortable, vivid, beautifully crafted and decorated with attractive laces. Traditional Brazilian clothing is influenced by a combination of different races and immigrants form all over the world. A true traditional Brazilian clothing can be seen in the countryside, where men’s clothing includes shirt, jeans and dresses made from inexpensive cotton. In the south of Brazil, the cowboys wear a distinctive dress including loose-fitting trousers, while in the northeast region they wear coat, hat and leather trousers. In the urban areas of Brazil, most people prefer modern clothing. Young men wear jeans and T-shirts. Short skirts and dresses are very popular among women. Brazilian jeans are very common and they come in a wide variety of styles and textures. Jeans made for women are tight-fitting and loose-fitting near the feet. Due to abundance of beautiful beaches, beachwear is a very popular clothing in Brazil.


Passage 10
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body./A subset of cosmetics is called makeup,/which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user’s appearance./?Cosmetic use was frowned upon at many points in Western history,/especially during the 19th century when social etiquette was rigid./?During the 20th century, however,/the popularity of cosmetics increasingly rapidly. ?Cosmetics are now in widespread use by women in nearly all industrial societies around the world./?In the United States, cosmetics are used by girls at an increasingly young age./?The social consequences of younger and younger beautification/have had much attention in the media over the last few years./?The cosmetic industry is a profitable business for most manufacturers of cosmetic products./?Given the technological development and the improvement of the manufacturing process,/?and not least due to the constantly demand of such products,/this industry reported an important growth in terms of profit.

Passage 11
Spy Cell Phones
①A spy phone is a mobile phone pr a spy device / that allows a user to monitor and hear or record coversations and other activities taking place over the phone. / ②Spy phones can function in different ways. / ③They can be used as listening devices / whereby secretive conversations can be tracked. / ④They are popularly used by secret agencies to track criminal activities / that are carried out over networks. / ⑤They can be used for tracking periodic calls and recording the frequency of calls from certain suspicious numbers. / ⑥Also, they can be used for monitoring business and household activities / while the cell phone user is away. / ⑦Although spy cell phones have many positive sides, / they give rise to legal as well as moral concerns, / because spy cell phone software is easily available. / ⑧Cell phones are easily transferable to spy phones. / ⑨Their ready availability makes them subject to illegal use.

第7句:as well as速记为+;because速记为∵。
第9句:availability意为“有效性,可利用性”;subject可以缩略成subj;subject to意为"有...的倾向,易于..."。

Passage 12
Water Pollution
Water pollution is an undesirable change in the state of water,/polluted with harmful substances./It is the second most important environmental issue next to air pollution./Any change in the physical, chemical or biological properties of water/will have a harmful effect on living things./Water pollution affects all the major water bodies of the world /such as lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater./Polluted water is unfit for drinking and for other consumption processes./It is also not suitable for agricultural and industrial use./The effects of water pollution are harmful to human beings, plants, animals, fishes and birds./Water problems in the future will become more intense and more complex./Our increasing population will tremendously increase urban wastes, primarily sewage./On the other hand, increasing demands for water/will decrease the amount of water available for dealing with wastes./Due to water pollution, the entire ecosystem gets disturbed.(150 words)

第三句:property 意为“属性,功能”。
第六句:使用速记符号和缩略语,not速记为x;agricultural缩略成agri; industrial缩略成indus,在还原这两个单词时,要注意它们在句中是形容词形式。

Health Benefits of Red Wine
We all know drinks containing alcohol are not good for health, / but when it comes to drinking red wine, / it is the other way around.. /②Recent studies have concluded that there are no negative effects on the body, / if red wine is not consumed excessively. /③ Certain compounds in red wine can play a very important role in protecting the heart. / It is a heart-healthy drink that can be enjoyed during evening meals. /⑤If you think that red wine is only good for the heart, / then you are wrong. / ⑥Studies have revealed that the substance found in the skin of red grapes, / can restrict cancer`s development. / (7)However, the ideal consumption is not 7 to 8 glasses of red wine. / ⑧Scientific studies on the potential benefits of red wine recommend that women should not have more than one drink per day; whereas men can have 2 drinks per day. / ⑨The word “moderate” is the key to maximize health benefits of red wine.(160words)

第一句:come to是固定短语,to为介词后面跟动名词;the other way around意为“相反地”。
第三句:compound 意为“化合物,复合物”。
第八句:more than one可以速记为>1;potential 意为“潜在的,可能的。”

How to Gain Fluency in Another Language
To gain fluency in another language, / many people will tell you the only solution is / to travel to a foreign country and immerse yourself completely. / ②This advice may be greatly appealing for some people. / ③But for the majority of people, this solution is both inconvenient and costly. /④Thankfully, the Internet has brought us new and exciting options for communicating in another language. / ⑤To expand your vocabulary, try reading free articles and original books in another language./⑥ To begin with, reading may be a slow and frustrating process / as you will have to stop to look up the meanings for many unfamiliar words./(7)Before you begin ,find an online dictionary / that will offer you quick translations./⑧Hearing a language is the key to learn how to speak it./ ⑨Popular music downloading sites offer free audio files / that you can download and take with you wherever you go./⑩And most importantly, one must actually practice speaking the language.(155words)

第二句:注意may be在本句中要分开写,若是maybe,则本句缺少谓语;appealing意为“打动人心的,有吸引力的”。
第六句:to begin with作为一个固定短语,单独使用时,后要使用逗号;may be在本句中要分开写;frustrating意为“令人泄气的”。

Holidays in the US
①Like other nations, the United States sets aside a number of days each year/ to commemorate events, people or public occasions,/ ②These holidays typically are marked by a general suspension of work and business activity,/ and by public or religious ceremonies. / ③Technically, the United States does not celebrate national holidays./ ④However, Congress has designated 10 legal public holidays./ ⑤During such public holidays,/ most federal institutions are closed and most federal employees are excused from work ./ ⑥ Although the individual states and private business are not required to observed these,/in practice all state and nearly all employers observe the majority of them./ ⑦Since 1971,a number of these holidays have been fixed on Mondays/ rather than on a particular calendar date/ so as to afford workers a long holiday weekend./ ⑧Meanwhile, there are some US state holidays/ particular to individual US states.(149words)

