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英语六级复习资料(完整版)


英语六级复习资料(完整版) 英语六级复习资料(完整版)

英语六级复习专题一完形填空英语六级复习专题一完形填空-固定搭配
1. account for 说明…的原因,是…的原 因 2. accuse…of… 控告;谴责 3. allow for 考虑到,顾及,为…留出预 地 4. appeal to 诉诸,诉请裁决(或证实等) 5. bring about 导致,引起 6. call off 取消 7. care for 照顾,照料;喜欢 8. check in (在旅馆、机场等)登记,报 到 9. check out 结帐后离开,办妥手续离去 10. come up with 提出,提供,想出 11. count on/upon 依靠,指望 12. count up 共计,算出…的总数 13. draw up 起草,拟订;(使)停住 14. fall back on 借助于,依靠 15. get at 够得着,触及;意思是,意指; 查明,发现;指责 16. go in for 从事,参加;爱好 17. hang on to 紧紧抓住;保留(某物) 18. turn out 制造,生产;结果是;驱逐; 关掉,旋熄 19. take over 接受,接管;借用,承袭 20. take in 接受,吸收,接纳;理解,领 会;欺骗;包括 21. stick out (把…)坚持到底;突出,显 眼 22. stick to 坚持,忠于,信守;紧跟, 紧随;粘贴在…上 23. set out 陈述,阐明;动身,起程;开 始;摆放 24. set forth 阐明,陈述 25. set about 开始,着手 26. put in for 正式申请 27. refer to…as… 把…称作,把…当作 28. pay off 还清(债);付清工资解雇(某 人);向…行贿;得到好结果,取得成 功 29. make up for 补偿,弥补 30. look over 把…看一遍,把…过目;察 看,参观 31. look through 详尽核查;(从头至尾) 浏览 32. live on 靠…生活,以…为食物 lie in (问题、事情等)在于 33. lie in (问题、事情等)在于 34. let go(of) 放开,松手 35. hold out 维持,保持;坚持(要求), 不屈服
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36. hold back 踌躇,退缩;阻止,抑制; 隐瞒,保守(秘密等) 37. have an advantage over 胜过. have the advantage of 由于…处于有利条 件 have the advantage of sb。知道 某人所不知道的事 38. take advantage of (=make the best of, utilize, make use of, profit from, harness)利用。 39. attribute…to…(=to believe sth. to be the result of…)把。 .归因于.., 认 为。.是。.的结果 40. begin with 以…开始. to begin with (=first of all) 首先, 第一(经常用 于开始语) 41. on behalf of (=as the representative of) 以…名义 42. believe in(=have faith or trust in; consider sth.sb. to be true) 相信, 依赖,信仰。 43. get the better of (=defeat sb。) 打 败, 胜过。 44. by birth 在出生上, 论出身, 按血统 at birth 在出生时; give birth to 出生、 45. blame sb. for sth. 因…责备某人 . blame sth. on sb. 把…推在某人身上 46. in blossom 开 花 ( 指 树 木 ) be in blossom 开花(强调状态) come into blossom 开花(强调动作) 47. take the floor 起立发言 48. be capable of 能 够 , 有 能 力 be capable of being +过去分词是能够 被…的 49. compare…with … 把…与…比较 50. compare…to… 把…比作… 51. complain of (or about)抱怨;诉苦;控 告;complain about 抱怨某人或事情; complain to sb. about sth. (or sb。) 向 某 人 抱 怨 …; complain ( 抱 怨 ); complement (补充); compliment (恭 维) 52. delight in(=take great pleasure in doing sth。)喜欢, 取乐 53. take (a) delight in 喜欢干…, 以… 为乐 54. demand sth. from sb. 向某人要求(物 质的)东西 55. deprive sb. of sth. 剥夺某人某物 56. deviate from 偏离, 不按…办 57. on a diet 吃某种特殊饮食, 节食

58. differ from…in 与…的区别在于… 59. dispose of (=get rid of ,throw away) 处理掉 60. beyond dispute 不容争议的, 无可争议 61. in dispute 在争议中 62. (be) distinct from ( = be different from) 与…截然不同 63. distinguish between (=make or recognize differences) 辨别 64. distinguish…from 把…与…区别开 65. do away with(=get rid of; abolish; discard eliminate) 除去,废除,取 消; do away with (=kill) 杀掉, 镇 压 66. come off duty 下班 67. at large(=at liberty, free) 在逃, 逍遥法外 at large(=in general) 一 般来说, 大体上 at large(=at full length; with details)详细地 68. accuse…of…(=charge…with; blame sb. for sth. ; blame sth. on sb. ; complain about) 指控,控告 69. allow for (=take into consideration, take into account) 考虑到, 估计 到 。 70. amount to (=to be equal to) 总计, 等于。 71. answer for (undertake responsibility for, be liable for, take charge for) 对…负责。 72. abide by(=be faithful to ; obey)忠 于;遵守 73. comply with (=act in accordance with a demand, order, rule etc。) 遵守, 依从 74. apply to sb. for sth. 为…向…申请 ; apply for 申请; apply to 适用。 75. apply to 与…有关;适用 76. arise from(=be caused by) 由…引起。 77. arrive on 到达; arrive at 到达某地 (小地方);得出,作出; arrive in 到 达某地(大地方); 78. be ashamed of (=feel shame, guilt or sorrow because of sth. done) 以… 为羞耻 79. assure sb. of sth. (=try to cause to believe or trust in sth。) 向…保

证, 使…确信。 80. attach(to) (=to fix, fasten; join) 缚, 系 ,结 81. attend to (=give one’s attention, care and thought)注意,照顾;attend on(upon)(=wait upon, serve, look after) 侍候,照料 82. in accordance with (=in agreement with) 依照,根据 83. on one’s own account 1) 为了某人 的缘故,为了某人自己的利益 2) (=at one’s own risk) 自行负责 3) (=by oneself)依靠自己 on account 赊账; on account of 因为; on no account 不 论 什 么 原 因 也 不 ;of …account 有…。.重要性。 84. take…into account(=consider)把.。 . 考虑进去 85. account for (=give an explanation or reason for) 解释, 说明。 86. on account of (=because of) 由于, 因为。 87. be accustomed to (=be in the habit of, be used to)习惯于。 88. be acquainted with(=to have knowledge of) 了解; (=to have met socially ) 熟悉 89. act on 奉行,按照…行动; act as 扮 演; act for 代理 adapt oneself to(=adjust oneself to) 使自己适应于 90. adapt…(for) (=make sth. Suitable for a new need) 改编, 改写(以适应 新的需要) 91. in addition (=besides) 此外, 又, 加之 92. in addition to(=as well as, besides, other than)除…外 93. adhere to (=abide by, conform to, comply with, cling to, insist on, pe rsist in, observe, opinion, belief ) 粘附; 坚持, 遵循 94. adjacent(=next to, close to) 毗邻 的, 临近的 95. adjust。.(to) (=change slightly)调 节; 适应;

英语六级复习专题二翻译英语六级复习专题二翻译-语法精要
Ⅰ动词(时态,语态,用法,省略,一致性等) 动词(时态,语态,用法,省略,一致性等)
时态 1)现在完成进行时态 (have/has been + -ing 分词构成): 动作或状态从过去某时开始,继 续到现在,可能继续下去,也可能刚刚结束. I’ve been writing letters for an hour. I’ve been sitting in the garden.
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2)过去完成进行时(由 had been + ing 分词构成): 过去某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作 I’d been working for some time when he called. We had been waiting for her for two hours by the time she came. 3)将来完成进行时: 将来某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作. By next summer, he will have been working here for twenty years. In another month’s time she’ll have been studying here for three years. 4)将来完成时(由 shall/will have + 过去分词构成): 将来某时会业已发生的事. I shall have finished this one before lunch. They’ll have hit the year’s target by the end of October. 语态 可以有两种被动结构的类型,例如: He was said to be jealous of her success. It was said that he was jealous of her success. 能同时适用于上述两个句型的主动词通常都是表示“估计”,“相信”等意义的动词,常见的 有 assume,believe,expect,fear,feel,know,presume,report,say,suppose,understand 等. It is supposed that the ship has been sunk. The ship is supposed to have been sunk. 担当 be supposed to 与不定式的一般形式搭配时往往表示不同的意义.例如: Why are you driving so fast in this area? You are supposed to know the speed to know the speed limit. (你应该晓得速度限制) 双宾语及宾补结构的被动语态 双宾语结构的被动语态: 双宾语结构变为被动语态时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主 语,另一个宾语仍然保留在谓语后面,但多数是把间接宾语变为主语. He was asked a number of questions at the press conference. Two days were allowed them for making the necessary preparations. 宾补结构的被动语态: She was called Big Sister by everybody. Then he was made a squad leader. He was considered quite qualified for the job. The room was always kept clean and tidy. 短语动词 Vi + adv The plane took off two hours late. Vi + prep They looked round the Cathedral. Vi + prep (有被动语态) She’s looking after her sister’s children. The children were always well looked after. Vi + adv + prep I began to look forward to their visits. Vt + O + adv Some women choose to stay at home and bring up their children. The children were brought up by their mother.

