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2010考研英语新东方长难句结构分析经典627句


2010 考研英语新东方长难句结构分析经典 627 句
该文档包括以下内容: ★长难句结构分析最新经典 100 句★ ★精彩 TOEFL 句子结构 100 句★ ★1995-2002 年考研长难句 24 句★ ★阅读难点关键句 200 句★ ★GRE 难句分析经典 134 句★ ★胡敏长难句 69 句★ ★Gre 难句分析经典 134 句★ 读者学习指导: 大原则:以实战的要求为目的.难句子不仅出现在阅读中,还出现在句子填空,逻辑但体中,因 此,对难句子得攻克变得相当重要. 原则一:迅速读懂 原则二:利用语法,不靠语法 即在 Gre 中,考生永远也不需要再考场上分析一句话的语法成分,也不要想这句话有没有语法错 误,考生的唯一任务就是现场迅速的读懂文章.然而在初期可以少量的运用语法,目的有二:一 为初学者如果看不懂句子得结构,往往会感到心情沮丧,或大脑混乱,根本就读不尽文章,因此 引入语法能够给读者以信心;二为运用语法,可以了解文章的语法结构,并最终完全熟悉各种类 型的句子,达到一遍就可以读懂句子得效果. 原则三:学练结合,以连为主 训练的类别:1,难句阅读训练;2,阅读理解力训练;即"懂"3,阅读速度与阅读习惯训练,即 "迅速". 实际上,对于英语语法得学习,包括对英文单词的中文释意的记忆和对英语句子得中文翻译,都 只是我们学习英语的辅助工具; 我们最终的目的, 是为了提高对英语的实际使用能力. 具体到 Gre 的考试的应用上,就是看到英语句子时,正确的做法不应该是现场分析出其余法结构,再背出每 个单词的中文释意,再把这些中文单词串成句子,最后才根据翻译出来的中文来想这句话的意思 是什么,而是读到每个单词,每一句话的时候,大脑中的第一反映是其意思而不是中文释意. 同时,对于阅读习惯的培养相当重要,阅读过程中绝对不可以出声浪读,也不可以心读,而是意 读,也不能单单得对一个词进行死抠,要知道阅读考的是句子和文章.为此,建议如下: 要点一:在难巨资进行的阅读和训练中,只以在大脑中反映出所读英文的意思(不是中文释意) 为唯一目的.什么时候读者发现自己完全消除了在阅读过程中的在大脑中的中文释意和语法分析 过程,此要求即达到四种训练方式:a,意群训练;b,不回视训练;c,合理化原则推力训练;d, 速度与理解力的平衡点训练. a, 意群训练:以几个相邻的表示同类意思的词为阅读的对象,而不是单个的单词.同时避 免发声阅读,克服内心的声音和喉头与嘴唇的颤动,关键是: 要点二:眼睛在阅读材料上移动的速度要比自己在心中或喉头出生阅读的速度要快 不回视训练:保证第一遍阅读时的高度注意力,避免回视,关键是: b, 要点三:在阅读文章时,都要注意整句的回视现象,坚持一遍就都下来 c, 合理化训练:根据文章中得上下文的逻辑推理,将不懂得地方进行合理推理.

要点四:凡遇到不懂得地方,就用合理化推理进行推理 d, 速度与理解力的平衡点训练: 一, 推出自己的速度与理解力的平衡点;二,在阅读中根据所读的内容的难度和重要性程 度,调整自己的现场阅读速度 要点五:贵在坚持,不可半途而废. 难句概论 GRE 阅读, 包括数学和逻辑中的一些题干的一大特点, 也就是一大难点, 就是充斥着一些或很长, 或很怪异的句子,我们称之为 GRE 难句.句子,作为任何阅读文章最基本的阅读单位,其重要性 不言而喻.换句话说,句子读不懂,想要读懂文章,有如痴人说梦.可使 GRE 阅读中的句子之繁 难,超出其他所有的英语考试的范畴,其长度更立人瞠目,往往读到句末,已经忘了前面在说些 什么,令很多初学者困惑不已,不得不放弃真正读懂文章的想法. 然而,GRE 难句绝非不可攻克,只要训练方法得当,并且能更每天半小时左右进行练习,GRE 难句完全可以在一个月甚至几周内被攻破, 而做到这点, 对我们 GRE 考生的意义是伟大的: 第一, 所有的长句子之读一遍就懂, 避免了反复阅读赵成的时间浪费, 可以大大的提高大家的阅读速度; 第二,可以顺利地作出机考中的高分题,因为与难句对应的阅读题,包括数学和逻辑中读起来较 难的题目,一定对应较高的分值;第三,可以增加阅读文章时的理解力,提高对文章整体的把握 能力;第四,可以增加我们的自信心,产生一种阅读中的顺畅的愉快感,使我们在学习 GRE 中不 再沉浸在一种烦躁的情绪之中,真正的与文章的内容和作者的思路打交道. GRE 难句的由来:我们知道,GRE 文章都摘自美国的科学杂志或学术论文.我曾经到网上去看过 那些东西,往往结构简单,句子流畅,绝不难读.然而经过 ETS 改编和压缩之后,GRE 句子变得 句子冗长,结构复杂,信息量大,赵成读者的困难;因此 GRE 的难句完全是人为的东西. GRE 难句与文章内容的对应关系:我经过长期观察发现,GRE 的各种文章中,句子的难度与文章 的内容右移种对应关系,也就是文章的内容越简单,句子就越难;如生命科学和自然科学题材的 文章,由于其内容较难,细节较多,因此句子较短,较容易,以降低难度;而文学评论和社会科 学的文章,引起内容较少,作者态度较为明确,因而难句既多又难;我们很多考生因为无法读懂 这些句子,反而认为这两种文章比生物,物理文章更难.因此,对文学评论性文章比较害怕的同 学们下一番功夫攻克 GRE 难句,就显得更为重要了. GRE 难句分析分为四大类: 第一类:复杂修饰成分 句子本不难,但是修饰成分多且长.1,从句(定语,状语,同位语从句等等);2,介词短语修 饰;3,分词修饰;4,不定式修饰.经常是在同一个句子里既有从句又有介词短语,且都不止一 个. 例:The methods that a community devises to perpetuate itself come into being to preserve aspects of the cultural legacy that that community perceives as essential. 翻译: 一个社会设计出来保存自己的方法得以形成来保持那个社会认为最重要的一些方面. 读法: 初级:读出主谓宾来.分析:主语:The methods; 谓语:com into being;不定式 to 引导表示目 的状语.高级:直接读,见后.考查能力:考查考生的大脑容量. 第二类:大段的插入与或同位语,打断读者的思路,割裂前后之间的语义,造成理解的困难.我 们称之为"打岔". 例:Moreover, I can feel strong emotions in response to objects of art that are interpretations,rather than representations, of reality.(LSAT)

读法:初级:跳过插入语; 高级:直接读;查查能力:大脑容量+抗干扰能力 第三类: 倒装: 由于应该放在句首的成分太长, 因此倒装到句末. 也是一种人为现象. 例: That sex ratio will be favored which maximizes the number of descendants an individual will have and hence the number of gene copies transmitted. 读法:需要经过训练后才能按正常语序读. 正常语序: That sex ratio which maximizes the number of descendants that an individual will have and hence the sex ratio which maximize the number of gene copies transmitted will be favered. 高级读法:直接读,见后:考查能力:大脑的排序能力 第四类:省略:相对以上三种来讲比较简单,在短句中大家一般都可以看出.但是如果在长句中 出现,特别是如果与以上三种之一甚至几种同时出现,也会给同学们带来很大的困难.如上例原 句中的省略,在第二个 the number of 前省略了"sex ration which maximizes". Gre 难句的典型结构 1, 长成分 1),长从句做主语,宾语及其他成分 a, 主语从句 b, 宾语从句 2),长状语 3),层层修饰 4),并列成分 2, 常见倒装搭配 (1),及物动词加介词:固定词组的固定搭配中,经常出现倒装情况,如:bring A to B,写作: bring to B A 例:Yet Waltzer's argument , however deficient , does point to one of the most serious weaknesses of capitalism-namely , that it brings to predominant positions in a society people who ,no matter how legitimately they have earned their material rewards , often lack those other qualities that evoke affection or admiration. 类似的情况:throw over , insert into , import into , infer from, establish for , advocate as 等 (2),及物动词加副词 例:make possible …(单词或者句子) 省略的几种情况 3, (1),重复的成分 (2),让步转折的省略:如 although (but) (3),定语从句引导词的省略 which(that ) (4),定语从句的引导词和系动词同时省略,变成后置定语 如:qualities(such as "the capacity for hard work") essential in producing wealth 4, 短语被分割:如:such as, so that , too to , more than , from A to B , between A and B 5, 多重否定:如: Despite these vague categories , one should not claim unequivocally that hostility between recognizable classes cannot be legitimately observed . GRE 难句训练法:

训练方法: 凡读过的 GRE 文章, 凡有读一两遍不懂的句子, 摘下或输入电脑: 每天花半小时来读, 读懂读顺为止;开始越窄越多,直到 20 句以后,越窄越少,一个月后几乎没有了.这时可以达到 高级读法:因为大脑已经熟悉了这 4 种难句的结构,因此可以预判和自动整理语序,除了太长的 插入语之外(3 行以上),均可以直接读下来.这里面的道理在于,人的大脑对于语言的处理方 式是高度自动化的,一旦大脑熟悉了某种语言的结构,他就会对以这样的结构出现的语句进行自 动的处理,哪怕句子是语序到的,你也能在瞬间知道其意思,绝无混乱之感. 最令人头疼的倒装为例,举一个中文的例子,比如"如之奈何"依据,学过古文的同学都知道这 实际上是"奈何如之"的倒装,意思是"如何来对付他?"然而读完"如之奈何"再把它恢复成 正常语序"奈何如之",才能理解其含义.这是初学古文的人的做法,真正看古文书的人不会这 么读的.因为他天天都读这种语言,早已熟悉了这种结构,不管怎么看,他都知道这是在问怎么 办的问题.你要问它为什么是这个意思,语法结构是怎么回事,它还可能真说不明白. 其实语言本身就是为了表达含义的, 只要你明白句子的意思, 其语法结构不提也罢. 我们训练 GRE 难句,就是要达到上面所谈的这种高级读法的境界,直接读下来(除了 3 行以上的插入语),就 知道句子的意思.当然,这种读法必须以反复的,针对难句的训练为前提.而如果训练成功,ETS 所考察你的种种大脑的能力也就通通无效了.GRE 学习的一大秘诀,就在于把考场上考察你的难 点和需要你花大量时间思考的东西兑换成考场下你的时间和努力. 注意:贵在坚持.GRE 学习,当然也包括 GRE 难句的训练,都好比逆水行舟,不进则退.想要 读懂 GRE 难句,必须坚持每天读,把每一个你摘出来的句子彻底读通,读到这些句子就像是应该 这样写,如果是你来写这些句子,你也要写一样.特别提一下,经过我的调查,凡是能够真正坚 持用这种方法训练的同学,无一例外的都在数周之内,阅读能力和阅读速度都得到了大幅度的提 高,兴奋地来找我,告诉我再没有完全读不懂的文章了.而大多数同学只练了几天就放弃了,实 在可惜.其实如果真的能够每天都能认真地读上半小时,一个月之内,必有突破.而克服 GRE 难句,对于提高大家的逻辑单体,填空能力也至关重要.可以毫不夸张地说,只有克服了 GRE 难句,你的 GRE 学习才算真正入了门. 为了节省同学们宝贵的学习时间, 我在俞敏洪校长之鼓励下, GRE NO4-No9 21 套题 84 篇文章 将 及 GRE 国内题(90-94)14 套 56 篇文章中的所有难句进行了摘录和分类,尽列于此.由于绝大 多数同学对需要留下最新 10 套模考,其句子没有收录,且由于最新题阅读难度下降,其句子收录 价值也十分有限.余日夜兼程,完工时惊觉所录难句恰 100 整.此数暗合 Tofel 语法之 100 难句, 此天意也? 1. That sex ratio will be favored which maximizes the number of descendants an individual will have and hence the number of gene copies transmitted. (难度系数 5,下同) 那种性别比例能在最大程度上增加一个个体所能拥有的后代数量,并因此能在最大程度上增加所 传递到后代身上去的基因复制品的数量. 2. (This is ) desire to throw over reality a light that never was might give away abruptly to the A desire on the part of what we might consider a novelist-scientist to record exactly and concretely the structure and texture of a flower .(5++)复杂+倒装+省略;(这是一种)照亮现实的欲望,此欲望从来 就不会唐突的取代后面的那种欲望,后者是我们可以将其部分的理解为一个兼任小说加和科学家 的人想要去准确并具体的记录下一朵花的结构和文理的那种意义上的欲望. 3. Hardy's weakness derived from his apparent inability to control the comings and goings of these divergent impulses and from his unwillingness to cultivate and sustain the energetic and risky

ones. (3) 哈代的缺陷一方面缘起于他的某种明显的无能, 无法控制好那结不尽相同的创作冲动的穿梭往来; 另一方面缘起于他不愿意去培养和维持那些富于生机活力和风险性强的创作冲动. 4. Virginia Woolf's provocative statement about her intentions in writing Mrs. Dalloway has regularly been ignored by the critics, since it highlights an aspect of her literary interests very different from the traditional picture of the "poetic" novelist concerned with examining states of reverie and vision and with following the intricate pathways of individual consciousness. (5) 弗吉尼亚.伍尔夫(Virginia Woolf)在创作《黛洛维夫人》(Mrs. Dalloway)时有关其创作意图的 这番发人深思的陈述,迄今为止一贯为文学评论家们所忽略,因为它突出反映了她诸多文学兴趣 中某一方面,而这一方面则与人们对"诗性"小说家(poetic novelist)所形成的传统见解大相径 庭.所谓的"诗性"小说家,所关注的是审视想入非非和白日梦幻的诸般状态,并致力于追寻个 体意识的通幽曲径. 5. As she put it in The Common Reader , "It is safe to say that not a single law has been framed or one stone set upon another because of anything Chaucer said or wrote ; and yet , as we read him , we are absorbing morality at every pore ."(5-)就像她在《致普通读者》一书中所表达的那样,"尽 管可以毫无疑问的说,没有任何法律被指定出来,也没有任何高楼大厦被建立起来是因为乔叟说 了什么或者写了什么;然而,当我们读它的书的时候,我们身上每一个毛孔都充满了道德" 6. With the conclusion of a burst activity , the lactic acid level is high in the body fluids , leaving the large animal vulnerable to attack until the acid is reconverted , via oxidative metabolism , by the liver into glucose , which is then sent (in part )back to the muscles for glycogen resynthesis .(4+)随着 爆发出来的运动的结束, 再体液中乳酸含量会变得很高, 使得大型动物处于容易受到攻击的状态, 直到乳酸通过有氧新陈代谢,被肝脏转化成(convert into)葡萄糖,而葡萄糖接下来又会(部分) 传送回肌肉中重新合成糖原 . 7. Although Gutman admits that forced separation by sale was frequent,he shows that the slaves' preference,revealed most clearly on plantations where sale was infrequent,was very much for stable monogamy. (3+) 虽然古特曼承认,由于奴隶买卖而造成的被迫离散甚为频繁,但他还是证明,奴隶的偏爱——在 那些奴隶买卖并不频繁的种植园上被最为显著地揭示出来——在很大程度上侧重于稳定的一夫一 妻制(monogamy). 8. Gutman argues convincingly that the stability of the Black family encouraged the transmission of-and so was crucial in sustaining-the Black heritage of folklore,music,and religious expression from one generation to another,a heritage that slaves were continually fashioning out of their African and American experiences. (4) 古特曼人令人信服地论辨道,黑人家庭的稳定有助于包括民间传说,音乐,及宗教表达在内的黑 人文化遗产一代一代传递下去,因而在维持文化遗产方面也起着至关重要的作用,而对于这种文 化遗产,黑奴们不断地从其非洲和美洲的经历中予以丰富发展. 9. This preference for exogamy,Gutman suggests, may have derived from West African rules governing marriage,which,though they differed from one tribal group to another,all involved some kind of prohibition against unions with close kin. (3+) 古特曼表示,这种对于外部通婚的偏爱很有可能缘起于西部非洲制约着婚姻的规定,尽管这些规 定在一个和另一个部落群体之间不尽相同,但都涉及到某种对近亲联姻(union with close kin)的