第一句:the United States 可以缩写为the US,谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式;set aside 意为“留出” a number of 后一般接可数名词复数形式;commemorate 可以缩写为comme,意为“纪念,庆祝”。
第四句:Congress在此特指美国的国会,首字母要大写,本句为现在完成进行时态,注意designated 的拼写。
第五句:federal可以缩写为fed’ institutions可以缩写为insti’ be excused from意为“得以免除”
第六句:businesses可以缩写为biz’ employers可以缩写为emp
第七句:本句中用到了现在完成时的被动语态‘Mondays 可以缩写为Mon’ so as to 意为“以便”,后接动词原形。

Harvard University
①Harvard College was established in 1636./②Harvard is America’s oldest institution of higher learning, / founded 140 years before the Declaration of Independence was signed. / ③The university has grown from nine students with a single master / to an enrollment of more than 18,000 degree candidates, / including undergraduates and students in 10 principal academic units./④An additional 13,000 students are enrolled in one or more courses / in the Harvard Extension School./ ⑤Over 14000 people work at Harvard, including more than 2,000 faculty. / ⑥There are also 7,000 faculty appointments in affiliated teaching hospitals. / ⑦Our mission , to advance new ideas and promote enduring knowledge , has kept the University young . / ⑧We strive to create an academic environment in which outstanding students and scholars from around the world / are continually challenged and inspired to do their best possible work. / ⑨It is Harvard’s collective efforts that make this university such a vibrant place / to live, to learn , to work and to explore.

第一句:Harvard College可以写为Hc;注意established 的拼写。
第二句:America’s 可以缩写为Ame’s; institution可以缩写为insti’注意Declaration of Independence应该为任何,可以为Dec of Inde.
第三句:数字可以用阿拉伯数字表示‘University 可以用Uni表示;enrollment 可以缩写为enrol;candidates可以缩写为candi undergraduates可以缩写为undergrad; principal不要写成 principle; academic可以缩写为aca.
第九句:collective可以缩写为coll;注意vibrant的拼写,意为 “有活力的”

Organic coffee
Today many agricultural products are grown using organic methods / and coffee is no exception . / Organic products have a very minimal effect on the environment /because there is on use of pesticides and fertilizers./All organic produces are certified to ensure that /their products are grown in such a way ./Organic coffee is a multimillion dollar industry /and each year the sales of this coffee are increasing./Exports of organic coffee are up in most of Europe and North America ./ Organic coffee is usually grown in many countries such as Africa, Asia and South American./ All over the world people have become organic coffee drinkers, /but Americans consume the majority of it./All organic coffee products in the USA are certified for quality ./The organic coffee is produced in a very specific way /and all operators are at random inspected to ensure that they meet US Department of Agriculture standards.


Passage 18
White Pollution
White pollution refers to plastic pollution./It is a new member of pollution family, but it grows fast./Unrecyclable plastic lunch boxes line along railroads./Plastic shopping bags dance in the wind./When leaders are busy mapping out blueprints for the future,/one color “WHITE” from white pollution becomes their headache./Everything in the life icicle deserves its place on earth./If we continue using plastic lunch boxes, shopping bags and other unrecyclable plastic products,/what would happen?/One day they might bury us in an ocean of white rubbish./Then the earth ,our common home ,would be a dustbin ./To prevent this nightmare from coming true ,/governments need to work closely with each other and back up their verbal commitment by actions./However, it is not enough only to ask what governments can do to get rid of white pollution./We must ask ourselves what we as individuals can do to color the earth green instead of white.

第四句:be busy doing sth意为忙于做某事,因此要用现在分词形式的mapping out,意为详细制定,筹划,注意字母P要双写。
第七句:continue doing sth继续做某事,因此要用using;注意boxes,bags,products均为复数形式;本句的主句为特殊疑问句,需要注意句末的标点为问号。
第十句:不定式作目的状语;prevent sth from doing,因此要用现在分词形式的coming true;government可以缩略为govern,commitment可以缩略为comm。

Vertical Farms
By the year 2050,nearly 80% of the earth’s population will have resided in urban centers./An estimated 109 hectares of new land will be needed to grow enough food to feed them,/if traditional farming practices continue as they are practiced today./So, an entirely new approach to farming must be invented,/employing cutting edge technologies./The concept of indoor farming is not new./What is new is the urgent need to scale up this technology/to accommodate a fast growing number of people./Vertical farming was thus invented./Rice on the seventh floor, wheat on the twelfth,/and enough food within an eighteen-story tower to feed a small city of 50000./Vertical farms must be cheap to construct and safe to operate./If successfully implemented, they will offer the promise of urban renewal,/sustainable production of a safe and varied food supply,/and the eventual repair of ecosystems that have been sacrificed for horizontal farming.

第2句:traditional farming practice意为“传统的耕作方法”,farming意为“耕作”,practice是名词;as they are practiced today意为“照目前这样做”,practice是动词。
第3句:cutting edge technology意为“尖端技术”。
第5句:scale up意为“扩大规模”;accommodate意为“适应·····”,满足····
第9句:promise意为希望,前景;renewal是renew的名词形式,意为重建;新建;sacrificed被牺牲的,在句中引申为遭到破坏的;horizontal水平的,horizontal和vertical farming相对,指传统的耕作

Overpopulation is the condition/where the number of organisms exceeds the carrying capacity of their habitat./We are facing the effects of overpopulation in our daily life./Overpopulation has affected the life of common man/and has proved to be one of the most serious difficulties that have to be fought./Overpopulation implies a shortage of resources and economic inflation./Living through the negative effects of overpopulation/has made us realize serious problems associated with it./It is high time we waken up/and found the causes of overpopulation and worked on them./Generally, the causes of overpopulation include decline in the death rate, rise in the birth rate, migration and lack of education./Not every nation is capable of providing its people with the adequate amount of resources./the ever increasing population will eventually fail to provide its people with resources they need to thrive./When the environment fails to accommodate the living beings that inhabit it,/overpopulation becomes a disaster.

第1句:the number of+可数名词作主语时,谓语动词是单数,所以不要遗漏exceed后的s.
第10句:living beings为固定短语,不要遗漏beings后的s.