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They took him on. Vt + adv + O (无被动语态) I am trying to give up smoking. Vt + O + prep We talked Donald into agreement. 省略 在以 as, than, when, if, unless 等引导的从句中的省略: 在有些状语从句中,如果谓语包 含有动词 be,主语又和主句的主语一致 a),或者主语是 it b),就常常可以把从句中的主语和 谓语的一部分(特别是动词 be)省略掉. Look out for cars when crossing the street. When taken according to the directions, the drug has no side effects. While there he joined in voluntary labour on a project. Although not yet six months old, she was able to walk without support. If not well managed, irrigation can be harmful. Though reduced in numbers, they gained in fighting capacity. This viewpoint, however understandable, is wrong. Enemies, once discovered, were tightly encircled and completely wiped out. She hurriedly left the room as though/if angry. She worked extremely hard though still rather poor in health. Fill in the application as instructed. Whenever known, such facts should be reported. The documents will be returned as soon as signed. He said that no acrobat could ever perform those daring feats unless trained very young. Once having made a promise, you should keep it. If necessary I’ll have the letter duplicated. Fill in the blanks with articles where(ver) necessary. If possible, I should like to have two copies of it. As scheduled, they met on January 20 at the Chinese Embassy. 在以 than a) 或 as b) 引起的从句中,常会有一些成分省略. He told me not to use more material than (it is) necessary. We should think more of the collective than of ourselves. They worked with as much enthusiasm as young people (did). He is now a vice-manager, but still often works in the kitchen as before. Their training is free, as is all education. We will, as always, stand on your side. 错误的省略 His life is as fully committed to books as anyone I know. While standing there in her nightgown, two bullets struck the wall beside her. 一致 如果主语是单数,尽管后面跟有 with, together with, as well as, as much as, no less than, more than 等引导的短语,谓语动词仍旧用单数形式. Terry, along with her friend, goes skating every Saturday. An expert, together with some assistants, was sent to help in this work.

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The captain, as well as the coaches, was disappointed in the team. 代词作主语时的一致 each, either, neither 和由 some, any, no, every 构成的复合代词,都作单数看待. Each of us has something to say. Is everybody ready? Somebody is using the phone. Neither of us has gone through regular training. Has either of them told you? some, few, both, many 等作复数 some 可后接复数,也可接单数,表示某一. none 作复数看待时较多,但也有时作单数看待,主要看说话人脑中联系想到的是复数还是单 数概念, 但 none 在代表不可数的东西时总是看作单数: None of the books are easy enough for us None of us seem to have thought of it. None (= not a single one) of us has got a camera. None (= nobody) has felt it more keenly than she did. None of this worries me. all 和 most 可后接复数,也可接不可数名词 (all of the…, most of the …), 动词用单 数. 由 and 或 both… and 连接名词词组时, 后用复数; 由 not only…but (also), either…or, neither…nor 或 or 连接的并列主语, 谓语通常和最邻近的主语一致. Not only the switches but also the old writing has been changed. My sister or my brother is likely to be at home. Either you or Mr Yang is to do the work. Neither my wife nor I myself am able to persuade my daughter to change her mind. 如果一个句子是由 there 或 here 引导, 而主语又不止一个, 谓语通常也和最邻近的那个主 语一致. There was carved in the board a dragon and a phoenix. Here is a pen, a few envelopes and some paper for you. people, police, cattle, poultry (家禽), militia (民兵) 等通常都用作复数. Cattle are grazing on the pasture. The police are looking for him. 有些集体名词有时作单数看待, 有时作复数看待, 主要根据意思来决定. His family isn’t very large. His family are all music lovers. The committee meets twice a month. The committee are divided in opinion. The audience was enormous. The audience were greatly moved at the words. 有些名词单复数同形, 可根据意思决定谓语动词的数: This new series is beginning next month. These new series are beginning next month. This species is now extinct. These species are now extinct.

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表示时间, 重量, 长度, 价值等的名词, 尽管仍是复数形式, 如果作整体看待, 动词也可 用单数形式 (当然用复数动词也是可以的): Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations. One hundred li was covered in a single night. 其他问题 书名, 国家名用单数: Tales from Shakespeare is a book by Charles Lamb. 学科名, 如 mathematics, economics 用单数. many a 或 more than one 所修饰的词作主语时, 谓语动词多用单数形式: Many a person has had that kind of experience. More than one person has involved in the case. a number of 后接复数, the number of 后接单数: A number of books have been published on the subject. The number of books published on the subject is simply amazing. one of those 后用单数. 在“one of + 复数名词 +关系分句”结构中,关系分句中谓语动 词的单复数形式在一般情况下有两形式,一是根据先行词采用复数形式: Joan is one of those people who go out of their way to be helpful. 当 one 之前友 the only 等限定词和修饰语时,关系分句谓语动词根据 one 而定,即采用 单数形式: He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another assignment.

Ⅱ 非谓语动词 不定式 形式 主动形式 一般式 完成式 进行式 完成进行式 to do to have done to be doing to have been doing 被动形式 to be done to have been done

完成式: 不定式的一般形式所表示的动作, 通常与主要谓语表示的动作(状态)同时(或几乎 同时)发生, 或是在它之后发生. 假如不定式所表示的动作, 在谓语所表示的动作(状态)之 前发生, 就要用不定式的完成式. I am glad to have seen your mother (= I am glad I have seen your mother). (比较: I am glad to see you.) He is said to have written a new book about workers. He pretended not to have seen me. 进行式: 如果主要谓语表示的动作(状态)发生时, 不定式表示的动作正在进行, 这时要用 不定式的进行式.
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You are not supposed to be working. You haven’t quite recovered yet. We didn’t expect you to be waiting for us here. He pretended to be listening attentively. 完成进行式: 在谓语所表示的时间之前一直进行的动作, 就要用不定式的完成进行式. The struggle was known to have been going for twenty years. We are happy to have been working with you. 被动式: 当不定式的逻辑上的主语是不定式所表示的动作的承受者时, 不定式一般要用被 动形式. It is an honour for me to be asked to speak here. She hated to be flattered. He wanted the letter to be typed at once. This is bound to be found out. There are a lot of things to be done. She was too young to be assigned such work. 功用: 不定式可以作主语 (a), 宾语 (b), 表语 (c), 定语 (d) 或是状语 (e). a. To scold her would not be just. b. We are planning to build a reservoir here. c. One of our main tasks now is to mechanize agriculture. d. Do you have anything to declare? e. We have come to learn from you. 不带 to 的不定式: 在“动词+ 宾语+不定式”结构中, 如果动词是表示感觉意义的 see, hear, watch, smell, feel, notice 等, 或是表示“致使”意义的 have, make, let 等, 其后的不定式结构不带 to. John made her tell him everything. 这类结构转换为被动语态时, 后面的不带 to 的不定式一般还原为带 to 的不定式. She was made to tell him everything. 在 had better, had best, would rather, would sooner, would just as soon, might (just) as well, cannot but 等搭配之后, 动词不定式也不带 to. I’d rather not have eggs and bacon for breakfast. They cannot but accept his term. 在 make do, make believe, let drop, let fall, let fly, let slip, let drive, let go of, let there be, hear say, hear tell, leave go of 等固定搭配中, 用不带 to 的动词 不定式. John let fly a torrent of abuse at me. I’ve heard tell of him.

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在动词 help(或 help +宾语)之后可用不带 to 的不定式, 也可用带 to 的不定式. Can I help (to) lift this heavy box? 在介词 except, but 之后, 如果其前有动词 do 的某种形式, 不定式一般不带 to, 反之带 to. There is nothing to do except wait till it stops raining. Smith will do anything but work on a farm. There’s no choice but to wait till it stops raining. 连词 rather than, sooner than 置于句首时, 其后的不定式不带 to. Rather than push the book back as he wanted to do, he forced himself to pick it up. 出现在句中其他位置时, 其后的不定式有时带 to, 有时不带 to. He decided to write rather than telephone. The manager believes it is important to invest in new machinery rather than to increase wages. 用作补语的动词不定式, 如果主语是由“all + 关系分句”“thing +关系分句”“what 分 , , 句”或“thing +不定式结构”等构成,并带有 do 的某种形式,这时,作为主语补语的不定 式可以省 to,也可以不省. What he will do is (to) spoil the whole thing. All you do now is complete the form The only thing I can do now is go on by myself. The thing to do now is clear up this mess. The least I can do is drive everybody else closer to the issue. 不定式的其他用法 too…to 结构通常表示否定意义: She was too young to understand all that. enough…to 结构则表示肯定意义: She was not old enough to understand all that. not too, but too, all too, only too 等和不定式连用时,不定式一般不表示否定意义: He’s only too pleased to help her. so…as (to)这种结构也可用不定式作状语: Be so kind as to drop in some time when you are free. 如果要说明不定是表示的动作是谁做的, 可以在不定式前加一个 for 引起的短语: It is not hard for one to do a bit of good. It is a great honour for us to be present at this rally.

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在以某些形容词(如 kind, good, nice, wise, unwise, clever, silly, wrong, right, foolish, stupid, careless, considerate, rude, naughty, impolite 等)作表语时, 不 定式前可加一个 of 引起的短语, 来说明不定式指的是谁的情况: It’s kind of you to think so much of us. (It is) Awfully good of you to come and meet us. It’s very nice of you to be so considerate. It’s unwise of them to turn down the proposal. V+ing 形式(现在分词及动名词) 形式 完成式: 如果要表示动名词代表的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生, 通常用动名词的完 成形式. He didn’t mention having met me. I regret not having taken her advice. 在某些动词后(或成语中), 常用(或可以用)动名词的一般形式, 尽管动作是在谓语所表示 的动作之前发生的. Excuse me for coming late. I don’t remember ever seeing him anywhere. 现在分词的完成式主要用在状语中, 表示这动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生. Having been there many times, he offered to be our guide. Having found the cause, they were able to propose a remedy. 另外, 独立结构也可用现在分词的完成形式. The guests having left, they resumed their discussion. The children, having eating their fill, were allowed to leave the table. 被动式: 当一个动名词逻辑上的主语所表示的是这动作的对象时, 动名词一般要用被动形 式. His being neglected by the host added to his uneasiness. He couldn’t bear being made fun of like that. 但要注意, 在 want, need, deserve, require 等动词后, 尽管表示的是被动的意思, 却用 动名词的主动形式. My pen needs filling. The point deserves mentioning. This problem requires studying with great care. 在 worth 这个形容词后情形也是这样. Her method is worth trying.