禁止. 10. His thesis works relatively well when applied to discrimination against Blacks in the United States, but his definition of racial prejudice as "racially-based negative prejudgments against a group generally accepted as a race in any given region of ethnic competition," can be interpreted as also including hostility toward such ethnic groups as the Chinese in California and the Jews in medieval Europe. (4+) 该社会学家的命题当被应用于针对美国黑人的歧视时,相对而言尚能适用,但他对种族偏见所下 的定义——即"以种族为基础的,针对某个群体的消级的先入之见,而该群体在任何特定的种族 竞争地区则被普遍认作一种族"——可被理解成同样也襄括了针对加利福尼亚州的中国人以及中 世纪的犹太人这样一些种族群体的敌视态度. 11. Such variations in size, shape,chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold,and the like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in significance for any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions of mental experience.(5) 类似于这些已经被在神经细胞中证明的在大小,形状,化学过程,产生的速度,兴奋阈值及其类 似的方面上所发生变化,当他们被用来与大脑的体验以可能的方式联系起来的时候,他们在重要 性上仍然是微不足道的. 12. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among neuron types ; however , proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its condition was influenced by these differences , which seemed instead to influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits .(5) 有可能通过其他方法来证明神经元种类间的细微的结构差异;可是,这样的证据是缺 乏的,即神经冲动的性质或者状态是受这些差异所影响的,而这些差异看起来却能影响神经网络 的发育模式. 13. Although qualitative variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved,the doctrine was generally abandoned in favor of the opposing view,namely,that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and are transmitted as "common currency" throughout the nervous system. (4) 尽管在神经能量上存在着质的不同,这一点从来都没有在严格的意义上被反对过,但是以 上教条通常被抛弃掉,而转向相反的观点,即:神经冲动从根本上本质相同,而且被当作"一种 普通流"在整个神经系统中传播. 14. Other experiments revealed slight variations in the size , number , arrangement , and interconnection of the nerve cells,but as far as psycho neural correlations were concerned,the obvious similarities of these sensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute differences. (4 -) 尽管其他实验显示在神经细胞的大小,数量,排列和相互连接上有一些小的 差异,但是就心理-神经的关系而言,这些感官区域彼此之间的明显的相似性看起来比起微小的差 异更为令人注目. 15. Although some experiments show that,as an object becomes familiar,its internal representation becomes more holistic and the recognition process correspondingly more parallel,the weight of evidence seems to support the serial hypothesis, at least for objects that are not notably simple and familiar. (4+) 虽然某些实验表明,随着一个物体变得熟悉起来,其内心再现图像亦更具整体感,辨认过程相应 地更趋于平行,但证据的砝码似乎在支持序列假设(serial hypothesis),至少是对于那些不甚简 单,不甚熟悉的物体来说.

16. In large part as a consequence of the feminist movement,historians have focused a great deal of attention in recent years on determining more accurately the status of women in various periods. (3+) 在很大程度上,由于女权主义运动(feminist movement)的缘故,史学家近年来汇聚了大量的注 意力,来更为准确地确定妇女在各个历史时期的地位. Focus A on B; 17. If one begins by examining why ancients refer to Amazons , it becomes clear that ancient Greek descriptions of such societies were meant not so much to represent observed historical fact –real Amazonian societies – but rather to offer"moral lessons" on the supposed outcome of women' rule s in their own society . (4) 如果我们先研究一下为什么古人会提到亚马逊人, 下面的一点就变得清晰 了,那就是古希腊对于这种社会的庙睡不是太多的被用来表达观察的历史事实——真正的亚麻逊 社会的——而是为了对于妇女在其社会中的统治的预期后果提供一种"道德教导". 18. Thus, instance, may come as a shock to mathematicians to learn that the Schrodinger equation for it for the hydrogen atom is not a literally correct description of this atom,but only an approximation to a somewhat more correct equation taking account of spin,magnetic dipole,and relativistic effects;and that this corrected equation is itself only an imperfect approximation to an infinite set of quantum field-theoretical equations. (5) 因此,举例来说,对数学家而言,了解到下述情形可能会令其惊愕不已,即薛定谔(Schrodinger) 的氢原子方程式并非是对该原子作出的一种绝然正确的描述,而仅仅是个近似值,趋近于一个在 某种程度上更为正确的将自旋,磁性偶极子,以及相对论效应考虑在内的方程式;而这个得以纠 正的方程式就其本身而言也只是一个不完美的近似值, 趋近于无穷无尽的一整套量子场论方程式. 19. The physicist rightly dreads precise argument,since an argument that is convincing only if it is precise loses all its force if the assumptions on which it is based are slightly changed,whereas an argument that is convincing though imprecise may well be stable under small perturbations of its underlying assumptions. (5+) 物理学家恐惧于那些精确无误的论据不无道理,因为某种只有在它是精确无误的条件下才令人置 信的论据,一旦它赖于建立其上的假设稍有变化,便会失去它一部的作用;而与此相反,一个尽 管并不精确无误但却令人置信的论据,在其基本假设(underlying assumption)稍微受干扰的情况 下,仍然有可能是站得住脚的. 20. However, they gained cohesion, Bluestockings came to regard themselves as a women' as the s group and to possess a sense of female solidarity lacking in the salonnieres,who remained isolated from one another by the primacy each held in her own salon. (4-) 起初,蓝袜女们确实模仿了法国沙龙女主人,将男性襄括到其小圈子中来.然则,随着她们获得 的凝聚力,她们渐趋将自己视作一女性团体,并拥有了一种妇女团结意识,而这种意识在法国沙 龙女主人身上则荡然无存,因为她们每个人在其自己的沙龙中自视甚高而彼此孤立隔绝开来. 21. As my own studies have advanced,I have been increasingly impressed with the functional similarities between insect and vertebrate societies and less so with the structural differences that seem, at first glance,to constitute such an immense gulf between them. (5) 随着我的研究不断深入,我对昆虫和脊椎动物群落之间的功能类似性印象愈来愈深刻,而对结构 上的差异印象愈发淡漠, 虽然这些结构上的差异初看上去似乎构成了二者间一条无法愈越的鸿沟. 22. Although fiction assuredly springs from political circumstances,its authors react to those circumstances in ways other than ideological,and talking about novels and stories primarily as instruments of ideology circumvents much of the fictional enterprise.(4)

虽然小说无疑起源于政治情状,但其作者则是以非意识形态的方式对这些政治情状作出反应的, 而将小说和故事主要地当作意识形态的工具来探讨,会在相当程度上阻碍小说事业. 23. Is this a defect,or are the authors working out of,or trying to forge,a different kind of aesthetic? (3) 这究竟是一种缺陷呢,还是这些作者想要按照一种与众不同的美学体系进行创作,抑或是在试图 创立一种与众不同的美学体系? 24. In addition, the style of some Black novels, like Jean Toomer' s Cane, verges on expressionism or surrealism ; does this technique provide a counterpoint to the prevalent theme that portrays the fate against which Black heroes are pitted , a theme usually conveyed by more naturalistic modes of expression ? (5) 不仅如此,有些黑人小说(比如 JT 的甘蔗)的风格接近与表现主义和超现实主义;这种技巧是否 为流行的主题提供了一个和谐的对应呢?这种主题刻画了黑人注意与之相抗争的命运,这是一个 通常用更为自然主义的表现手法所表达的主题. 25. Black Fiction surveys a wide variety of novels, bringing to our attention in the process some fascinating and little-known works like James Weldon Johnson's Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. (4)注意:bring A to B ——〉bring to B A 《黑人小说》考察了极为广泛的一系列小说,在此过程中让我们注意到了某些引人入胜但却鲜为 人知的作品,如詹姆斯.韦尔登.约翰逊(James Weldon Johnson)的《一个曾经是有色人的自传》 (Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man). 26. Although these molecules allow radiation at visible wavelengths, where most of the energy of sunlight is concentrated,to pass through,they absorb some of the longer-wavelength, infrared emissions radiated from the Earth's surface,radiation that would otherwise be transmitted back into space. (4) 虽然这些分子允许可见波长 (visible wavelength) 的辐射——阳光的绝大部分能量就汇集于此—— 不受阻挡地穿透,但它们却会吸收某些较长波长(longer-wavelength),亦即从地球表面辐射出的 红外发射(infrared emission),这种辐射若不是二氧化碳的缘故就会被重新输送回太空. 27. The role those anthropologists ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the details of human behavior but one of imposing constraints—ways of feeling,thinking,and acting that "come naturally" in archetypal situations in any culture. (4) 这些人类学家所归诸于生物进化的作用,不是规定人类行为的种种细节,而是将各种限制强加于 人类——即在任何文化的典型情景中都会"自然表露"的情感,思维,以及行动方式. 28. Which of the following most probably provides an appropriate analogy from human morphology for the "details" versus "constraints" distinction made in the passage in relation to human behavior? (5) 以下哪一个选项最有可能为文章中所谈到的与人类行为有关的"人类行为细节"相对"人类所受 限制"之间的差异,从人类形态的角度上提供了一个合适的类比? 29. A low number of algal cells in the presence of a high number of grazers suggested, did not but prove, that the grazers had removed most of the algae. (3+) 在存在大量食草动物的同时却只有少量的水藻花粉囊,这暗示出——但没能证明——食草动物已 吞噬了大部分水藻. 30. Perhaps the fact many of these first studies considered only algae of a size that could be