Passage 21
The Bottled Water
The bottled water used can be sourced from public water sources, / and the purity and safety depend largely on the regulation of quality adopted within a country. / The regulation conducted and recorded ensure that / the bottled water`s quality is safe / ?The label on the bottled water container or bottle accurately reflects bottle contents / or at least it is expected to / ?In many developing and under-developed nations, / these standards are variable. / ?This makes the safety of the bottled water controversial. / ?These is on doubt about convenience of bottled water relative to boiling. / ?However, bottled water may provide a possibility to unsafe drinking water / only for those who can afford it . / ?The safes of bottled water have surpassed the sales of all other drinks, expect some soft drinks. / ?And the bottled water companies make a good money / even though the popularity of bottled water has been criticized by environmentalist, economists and care-takers and –givers. (150 words)

第3句:be expected to 中的to 不可省。
第4句:and 与 under 发音有些相似,并且紧挨着,在记录时不要遗漏任何一个。
第8句:surpassed 可以速记为> ,意为“超过”。
第9句:make a good money 是一个固定短语,不要遗漏其中的a ;注意复合名词care-takers and-givers连字符的使用。

Passage 22
Online Education
Online education, or distance learning, has really taken on a life of its own in the past few years,/ With the availability of the Internet ,/ it is becoming easier and easier to join one of the approved online colleges / and to get your degree online ./ ?These colleges are spread out of all over the word ./ ?If you are truly getting your education online ,/ then you don`t have to be in the same city / as if you were getting your degree locally ./ ?You simply log into the classroom ever day to get your assignments ,/ then you upload them in order to get your grade ./ ?There isn`t even a need to meet the teachers or other students/and you can do it at any time of the day ./ ?Therefore, it won`t interfere with your work schedule or your life in general ./ ?And the great news is that employers are recognizing more and more that / an online education is a great way to go. (160 words)

第1句:注意别把its误写为it`s ;take on意为“呈现,具有”。
第2句:Internet 的首字母要大写;availability 意为“有效性,可利用性”。
第3句:spread 的过去式、过去分词与原形一致,不要误写为spreaded。
第7句:使用速记符号,therefore速记为∴,在还原therefore 时,首字母要大写,并且其后加逗号;interfere with 意为“妨碍,干扰”;in general 意为“通常,大体上,一般而言”。
第8句:news 作“新闻,消息”讲,是不可数名词,所以后面的谓语动词要用单数;使用速记符号,more and more 速记为 > + >。

Passage 23
Red wolves
① Red wolves present a characteristic red colored fur/ which is more obvious behind the ears and in the neck and legs. / ②Other than these parts,/ ③There big ears help them overcome hot and humid climatic conditions. /④The average size of red wolves is 4 feet in length, 20 inches tall and weight about 45 to 80 pounds. /⑤Generally, red wolves attain sexual maturity at the age of 22 months; /however, there are some species attain within 10 months. /⑥The breeding season of red wolves is during February and March / and their pregnancy period is about 2 months. / ⑦Females give birth to about 1 to 10 children one time around march to April. /⑧The newly borns usually stay with their parents about two years, / after which, they spread around the wild. /⑨the lifespan of red wolves is around 7 or 8 years in the wild / and about 15 years in captivity.

第1句:本剧中的which指代的是fur,而不是red wolves,所以谓语动词是is;注意characteristic中a,e.i 的变化,意为“特有的,有特色的”。

Passage 24
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Martin Luther King Jr. Day is a United States federal holiday/ making the birthday of Dr. Martin Luther, Jr./It is observed on the third Monday of January each year,/which is around the time of King’s birthday, January 15./?King was the chief spokesman for nonviolent activism in the civil rights movement,/which successful protested racial discrimination in federal and state law./?He was assassinated in 1968./?The campaign for federal holiday in King’s honor began soon after his assassination./?The idea of Martin Luther Jr. Day as a holiday/was promoted by labor unions in contract negotiations./?Ronald Reagan signed the holiday into law 1983,/and it was first observed in 1986./?At first, some states resisted observing the holiday as much,/giving it alternative names or combing it with other holiday./?It was officially observed in all 50 states for the first time in 2000.(152 words)

第1句:federal holiday 是美式英语,相当于national holiday,意为“国家法定节日”;“马丁·路德·金日”King和Jr.之间没有标点,而表示马丁·路德·金名字时,King和Jr.之间需要加逗号。
第3句:nonviolent activism 意为“非暴力行动主义”;civil rights movement 意为“民权运动”,可以缩记为CRM;racial discrimination意为“种族歧视”,discrimination可缩记dis。
第6句:labor union意为“工会”;contract negotiation意为“合同谈判”,negotiation可缩记为negotns。
第7句:Ronald Reagan,美国第四十任总统,平时需留心与英美文化相关的人名、地名等。

Car Alarm System
①Car alarm systems are basic ways to keep thieves away .②The first car alarm system was designed in 1896 .③Nowadays every car is fitted with advanced electronic sound alarm system.④Though car alarm systems do not always stop the theft from happening but they do create troubles ,which act as alarms for both the owner of the car and the thief.⑤There have been innumerable cases when in spite of the car and the alarm system being there ,the vehicle has been stolen ,because at times the car alarm system fails to understand what exactly is car theft .⑥Experts are of the opinion that nowadays thefts occur in spite of the alarm system being there because nobody bothers much about it .⑦People do not pay attention because alarm systems sound even when there is a strong wind or a pet trying to interfere with the vehicle.⑧Moreover, thieves are designing newer ways to make new technologies that are being used fails. (160 words)

第6句:不要落了are of the opinion中间的of,该短语意为“持有······的看法”。
第8句:failed在此是过去分词,作make的宾语补足语,不能根据“make sb. /sth. do"的结构误写成fail。