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现在分词的被动式可以用来作定语, 宾语补足语, 状语及用于独立结构中. This is one of the experiments being carried on in our laboratory. You’ll find the topic being discussed everywhere. Being asked to give a performance, she couldn’t very well refuse. These are sold at reduced prices, the defects always being pointed out to the customers. 完成被动式: 如果表示的动作在谓语表示的动作之前发生, 有时需要用动名词的完成被动 式. I don’t remember having ever been given a chance to try this method. 但在多数情况下都避免使用这一形式, 而用一般被动形式代替, 以免句子显得累赘. 现在分词的完成被动式一般用来作状语或用于独立结构中. Having been given such a good chance, how could she let it slip away? The decision having been made, the next problem was how to make a good plan. All the compositions having been written and collected, the teacher sent the students home. 句法功用 作主语: Walking is good exercise. It’s nice talking to you. There is no denying the fact that the new method has greatly raised labour productivity. 作宾语: Your shoes need polishing. You mustn’t delay sending the tractors over. He avoided giving us a definite answer. 作介词宾语: 动名词作介词宾语用的时候最多. 它常可以用在某些成语后面, 常见的有: insist on, persist in, think of, dream of, object to, suspect…of, accuse…of, charge…with, hear of, approve of, prevent…from, keep…from, stop…from, refrain from, be engaged in, look forward to, opposed to, depend on, thank…for, feel like, excuse…for, aim at, devote…to, set about, spend…in, get (be) used to, be fond of, be capable of, be afraid of, be tired of, be sick of, succeed in, be interested in, feel (be) ashamed of, be proud of, be keen on, be responsible for. 作表语: The real problem is getting to know the needs of the people.

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动名词和不定式都可以作主语或表语. 一般说来, 在表示抽象的一般的行为时多用动名词; 在表示具体某词动作, 特别是将来的动作时, 多用不定式. 作宾语补足语: 分词可以在 see, hear, notice, watch, feel, find, keep, get, have 等动词后作宾语补足语. The words immediately set us all laughing. Once we caught him dozing off in class. His remark left me wondering what he was driving at. 在 see, hear, feel, watch, notice 等动词后, 及可用现在分词, 也可用不定式构成宾语 补足语. 用现在分词时, 表示动作正在发生, 用不定式时表示动作发生了. Do you hear someone knocking at the door? Yes, I did. I heard him knock three times. 作状语: 现在分词作状语时, 通常都表示主语正在进行的另一动作, 来对谓语表示的主要 动作加以修饰或作为陪衬. I ran out of the house shouting. I got home, feeling very tired. Driving to Chicago that night, I was struck by a sudden thought. 现在分词短语有时可以用作状语表示原因, 相当于一个表示原因的状语从句. Not knowing her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her. Seeing nobody at home, she decided to leave them a note. Having already seen the film twice, she didn’t want to go to the cinema. 现在分词短语有时可用作时间状语, 相当于 when 引起的从句: Seeing those pictures, he couldn’t help thinking of those memorable days they spent together. 如果两个动作是完全同时发生的, 多用 when 或 while 加分词这种结构. Be careful when crossing the street. When leaving the airport, they waved again and again to us. She got to know them while attending a conference in Beijing. 前面带有代词或名词的动名词结构: 一个动名词前面可以加一个物主代词(或名词的所有格 结构), 来表示这个动名词逻辑上的主语. Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us. Our sole worry is your relying too much on yourself. Do you mind my reading your paper? They insisted on my staying there for supper. 如果不是在句子开头, 这个结构常常可以用名词的普通格(或人称代词宾格), 这比用所有 格更自然一些. I don’t mind him going.

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She hates people losing their temper. 只能用动名词作宾语的动词: suggest, finish, avoid, stop, can’t help, mind, admit, enjoy, leave off, require, postpone, put off, delay, practise, fancy, excuse, pardon, advise, consider, deny, endure, escape, miss 既可用动名词, 也可用不定式作宾语的动词: love, like, hate, dislike, begin, start, continue, intend, attempt, can’t bear, propose, want, need, remember, forget, regret, neglect, try, deserve, can’t afford 等. 有时两种结构之间意义差别不大, 有时却有不同的意思. 在 remember, regret, want, try 等词后差别是比较明显的. I remember seeing her once somewhere. I must remember to take my notebooks with me. I regret not having accepted your advice. I regret to say I haven’t given you enough help. She doesn’t want (need) to come. The house wants (needs) cleaning. We must try to get everything done in time. Let’s try doing the work some other way. 悬垂修饰: 分词作状语时, 表示的必须是主语的一个动作或状态. Walking through the park, we saw a lot of flowers. (walking 是 we 的动作, 正确) Walking through the park, the flowers looked very beautiful. (错误) Standing on the tower, we could see the whole city. (正确) Standing on the tower, the whole village could be seen. (错误) 分词 意义: 过去分词通常来自及物动词, 带有被动意义和完成意义; 而现在分词有的来自及物 动词, 有的来自不及物动词, 通常带有主动意义和未完成意义. frozen food a freezing wind a bored traveller a boring journey a lost cause a losing battle a conquered army a conquering army a finished article the last finishing touch the spoken word a speaking bird a closed shop the closing hour a recorded talk a recording machine

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来自不及物动词的过去分词很少能单独用作前置修饰语, 能作这样用的仅限于下面几个词, 仅表示完成意义, 不表示被动意义. the risen sun, fallen leaves, faded/withered flowers, returned students, retired workers, departed friends, escaped prisoners, the vanished jewels, newly-arrived visitors 用作后置修饰语的过去分词一般都带有修饰语或其他成分, 在意义上相当于关系分句. Most of the people invited to the reception were old friends. 句法作用 作定语: distinguished guest 贵宾, unknown heroes 无名英雄, armed forces 武装部队, canned food 罐头食品, boiled water 开水, steamed bread 馒头, stricken area 灾区 分词还可构成合成词作定语: simply-furnished room 陈设简单的房间, clear-cut answer 明确的答复, highly-developed industry 高度发展的工业, heartfelt thanks 衷心的感谢, hand-made goods 手工制品, man-made satellite 人造卫星 作补足语: 可以带过去分词作宾语补足语的动词有: see, hear, feel, find, think 等表示感觉和心理状态的动词. I saw the students assembled in the hall. We found her greatly changed. make, get, have, keep 等表示”致使”意义的动词: I have my hair cut every ten days. She got her bad tooth pulled out. Please keep us informed of the latest developments. like, want, wish, order 等表示希望, 要求, 命令等意义的动词: I don’t want any of you (to be) involved in the scandal. He won’t like such questions (to be) discussed at the meeting. 过去分词短语常用作状语, 修饰谓语, 很多都说明动作发生的背景或情况. Guided by these principles, they went on with the work, Delighted with her work, they made her the general manager. 过去分词短语也可作状语表示原因, 相当于一个表示原因的状语从句. Influenced by his example, they performed countless good deeds. 有时也可说明动作发生的时间, 相当于一个表示时间的状语从句. This method, tried in areas near Shanghai, resulted in a marked rise in total production. 间或也可表示一个假设的情况, 相当于一个条件从句.

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Given closer analysis, we can see this is totally wrong. 偶尔也可用来代替一个“让步”状语从句. Picked 20 years a year, it grows tired only after 40 or 50 years. 独立结构: 在用分词短语作状语时, 它逻辑上的主语一般必须与句子的主语一.致. 但有时 它也可以有自己独立的逻辑上的主语, 这种结构称为独立结构, 一般表示一种伴随的动作 或情况. He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat. 有时可以表示时间: Late that autumn, his work finished, he prepared to return to his institute. 表示原因: Her eyes dimmed with tears, she did not see him enter. 条件: All things considered, her paper is of greater value than yours. Ⅲ 虚拟语气 从居中: that 从居中: wish, would rather (sooner), had better: I wish I were as strong as you. I wish I had paid more attention to our pronunciation. I wish I remembered the address. I would rather they came tomorrow (you had gone there too). I had rather (that) you told him than I did. suggest, order, demand, propose, command, request, desire, insist 等动词后的宾语 从句: The commander ordered that all civilians (should) be evacuated. He asked that he be given an opportunity to try. She urged that he write and accept the post. it is desired, it is suggested, it is requested, it was ordered, it was proposed, it is necessary, it is important, it has been decided 等结构后的主语从句中. It was arranged that they leave the following week It will be better that we meet some other time. suggestion, motion, proposal, order, recommendations, plan, idea 等后面的表语从 句和同位语从句: His sole requirement is (was) that thy system be adjusted. 在某些句型中 it is time that It is time that we went (或 should go) to bed. It is high time we (should) put an end to this controversy.