collected in a net (net phytoplankton), a practice that overlooked the smaller phytoplankton (nannoplankton) that we now know grazers are most likely to feed on , led to a de-emphasis of the role of grazers in subsequent research. (5) 可能这样一个事实, 那就是很多这样的最初的研究只是考虑了那些能够用网捞起来的大小的水藻, 这样一个忽视了更小的浮游生物(而这些浮游生物我们现在知道是捕食者主要的食物)的做法, 导致了在接下来的研究中对于捕食者的作用的贬低. 31. Studies by Hargrave and Geen estimated natural community grazing rates by measuring feeding rates of individual zooplankton species in the laboratory and then computing community grazing rates for field conditions using the known population density of grazers. (5) 由哈格雷夫(Hargrave)和吉恩(Geen)所进行的研究,对自然条件下的群落捕食速率进行了估 计,其手段是通过测量出实验室内单独的浮游动物种类的捕食速率,然后利用已知的食草动物种 群密度,计算出实地状况下的群落捕食速率. 32. In the periods of peak zooplankton abundance, is, the late spring and in the summer, that in Haney recorded maximum daily community grazing rates,for nutrient-poor lakes and bog lakes, respectively,of 6.6 percent and 114 percent of daily phytoplankton production. (3+) 在浮游动物数量激增的高峰期,亦即在春季后期以及夏季,哈尼记录了最大程度上的每日群落食 草比率,对于营养物不充足的湖和沼泽湖而言,分别为每日浮游植物繁殖量的 6.6%和 114%. 33. The hydrologic cycle,a major topic in this science,is the complete cycle of phenomena through which water passes, beginning as atmospheric water vapor, passing into liquid and solid form as precipitation,thence along and into the ground surface,and finally again returning to the form of atmospheric water vapor by means of evaporation and transpiration. (4) 水文循环(hydrologic cycle),作为该学科中的一个主要课题,指的是水所经过的诸现象的整个 循环过程,开始时是作为大气中的水蒸气,转而作为雨,雪,露,雹一类的降水量经过液体和固 体形态,由此而沿着地层表面分布或进入地层表面,最终通过蒸发和散发作用再度回复到大气水 蒸气的形态. 34. Only when a system possesses natural or artificial boundaries that associate the water within it the hydrologic cycle may the entire system properly be termed hydrogeologic.(4) 只有当一个系统拥有自然的或人工形成的边界来把边界中的水与水文循环联系起来的时候,才有 可能把整个的系统恰当的成为与水文地质学有关. 35. The historian Frederick J. Turner wrote in the 1890's that the agrarian discontent that had been developing steadily in the United States since about 1870 had been precipitated by the closing of the internal frontier——that is,the depletion of available new land needed for further expansion of the American farming system. (4) 史学家弗雷德里克.杰.特纳(Frederick J.Turner)于十九世纪九十年代著述道,美国约自 18 世纪 70 年代以来一直在持续不断发展的农民不满,由于国内边远地区(internal frontier)的封闭而更 趋加剧——亦即是说,美国农业系统进一步扩展所必需的可资利用的新土地几近耗竭. 36. In the early 1950' historians who studied preindustrial Europe (which we may define here s, as Europe in the period from roughly 1300 to 1800) began, for the first time in large numbers,to investigate more of the preindustrial European population than the 2 or 3 percent who comprised the political and social elite: kings, the generals, judges, nobles, bishops, local magnates who had and hitherto usually filled history books. (4)

二十世纪五十年代早期,研究前工业化时代欧洲(此处我们可将其界定为约自 1300 年至 1800 年 这一时期的欧洲)的史学家,首次以众多的人数(杨鹏的书中:第一次以大量的数据),开始调 查前工业化时代欧洲人口中的大多数,而非那些构成了政治与社会精英阶层的百分之二或三的人 口,即国王,将军,法官,贵族,主教,以及地方上的达官显贵,而正是这部分人一直到那时为 止普遍充斥于史学著作. 37. Historians such as Le Roy Ladurie have used the documents to extract case histories, which have illuminated the attitudes of different social groups (these attitudes include,but are not confined to,attitudes toward crime and the law)and have revealed how the authorities administered justice. (3+) 象勒罗伊. 拉迪里 (Le Roy Ladurie) 一类的史学家利用这些文献史料从中挖掘出某些个案史 (case history)来,阐明了不同社会群体的态度(这些态度包括,但并非局限于,对犯罪和法律的态度) , 并揭示出当局是如何执行审判的. 38. It can be inferred from the passage that a historian who wished to compare crime rates per thousand in a European city in one decade of the fifteenth century with crime rates in another decade of that century would probably be most aided by better information about which of the following? (5) 从文章中可以推断出来,一个希望比较十五世纪以前一个十年的某个欧洲城市中的每千人的犯罪 率与另外一个十年中的犯罪率的历史学家将会被以下那种信息的提高所最好的帮助? 39. My point is that its central consciousness—its profound understanding of class and gender as shaping influences on people's lives—owes much to that earlier literary heritage,a heritage that,in general,has not been sufficiently valued by most contemporary literary critics. (4) 我的论点是,其作品的中心意识——它将阶级和性别作为人们生活的决定性影响而作出的深邃理 解——在很大程度上借鉴了那个早期的文学遗产,而这一遗产就总体而言还尚未获得大多数当代 文学评论家的足够重视. 40. Even the requirement that biomaterials processed from these materials be nontoxic to host tissue can be met by techniques derived from studying the reactions of tissue cultures to biomaterials or from short-term implants.(5) 即使是这样的要求,即从这些材料中加工出来的生物材料应该对受移植者的组织无害,也能够通 过从研究组织培养对生物材料的反应而来的,或从研究短期移植而来的技术来满足. 41. But achieving necessary matches in physical properties across interfaces between living and nonliving matter requires knowledge of which molecules control the bonding of cells to each other—an area that we have not yet explored thoroughly. (4) 但是,要想沿着原生和非原生物质之间的界面获取生理特性的必要匹配,需要某种知识,即什么 样的分子控制着细胞彼此间的结合——而对这一领域,我们尚未进行充分的探索. 42. Islamic law is a phenomenon so different from all other forms of law—notwithstanding,of course,a considerable and inevitable number of coincidences with one or the other of them as far as subject matter and positive enactments are concerned—that its study is indispensable in order to appreciate adequately the full range of possible legal phenomena. (5) 伊斯兰法是一种如此不同于所有其它法律形式的现象——毋庸置疑,尽管就其主要内容和有积极 意义的法规而言,与其它法律形式中的这种或那种形式存在着相当数量的且不可避免的巧合相似 之处——以致于对它进行研究便显得不可或缺, 以便充分理解有可能存在的法律现象的全部范围. 43. (Both Jewish law and canon law are more uniform than Islamic law.)Though historically

there is a discernible break between Jewish law of the sovereign state of ancient Israel and of the Diaspora (the dispersion of Jewish people after the conquest of Israel), the spirit of the legal matter in later parts of the Old Testament is very close to that of the Talmud, one of the primary codifications of Jewish law in the Diaspora. (5) 尽管从历史角度来看,在古代以色列作为独立主权国家的犹太教法与大流散时期(Diaspora,即 以色列被征服后古代犹太人被巴比伦人逐出故土)的犹太教法之间存在着一个明晰可辨的断裂, 然则,《旧约全书》(Old Testament)后半部分中法律内容的精神与《犹太教法典》(Talmud) 极为一脉相承,而所谓的《犹太教法典》,是指大流散时期犹太教法的主要典籍辑录之一. 44. Islam,on the other hand,represented a radical breakaway from the Arab paganism that preceded it;Islamic law is the result of an examination, from a religious angle,(examination)of legal subject matter that was far from uniform,comprising as it did the various components of the laws of pre-Islamic Arabia and numerous legal elements taken over from the non-Arab peoples of the conquered territories. (4) 另一方面,伊斯兰教则代表着与此前存在的阿拉伯异教(Arab paganism)的一种根本上的决裂; 伊斯兰法是从宗教的角度,对各种杂乱无章,绝无共同点的法律内容进行考察所致的结果,而这 些法律内容实际上是由前伊斯兰阿拉伯国家(Pre-Islamic Arabia)法律的不尽相同的组成部分以 及由从被征服的土地上非阿拉伯民族借鉴过来的无数法律因素所构成. (as it did )实际上是一句 插入语. 45. One such novel idea is that (idea) of inserting into the chromosomes of plants discrete genes that are not a part of the plants' natural constitution:specifically,the idea of inserting into nonleguminous plants the genes,if they can be identified and isolated,that fit the leguminous plants to be hosts for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Hence,(there is ) the intensified research on legumes. (5),此 句最好能够熟读,更好的是背诵下来.(复杂修饰+插入+省略+倒装) 这其中的一个新颖思想就是,在植物的染色体(chromosome)内注入并非是该植物自然构造一个 部分的那些不相关联的因基:具体而言,这一思想是,在非豆科植物内注入这样一些基因,倘若 这些基因可被辨识出来并被分离开来,而这些基因业已使豆科植物宜于充当那些具备固氮作用的 细菌的寄主.由此,对豆科植物的研究日趋深入. 46. It is one of nature' great ironies that the availability of nitrogen in the soil frequently sets s an upper limit on plant growth even though the plants' leaves are bathed in a sea of nitrogen gas. (3+) 下述情形真可谓是自然界的一个莫大讽刺:土壤中所能获得的氮肥量往往对植物的生长构成了一 个上限,虽然植物的叶子被沐浴在一片氮气的海洋中. 47. Unless they succeed,the yield gains of the Green Revolution will be largely lost even if the genes in legumes that equip those plants to enter into a symbiosis with nitrogen fixers are identified and isolated,and even if the transfer of those gene complexes,once they are found, becomes possible. (4) 除非他们能取得成功,不然的话,绿色革命的产量收益将在很大程度上损失殆尽,即使豆科植物 中使这些植物有条件进入到与固氮细菌共生关系的基因可被辨识出来和分离开来的话,且即使这 些基因综合体(gene complex),一旦被发现之后,其移植得以成为可能的话. 48. Its subject(to use Maynard Mack's categories)is "life-as-spectacle," for readers, diverted by its various incidents,observe its hero Odysseus primarily from without;the tragic Iliad, however,presents "life-as-experience":readers are asked to identify with the mind of Achilles,