Passage 26
Domestic violence and Abuse
①Domestic abuse occurs when one person in an intimate relationship or marriage tries to dominate and control the other person . ②An abuser doesn’t play fair .③ He or she uses fear , guilt and shame to wear you down and gain complete power over you .④ He or she may threaten you , hurt you ,or hurt those around you .⑤Domestic abuse that includes physical violence is called domestic violence .⑥Victims of domestic abuse or domestic violence may be men or women ,although women are more commonly victimized. ⑦Except for the gender difference ,domestic abuse doesn’t discriminate. ⑧It happens within all age ranges , ethnic backgrounds , and financial levels . ⑨The abuse may occur during a relationship ,while the couple is breaking up , or after the relationship has ended . ⑩Despite what many people believe , domestic violence is not due to the abuser’s loss of control over his behavior . ⑾Actually, violence is a deliberate choice made by the abuser in order to take control over his wife or partner.(165 words)

第1句:注意intimate和dominate的拼写;dominate abuse意为“家庭暴力”;intimate 意为“亲密的,私人的”;dominate意为“支配,占优势”。
第3句:主语是 he or she,注意谓语动词的单复数;注意固定搭配wear···down,意为“使厌倦”;注意介词over。
第6句:dominate abuse可缩写为d a; domestic violence可缩写为d v;注意men和women均为复数形式;although不要误写为though。
第7句:except for中不要遗漏介词for;注意discriminate的拼写,意为“歧视”。
第8句:注意ranges, backgrounds和levels均为复数形式。

Ice Cream
①Ice cream is a frozen dessert usually made from dairy products,such as milk and cream ./②It is often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavors./③Ice cream recipes first appeared in 18th-century England and America./④Most current varieties contain sugar,/although some are made with other sweeteners./⑤In some cases, artificial flavorings and colorings are used in addition to,/or in replacement of the natural ingredients./⑥This mixture is stirred slowly while cooling/to prevent large ice crystals from forming./⑦The result is a smoothly textured ice cream ./⑧The meaning of the term ice cream varies from one country to another./⑨In some countries, like the USA,/the term ice cream applies only to a specific variety./⑩And the USA government regulates the commercial use of all these terms based on quantities of ingredients./ ⑾In others, like Italy, one word is enough for all the variants.(149 words)

第3句:18th-century 在这里充当定语修饰England and America,顾中间需加连字符。
第5句;artificial 意为“人工的,人造的”;flavoring意为香料,coloring意为色素,注意两者都需要用复数形式,in addition to 和 in replacement of 并列,注意不要遗漏了介词to。
第7句;smoothly textured 意为质感柔滑的,ice cream 在这里表示一种冰淇淋,因此不要忘记前面的冠词a。
第11句;variant 意为变种,这个词可以通过variety推导而来。

Passage 28
High school dancing party in the US
①In the United States, a dancing party held at the end of senior year for high school students.② Smaller schools may hold a dancing party open to the entire student body. ③Large high schools may hold two dancing parties, a junior dancing party for those finishing their 11th grade year and a senior dancing party for those who are graduating high school. ④Dancing parties are mostly attended by juniors and seniors, but some allow all classes to attend. ⑤The Junior and Senior classes may participate in raiser s throughout the school year to reduce the cost of prom. ⑥Dancing party tickets are sold at school and are traditionally purchased by boys for the couple.⑦ It is not unusual for people attending dancing parties as friends to purchase a couple’s ticket. ⑧The cost of half of one couple’s ticket is generally less than that of one for an individual. (150 words)

第1句:The United States 可以缩写为the US; school可以缩写为sch。
第2句:为比较级; open为形容词作后置定语。
第5句:注意Participate的拼写,该词可以缩写为 partic;prom意为“正式舞会”。
第6句:Traditionally 可以缩写为tradi ;purchased为过去分词形式,不要遗漏句尾的d。
第7句:本句为It is adj. for sb. to do sth.句式。

Passage 29
The Necktie
①The necktie or tie is a long piece of cloth / worn for decorative purposes around the neck or shoulders, / resting under the shirt collar and knotted at the throat. /② The necktie is one of the few fashion accessories / to have survived nearly 400 years of social change. /③ Neck decorations have been worn since ancient times to signify title or wealth. /④ Modern decorative neckwear dates back from the 17th century in France. / ⑤The Industrial Revolution helped spread the style to the masses, / as millions of workers migrated from farmlands to factories / and the business class was born. /⑥ By the 1950s,it was said that a man wasn’t fully dressed until he had put on his tie. /⑦ The tie had later come to symbolize individuality as much as conformity. / ⑧Neckties are available in varied size. / ⑨Men and boys wear neckties as part of regular office dress or formal wear. / ⑩Neckties can also be worn as part of uniform.

第1句:decorative 意为“装饰性的”;注意 knotted 要双写t。
第2句:accessory 意为“饰品”。
第3句:本句实用完成时态,worn 是 wear 的过去分词,听音时需仔细辨别;signify 意为“显示,表明”;title 意为“称号,头衔”,可引申译为“身份”。
第5句:Industrial Revolution 意为“工业革命”,专有名词,首写字母大写;the masses 表示“大众,百姓”;migrate 意为“迁移”。
第7句:symbolize 意为“象征”;individuality 意为“个性;特色”;conformity 意为“一致性;从众”。

Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception ,/pricing ,promotion and distribution of ideas, goods,/and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives ./②It consists of advertising and promoting your products or services in order to sell them./③Your business produces goods and services ./④Marketing is to let potential customers know what are available for sale./⑤Sales , advertising ,and public relations are essential components of marketing /and each requires specialized skills and expertise./⑥While a small business may have only one person /performing all these functions under the marketing umbrella ,/knowledge of each area is important to develop a focused effort ./⑦A focus on what the customer wants and needs / is essential to successful marketing efforts ./⑧This customer-orientation should go hand-in-hand with the company's objective of maintaining a profitable volume of sales ./⑨Marketing is a creative process combining all of the activities needed to accomplish all of these objectives.(156words)

第一句:marketing 可缩写为mark,后同;plan的现在分词形式要双写n,为planning;execute的现在分词形式为executing,exchanges是复数形式。
第二句:consist of 为固定搭配,of 不可省略,主语是it,故谓语动词用单数形式;advertise和promote的现在分词形式都要省略末尾的e。
第五句:essential component意为“主要成分”;expertise意为“专业技能”。
第六句:a small business 和a focused effort 中的不定冠词不要遗漏;functions为复数形式,故前面的these不要听成this;be important to do sth. ,为不带to的不定式。

Passage 31
The World Health Day
①The World Health Day is on 7th April.②It marks the founding of the World Health Organization and is an opportunity to draw worldwide attention to a subject of major importance to global health each year.③World Health Day 2009 focused on the safety of health facilities and the readiness of health workers who treat people affected by emergencies.④Health centers and staff provide vital health care in communities every day.⑤In disasters, their services are in even greater demand: treating injuries, preventing illnesses and caring for people’s urgent health needs.⑥A safe hospital that continue to function at best capacity during and after a disaster or other emergency is a safe haven that protects lives.⑦Safe health facilities are a joint responsibility, requiring crucial support from other sectors to ensure essential lifelines.⑧When health facilities stop functioning, it is a double blow to a devastated community.