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as if (though) 引起的从句: They talked (are talking) as if they had been friends for years. It seems as if it was (were) spring today. He acts (acted) as if (though) he were (was) an expert. 以 lest, for fear that 和 in case 引起的从句(这时谓语多用 should +动词原形): He took his raincoat with him lest it should rain. He put his coat over the child for fear that (或 lest) he should catch cold. I’ll keep a seat for you in case you should need it. 以 whatever, whoever, no matter what 这类代词或词组引起的从句(这时, 谓语多用 may 加动词原形构成): Whatever defects he may have, he is an honest man. Come what may, we will go ahead. 不管发生什么情况, 我们都要干下去. I accept that he is old and frail; be that as it may, he’s still a good politician. 我承认他年老体衰, 然而尽管如此, 它仍是优秀的政治家. 条件句 虚拟条件句主要有下面两类: 虚拟条件句主要有下面两类: 表示现在及将来情况(表示纯然假设或实现的可能性不大的情况): 谓语主要形式如下(be 多用 were 这个形式): 从句 过去式 主句 would + 动词原形

If I were you, I wouldn’t lose heart. How nice it would be if you could stay a bit longer. 表示过去情况的虚拟条件句(与事实完全相反的假设情况), 谓语主要形式如下: 从句 had + 过去分词 主句 would have + 过去分词

She would have come if we had invited her. If I hadn’t taken your advice, I would have made a bad mistake, You wouldn’t have caught cold if you had put on more clothes. 有时候, 条件从句表示的动作和主句表示的动作, 发生的时间是不一致的(如一个是过去发 生的, 一个是现在发生的). 这时, 动词的形式要根据表示的时间来调整. 这种句子可以称 为错综时间条件句. If he had received six more votes, he would be our chairman now. If we hadn’t got everything ready by now, we should be having a terrible time tomorrow. 有时假设的情况并不以条件从句表示, 而是通过一个介词短语来表示.
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Without music, the world would be a dull place. We could have done better under more favorable conditions. That would have been considered miraculous in the past. But for the storm, we should have arrived earlier. 如果条件句从句中包含有 were, had, should 或 could, 有时可把 if 省略掉, 并把 were, had, should 或 could 放在主语前面. Had we made adequate preparation, we might have succeeded. Should there be a flood, what should we do? Were it not for their assistance, we would be in serious difficulty. Ⅳ 介词 合成介词和复杂介词 合成介词: inside, into, onto, out of, outside, throughout, upon within, without 复杂介词: according to, along with, apart from, as for, as to, because of, by means of, in front of, in spite of, instead of, in accordance with, on account of, on behalf of, owing to, due to, together with, up to, with regard to, prior to 等 介词在句末: 介词在句末: This is what he is interested in. Does everyone has a seat to sit on? 名词加介词 ( n + prep) 某些名词之后要求用某些介词: solution to, faith in, glance at, need for 某些名词之前要求用某些介词: on one’s guard, at one’s request, in all probability, to my delight 动词加介词 Vi + prep: prevail on, appeal to, fall into, apply for, touch upon Vt + O + prep: lay emphasis on, take advantage of 等 Vi + adv + prep: I don’t wish to break in on your thoughts. The family came up against fresh problems. You’re not telling me the whole story. You’re holding out on me. She got off with him soon after she began to work at the institution. Vt + O + adv +prep: You shouldn’t take your resentment out on me. We shouldn’t put the shortage down to bad planning. 形容词加介词 about --- anxious, careful, careless, certain, considerate, enthusiastic, guilty, happy, mad, particular, sad, sure, timid, unhappy, etc at --- awkward, bad, clever, disappointed, disgusted, good, marvellous, quick, skilful, skilled, useless, weak, etc for --- convenient, eligible, grateful, homesick, hungry, necessary, noted, perfect,

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responsible, etc from --- evident, exempt, inseparable, safe, tired, etc in --- deficient, expert, liberal, quick, rich, successful, weak, etc of --- apprehensive, characteristic, critical, destructive, envious, hard, inconsiderate, impatient, dependent, jealous, positive, scared, sensible, short, sick, suspicious, typical, worthy, etc on --- dependent, keen, intent, etc to --- acceptable, accessible, agreeable, alive, attentive, blind, comparable, courteous, deaf, destructive, essential, favourable, hostile, indifferent, married, obedient, parallel, preferable, related, responsible, sensitive, suitable, unjust, etc with --- awkward, bored, careful, disappointed, generous, identical, ill, impatient, popular, sick, wrong, etc Ⅴ 连词 并列连词 表示意义的引申: and, both…and, not only…but(also), as well as, and …as well, neither…nor 表示选择: or, either…or 表示转折: but, while, whereas, yet, however/nevertheless(也可认为是副词) 表示因果: for, so, therefore, hence 从属连词 表示时间: when, while, as, after, before, since, until(till), as soon as, once 表示原因: because, as, since, now that, seeing that 表示条件: if, unless, in case, provided(that), suppose, as long as, on condition (that), 表示其他关系: (al)though, than, as/so…as, lest, in order that, so…that Ⅵ 定语从句 限制和非限制性定语从句: 限制性定语从句是名词词组不可缺少的一个组成部分, 去掉了 会造成病句或意义不明确; 非限制性定语从句属于补充说明性质, 去掉了不会影响主要意 义, 通常用逗号与它的先行词分开. The boys who wanted to play football were disappointed when it rained. The boys, who wanted to play football, were disappointed when it rained. 如果定语从句的先行词是专有名词, 或是带有形容词性物主代词(my, his, etc)或形容词性 指示代词(this, that, etc)作限定词, 其后的定语从句通常都是非限制性的: Mary Smith, who is in the corner, wants to meet you. Her mother, who had long suffered form arthritis, died last night. All these books, which have been donated by visiting professors, are to be used by the postgraduates. 在非限制性定语从句中只能用 who/whom 指人, 用 which 指物,通常不用 that 替代. My father, who had been on a visit to America, returned yesterday. All the books, which had pictures in them, were sent to the little girl.

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定语从句的引导词 that, who, whom: 非限制性定语从句, 如果修饰人, 一般用 who, 有时用 that (作主语时 用 who 较多). 如果关系代词在从句中作宾语, 就应当用宾格 whom 或 that, 但在大多数情 况下都可以省略掉, 在口语中可用 who 代替 whom. Here is the man (whom) you’ve been looking for. He is a man (that) you can safely depend on. The people (who/that) you were talking to were Swedes. There are some people here who I want you to meet. 但在介词后只能用 whom: This is the man to whom I referred. 但在口语中一般都把介词放到句子后面去, 这时可用 that, 但省略时更多一些. Have you met the person about whom he was speaking? Have you met the person (that) he was speaking about The girl to whom I spoke is my cousin. The girl (who/that) I spoke to is my cousin. 限制性定语从句如果修饰“物”, 用关系代词 that 的时候较多, 也有时用 which.. 当这个 代词在从句中是用作宾语时, 在绝大多数情况下都是省略的, 特别是口语中(尤其是当被修 饰的词是 all, everything 等词时): Have you everything you need? (Is there) anything I can do for you? All you have to do is to press the button. 在介词后只能用 which, 在口语中一般都把介词放到从句后部去, 这时可以用 that, 但省 略的时候更多一些: The tool with which he is working is called a wrench. The tool (that) he is working with is called a wrench. This is the question about which we’ve had so much discussion. This is the question (that) we’ve had so much discussion about. 定语从句一般是修饰名词或代词的, 但间或也可以修饰整个句子 a), 或是句子的一部分 b), 引导词用 which: They have invited me to visit their country, which is very kind of them. The activity was postponed, which was exactly what we wanted When deeply absorbed in work, which he often was, he would forget all about eating and sleeping. She was very patient towards the children, which her husband seldom was. whose: 在表示“..的”这个概念时, 可用所有格 whose; whose 用于指物, 有时可与 of . which 交替使用, 通常的词序是 名词词组 + of which: Is there anyone in your class whose family is in the northeast?

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We had a meeting whose purpose was completely unclear. (…the purpose of which was…) He’s written a book the name of which I’ve completely forgotten. (…whose name I’ve…) of which 前的名词词组也可以由 some, any, none, all, both, several, enough, many, most, few 以及基数词担任; 这些词也能用在 of whom 之前. The buses, most of which were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd. It’s a family of eight children, all of whom are studying music. 关系副词 when, where, why: 它们的含义相当于 at which, in which, for which, 因此 它们之间有交替使用的可能. The day when he was born… on which he was born… which he was born on… The office where he works… at which he works… which he works at… 有时可用 that 替代关系副词, 在口语中 that 可省略. Every time (that) the telephone rings, he gets nervous. This was the first time I had serious trouble with my boss. Do you know anywhere (that) I can get a drink? This is the place (where) we met yesterday. That is the reason (why) he did it. 在 the way 后也可用 that 替代 in which, 在口语中 that 也可省略. This is the way (that/in which) he did it. That’s the way I look at it. 如果定语从句中谓语为 there is, 作主语的关系代词也常可省掉: I must make full use of the time there is left to me and do as much as I can for the people. This is the fastest train (that) there is to Nanjing. 定语从句的简化: 定语从句与不定式结构, -ing 分词结构, -ed 分词结构以及无动词分句等 有着转换关系. He was the only one to realize the danger (= who realized the danger). The woman driving the car (= who was driving the car) indicated that she was going to turn left. The man injured by the bullet (= who was injured by the bullet) was taken to hospital. All the women present (= who were present) looked up in alarm. Ⅶ 倒装 全部倒装和部分倒装: 如果谓语在主语前面, 就是倒装语序. 倒装语序又分为全部倒装和 部分倒装. 在全部倒装的句子中, 整个谓语都放在主语的前面:

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Here are some registered letters for you. In came a man with a white beard. 在部分倒装的句子中只是谓语中的一部分(如助动词, 情态动词, 或系动词 be 等)放在主语 前面, 其余部分仍在主语后面: Under no circumstances must a soldier leave his post. I couldn’t answer the question. Nor could anyone else in our class. Only in this way is it possible to accomplish the above-mentioned glorious task. 以 neither, nor, so 等开始的句子: 由 so 引起的表示前面所说情况也适用于另一人(或东 西)的句子(肯定句), 由 neither, nor 引起的表示前面所说情况也适用于另一人(或东西) 的句子(否定句), 助动词或 be 置于主语前. “We must start for the work-site now”. “ So must we.” I am quite willing to help and so are the others. He didn’t drop any hint. Nor (Neither) did his secretary. “I won’t do such a thing.” “Nor (Neither) will I.” 如果一个句子只是重复前面一句话的意思, 尽管是用 so 开头, 语序也不要颠倒. “It was cold yesterday.” “So it was.” “Tomorrow will be Monday.” “So it will.” 当句首状语为 never, little, not only, not until, hardly, scarcely 等否定词或有否 定意义的词语时, 一般引起部分倒装. No longer are they staying with us. No sooner had he arrived there than he fell ill. Under no circumstances could I agree to such a principle. 表示位置或方向的副词提前, 谓语动词为 go, come 等表示位置转移的动作动词而主语又较 长时, 通常用全部倒装: There was a sudden gust of wind and away went his hat. The door burst open and I rushed the crowd. There comes the bus! Now comes your turn. 1. 如果主语是代词, 仍用正常语序: There comes your turn. 有 here 引起, 谓语为 be 的句子, 也要倒装: Here is China’s largest tropical forest. Here are some picture-books. 2. 如果主语是代词, 仍用正常语序: Here we are. This is the new railway station. “Give me some paper.” “Here you are.” 3. 表语和系动词提前: 介词短语: On the other side was northern Xinjiang. Near the southern end of the village was a large pear orchard.