whose motivations render him a not particularly likable hero. (5) 其主题〔若借鉴梅纳德.迈克(Maynard Mack)的两个分类范畴的话〕是"人生作为外部景象", 因为读者的注意力被作品那形形色色的事件所分散,主要是从外部来观察其主人公奥德修斯 (Odyssus)的;然而,富于悲剧色彩的《伊利亚特》所表现的则是"人生作为内心体验":读者 被要求与阿基琉斯(Achilles)的心灵产生共鸣,而其行为动机却致使他变作一个并非特别惹人喜 爱的主人公. (从分号后的语句推理出前面的意思) 注:hero:主人公;without:外部;likable:有吸引力的 49. Most striking among the many asymmetries evident in an adult flatfish is eye placement: before maturity one eye migrates,so that in an adult flatfish both eyes are on the same side of the head. (3+) 在一条成年比目鱼身上显著存在的诸多不对称(asymmetry)特征中,最为吸人注目的是眼睛的摆 位:在成年之前,一只眼睛发生移动,因此在成年比目鱼身上,两只眼睛均位于头部的同一侧面. 50. A critique of Handlin's interpretation of why legal slavery did not appear until the 1660's suggests that assumptions about the relation between slavery and racial prejudice should be reexamined , and that explanations for the different treatment of Black slaves in North and South America should be expanded .(4) 一个对于 H 的关于为何法律上的奴隶制没有在 17 世纪 60 年代以前出现的原因所作解释的批评显 示,关于奴隶制和种族偏见之间的关系的假说应当重新检查,而且显示出,对于在北美和南美之 间的对黑怒的不同处理的解释应当被扩展. 51. The best evidence for the layered-mantle thesis is the well-established fact that volcanic rocks found on oceanic islands,islands believed to result from mantle plumes arising from the lower mantle, are composed of material fundamentally different from that of the mid-ocean ridge system, whose source,most geologists contend,is the upper mantle. (5 -) 对于地幔分层论点来说,最好的证据乃这样一个确认的事实,即在那些海洋岛屿——这些岛屿据 信是源于由下层地幔升上来的地幔柱状溶岩流(mantle plume)——上发现的火山岩石,是由与海 洋中部山脊系统的物质根本不同的物质构成的,而这一海洋中部山脊系统的成因,大多数地质学 家论辩道,为上部地幔. 52. Some geologists, however, the basis of observations concerning mantle xenoliths, argue on that the mantle is not layered,but that heterogeneity is created by fluids rich in "incompatible elements" ( elements tending toward liquid rather than solid state ) percolating upward and transforming portions of the upper mantle irregularly,according to the vagaries of the fluids' pathways. (4+) 但是,某些地质学家,以对地幔捕虏岩体(xenolith)所作的观察为依据,指出地幔并非是分层排 列的,相反,地幔的异质性是由那些富含"不相容成分"的流质构成的,这些成分趋向于流体而 非固体的状态,自下而上渗透扩散,并依照这些流质流向的任意性,不规则地将上部地幔的某些 部分予以改变. 53. Fallois proposed that Proust had tried to begin a novel in 1908, abandoned it for what was to be a long demonstration of Saint-Beuve's blindness to the real nature of great writing , found the essay giving rise to personal memories and fictional developments ,and allowed these to take over it a steadily developing novel. (5 -) F 认为,P 在 1908 年试图开始写一部小说,又为了写一部批判 S-B 的 伟大作品的真正本质的视

而不见的长篇的证明而放弃了这部小说,其后又发现这一论文又勾起了其个人记忆及小说情节的 萌生,使得后者取而代之形成了一部稳定展开的小说. 54. The very richness and complexity of the meaningful relationships that kept presenting and rearranging themselves on all levels,from abstract intelligence to profound dreamy feelings, made it difficult for Proust to set them out coherently. (5) 各种有意义的联系在所有的层次上,自抽象的理性至深刻的梦幻般的情感,层出不穷并不断重新 组合排列;正是这些有意义的联系的丰富性和复杂性,致使普鲁斯特难于将它们错落有致地安排 好. 55. But those of who hoped, with Kolb, that Kolb's newly published complete edition of Proust' s correspondence for 1909 would document the process in greater detail are disappointed. (4) 但是我们当中的那些希望(也算上 K 本人)K 新出版的 P1909 年书信的全集能够更加详细的记录 下这一过程的人都大失所望. 56. Now we must also examine the culture as we Mexican Americans have experienced it , passing from a sovereign people to compatriots with newly arriving settlers to , finally ,a conquered people – a charter minority on our own land. (5 -) 现在我们必须也按照我们墨西哥裔的美国人的经历来审视这个文化,我们的经历是从一个主权的 民族变成了新来的定居者的同胞,在最终沦落成为一个被征服的民族——在我们自己的土地上的 契约的少数民族. 57. It is possible to make specific complementary DNA' (cDNA' that can serve as molecular s s) probes to seek out the messenger RNA' (mRNA' of the peptide hormones. If brain cells are making s s) the hormones,the cells will contain these Mrna'S. If the products the brain cells make resemble the hormones but are not identical to them,then the cDNA's should still bind to these mRNA's,but should not bind as tightly as they would to mRNA's for the true hormones. (4) 科学家可以制造出特异的 (specific) 互补 DNA' cDNA' , ( s s) 以此作为分子探子 (molecular probe) , 探觅出肽激素的信使 RNA's(mRNA's).如果大脑正在制造着肽激素,则细胞就会含有这些 信使 RNA's.假若细胞所制造的产品类似于肽激素但并非与这些肽激素全然相同,那么,互补 cDNA's 应仍然和这些信使 mDNA's 粘结的程度.含有这些 mRNA's 的脑细胞然后就可以被 分离开来,研究者可对其信使 RNA's 进行解码,以确定它们的蛋白质产品究竟是什么,并确定 这些蛋白质产品在何种程度上类似于真正的肽激素. 58. The molecular approach to detecting peptide hormones using cDNA probes should also be to much faster than the immunological method because it can take years of tedious purifications isolate peptide hormones and then develop antiserums to them. (4) 采用 cDNA 探子来测定肽激素的这一分子生物学方法同时也应该比免疫学的方法速度来得快,因 为对于免疫的方法来说,需耗费好几年枯燥的提纯进程,方能将肽素分离了出来,然后再培养出 针对它们的抗血清. 59. Nevertheless, researchers of the Pleistocene epoch have developed all sorts of more or less fanciful model schemes of how they would have arranged the Ice Age had they been in charge of events. (3+) 然而,研究 P 时代的研究者发展除了各种各样的或多或少有些奇怪思想的模型系统,用来显示如 果由他们来决定地质事件的话他们将会如何安排冰川纪. 60. This succession was based primarily on a series of deposits and events not directly related to