第一句:World Health Day 可以缩写为WHD。
第二句:opportunity可以缩写为oppor,它以元音音素开头,故用不定冠词an;draw one’s attention to sth.介词为to;of importance =important。
第五句:services为复数,故谓语动词用are;greater用的是比较级;注意动名词;care for 为固定搭配。

Passage 32
Wood Recycling
①Recycling timber is the process of turning waste timber into usable products./②Recycling timber is a practice that was popularized in the early 1990s/as issues such as deforestation and climate change,/prompted both timber suppliers and consumers to turn to a more sustainable timber source./③Recycling timber has become popular/ due to its image as an environmentally friendly product./④Consumers commonly believe that by purchasing recycled wood,/the demand for green timber will fall and ultimately benefit the environment./⑤Recycled timber is now used as a construction product./⑥It has been import in both raising industry/and consumer awareness towards deforestation/and promoting timber mills to adopt more environmentally friendly practices./⑦Wood recycling is a subject which has in recent years taken an even greater role in our lives./⑧The problem, however, is that although many local authorities like the idea of recycling,/they do not fully support it.

第2句:注意popularized的拼写,意为“普及,推广”;deforestation 可以缩写为defor;suppliers和consumers相对应;注意sustainable的拼写。
第3句:popular可以缩写为pop;due to中的to不可省略;environmentally friendly可以缩写成envir fri,environmentally以原音音素开头,故前面的不定冠词应该为an。

Passage 33
War Games
If war is a political instrument,/then it stands to reason that the simulation of war can also be used to influence nations./While militaries have long conducted practice exercises,/modern war games with their focus on strategy and counterstrategy ,/are only a few centuries old./③The Americans began to use geographical maps to test potential war tactics in the late 1800s./④And war games became part of the curriculum in military academies in 1894./⑤In the 20th century, war became more complex./⑥War games moved into the actual field,/with the military conducting live exercises./⑦Since World War Ⅱ,the US has simulated hundreds of aerial and naval assaults./⑧In today’s war games, computer imitations do much of the heavy lifting./⑨As commanders deploy in the field, programs calculate casualty rates./⑩Computers adjust for weather factors and render a score ,/allowing the games to come as close to war as possible without imposing real violence.(156 words)

第1句:political instrument意为“政治工具”;it stands to reason that…意为“理所当然……;自然而然……”,simulation 意为“模拟”,可以记为simu。
第2句:military意为“军队” ,注意这里用复数形式;conduct意为“组织;进行”,可缩记为cudt。

Passage 34
The Free Hugs Campaign
①The Free Hugs Campaign is a social movement/involving individuals who offer hugs to strangers in public places. / ②The campaign in its present from was started in 2004 by an Australian man. / ③Initially, people were suspicious of the strange man on the street / offering to hug anyone who wanted one. / ④Soon, however, suspicious gave way to enthusiastic acceptance./ ⑤When authorities tried to stop the campaign, /over 10,000 people signed to ensure its continuance./ ⑥The campaign became famous internationally in 2006 as the result of a music video uploaded into the Internet. / ⑦The response to the video was astounding. / ⑧Many people joined this newly created movement, / and went out offering free hugs whoever wanted one. / ⑨This event demonstrates how the Internet can be used to connect humanity beyond the boundaries of space and time. / ⑩The hugs are meant to be random acts of kindness, / reputedly selfless acts performed by a person for the sole reason of making others feel better.(160wrds)

第1句:The Free Hugs Campaign可以缩写为TFHC,注意Hugs词尾的s一级Campaign的拼写;involving及其后的短语为现在分词作状语,注意involve的现在分词形式要去掉词尾的e;individuals可以缩写为indi,注意其拼写。
第3句:be suspicious of“对……感到怀疑的”,注意介词用of。
第4句:give way to意味“让步,退却”,为固定搭配,不要听成give a way to; suspicious可以缩写成sus; enthusiastic可以缩写为enthu,要注意其拼写。
第9句:demonstrates 可以缩写成demon,且为第三人称单数形式;注意humanity的拼写;boundaries为复数形式。

Passage 35
Effects of Cell Phones
①Cell phones are an unavoidable part of daily life.② Even if you do not own one yourself, you are exposed to them all the time whenever you enter the public areas. ③Most people think of their cell phone as something that they“just could not live without.” ④Make sure you are informed about the potential health hazards associated with cell phone use that the cell phone companies do not want you to know. ⑤While studies are not conclusive, scientists are beginning to suspect that cell phone use could contribute to everything from headache to brain cancer. ⑥This is because cell phones emit electromagnetic waves and small amount of radiation. ⑦While research done in the 1990’s indicated that the radiation using a cell phone could expose you to is not really enough to do any damage, many experts are now abolishing that opinion. ⑧They recommend that, at the very least, children, teens and young adults avoid using cell phone expect in emergencies.(161 words)

第1句:cell phone 可以缩写为C P;注意unavoidable的拼写,且该词以元音音素开头,不定冠词应该用an,意为“不可避免的”。
第2句:be exposed to 为固定搭配,介词为to
第3句:think of …as 结构中,不要遗漏of, something可以缩写为sth
第4句:注意 be informed about 中的介词about;注意hazards的拼写;associated with为过去分词短语作后置定语,注意不要遗漏介词with
第4句:注意electromagnetic “电磁的”的拼写;amounts of 中不要遗漏s。
第7句:indicated为过去式,注意词尾要加-d,可缩写成indi; radiation可以缩写为radia。
第8句:recommend可以缩写成recom,常用虚拟语气,should可省略,因此avoid用原形,avoid后接动词时要用动词形式,因此using;emergencies为复数形式,要改y为i再加-es,in emergencies 意为“在紧急情况下”。