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形容词: Very important in the farmer’s life is the radio weather report. Worst of all were the humiliations he suffered. 副词: Below is a restaurant. Southwest of the reservoir were 2,000 acres of sandy wasteland. 分词: Housed in the Cultural Palace are a library, an auditorium and recreation rooms. Hidden underground is a wealth of gold, silver, copper, lead and zink. Lying on the floor was a boy aged about 17. Standing beside the table was an interpreter. 6) 句首状语若由 only + 副词, only + 介词词组, only + 状语从句构成, 引起局部倒 装: Only yesterday did he find out that his watch was missing. Only through sheer luck did he manage to get some tickets. Only because there were some cancelled bookings did he get some tickets in the end. 有 not only 开头的句子或分句, 往往引起局部倒装: Not only did he complain about the food, he also refused to pay for it. Not only did the garage overcharge me, but they hadn’t done a very good repair job either. Ⅷ 比较级和最高级 无比较级和最高级的形容词及副词: complete, perfect, utter, etc 比较从句 as…as, almost/just/nearly as…as, not so/as …as: We’ll give you as much help as we can. I haven’t made as much progress as I should. We’ve produced twice as much cotton this year as we did ten years ago. My command of English is not half so (as) good as yours. than, so much/a lot more than, no more… than, not more…than, less than more…than, less…than 可表示“与其说…不如说…”: He is more good than bad. He was less hurt than frightened. The present crisis in capitalist countries is much more a political than an economic crisis. “no + 形容词或副词比较级 + than”所表示的可以是该形容词或副词的相反的含义: no rich than = as poor as no bigger than = as small as no later than = as early as John is no better than Tom. I have taken no more than six courses this semester. the more… the more (越是…就越…) Actually, the busier he is, the happier he feels. The more they talked, the more encouraged they felt. more of a, as much of a, less of a, etc: 当 as much of a…as, more/less of a …than

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等结构与单数可数名词搭配时, 名词只能置于比较结构中间. He is more of a sportsman than his brother. 名词性从句: Ⅸ 名词性从句 名词性从句包括主语从句, 宾语从句, 表语从句, 同位语从句. 主语从句有三类: 由 what 等代词引导的主语从句: what 表示“…所…的(东西)”, 在结构上等于一个名词加 一个定语从句; whatever 表示“所…的一切”; whoever 表示“一切…的人”. What you need is more practice What is hard is to do good all one’s life and never do anything bad. Whatever was said here must be kept secret. Whatever I have is at your service. Whoever comes will be welcome. Whoever fails to see this will make a big blunder. 由连词 that 引起的主语从句: 这类主语从句在大多数情况下都放到句子后部去, 而用代词 it 做形式上的主语: That we need more equipment is quite obvious. It is impossible that I may not able to come. It doesn’t seem likely that she will be here. 在口语中连词 that 有时可以省略掉: It’s good you’re so considerate. It’s a pity you missed such a fine talk. 由连接代词或连接副词(或 whether)引起的主语从句: 这类主语从句, 也可以放到句子后 部去, 前面用 it 做形式上的主语. When we shall have our sports meet is still a question. It is still a question when we shall have our sports meet. Whether he will join us won’t make too much difference. It won’t make too much difference whether he will join us. 2 宾语从句: 和主语从句及表语从句一样, 宾语从句也有以上三类. a) 连接代词或副词引导的从句只是在某些动词后能用作宾语. Tell me what you want. I just can’t imagine how he could have done such a thing. Have you decided whom you are to nominate as your candidate. 能跟这类宾语从句的常见动词有: see, say, tell, ask, answer, know, decide, find out, imagine, suggest, doubt, wonder, show, discover, discuss, understand, inform, advise 等. 这种动词后也常用 whether 或 if 引导的从与作宾语: I don’t know whether these figure are accurate. I’m wondering if the letter is overweight. 这种从句有时前面可以有另一个宾语: Has she informed you when they are to hold the meeting? Please advise me which book I should read first. 有时这种从句也可用作及词的宾语: Whether that is a good solution depends on how you look at it. He was not conscious of what an important discovery he had made. I was curious as to what he would say next. b) 用 that 引导的从句作宾语的情形最为普遍, 在很多动词如 boast, say, think, insist,

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wish, hope, suppose, see, believe, agree, acknowledge, admit, deny, expect, explain, confess, order, command, suspect, dream, suggest, propose, know, mean, notice, prefer, request, require, report, urge, 以及 doubt 的否定和疑问式后面都可以用它. Ⅹ 情态动词: may/might 表示允许和可能: 允许: 询问或说明一件事可不可以做. May I trouble you with a question? You may take this seat if you like. He asked if he might glance through my album. You might as well speak your mind. (比 may…显得婉转一些) 可能: 表示一件事或许发生(或是某种情况可能会存在). You may walk ten miles without seeing a house. She was afraid they might not like the idea. A bad thing might be turned to good account. might 表示请求: Might I ask for a photograph of your baby? (比 May I …更客气一些) can’t, couldn’t 表示否定的推测: She can’t be serious. A more suitable book can’t be found. (It is not possible to find a more suitable book.) He couldn’t (can’t) be over fifty. should, ought to: 表示应该做的事, ought to 比 should 口气稍重一些. You should (ought to) do as he says. You shouldn’t (oughtn’t to) talk like that. 但这两者间也有一些差别, 在表示责任, 义务等该做的事情时, 常用 ought to, 在表示某 件事宜于做时, 多用 should, 在下面的句子中这两个词就不宜换用: You are his father. You ought to take care of him. We should not use too many big words in our everyday speech. will, would shall, should 表示意愿 情态动词后接进行式, 完成式和完成进行式: 情态动词可以和动词的进行式构成谓语, 表示”应该正在…”, “想必正在…”这类意思: Why should we be sitting here doing nothing? This isn’t what I ought to be doing. She might still be thinking about the question you raised. They must (may) be waiting for us, let’s hurry up. They can’t be using the room now. 情态动词有时和动词的完成形式构成谓语, 表示”应当已经…”, “想必已经…”这类意 思: I should have thought of that. They shouldn’t have left so soon. She must have arrived by now. You needn’t have told them that. Where can (could) he have gone?

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He can’t have finished the work so soon. He may not have achieved all his aims. But his effort is praiseworthy. We ought to have give you more help. 情态动词间或也可以和一个动词的完成进行式构成谓语,表示”应当一直在…”, “想必一 直在…”这类意思: They are sweating all over. They must have been working in the fields. They may have been discussing the problem this morning. You should have been waiting for us. Why haven’t you? She couldn’t have been swimming all day. 翻译预测 1.Out of my expectation, _____________________________________. (经济危机给我的企业造成了如此巨大的冲击) 2.Only through these measures, _______________________________. (我们能够赢得这场战斗) 3.___________________(为了重建我们新的家园), we are hand in hand. 4.Due to his negative behavior, ________________________________. (他总被视作团队中最不稳定的因素) 5.______________________________________(如果你更早的意识到这个问题的严重性), you would not have been so regretful.

六级复习专题三作文模板
Chapter One 文章开头句型 1-1 对立法 : 先引出其他人的不同看法,然后提出自己的看法或者偏向于某一看法, 适用于有争议性的主题. [1]. When asked about....., the vast/overwhelming majority of people say that ....... But I think/view a bit differently. [2]. When it comes to .... , some people bielive that ....... Others argue/claim that the opposite/reverse is true . There is probably some truth in both arguements/statements , but (I tend to the profer/latter ...) [3]. Now, it is commonly/generally/widely believed/held/acknowledged that .... They claim/ believe/argue that ... But I wonder/doubt whether..... 1-2 现象法 引出要剖析的现象或者问题, 然后评论 . [1]. Recently the rise in problem of/(phenomenon of) ... has cause/aroused public/popular/wide/ worldwide concern. [2]. Recently the issue of the problem of/the phenomenon of ...has been brought into focus. ( has been brouth to public attention) [3].Inflation/Corruption/Social inequality ... is yet another of the new and bitter truth we have to learn to face now/constantly. ----- To be continued !! 1-3 观点法 ----开门见山,直接了当地提出自己对要讨论的问题的看法. [1]. Never history has the change of .. been as evident as ... Nowhere in the world/China has the issue/idea of .. benn more visible/popular than... [2]. Now people in growing/significant numbers are beginnig/coming to