glacial and interglacial periods,rather than on the more usual modern method of studying biological remains found in interglacial beds themselves interstratified within glacial deposits. (4) 这一序列演替(succession)所依据的,主要是一系列与冰川期和间冰期并不直接相关的地质沉积 物和地质事件,而不是依据更为普遍的现代方法,去研究间冰层(interglacial bed)中所发现的生 物残留物,而这些间冰层本身又在冰川沉积物发生间层化(interstatified). 61. There have been attempts to explain these taboos in terms of inappropriate social relationships either between those who are involved and those who are not simultaneously involved in the satisfaction of a bodily need,or between those already satiated and those who appear to be shamelessly gorging.(5) 人们试图对这些禁忌作出解释,所依据的要么是那些正置身于某一身体需要满足的人与那些并置 身于某一身体需要之满足的人之间的,要么是那些早已酒足饭饱的人与那些正在不知羞耻地狼吞 虎咽失之间的不相称的社会关系. 62. Many critics of Family Bronte's novel Wuthering Heights see its second part as a counterpoint that comments on, it does not reverse, first part, if the where a "romantic" reading receives more confirmation. (5) 研究艾米丽.勃朗特(Emily Bronte)小说《呼啸山庄》(Wuthering Heights)的许多文学评论家, 将小说的第二部分视作一种对比物,即使没有将第一部分予以逆转的话,也是在对第一部分作出 一种诠释评判,而在小说第一部分中,一种"浪漫的"的读解能获得更为充分的确证. 63. Granted that the presence of these elements need not argue an authorial awareness of novelistic construction comparable to that of Henry James, their presence does(15) encourage attempts to unify the novel's heterogeneous parts. (4+) 诚然,这些因素的存在并不能证明作者对小说架构的意识可与亨利.詹姆斯(Henry James)的那 种意识相比拟;然则,任何力图将小说所有形形色色的因素统一起来的做法,在某种程度上注定 是无法令人信服的. Granted that:大家都统一,当然,表让步,=admitted , of course. 64. This is not because such an interpretation necessarily stiffens into a thesis although rigidity in ( any interpretation of this or of any novel is always a danger),but because Wuthering Heights has recalcitrant elements of undeniable power that,ultimately,resist inclusion in an all-encompassing interpretation. (5) 这倒不是因为这样的一种解释必定会僵化成为一个命题(尽管对这部或任何一部小说的解释中, 僵化死板总是一种危险),而是因为《呼啸山庄》拥有一些极难驾御的因素,以其无可辩驳的力 度,最终拒绝被囿于一个囊括无遗的解释中. 65. The isotopic composition of lead often varies from one source of common copper ore to another, with variations exceeding the measurement error; preliminary studies indicate and virtually uniform is topic composition of the lead from a single copper-ore source. (4) 铅的同位素构成经常在一种普通铜矿石来源与另一种铜矿石来源之间存在差异,其差异程度超出 测量误差;而最初的研究表明,对于来自单独一个铜矿石来源的铅来说,其同位素构成几乎是毫 无二致的. 66. More probable is bird transport,either externally,by accidental attachment of the seeds to feathers,or internally,by the swallowing of fruit and subsequent excretion of the seeds. (3+) 更有可能的是鸟类运输:或者是通过外部途径,即由于种籽偶然粘附在羽毛上;或者是通过内部 方式,即由于鸟类吞食果子并随后将种籽排泄出来.

67. A long-held view of the history of English colonies that became the United States has been that England' policy toward these colonies before 1763 was dictated by commercial interests and that a s change to a more imperial policy , dominated by expansionist militarist objectives , generated the tensions that ultimately led to the American Revolution . (4+) 一个对于后来成了美国的英国殖民地的历史的长久以来的观点, 认为英国在 1763 年以前对于这些 殖民地的政策被经济利益所支配,而且认为一种向着更大程度帝国制度的政策上的转变——为扩 张主义的军事目标所左右——产生了最终导致美国革命的紧张气氛. 68. It is not known how rare this resemblance is,or whether it is most often seen in inclusions of silicates such as garnet,whose crystallography is generally somewhat similar to that of diamond; but when present,the resemblance is regarded as compelling evidence that the diamonds and inclusions are truly cogenetic. (4) 现在尚不知这种类似稀少到何种地步, 也不知道是否它最常见于象石榴石一类的硅酸盐内含物中, 而这类物质的晶体结构普遍地在某种程度上类似于金刚石的晶体结构.但一旦存在,这种类似就 被视作极有说服力的证据,证明金刚石与内含物确是同源的. 69. Even the "radical" critiques of this mainstream research model,such as the critique developed in Divided Society,attach the issue of ethnic assimilation too mechanically to factors of economic and social mobility and are thus unable to illuminate the cultural subordination of Puerto Ricans as a colonial minority. (4+) 即使是对这一主流研究模型的"激进"批评,诸如《分裂的社会》(Divided Society)一书中所提 出的那种批判,亦将少数民族同化问题过分机构地与经济和社会移动性的因素联系起来,因此无 从阐明波多黎各人作为一个殖民地少数民族的文化从属关系. 70. They are called virtual particles in order to distinguish them from real particles,whose lifetimes are not constrained in the same way,and which can be detected. (3) 它们被称为"虚粒子"(virtual particle),以便与实粒子(real particle)区分开来,而实粒子则 不会以这种方式受到制约,并且其存在可得以测定. 71. Open acknowledgement of the existence of women's oppression was too radical for the United Stated in the fifties, and Beauvoir's conclusion , that change in women's economic condition , though insufficient by itself , "remains the basic factor " in improving women's situation , was particularly unacceptable . (4+) 公开对妇女压迫的存在的承认对于 50 年代的美国而言有些过分激进,而且 B 的结论,即妇女经 济状况的变化,经管它本身不是一个充分的因素,但是"仍然是提高妇女地位的根本因素"的观 点,尤其无法令人接受. 72. Other theorists propose that the Moon was ripped out of the Earth's rocky mantle by the Earth's collision with another large celestial body after much of the Earth's iron fell to its core. (4) 其他的理论家提出, 在地球的大部分铁沉入到地核之后, 由于地球与另一个庞大的天体发生碰撞, 月亮便从地球那石质的地幔中撕裂开来而形成的. Rip:撕开;拨去;在本文是撕开的意思. 73. However , recent scholarship has strongly suggested that those aspects of early New England culture that seem to have been most distinctly Puritan, such as the strong religious orientation and the communal impulse, were not even typical of New England as a whole, but were largely confined to the two colonies of Massachusetts and Connecticut. (4) 然而,进来的学术研究强烈的显示那些看来最为明确的请教徒的早期新英格兰文化的一些方面,

比如强烈的宗教导向和团体意识,就整体而言却不是新英格兰的典型特征,而是在很大程度上只 局限与马萨诸赛和康涅狄格两个州. 74. Thus,what in contrast to the Puritan colonies appears to Davis to be peculiarly Southern— acquisitiveness,a strong interest in politics and the law,and a tendency to cultivate metropolitan cultural models—was not only more typically English than the cultural patterns exhibited by Puritan Massachusetts and Connecticut,but also almost certainly characteristic of most other early modern British colonies from Barbados north to Rhode Island and New Hampshire. (4) 因此,那些与(北方)清教殖民地形成鲜明对比,并在戴维斯教授的心目中显得具有特殊南方色 彩的特征——占有欲,对政治和法律的浓厚兴趣,以及培养大都市文化模式的倾向——不仅仅要 比清教的马萨诸塞州和康乃涅克州所展现出来的文化模式更具有典型的英国色彩,并且几乎毫无 疑问地构成了绝大多数其它早期近代英国殖民地的特征, 从巴巴多斯北至罗得岛和新罕布什尔州. 75. Portrayals of the folk of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, whom he remembers from early childhood, of the jazz musicians and tenement roofs of his Harlem days, of Pittsburgh steelworkers, and his reconstruction of classical Greek myths in the guise of the ancient Black kingdom of Benin, attest to this.(5) 一些描述,关于他从小就记得的北卡罗来纳州的 M 县的人民,关于他在 H 的日子里的爵士乐手 和公寓的房顶,关于匹兹堡的钢铁工人的描述和他的假借古代 B 国对古希腊神话得宠俗,都表现 了这一点.In the guise of :"假借,在…的幌子下,假装". 76. A very specialized feeding adaptation in zooplankton is that of the tadpolelike appendicularian who lives in a walnut-sized (or smaller) balloon of mucus equipped with filters that capture and concentrate phytoplankton. (4) 浮游动物体内一种极特殊的进食适应性变化是蝌蚪状的尾海鞘纲动物(appendicularian)的那种适 应性变化,而尾海鞘纲动物则存活于核桃大小(或更小)的黏液球囊内,装备有过滤器,用以捕 捉和集中浮游植物. 77. These historians,however,have analyzed less fully the development of specifically feminist ideas and activities during the same period. (3+) 但是,这些史学家还不曾充分地分析同一时期中那些具体的女权主义思想和活动的发展. 78. Apparently most massive stars manage to lose sufficient material that their masses drop below the critical value of 1.4 M before they exhaust their nuclear fuel. (5) 显然,大多数的巨星能够失去足够多的物质以至于在燃尽其核燃料以前他们的质量下降到关键值 1.4M 以下.难在:sufficient …that… = so much (many ) … that… 79. This is so even though armed forces operate in an ethos of institutional change oriented toward occupational equality and under the federal sanction of equal pay for equal work.(5) 即使是武装部队是在一种趋向职业平等的制度变迁的风气中运作的时候,而且即使部队是在联邦 政府的同工同酬的约束下运行的时候,情况仍然是这样. 80. When the core of a giant star whose mass surpasses 1.4 times the present mass of our Sun (M ⊙) exhausts its nuclear fuel, is unable to support its own weight and collapses into a tiny neutron star. it (4) 当一颗质量超过我们的太阳目前质量(M⊙)1.4 倍的巨星的内核耗竭其核燃料时,它便无法支撑 自身的重量,并收缩成为一颗小型中子星(neutron star). 81. An impact (on the Mars) capable of ejecting a fragment of the Martian surface into an