Passage 36
Nongovernmental Organization in Denmark
①Danes pursue common interests in leisure, sports, and politics./ ②Associations are essentially nongovernmental, originating in the late 19th century,/when farmers and workers formed interest groups./ ③Today Denmark has one of the highest proportions of association membership in the world./ ④More than 90 percent of the population belongs to an organization,/and more than 73 percent of the people have multiple memberships in more than three hundred thousand organizations./ ⑤Organizations and associations play three important roles./ ⑥First, they have been able to develop common interests and identities among different groups of people./ ⑦Second, practical improvements in the form of production, increases in salary,/and membership discounts have been achieved./ ⑧Third, organizations participate in the political struggle for the distribution of values and goods in society./ ⑨For example, charities use sophisticated public relations campaigns to raise funds/ and employ standard lobbying techniques with governments./ ⑩Interest groups may be of political outcomes. ﹙160 words﹚

第1句:pursue 意为“追求,继续从事”。
第4句:注意使用缩写和符号,multiple 可以缩写为mul;数字可以用阿拉伯数字代替;percent 可用%来简写。
第7句:membership discount 意为“会员折扣”。
第9句:techniques 不要写成technics;sophisticated 意为“复杂的,久经世故的”;lobbying techniques 意为“游说技巧”。

E-waste: Dark Side of Digital Age
①What happens to those old computer once there’ve been abandoned for newer models?/②The refuse from discarded electronics, also known as e-waste, /often ends up in landfills instead of being recycled. /③And that means toxic substances like lead and mercury that are commonly used in these products / can contaminate the land , water and air. /④The United States generates more e-waste than any other nation. /⑤Some of that waste is recycled. ⑥For example, steel, aluminum and copper are often stripped from outdate machines and reused in newer models. /⑦But even recycled parts come at a price. /⑧An estimated 50 to 80 percent of e-waste collected in the United States for recycling / is exported to areas such as China or India or Pakistan, /where workers taking apart the old machines are handling toxic chemicals / that can pose serious health problems. /⑨Luckily, some manufacturers are beginning to assume greater responsibility for / what happens to their products after they become out-of-date.

第2句:electronics可以缩写为elec ; also known as e-waste 为插入语,注意前后都有逗号;instead of 后接动词时,需要用其动名词形式。
第3句:注意toxic的拼写;lead 作名词,意为“铅”;注意 contaminate 的拼写,意为“弄脏,污染”。
第4句:the United States 可拼写为the US ,做主语时,谓语动词generate 要用单数形式;注意generate的拼写,意为“产生,制造,发生”,不要写成 generate; than 不要写成then; any other 后面接可数名词的单数形式。

Federal Assistance
① The US federal assistance is defined as any federal program, service , and activity / provided by the federal government that directly assists or benefits the American public / in the areas of education , health , public safety , public welfare , and public works among others .②The assistance is provided and administered by federal government agencies. /③In order to provide federal assistance in an organized manner , / the federal government provides assistance through federal agencies ./ ④It’s the agencies responsibility to adequately provide assistance . / ⑤Agencies are also to manage, account, and monitor the responsible use of federal funds / which were utilized for that assistance . /⑥The agencies then supply the assistance to recipients through individual programs . ⑦ The programs can refer to any number of activities or services provided by agencies . ⑧ Programs are assigned to offices within a federal agency. /⑨ they may include administrative personnel / which work directly or indirectly with the program . /⑩Each program is created with a specific purpose.

第1句:federal assistance 意为“(美国的)联邦援助”,鉴于该词组已在题目中出现,混淆的可能性较低,故可将录音中出现的这两个词记为FA。
第2句:administer意为“管辖,管理”,录音中使用的是被动语态;federal government agency意为“联邦政府机构”。
第4句:注意和强调句式it is ……that ….相区别;adequately意为“充分地”,可以缩记为adqly。
第9句:administrative personnel意为“行政人员”。

Information Age
①The Information Age means something different to everyone. /②In 1956 in the United States, researchers noticed that / the number of people holding “white collar” jobs had just exceeded the number of people holding “blue collar” jobs. /③These researchers realized that this was an important change, ④As the Industrial Age ended, /the newer times adopted the title of “the Information Age”. /⑤Of course, at that time relatively few jobs had much to do with computers and computer-related technology. ⑥What was occurring was steady trend /away from people holding Industrial Age manufacturing jobs. ⑦An increasing number of people held jobs as clerks in stores, office workers, /teachers , nurses, etc. /⑧The Western world was shifting into a service economy. /⑨Eventually, Information and Communication Technology became a significant part of the economy. /⑩Microcomputers were developed, /and many business and industries were greatly changed by them.

第1句:Information Age可以缩写为sht. ; 形容词different 修饰不定代词时,要放在不定代词的后面。
第2句:the United States 可以缩写为the US ;不要放错 white collar 和blue collar 的位置number 可以缩写为No.;注意exceed的拼写。
第4句:adopted 不要写成adapted。
第5句:注意 relatively的拼写;technology 可以写为tech。
第6句:occur的现在分词形式要双写r;manufacturing 可以缩写为man.ing。
①At the other end of the malnutrition scale, /obesity is one of today’s most visible, yet must neglected, public health problems. /②Paradoxically, co-existing with under-nutrition, /a global epidemic of overweight and obesity is taking over many parts of the world. /③If immediate action is not taken, /millions will suffer from an array of serious health disorders. ④Obesity is a complex condition, one with serious social and psychological dimensions, /that affects virtually all age and threatens to overwhelm both developed and developing countries. ⑤As of 2000, the number of obese adults is over 300 million people. /⑥Contrary to conventional wisdom, the obesity epidemic is not restricted to industrialized societies. ⑦In developing countries, /it is estimated that over 115 million people suffer from obesity-related problems. ⑧Generally, although men may have higher rates of overweight, women have higher rates of obesity. ⑨For both, obesity poses a major risk for serious diet-related non-communicable diseases, /including stroke and certain forms of cancer.