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realize/accept/(be aware) that... [3]. Now there is a growing awareness/recognation ot the necessity to......Now people become increasingly aware/conscious of the importance of ...... [4]. Perhaps it is time to have a fresh look at the attitude/idea that....... 1-4 引用法 ----- 先引出名人名言或者有代表性的看法, 来引出文章要展开论述的观点! [1]. "Knowledge is power." such is the remark made by Bacon.This remark has been shared by more and more people . "Education is not complete with gradulation." Such is the opnion of a great American philosopher. Now more and more people share his opnion. [2]."........." How often we hear such statements/words like thoses /this . In our own days we are used to hearing such traditional complains as this "......". 1-5 比较法 ------ 通过对过去,现在 两种不同的倾向,观点的比较 , 引出文章要讨论的 观点. [1]. For years, ...had been viewed as ... But people are taking a fresh look now. With the growing ... , people ....... . [2]. People used to think that ... (In the past, ....) But people now share this new. Chapter 2 文章中间主体内容句型 原因结果分析 3-1-1. 基本原因 --- 分析某事物时, 用此句型说明其基本的或者多方面的原因. [1]. Why ... ? For one thing.. For another ... [2]. The answer to this problem invovles many factors. For one thing... For another...... Still another ... [3]. A number of factors , both physical and psychological affect .... /both individual and social contribute to .... 3-1-2 另一原因 --------> 在分析了基本原因之后, 再补充一个次要的或者更重要时用! [1]. Another important factor is .... [2]. ... is also responsible for the change/problem. [3]. Certainly , the ... is not the sole reason for ..... 3-1-3 后果影响 --------- 分析某事物可能造成的后果或者带来的影响 . [1]. It will produce a profound/far-reaching effect/impact on.... [2]. In involves some serious consequence for ........ 比较对照句型 3-2-1. 两者比较 ---> 比较两事物, 要说出其一超过另一个, 或肯定一事物的优点, 也肯 定其缺点的时候用 ! [1]. The advantages gained from A are much greater than the advantages we gain from B. [2]. Indeed, A carries much weight when compared with B. [3]. There is no doubt that it has its negative effects as well as positive effects. 3-2-2 . 两者相同/相似 ------> 比较两事物共同都有或者共同都没有的特点时用! [1]. A and B have several thing in common. They are similar in that..... [2]. A bears some sriking resemblance(s) to B. Chapter Three 文章结尾形式 2-1 结论性--------- 通过对文章前面的讨论 ,引出或重申文章的中心思想及观点 .

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[1]. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that ..... [2]. In summary/In a word , it is more valuable ....... 2-2 后果性------ 揭示所讨论的问题若不解决, 将产生的严重后果. [1]. We must call for an immediate method , because the current phenomenon of ... , if allowed to proceed, will surely lead to the heavy cost of ....... [2]. Obviously , if we ignore/are blind to the problem , there is every chance that .. will be put in danger. 2-3 号召性 -------- 呼吁读者行动起来, 采取行动或提请注意. [1]. It is time that we urged an immediate end to the undesirable tendcy of ...... [2]. It is essential thar effective measures should be taken to correct the tendency. 2-4 建议性 -------- 对所讨论的问题提出建议性的意见, 包括建议和具体的解决问题的 方法. [1]. While it cannot be solved immediately, still there are ways. The most popular is .... Another method is ... Still another one is ..... [2]. Awareness/Recognition of the problem is the first step toward the situation. 2-5 方向性的结尾方式 ---- 其与建议性的唯一差别就是对问题解决提出总的, 大体的方 向或者指明前景. [1]. Many solutions are being offered here , all of them make some sense, but none is adequate enough. The problem should be recognized in a wide way . [2]. There is no quick method to the issue of .., but .. might be helpful/benefical. [3]. The great challenge today is ...... There is much difficulty , but ........ 2--6 意义性的结尾方式 --------> 文章结尾的时候,从更高的更新的角度指出所讨论的问 题的重要性以及其深远的意义! [1]. Following these suggestions may not guarantee the success, but the pay off might be worth the effort . It will not only benefit but also benefit ..... [2]. In any case, whether it is posotive or negative, one thing is certain that it will undoubtedly .. 结尾万能公式 1. 结尾万能公式一:如此结论 Obviously(此为过渡短语), we can draw the conclusion that good manners arise from politeness and respect for others. to sum up, in conclusion, in brief, on account of this, thus Thus, it can be concluded that…, Therefore, we can find that… 2. 结尾万能公式二:如此建议 Obviously, it is high time that we took some measures to solve the problem. Accordingly, I recommend that some measures be taken. Consequently, to solve the problem, some measures should be taken. 写作的“七项基本原则” 写作的“七项基本原则” 一、 长短句原则 : As a creature, I eat; as a man, I read. Although one action is to meet the primary need of my body and the other is to satisfy the intellectual need of mind, they are in a way quite similar. 强烈建议:在文章第一段(开头)用一长一短,且先长后短;在文章主体部分,要先用 一个短句解释主要意思, 然后在阐述几个要点的时候采用先短后长的句群形式, 定会让主体

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部分妙笔生辉!文章结尾一般用一长一短就可以了。 二、 主题句原则 To begin with, you must work hard at your lessons and be fully prepared before the exam(主题句). Without sufficient preparation, you can hardly expect to answer all the questions correctly. 三、 一二三原则 5)to begin with, then, furthermore, finally(强烈推荐) 6)to start with, next, in addition, finally(强烈推荐) 7)first and foremost, besides, last but not least(强烈推荐) 8)most important of all, moreover, finally 9)on the one hand, on the other hand(适用于两点的情况) 10)for one thing, for another thing(适用于两点的情况) 说明原因型 模板一:这个模板的中文大意是:在某种场合,发生某种现象,并提供一些相关数据,然后 模板一 列出这种现象的三个原因, 并将三个原因总结为一个最主要原因, 最后提出避免这种现象的 两个办法。总的来说,利用这个模板写英语作文,是相当容易的,您只要将适当的内容,填 写到对应的方括号中,一篇通顺的英语作文即可完成。下面就是这个模板。 Nowadays, there are more and more [某种现象] in [某种场合]. It is estimated that [相关数据]. Why have there been so many [某种现象]? Maybe the reasons can be listed as follows. The first one is [原因一]. Besides, [原因二]. The third one is [原因 三]. To sum up, the main cause of [某种现象] is due to [最主要原因]. It is high time that something were done upon it. For one thing, [解决办法一]. On the other hand, [解决办法二]. All these measures will certainly reduce the number of [某种现象]. 模板二: 模板二: These days we often hear that (1). It is common that (2). Why does such circumstance occur in spite of social protects? For one thing,( 3 ). For another,( 4 ). What is more, since (5), it is natural that (6). To solve the problem is not easy at all,but is worth trying .We should do something such as ( 7 ) to improve he present situation ,and I do believe everything will be better in the future . 英语四六级作文 35 个加分句型 一、 ~~~ the + ~ est. + 名词 + (that) + 主词 + have ever + seen ( known/heard/had/read, etc) ~~~ the most + 形容词 + 名词 + (that) + 主词 + have ever + seen ( known/ heard/ had/ read, etc) 例句:Helen is the most beautiful girl that I have ever seen. 海伦是我所看过最美丽的女孩。 Mr. Chang is the kindest teacher that I have ever had. 张老师是我曾经遇到最仁慈的教师。 二、Nothing is + ~~~ er than to + V Nothing is + more + 形容词 + than to + V 例句:Nothing is more important than to receive education. 没有比接受教育更重要的事。 三、~~~ cannot emphasize the importance of ~~~ too much.(再怎么强调...的重要性也 不为过。) 例句:We cannot emphasize the importance of protecting our eyes too much.

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我们再怎么强调保护眼睛的重要性也不为过。 四、There is no denying that + S + V ...(不可否认的...) 例句:There is no denying that the qualities of our living have gone from bad to worse. 不可否认的,我们的生活品质已经每况愈下。 五、It is universally acknowledged that + 句子~~ (全世界都知道...) 例句:It is universally acknowledged that trees are indispensable to us. 全世界都知道树木对我们是不可或缺的。 六、There is no doubt that + 句子~~ (毫无疑问的...) 例句:There is no doubt that our educational system leaves something to be desired. 毫无疑问的我们的教育制度令人不满意。 七、An advantage of ~~~ is that + 句子 (...的优点是...) 例句:An advantage of using the solar energy is that it won't create (produce) any pollution. 用太阳能的优点是它不会制造任何污染。 八、The reason why + 句子 ~~~ is that + 句子 (...的原因是...) 例句:The reason why we have to grow trees is that they can provide us with fresh air./ The reason why we have to grow trees is that they can supply fresh air for us. 我们必须种树的原因是它们能供应我们新鲜的空气。 九、So + 形容词 + be + 主词 + that + 句子 (如此...以致于...) 例句:So precious is time that we can't afford to waste it. 时间是如此珍贵,我们经不起浪费它。 十、Adj + as + Subject(主词)+ be, S + V~~~ (虽然...) 例句:Rich as our country is, the qualities of our living are by no means satisfactory. {by no means = in no way = on no account 一点也不} 虽然我们的国家富有,我们的生活品质绝对令人不满意。 十一、The + ~er + S + V, ~~~ the + ~er + S + V ~~~ The + more + Adj + S + V, ~~~ the + more + Adj + S + V ~~~(愈...愈...) 例句:The harder you work, the more progress you make. 你愈努力,你愈进步。 The more books we read, the more learned we become. 我们书读愈多,我们愈有学问。 十二、By +Ving, ~~ can ~~ (借着...,..能够..) 例句:By taking exercise, we can always stay healthy. 借着做运动,我们能够始终保持健康。 十三、~~~ enable + Object(受词)+ to + V (..使..能够..) 例句:Listening to music enable us to feel relaxd. 听音乐使我们能够感觉轻松。 十四、On no account can we + V ~~~ (我们绝对不能...) 例句:On no account can we ignore the value of knowledge. 我们绝对不能忽略知识的价值。