Earth-intersecting orbit is even less probable than such an event on the Moon, in view of the Moon's smaller size and closer proximity to Earth. (5) 一个能够把活性表面的碎片射入地球交叉轨道的碰撞发生的可能性甚至小于这种事件在月亮上发 生的可能性,考虑到月亮更小的尺寸及其与地球接近的程度. 注:in view of :考虑到,由于=because of; 82. Not only are liver transplants never rejected,but they even induce a state of donor-specific unresponsiveness in which subsequent transplants of other organs,such as skin,from that donor are accepted permanently. (4) 但是,我们已经发现,在许多种老鼠之间,这些移植法的"常规"并没有被肝脏移植物所遵循. 肝脏移植物非但从没遭到过排斥,甚至还诱发了一种供者特异性无应答状态(donor-specific unresponsiveness),在此状态中,随后来自那个供者其它器官的移植物,如皮肤,会永久地被接 受. 83. As rock interface are crossed, the elastic characteristics encountered (by seismic waves) generally change abruptly, which causes part of the energy to be reflected back to the surface, where it is recorded by seismic instruments. (4) 当岩石界面被穿过的时候,震波所遇到的弹性性质通常会发生突然的变化,这就使得一部分能量 被反射回地面,在地面反射回来的波被震波纪录仪记录下来. 84. While the new doctrine seems almost certainly correct,the one papyrus fragment raises the specter that another may be unearthed,showing,for instance,that it was a posthumous production of the Danaid tetralogy which bested Sophocles,and throwing the date once more into utter confusion. (4) 数据资料已被统计出来,或被重新统计出来,以便证明在文体学这方面,《乞援衰女》实际上确 实在《波斯人》和《七雄攻忒拜》(后两者现在则变成了"原始"的剧作)之后以及在轴残片却 唤起了一种幽灵似的疑虑,即另一块残片有可能再度被挖掘出来,并证明,比如说,《乞援衰女》 是作者藉以击败索福克勒斯的《达那特四部曲》的一部死后出版之作,从而将创作年代再度置于 极度的混乱之中. 注:best:击败,=defeat, overcome, outdo 85. The methods that a community devises to perpetuate itself come into being to preserve aspects of the cultural legacy that that community perceives as essential. (3+) 一个社会所创造出来藉以使其自身生生不息,恒久不衰的方法得以形成产生,以保存在这个社会 看来具有本质意义的文化遗产的各个方面. 86. Traditionally, pollination by wind has been viewed as a reproductive process marked by random events in which the vagaries of the wind are compensated for by the generation of vast quantities of pollen, so that the ultimate production of new seeds is assured at the expense of producing much more pollen than is actually used. (4) 传统上,风媒传粉被看成是这样的繁殖过程:其特征就是由一些随即事件的发生,在这些随机事 件里,风的反复无常被大量的产生花粉所补偿,以至于新种子的最终产生被保证了,其代价是产 生远远多于实际使用量的花粉. 87. Because the potential hazards pollen grains are subject to as they are transported over long distances are enormous,wind pollinated plants have,in the view above,compensated for the ensuing loss of pollen through happenstance by virtue of producing an amount of pollen that is one to

three orders of magnitude greater than the amount produced by species pollinated by insects. (5) 由于花粉粒在其长距离的运输过程中所要面临的潜在危险是巨大的,按上述观点来看,由风授粉 的植物补偿了通过偶发事件而伴随造成的花粉损失.其途径是,制造出大于昆虫授粉的植物种类 所产生的花粉量的一至三个数量级的花粉量. 88. For example,the spiral arrangement of scale-bract complexes on ovule-bearing pine cones, where the female reproductive organs of conifers are located,is important to the production of airflow patterns that spiral over the cone' surfaces, s thereby passing airborne pollen from one scale to the next. (5) 例如,带有胚珠的松球的鳞苞综合体的螺旋状安排,亦即松柏目植物雌性殖器官的所在位置,对 于气流模式的形成与产生殊为重要,而这些气流模式在松球的表现盘旋上升,从而把在空气中飞 行的花粉从一个鳞苞传播至下一个鳞苞. 89. Friedrich Engels, however, predicted that women would be liberated from the "social, legal, and economic subordination" of the family by technological developments that made possible the recruitment of "the whole female sex into public industry". (3+) FE,却预测妇女们将被从家庭的"社会,法律和经济压迫"中解放出来,只是通过使得征召"整个 女性阶层进入公共的工业中去"成为可能的技术进步的方式做到的. 90. It was not the change in office technology,but rather the separation of secretarial work, previously seen as an apprenticeship for beginning managers,from administrative work that in the 1880's created a new class of "dead-end" jobs,thenceforth considered "women's work." (5)十九 世纪八十年代,产生了新的一类"没前途"的职业,这并不是因为办公室技术发生了改变,而是 由于秘书工作——在此之前被视作是初起步的经理们的一种习见训练——与行政工作的分离.自 此以后,这类"没前途"的职业便被视作是"女人的工作." 注:本文难度再分不清 separation … from 的搭配关系 91. The increase in the numbers of married women employed outside the home in the twentieth century had less to do with the mechanization of housework and an increase in leisure time for these women than it did with their own economic necessity and with high marriage rates that shrank the available pool of single women workers,previously,in many cases,the only women employers would hire. (5) 二十世纪已婚妇女在家庭以外就业的人数不断增加,这与家务的机械化及这些妇女闲暇时间的增 加并无多大联系,更多地是与妇女自身的经济需要和高婚姻率相关.高婚姻率致使所能雇佣的单 身女工的总量缩减, 而在此之前的许多情形中, 单身女性则是雇主们所愿雇佣的唯一—一类妇女. The pool of 如果后面跟着一群人,则表示劳动力资源 92. For one thing, no population can be driven entirely by density-independent factors all the time. (5)难句类型:正话反说 请思考:如果文中说这句话的前提是:all population are driven by two (and only two) categories of growth parameters, one is density-independent factors, and the other is density-independent factors. 那 么作者说上面的这句话有什么用意. 93. In order to understand the nature of the ecologist's investigation,we may think of the density-dependent effects on growth parameters as the "signal" ecologists are trying to isolate and interpret,one that tends to make the population increase from relatively low values or decrease from

relatively high ones,while the density-independent effects act to produce "noise" in the population dynamics. (5) 为了能理解生态学家们所从事的研究的性质,我们可以把那些作用于增长参数的密度依赖效应视 作生态学家们力图将其分离并予以解释的"信号",正是这一信号倾向于使种群从相对较低的数 值递增,或从相对较高的数值递减;而与此同时,那些密度独立效应起到的作用则构成了种群动 态变化中的"噪音". 94. But the play's complex view of Black self-esteem and human solidarity as compatible is no more "contradictory" than Du Bois ' famous , well-considered ideal of ethnic self-awareness coexisting with human unity, Fanon' emphasis on an ideal internationalism that also accommodates or s national identities and roles. (5) 但该剧有关黑人自尊可与人类团结相融合这一复杂观点,丝毫都不比杜波伊斯(Du Bois)的理想 或法侬(Fanon)的强调来得更为"矛盾":杜波伊斯提出的著名的,深思熟虑的理想是,民族的 自觉可以和人类大同共存;法侬则对理想的国际主义进行了强调,而这一理想的国际主义同样也 能兼容民族身份与角色. No more … than :一样不 注 : self-esteem ideal view and ethnic self-awareness coexisting with human solidarity human unity Black