第1句:malnutrition可以缩写为malnutri,意为“营养不良”;today’s 需要用所有格形式,不要忘记加’s;problems为复数形式。
第2句:注意paradoxically 的拼写,意为“自相矛盾地”;epidemic 为名词,意为“传染病,流行疾病”,注意其拼写。
第4句:psychologically 可以缩写为psycho;注意dimensions 的拼写及单复数形式,不要将它写成demensions;affects为动词,不要写成effects;developed 和developing 不要混淆。

Passage 41
Space Junk
Space junk, also known as space waste, / is object in orbit around Earth created by humans that no longer serve any useful purpose. / They consist of everything from entire spent satellites / to explosion fragments, deliberate insertion of small needles, and many objects. /As orbits often overlap, the space junk is a potential collision risk for spacecraft ./The vast majority of pieces of space junk are small particles ./Contact with these particles causes erosive damage ./The majority of the damage can be eased by adding a thin layer of metal /outside of the main spacecraft body ./However ,certain portions of many satellites cannot be protected in this way ,the solar panels and windows for instance./If a collision with larger pieces occurs,/many of the resulting fragments from the damage spacecraft /will also be in the 1 kilogram mass range./Constantly ,these objects become an additional collision risk.

第1句:space junk 可以缩写为SJ,意为“太空垃圾”;需要注意known,created均为过去分词形式;objects,humans和purpose 的单位复数形式也需注意。
第2句:注意不要漏掉consist of 结构中的介词of;还需注意deliberate“故意的”,insertion“插入物”,fragments“碎片”
第6句:damage 可以缩写为dam;by 表示方式时,接动词需要用其动名词形式,故用adding ;注意不要遗漏介词of。
第8句:从句中的主语为单数,谓语动词occur后要加s;resulting 为形容词;注意不要遗漏damaged 结尾的d;kilogram 可以缩写为kg。
第9句:注意consequently 和 additional 的拼写;注意不定冠词为an,不是a。

Passage 42
Summer Camp
Summer camp is a supervised program for children/which is conducted usually during the summer months./It is a regular part of childhood in the United States./Camps can be for ages./The primary purpose of many camps is educational or for cultural development./A summer camp may allow children to take healthy risks in a safe and nurturing environment./The traditional view of a summer camp as a woody place / where kids go hiking and boating and start camp fires is evolving. /Now people have greater acceptance of newer summer camps / that offer a wide variety of specialized activities. / For example, there are camps for magic performing, language learning and even weight loss. /Many camps add new programs to counter a trend in decreasing enrollment. / Smaller family sizes, the growth in supplemental educational programs / and the popularity of electronic media are the main causes of the decline in attractiveness of summer camps. / All of them have kept children inside and occupied.

第4句:在这里cultural development 并非意为“文化发展”,而是“素质教育”。
第6句:woody 意为“树木丛生的”,a woody place 就是“林地,林区”;evolve 意为“演变,发展”
第7句:acceptance意为“接受,认可;暂同”have greater acceptance of ……“更为接受……,更为喜爱……”;specialized “专门的”。
第9句:a trend in ……意为“……(情况)的趋势”;enrollment 意为“注册;登记人数;入会”。
第10句:supplemental educational program 意为“课外辅导”;electronic media 意为“电子媒体”

Passage 43
Illiteracy in Africa
Illiteracy in Africa is at extremely high levels. / 21 nations have adult literacy rates below 50% / and overall 4 of every 10 Africans are illiterate. / Achieving higher rates of literacy is a vital part of the effort to eradicate African poverty. / But the relationship between the two is complex, / because the effects of poverty are a major obstacle to literacy. / Given the widespread poverty, / few parents can afford to send their children to school. / Raising literacy rates depends on governments’ making schools and programs for adult education available. / Some governments are making a real effort to improve literacy. / However, many government officials are either indifferent or corrupt, / giving education a low priority, or the government efforts are poorly organized or implemented. / Non-governmental organizations can help, / but they must depend on local governments to step up and become a partner, / rather than an obstacle to progress.(145 words)
第1句:at extremely high levels意为“非常高的水平”,注意介词为at,levels为复数形式,注意extremely的拼写。

Passage 44
Experiential Learning
Experiential learning is learning through reflection on doing. / It is the process of making meaning from direct experience. / Focusing on the learning process for the individual,/ experiential learning engages the learner at a more personal level by addressing his or her needs and wants./ An example of experiential learning is going to the zoo. / The learning happens through observation and interaction with the zoo environment, / as opposed to reading about animals from a book. / And thus, one makes discoveries and experiments with knowledge firsthand, / instead of hearing or reading about others’ experiences. / Experiential learning requires no teacher. / It relates solely to the meaning-making process of the individual’s direct experience. / Knowledge is continuously gained through both personal and environmental experiences. / For the adult learner especially, experience becomes a living textbook to which they can refer. / However, experiences do not automatically equate learning. / So qualities such as self-initiative and self-evaluation are required.(151 words)
第1句:experiential learning意为“体验式学习”。
第8句:relate to意为“与……有关系”,注意和relate…to…区别;meaning-making process即the process of making meaning,meaning和making作定语时,他们之间要加连字符。
第12句:self-initiative意为“自主性”,听写速记时可缩略为self-init;self-evaluation意为“自我评价”, 听写速记时可缩略为self-eval’

Passage 45
Decision Making
Human performance in terms of decision making has been the subject of active research from several perspectives. / From a psychological perspective, / it is necessary to examine individual decisions in the context of a set of needs and preferences an individual has. / From an intellectual perspective, / the decision making progress must be regarded as a continuous process / integrated in the interaction with the environment. / From a regular perspective, / the analysis of individual decisions is concerned with the logic of decision making / and rationality and the stable choice it leads to. / Yet, at another level, it might be regarded as a problem-solving activity / which is terminated when a satisfactory solution is found. / And therefore decision making is a reasoning or emotional process. / It can be based on explicit assumptions or tacit assumptions. /Logical decision making is an important part of all science-based professions. / Specialists apply their knowledge in a given area to making informed decisions.(153 words)
第3句:continuous意为“(中间没有间隔)持续不断的”;be integrated in意为“与……统一;与……联系;是……的一部分”。
第7句:explicit意为“明确的”;assumption意为“假设”;tacit意为“缄默的;暗示的;默许的”,在逻辑学中explicit assumptions or tacit assumptions意为“(说话人的)显义和隐义”。