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十五、It is time + S + 过去式 (该是...的时候了) 例句:It is time the authorities concerned took proper steps to solve the traffic problems. 该是有关当局采取适当的措施来解决交通问题的时候了。 十六、Those who ~~~ (...的人...) 例句:Those who violate traffic regulations should be punished. 违反交通规定的人应该受处罚。 十七、There is no one but ~~~ (没有人不...) 例句:There is no one but longs to go to college. 没有人不渴望上大学。 十八、be + forced/compelled/obliged + to + V (不得不...) 例句:Since the examination is around the corner, I am compelled to give up doing sports. 既然考试迫在眉睫,我不得不放弃做运动。 十九、It is conceivable that + 句子 (可想而知的) It is obvious that + 句子 (明显的) It is apparent that + 句子 (显然的) 例句:It is conceivable that knowledge plays an important role in our life. 可想而知,知识在我们的一生中扮演一个重要的角色。 二十、That is the reason why ~~~ (那就是...的原因) 例句:Summer is sultry. That is the reason why I don't like it. 夏天很燠热。那就是我不喜欢它的原因。 二十一、For the past + 时间,S + 现在完成式...(过去...年来,...一直...) 例句:For the past two years, I have been busy preparing for the examination. 过去两年来,我一直忙着准备考试。 二十二、Since + S + 过去式,S + 现在完成式。 例句:Since he went to senior high school, he has worked very hard. 自从他上高中,他一直很用功。 二十三、It pays to + V ~~~ (...是值得的。) 例句:It pays to help others. 帮助别人是值得的。 二十四、be based on (以...为基础) 例句:The progress of thee society is based on harmony. 社会的进步是以和谐为基础的。 二十五、Spare no effort to + V (不遗余力的) 例句:We should spare no effort to beautify our environment. 我们应该不遗余力的美化我们的环境。 二十七、be closely related to ~~ (与...息息相关) 例句:Taking exercise is closely related to health. 做运动与健康息息相关。 二十八、Get into the habit of + Ving = make it a rule to + V (养

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成...的习惯) We should get into the habit of keeping good hours. 我们应该养成早睡早起的习惯。 二十九、Due to/Owing to/Thanks to + N/Ving, ~~~ (因为...) 例句:Thanks to his encouragement, I finally realized my dream. 因为他的鼓励,我终于实现我的梦想。 三十、What a + Adj + N + S + V!= How + Adj + a + N + V!(多 么...!) 例 句: What an important thing it is to keep our promise! How important a thing it is to keep our promise! 遵守诺言是多么重要的事! 三十一、Leave much to be desired (令人不满意) 例句:The condition of our traffic leaves much to be desired. 我们的交通状况令人不满意。 三十二、Have a great influence on ~~~ (对...有很大的影响) 例句:Smoking has a great influence on our health. 抽烟对我们的健康有很大的影响。 三十三、do good to (对...有益),do harm to (对...有害) 例句:Reading does good to our mind. 读书对心灵有益。 Overwork does harm to health. 工作过度对健康有害。 三十五、do one's utmost to + V = do one's best (尽全力去...) 例句:We should do our utmost to achieve our goal in life. 我们应尽全力去达成我们的人生目标 作文中结束语 1. The most effective means to solve this problem is that ______________. In that case, ______________. 2. Everything has its own two sides, no exception with AAA. For one thing, ______________. for another, ______________. 3. My experience tells me that to ______________ needs a thorough and persevering process, and in this process you had better abide by the principles mentioned above. 4. On the whole, it is high time that we recognized the significance of ______________. 5. As a result, we should take some effective methods to ______________. 6. Judging by the figures, we can draw a conclusion that ______________. 7. In a word, the whole society should pay close attention to the problem of ______________. Only in this way can ______________ in the future. 8. In my opinion, we should place much emphasis on the importance of ______________. 9. But ______________ and ______________ have their own advantages. For example, ______________, while ______________. Comparing those two, however, I prefer to ______________. 10. In my opinion, ______________ is just as common as ______________. If ______________, it may be very useful. Whatever ______________, the key point lies

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in ______________. 11. Are their opinions correct? To my mind, the first idea seems ______________. As for the second idea, ______________. 12. As a popular saying goes, ______________. In my opinion what really counts is not ______________, but ______________. I believer that as long as ______________, we will ______________. So I am for the opinion that ______________. 13. In my opinion, both sides are partly right. When we ______________, we should take into consideration all aspects of the problems, and then make the right decision. 14. Personally, I believer that ______________. Consequently, I'm confident that a bright future is awaiting us because ______________. 15. In my opinion, all of the people should be brave enough to show our disapproval and criticism when confronted with ______________. 预测作文押题 明星代言问题 On the Celebrity Spokesperson(celebrity 名人,名流;名声,著名;知名人士,社会 名流。)(spokesperson 代言人;(男/女)发言人。) Currently, we couldhardly live a single day without seeing a celebrity spokesperson promoting a product or a social campaign on TV, net or other media. This is anintensely popular trend that we cannot fail to notice. There is no doubt that the celebrity spokespeople could boost the sale of a product. A host of celebrity spokespersons, however, have emerged as the marketing tool of some companies, even companies producing and selling fake and inferior items. This kind of behavior has produced negative impacts on consumers and whole society, which should be severely criticized and penalized. Of course, as is known to all, everything has both bright and dark sides.Some stars’ endorsement of social activities and public campaigns raises public awareness, giving rise to changes in public behavior. In this case, they serve as positive role models of the general public. To name only one case: Pu CX, a household figure, acting as the celebrity spokesman of the China AIDS Foundation, contributes greatly to the cause of AIDS prevention and cure in China. currently 现在;一般;流畅地;目前现在; 通称地,普遍地,当前;目前,眼前地。 campaign 战役;运动, 活动;竞选运动; 从事运动;竞选运动;作战,出征。 intensely 强烈地,极度;紧张地,认 真地;热情地,热切地。 fail 不 及 格 ; 失 败 ; 失 灵 , 失 去 作 用;(指健康)衰退,变弱,消失;破产,失去 支付能力;缺乏,不足,(作物)歉收。 boost 一举,一抬,一推;推动,帮助, 促进;提高,增加。 host 主人,东道主;旅馆老板;节目主 持人;寄主,宿主;主机。一大群,许多。 emerge 浮现, 出现;发生, 显露, 暴露; 摆脱,露头,出头。 fake 伪造,捏造,冒充;假装;欺骗, 迷惑;冒牌货,仿造品;冒充者,骗子。 inferior 低等的,下级的;次的,较差 的;低于他人者,部下,属下;次品。 produce 生产,出产,制造,创作;生 育;拿出,出示,提出;上演,上映,播放, 出版;引起,产生,招致。 negative 否定的,否认的;片面的,消 极的。

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impact 冲击,撞击,碰撞;冲击力,撞 endorsement 背书,签署;赞同,支持; 击力;影响,作用。 背书保证,找明星代言。 severely 严格地,严厉地,严重地, household 一家人,家眷,家庭,户;普通 严肃地;朴实无华地。 的,为人所知的。 criticize 批评,批判;苛求,非难。 penalize 对...处刑, 规定...应处刑; 是不利,对...不公平;处罚。 关于选秀节目 Over the past couple of years, a variety of talent shows have emerged on TV channels across the nation, from Super Girls to Happy Boys and so forth. This type of entertainment program is intensely popular, especially among young adults and has produced profound impacts on their studies and life. There are a couple of reasons behind the tide. To start with, young folks need role models to learn from. So many of them are crazy for contestants participating in these programs. This gives rise to the increasing emergence of these shows because TV networks naturally need to cater to young audiences. Plus, thanks to economic and political reforms carried out by the government, this crop of young generation have more freedom and desire to express and showcase themselves. Therefore, a growing number of young people desire to get involved in these shows. This is a divisive topic. On my personal level, the talent show is a superb means of relaxing and amusing and can hugely relieve our strains. As college students, however, we could not afford to indulge in them and should be aware of the utmost importance of studies. a couple of 一对,几个,三两个;两 者;竞争者;选手;参赛人。 三个;两个,几个。 participate in 参加;参与,参加,分 a variety of 种种;各种各样,不同种 享。 类;多种多样的;若干不同的。 give rise to 引起;是发生,造成;导 and so forth 等等,诸如此类,如此 致为...的原因;导致,产生。 等等。 emergence 出现,浮现,露头;上升, intensely 强烈地,极度;紧张地,认 出射,羽化。 真地;热情地,热切地。 network 网眼织物;网状物;广播网, 电 profound 深深的,深刻的,深切的, 视网;电脑网络;网络,网路。 深度的;渊博的, 造诣深的, 深奥的;深邃的, cater to 迎合, 为...服务;款待;投合。 很深的;全然的,完全的。 naturally 自然地, 天然地, 自然而然。 tide 潮,潮汐,潮水;浪潮;潮流,趋 plus 加,加上;外加,另有。 势,形势;潮水般的奔流;使随潮水漂流。 thanks to 幸亏,由于。 role model 榜样角色,模范。 political reform 政治改革。 young fogey 穿着举止造作的中产年轻 carry out 实现;完成,落实,贯彻;执 人. 行,进行到底。 folk 广大成员, 人们;民间的, 民众的, crop (同时产生的)一批,一群;大量 通俗的。 [S][(+of)]. so much of 甚至于。 showcase 展示,炫耀;陈列。 crazy for 渴望。 a number of 一些;若干,许多;一些, contestant 参加竞赛者, 角逐者;质疑 许多。

