■Course: English Stylistics ■Time: Sep.6-30 ■Course material: English Stylistics: A New Course Book 新编英语文体学教程》 《 董启明编著 外 语教学与研究出版社 ■Teaching procedure: Part One Theoretical Preliminaries(理论预备) and Major Varieties 主要变 （ 体）of English Chapter 1 Style and Stylistics 1.1 Introduction 1. What is Language? And in which aspects of language does stylistics focus on? A. Language is the primary object of the study of linguistics, and linguists construct theories of language in general or of particular languages from differing points of view. The discussion of the concepts of style should focus on some essential aspects of language on which most linguists agree. B. Language is viewed as a system of different types of linguistic organization such as phonology, syntax and lexicon. The English language consists of its pattern of sounds, sets of grammatical rules and a large body of vocabulary. C. Language is also a social phenomenon, or institution, whereby people communicate and interact with each other. A language of a particular society is part of the society’s culture. Language activities operate within social activities. The language of a participant in a social activity reflects his social characteristics (such as his status, ethnic group, age and sex). It also reflects his awareness of the various factors of a social situation in which he finds himself. He should adjust his language in accordance with the medium of communication (speech or writing), the setting (private or public), the relationship with the addressee (in terms of the degree of intimacy or social distance), and the purpose (to inform, to persuade, etc.). 2. Varieties 变体 of Language(variety=style) A. Varieties in relation to regions---- British/American English B. Varieties in relation to media----Spoken English/Written English C. Varieties in relation to attitude----degrees of formality/politeness/ impersonality/accessibility D. Varieties in relation to social factors----Women’s English/Black English/Taboo and Euphemism E. Varieties in relation to social Genre----The English of Conversation / Public speaking / News reporting/Advertising/Literary English (The Novel/Poetry)/ Science and Technology/Legal Documents 3. Varieties analysis theory----Stylistics (文体学 文体学) 文体学 ★Essence of stylistics : Appropriate use of language is considered the key to effective communication. e.g. How to suck an egg? (Example and Analysis: Page 3) ★Analysis : The difference lies in the fact that the young student used some big and formal words, such as perforation(齿孔,hole) ,apex (顶点， 最高点 top), aperture(小孔， 缝隙， opening), inhaling （吸气） discharged（流出）, which made her utterance difficult to understand, especially by an old woman without much education, while the old woman used informal words, such as gal, hole, end and suck. As a result, her utterance is easy to understand.
★Note: Different styles should be used on different occasions, and the key to the effective use of language is “appropriateness”, and the key to effective communication is the ability to use language appropriately, otherwise we cannot achieve our purpose of communication. 1.2 Definitions of Style/Stylistics/Text 1. Text Definition: A TEXT is any passage, spoken or written, of whatever length, that forms a unified whole. It may be the product of a single speaker/writer (e.g. a sign, a letter, a news report, a statue, a novel), or that of several speakers (e.g. a piece of conversation, a debate). For example, Two boys stood near a jeweller’s shop. They saw a man break the shop window and steal all the watches. They ran after him, because they took him for a thief. Analysis: A text is realized by a sequence of language units, whether they are sentences or not. The connection among parts of a text is achieved by various cohesive devices, and by semantic and pragmatic implication. In the text you may notice the following modifications, which serve as 1) grammatical cohesive devices: (a) the use of the definite article on second mention, e.g. a shop---- the shop a man---- the man (b) the substitution of pronouns for nouns. e.g. two boys---- they (c) the use of conjunction. e.g. They ran after him, because… 2) the lexical cohesion in the text is realized by the collocation of the words that are in some way or other typically associated with one another, e.g. steal all the watches; took him for a thief 2. Style Definition----Manners indicating prominent linguistic features, devices or patterns, most (at least) frequently occur in a particular text of a particular variety of language. Analysis:①Manners (appropriateness) [Study Aims] indicating prominent
a) linguistic features (phonological /lexical /syntactic /grammatical/semantic features), b) devices (device markers) or c) Patterns(文体/语体常规“型式”) [Study Scope] 语体常规“型式” ③most (or least) frequently occur (words/sentences percentage) [Study Approach] in a particular ④ text(语篇、篇章、文本) of a particular 语篇、篇章、 ⑤ variety of language. [Study Material] 2. Stylistics Definition----Stylistics is a branch of linguistics which studies style in a scientific way concerning the manners/linguistic features of different varieties of language at different levels. A branch of linguistics which studies style in a scientific and systematic way [Study Approach] concerning the manners/linguistic features [Study Aims] of different varieties of language [Study Scopes] at different levels [Study Scopes]. 1.4 The Development of Stylistics
Table 1 In the West Time 1.Ancient “rhetoric(修辞)” 2. Root of Stylistics 1) Word “stylistics” first appeared only in 1882. 2) First book stylistics -----landmark modern stylistics 3) “Father stylistics” on of of written by a French scholar Charles Bally, student of the famous modern linguist Ferdinand de Saussure in 1902. German scholar L. Spitzer (1887-1960), began to analyze literary works from a stylistic point of view. From the end of the 1950s to the present time. Formalist Stylistics prevailing trend. was the published in 1909, entitled Traite de Stylistique Francaise. Representatives famous ancient Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, et al. Works all contributed a lot to this branch of learning.