Passage 46
Online Consultations
Online consultations refer to an exchange between government and citizens using the Internet. /It consists in using electronic technologies to ask a group of people their opinions on one or more specific topics, / allowing for exchanges between participants. / Generally speaking, / an agency consults a group of people to get their thoughts on an issue / when a project or a policy is being developed or implemented. / For instance, / to identify or access options or to evaluate ongoing activities. / This enables the government to draft more citizen-centered policies. / As the Internet gains in popularity with the public or voicing opinion, / citizen participation in policy making through cyberspace is changing the face of democracy./ Through online engagement, / the government is enabled to hold interactive dialogues with the public, / as it has a more direct route to citizen opinion through the Internet. / Many countries are integrating online consultations using various methods and for a range of purposes.(152 words)
第2句:consist in (doing) sth.意为“主要(表现)为……;特点是……”;allow for (doing) sth.意为“实现(做)……;使(做)……成为可能”。
第6句:gain in popularity with sb.“受到某人的喜爱”,介词搭配用with;voice 作动词,意为“发表;表达”。
第7句:online engagement意为“网络参与”;注意此处的语态,is enabled to do意为“被赋予做某事的能力”,很容易错记为is able to;hold interactive dialogues意为“(进行)交流”;citizen opinion意为“民意”。

Lead Time
①Lead time is the period between a customer’s order and delivery of the final product ./②A small order of a pre-existing item may only have a few hours’ lead time , / but a large order of custom-made parts may have a lead time of weeks , months , or even longer . /③ It all depends on a number of factors, /from the time it takes to create the machinery to the speed of the delivery system. /④ Lead time may change according to seasons or holidays or overall demand for the product. /⑤Manufacturers are always looking for ways / to improve the lead time on their products. /⑥Lead time can mean the difference between making the sale and watching a competitor sign the contract. /⑦If a company can deliver the product weeks ahead of the competition, / it stands a better chance of receiving future orders. /⑧ Because of this management and labor teams routinely hold meetings / to discuss lead time to improvements.

第1句:lead time 意为“订货至交货的时间”。
第2句:custom-made 为复合名词,中间要用连字符连接,注意拼写。
第3句:number 速记时可缩略为num;system可缩略为sys。Machinery注意不要写成mechinery。
第7句:stand a better chance of意为“有一个更好的机会”。

Social Networking Service
①A social networking service is an online service that focuses on building and reflecting of social networks or social relations among people. / ②A social networking service essentially consists of three things. /③First, a representation of each user. /④ Second, his or her social links. /⑤And third, a variety of social services. /⑥Most social networking services are web-based. /⑦They provide means for users to interact over the internet, / such as email and instant messaging. /⑧ Online community services are sometimes as a social networking service in a broader sense./⑨However, social networking service usually means an individual-centered service / whereas online services are group-centered./⑩ Social networking sites allow users share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual networks. /The main types of social networking services are ones containing category places, /means to connect with friends and a recommendation system linked to trust./ Many networks focus on providing both services and community to individual with shared interest.(158 words)

第6句:web-based 意为“基于网页的”,web表示“网络、网页”时,首字母需大写。
第8句:online community services 意为“网上服务社区”;in a broader sense 意为“更广义(上)的”,注意broader 是比较形式。
第9句:individual-centered 意为“一个人为中心的”;group-centered 意为“以集体为中信的”。
第11句:category places 意为“分类位置”;recommendation 意为“推荐”,a recommendation system linked to trust 是网络专用术语,意为“基于信任的推荐系统”。

①Sight is very effective at giving exact information over considerable distance. / ②If the viewed object is moving, / it can tell us much about the speed and direction of the movement / as well as allowing us to identify it . / ③For all this to happen we need to see it. / ④This means our eyes have to be looking in the correct direction. / ⑤Light waves do not go around about objects very well, / so we cannot see an object if it is hidden behind another object. / ⑥This does put limits on what sight can achieve. / ⑦Sight is an easy sense to use, / because during the day we are surrounded by light supplied by the sun. / ⑧This light bounces off things and bring us information about them. / ⑨However, when the sun sets on a cloudy night, / the light is mostly gone, / and then vision shall become less useful as a sense.(146 words)

第1句:注意跟在effective 后面的介词是at 不是in 或者of;听写时注意使用缩写,information 可以缩写成info。
第4句:注意文章中使用的是have to be looking,而不是have to look;direction速记时可缩略为direc。
第8句:information 课速记为info;bounce off 意为“从······中弹回”。

Aging problems
①UN has claimed that the lumber of people on the globe / should as expected reach 9.2 billion in 2050, / which will include elderly persons numbering 1 billion. / ②One of the surprise is that population growth is most concentrate in the 60 plus age group, / which is expected almost to triple. / ③Whilst many regard the aging of the population as a triumph of a civilized and caring society, / others see it as a major problem acing the community. /④ The creasing aging population will cause the increase in the dependency radio. / ⑤This means that there will be more people claiming benefits such as state pensions, / and less people working and paying income taxes. / ⑥Thus, those in work will have to pay higher taxes. /⑦This could create disincentives to work and for firms to invest, / therefore there could be a fall productivity growth. /⑧The shortage of workers could push up wages, causing waging inflation.

第1句:number可以缩写为num;as expected 是插入语,需要注意expected 为过去分词形式;billion 可以写成b;形容词elderly 注意不要写成olderly;numbering 1 billion为现在分词短语作后置定语,number做动词,意为“总计”。
第2句:surprises为复数形式,而be动词为单数形式is,population 可以缩写为popu;60 plus 可以写成60 +。
第3句:不要将whilst 听写成while;regard…as和see…as结构中的as 不要省略;注意triumph的拼写。
第4句:aging population 可以缩写为a p;dependency ratio意为“赡养比率”。第5句:注意不要将this听成these;谓语动词means为第三人称单数形式;注 意benefits和taxes均为复数形式。
第7句:create不要误写成creat;disincentives意为“不利于经济发展的因素”,可以缩写为disin;productivity 可以缩写为produ。


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