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involve in 涉及,卷入,使进入,使 的。 连累;牵涉,包含。 amusing 有趣的, 好玩的;引人发笑的。 divisive 区分的;分裂的;引起不和 hugely 巨大地,非常地。 的。 indulge in 沉溺于,纵情于,享受于, superb 堂皇的,宏伟的,华丽的;极好 沉湎于;喜爱。 的,上乘的,一流的;卓越的,杰出的;出色 食品安全问题 On the Food Security Over the past couple of years, several cases of the food scandal have been disclosed on various media. The problem of food security has become a hot button across society. The prevalence of food insecurity has greatly impacted public health, which the government could not afford to ignore, according to the online edition of the People Daily. There are a couple of driving forces, I would argue, behind this undesirable tide. First, in the course of the rapid economic evolution, we ignore moral education, giving rise to the rising rate of the problem. More importantly, the lack of adequate regulation and punishment on those illegal producers enforces the trend. As Confucius instructed, it is better late than never. Prompt and strict measures should be taken to turn back this evil trend. The government should launch a massive moral campaign to educate all citizens and draw up tougher laws to crack down on those irresponsible corporations and prohibit them from entering the food industry again. I am firmly convinced that through our combined efforts we are bound to enjoy more risk-free foods in the days ahead. 社会不文明现象 On Uncivilized Behaviors We cannot fail to notice that countless uncivilized behaviors exist in our daily lives, such as spitting, talking loudly, littering, saying nasty words in public places and so forth. All these are bad manners that we should not lose sight of. As an ancient land enjoying a splendid civilization spanning over 5,000 years, China is witnessing a surge in improper acts that every Chinese citizen should feel ashamed of. Uncivilized behaviors by a host of Chinese both at home and abroad have seriously affected China’s image, according to an editorial posted on People Daily’s official website. As Chinese, we should not get offended when others point out our weaknesses but should focus more attention on improving ourselves. We should strive to identify the causes of those improper behaviors and find ways to eliminate them. There are a host of causes, I would argue, behind this trend. To name only one: the lack of moral education. The government should wage a massive moral campaign to fight against this trend and we ourselves should endeavor to behave decently in our daily lives. As college students of the new age, we should take the leading role. 感恩 On Cultivating the Sense of Gratitude On college campuses across the nation, there is a noticeable phenomenon that we cannot afford to ignore: far too many young college students lack the sense of

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gratitude, one of the countless traditional virtues of this ancient land with a splendid civilization spanning over 5,000 years. These young adults were not and are not aware of the huge importance of expressing gratitude to those who once helped them, from teachers to parents and so forth. Personally, I deem that the root cause of students without a graceful heart is that they receive an education not valuing the moral sphere. I strongly believe that joint efforts from folks across society are the final remedy for this social headache. As young university students of the new era, we should make our own contributions to this cause. Imagine a world without the sense of gratitude. This kind of world is doomed to failure. Simply put, we should join our hands to heighten our awareness of fostering a graceful heart. Only in this way can we build our society into a harmonious one. My fellow students, I beg you to act from now on. 大学生使用信用卡现象 On Credit Card At present, a wide vareity of credit cards issued by major banks and shopping malls are thriving in colleges and universities across the nation, with a multitude of college students making up a growing population of card holders. Indeed, one out of five students is estimated to be in possession of at least one credit card, and the figure is expected to be on the steady increse, the latest data published by Yangtze Evening Post suggests. Like anything prior to the emergence of this small piece of plastic, the increasing popularity of credit card on campus has both bright and dark sides. On the one hand, young adults in college, free from the trouble of pocketing a considerable sum of cash, could enjoy the convenience of credit cards and purchase expensive goods by installments. On the other hand, however, the irresponsible and excessive use of the cards by these youngsters, the majority of whom are fresh out of middle school incapable of budgeting their money, can make them heavily in debt which will take them years to pay off. On my personal level, while enjoying a host of conveniences the credit card may bring, we couldn’t afford to ignore a conspicious fact: in most cases, parents are our sole financial sources.Instead of spending without any restrict, we are supposed to put studies on the top of our agenda and move ourselves beyond heavy dependence upon our parents

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大学英语六级听力考试新题型解读
一、听力理解题型解读 听力部分旨在通过听力的方式考查考生对于校园生活, 日常交际以及一些科普与历史文 化信息获取和判断推理能力, 从而测试考生的听力与综合理解能力。 听力部分的录音材料均
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为标准的英音和美音朗读,语速约为每分钟 150 个单词,属于正常语速。考试时间为 35 分 钟,分值占六级考试总分的 35%。共分为三个部分:对话部分,包括短对话和长对话,占 分值的 15%;短文理解部分,占分值的 10%;复合式听写部分,占分值的 10%。 (一) 对话部分 短对话与长对话均采用选择题的形式进行考查, 短对话共 8 组, 每组为一轮对话和一个 问题,长对话共两段,每段为 7-8 轮对话,后面有 3-4 个问题。每个问题后有 13 秒的答题 时间。考试时对话内容和问题均只读一遍。 (二)短文部分 通常由 3 篇文章组成,每篇 240-260 个单词,每篇后面有 3-4 题,共 10 题。每个问题 后也是有 13 秒的答题时间。考试时短文内容和问题也只读一遍。 (三)复合式听写 主要包括单词听写与句子或从句听写两种考查方式,从不同层面考查了考生的听力理 解、文意把握以及词汇速记等综合能力,属于新题型,文章为 240-260 字,前 8 个空要求准 确填入所缺单词,后三个空格较长,要求考生将所听到的内容用原文或自己的话表达出来。 考试时全文朗读三遍,第一遍朗读时中间没有停顿,要求考生听懂全文大意;第二遍朗 读时,在每个空格所在句的后面都有停顿,以便考生可以填写所缺内容;第三遍朗读时没有 停顿,目的是供考生校对所填内容。

二、 应试要点与解题技巧 (一)改革后听力理解的要求 听力理解部分测试学生获取口头信息的能力,包括理解主旨大意、重要事实和细节、隐 含意义,判断话语的交际能力、说话人的观点、态度等。大学英语六级考试听力理解部分要 求考生达到《教学要求》中较高要求,即“能基本听懂英语国家人士的谈话和讲座,能听懂 题材熟悉、篇幅较长的国内英语广播或电视节目,语速为每分钟 150 词左右,能掌握其中大 意,抓住要点和相关细节。能听懂外国专家用英语讲授的专业课程。 ” (二)听力理解的应试要点 1. 听力理解的考前准备要求 a. 掌握听力考试的一般题材,如:校园生活、人际交往、科技文化以及人物传记等。平时 注意积累一些欧美文化的常识性知识。 b. 就听力考试常考题材准备一定的词汇,词汇是听力理解的基础。词汇的累积如同登上,
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要稳步向前,重在坚持不懈。另外,要有目的的记忆,以《教学要求》所涉及的词汇范 围为蓝本,以泛记和精记相结合。泛记的词是指在听音时只需辨别词汇本身含义的词; 而需精记的词是指那些除了了解词汇本身的含义,还要熟知其用法和搭配的词汇。 c. 熟悉标准的英式与美式发音,基本了解常用词汇在发音上的区别。由于部分考生的个人 偏好,有时厚此薄彼,这点在考前需要调整。 d. 注意听写的训练。有些考生平时会购买大量的听力材料进行训练,做大量的习题,虽然 成绩会有所提高,但是还远达不到预期的目标,究其原因是其复习方法还有待改进。大 部分考生购买听力资料之后只会用它来做大量的习题,殊不知这些对话,尤其是短文还 是听写的良好素材。听力理解的难点,并非仅仅在于听不懂单词,即使是能够读懂的文 章,如果出现较多的弱读或连读,仍然会让考生为难,而听写不仅可以增强我们的瞬时 记忆功效,还可以帮助我们适应和熟悉英美发音的连读和弱读,甚至还可以巩固我们的 词汇掌握。 e. 注意泛听和精听的结合 文武之道,贵在一张一弛,听力训练也是如此,精听练习适用于那些难度较高,题 材具有很强代表性的材料,比如:历年真题,而泛听练习则适用于那些选材广泛,形式 多样,内容时尚的素材,比如:英语新闻,各类电视辅导性英语节目。精听的目的在于 提高考生的听力理解能力,熟悉考试题型,而泛听的目的在于帮助考生熟悉各类发音, 增强词汇的敏感性,了解不同领域更加广泛的词汇表达。 2. 听力理解的考试技巧 听力部分考试技巧有个十六字决:看题猜题 一马当前 不识既过 无字亦书。具体 的意思就是: 在听力录音开始前,先将题目快速浏览一遍,在浏览的过程中不仅要对即将播出的 听力素材的内容有个初步判断,同时还必须学会“猜题” 。 听力考试时碰到听不懂的词句, 切不可纠缠其中, 这样很容易影响后面的答题效果。 对于新增长对话部分和短文理解部分,其信息量远远大于考生可以瞬时记忆的能力范 畴,因此,有效的做笔记也是解题的一个关键,做笔记时可以采用一些简单明了的方法 来节省时间,例如: ∵ because √ true/correct ? not sure/question
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∴ therefore × wrong/false

或者采用单词的几个字母缩写来代表整个单词。 另外要听清楚提问问题所在,考生在浏览选项进行推测判断时切不可忽略听力中所 提的问题,免得虽听懂了原文的内容,却因没有注意细节内容,仍选择错误。 对于听力中没有记录,没有听清以及似是而非的题目,不要放弃,要学会从出题者 的角度来选择答案。心理上要放轻松,树立自己的自信心。

听力理解的考试技巧具体到不同的部分既有区别也有共性, 本书后面会按照不同的题型, 分别加以论述。

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