3. Modern Stylistics---4 periods 1) the end of the 1950s---- the end of the 1960s. 2) in 1970s 3) in 1980s 4)in 1990s
Functionalist Stylistics predominated. Discourse Stylistics flourished. Socio-Historical / Socio-Cultural Stylistics or Contextualized Stylistics developed quickly. stylistics has enjoyed further development, The trend is interdisciplinary( 交 叉 学 科 ) study, and narrative( 叙 事 ) stylistics, cognitive stylistics, feminist(女权主 义) stylistics, etc., will get further developed.
5) in 21 century
Table 2 In China Time 1. Ancient time Representatives 刘勰 in the Southern Dynasty 南 北朝 period. Works a work of literacy criticism----The Carving of the Literary Mind by Liu Xie (465-532)《文心雕龙 · 刘勰》
2. Modern Chinese Stylistics
1) Root of Stylistic Study
Principle of Rhetoric （《修辞学发 凡》 (1932) indicated the beginning ） of modern Chinese stylistics. In 1963, Wang Zuoliang published an article entitled “On the Study of English Style”(王佐良，1980).
2) The study of modern western stylistics in China A. the founding of the People’s Republic of China to the year 1976. ( fundamental stage ). B. from 1977 up to the present time. some scholars, such as Wang Zuoliang （ 王 佐 良 ） , Xu Guozhang （ 许 国 璋 ） , Xu Yanmou, Yang Renjing, et al., began to study stylistics in its modern sense. It was also Professor Wang Zuoliang who took the lead in the research of modern stylistics. In this period, more and more academic works were published. The following list exemplifies the achievements
Wang Zuoliang, 1980.
《英语文体学论文集》 . 北京：外 语教学与研究出版社
Introduction to English Stylistics----Wang Zuoliang & Ding Wangdao, 1987. 《英语文体学引论》 . 王佐良，丁 往道 . 北京：外语教学与研究出版
《文心雕龙 · 刘勰》摘录 《说文》云:“体,总十二属也,从骨。”即体的本义指人体骨骼系统,有整体构成之义,象 喻思维模式中,文体的语言结构可以借此喻示。 在《情采》等篇中，刘勰的文体思想主要涉及文体的情理本质、篇章结构、声律结 构、章句结构及丽辞结构等五个方面。 《情采》赞云:“言以文远,诚哉斯验。心术既形,英华乃赡。”言指文体语言结构,文指 舒布文采,心术指为文之用心,英华为文采同义语。刘勰认为:文采以文心为本。由于 情理是主体的心脑功能,这等于说作为语言结构的文体以主体情理为本,情采即情理 文采的概念由此生成。 1.5 The Scope of Study 1. General Stylistics General stylistics studies different varieties of language. For example, according to field of discourse, with the related functions of language used in different genres(文学作品类型), novels, poetry, scientific treatises 协议条约, and legal documents. 2. Literary Stylistics Literary Stylistics studies variations characteristic of different literary genres----poetry, novels, drama, etc., with the purpose of promoting literary texts as communicative acts. 3. Theoretical Stylistics Theoretical Stylistics studies the theories, the origin, the trend, and the historical development of stylistics as well as characteristics of different branch of stylistics.