emphasis national identities and roles accommodates internationalism 95. In which of the following does the author of the passage reinforce his criticism of responses such as Isaacs' to Raisin in the Sun?题干圈套 (5) 在以下哪一个选项中,文章的作者加强了她对类似这样的对于《》做出的反应的批判呢? 96. Inheritors of some of the viewpoints of early twentieth-century Progressive historians such as Beard and Becker,these recent historians have put forward arguments that deserve evaluation. (3+) 作为二十世纪早期"进步派"史学家(如 Beard 和 Becker)等人某些观点的继承者,这些近期的 史学家所提出的观点值得我们予以评价. 97. Despite these vague categories,one should not claim unequivocally that hostility between recognizable classes cannot be legitimately observed. (5) 尽管存在这些模糊范畴,但我们不应该断然声称,在各个易于辨认出的阶层之间所存在的敌对态 度就无法被合理地观察到. 98. Yet those who stress the achievement of a general consensus among the colonists cannot fully understand that consensus without understanding the conflicts that had to be overcome or repressed in order to reach it. (5+) 然而,有些史学家强调在殖民者之间曾出现过一种普遍的一致意见.这些史学家如果不认识到各 种矛盾的存在,就无法充分地理解这种一致意见,而所有那些矛盾只有在被克服或压制之后才有 可能获得那种一致意见. It 指代:general consensus 99. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding socioeconomic class and support for the rebel and Loyalist causes during the American Revolutionary War?(5)插入语多 从文章中可以推断出来,作者最有可能同意以下哪一个关于在美国革命战争中的社会经济各阶层 及其对叛党和保王党的支持的陈述?

100. She wished to discard the traditional methods and established vocabularies of such dance forms as ballet and to explore the internal sources of human expressiveness.(5) 她希望抛弃传统的方法和像芭蕾舞这样已经确立的舞蹈语言, 而希望探索人类表现力的内在源泉. 101. Although it has been possible to infer from the goods and services actually produced what manufactures and servicing trades thought their customers wanted,only a study of relevant personal documents written by actual consumers will provide a precise picture of who wanted what. (5) 尽管有可能从实际制造的商品和服务中可推知制造商和服务业认为他们的顾客所需要的是什么, 但只有对由实际顾客撰写的相关的个人文件进行一番研究,方能提供一幅精确的图画,藉以说明 "什么样的人"需要什么样的东西. 102. With regard to this last question, we might note in passing that Thompson, while rightly restoring laboring people to the stage of eighteen-century English history, has probably exaggerated the opposition of these people to the inroads of capitalist consumerism in general: for example, laboring people in eighteen-century England readily shifted from home-brewed beer to standardized beer produced by huge, heavily capitalized urban breweries.(4) 关于这个最后的问题,我们可以顺便指出,T 尽管正确的使劳动人民重返十八世纪英国的历史舞 台,但是她又可能吹嘘了这些人对于资本主义消费观在普遍意义上的敌视态度;比如说,十八世 纪的英国劳动人民就很容易从家酿的啤酒转而引用由大型的,资本密集的城市酿酒厂生产的标准 啤酒.In passing:顺便的,随便的,偶然的 103. The correlation of carbon dioxide with temperature, of course, does not establish whether changes in atmospheric composition caused the warming and cooling trends or were caused by their. (4+) 当然二氧化碳与大气温度之间的相互联系并不能确定到底是大气成分的变化引起了气候的变暖和 变冷的趋势,还是大气成分的变化是由气候的冷暖变化造成的. 104. Such philosophical concerns as the mind-body problem or,more generally,the nature of human knowledge they believe,are basic human questions whose tentative philosophical solutions have served as the necessary foundations on which all other intellectual speculation has rested. (5 -) 他们相信,诸如灵与肉的问题,或更普遍而言,人类知识的性质等此类哲学关注,均是一些基本 的人类问题, 其探索性的哲学答案已构成一个必要的基础, 其它所有的智力思辩均赖以建立其上. 105. The idea of an autonomous discipline called "philosophy," distinct from and sitting in judgment on such pursuits as theology and science turns out,on close examination, be of quite recent to origin. (4) 细作审视,我们便不难发现,一种被称为"哲学"的独立学科——既有别于神学和科学诸般学科, 并高高在上地对其予以评判——的思想,其渊源却是甚为近期的事. 注: in judgment on :审视, sit 做出判断; pursuit:不是追求, 而是指被从事的事业=occupation, career, interest, etc. turn out:被证明是,实际是 106. They were fighting, albeit discreetly, to open the intellectual world to the new science and to liberate intellectual life from ecclesiastical philosophy and envisioned their work as contributing to the growth, not of philosophy, but of research in mathematics and physics.(5-)他们战斗着,尽管是谨慎 的,来为学术界打开新科学的大门,而且去把学术生活从宗教哲学中解脱出来,而且他们把自己 的工作看成是对科学和物理学而不是对哲学成长做出了贡献. 107. But the recent discovery of detailed similarities in the skeletal structure of the flippers in all

three groups undermines the attempt to explain away superficial resemblance as due to convergent evolution — the independent development of similarities between unrelated groups in response to similar environmental pressures. (4) 但是,最近在所有这三类动物身上,对鳍肢的骨骼结构所存在的细致共同点的发现足以削弱这样 一种企图,即把表面上的近似作为趋同进化所致的结果来将其解释掉.而所谓的趋同进化 (convergent evolution),是指在互不相关的生物群体之间,作为对类似的环境压力作出的反应, 彼此独立的发展形成某些相同特征. 108. Human genes contain too little information even to specify which hemisphere of the brain each of a human' 10' neurons should occupy, alone the hundreds of connections that each neuron s ' let makes. (5) 人类因基所包含的信息是如此之少, 以致于就连去具体规定人类 1011 的神经细胞中任意一个细胞 应占据大脑的哪个半脑都无法做到,更不用提每个神经细胞所会形成的数百种连接. 109. For the woman who is a practitioner of feminist literary criticism, the subjectivity versus objectivity, or critic-as-artist-or-scientist, debate has special significance; for her, the question is not only academic, but political as well, and her definition will court special risks whichever side of the issue it favors.(5) 对于一个从事女权主义文学评论的妇女来说,主观性还是客观性,或者说评论家应该做艺术家还 是作科学家的争论有着特殊的重要性;对她来说,此问题不仅仅是学术上的,而且还是政治上的, 并且她所给出的定义,不管有利于问题的哪一方面,都会招致特殊的风险. 110. If she defines feminist criticism as objective and scientific – a valid, verifiable, intellectual method that anyone, whether man or woman , can perform – the definition not only precludes the critic-as-artist approach, but may also impede accomplishment of the utilitarian political objectives of those who seek to change the academic establishment and its thinking, especially about sex roles.(4)假 如她把女权主义文学评论定义为客观的和科学性的——一个有效的,可证实的,理性的,无论男 女都可以使用的方法——那么,这个定义不仅将排挤掉批评家作为艺术家的方法,而且可能会阻 碍那些寻求改变学术界的现状的及其思维,特别是有关性别角色的思维的人们的实用主义的政治 目标的成就. 111. These questions are political in the sense that the debate over them will inevitably be less an exploration of abstract matters in a spirit of disinterested inquiry than an academic power struggle in which the careers and professional fortunes of many women scholars-only now entering the academic profession in substantial numbers-will be at stake,and with them the chances for a distinctive contribution to humanistic understanding,a contribution that might be an important influence against sexism in our society. (5+) 这些问题之所以带有政治性质,因为不可避免地,围绕这些问题展开的争论与其说是一种在客观 冷静科研精神指导下对抽象问题的探索,倒不如说是一种学术上的权力斗争.在此斗争中,许多 女学者中——只是在现在才开始以众多的人数进入学术界——的学术生涯和职业命运将处于存亡 攸关的危急关头,与她们相伴随的是对人文理解作出一种独特贡献的机遇,这一贡献则很有可能 成为消除我们社会中所存在的性别主义的一股重要影响. 112. Perhaps he believed that he could not criticize American foreign policy without endangering the support for civil rights that he had won from the federal government.(4-)他有可能相信,他不能 够即批评美国的对外政策,同时又不危及到他从联邦政府那里已经获得的对民权运动的支持.

113. However, some broods possess a few snails of the opposing hand, and in predominantly sinistral broods, the incidence of dextrality is surprisingly high.(5)可是,一些窝中会有一些相反旋 向的蜗牛,而且在主要是左旋的窝种,出现右旋的几率是令人惊奇的高. 114. In experiments,an injection of cytoplasm from dextral eggs changes the pattern of sinistral eggs,but an injection from sinistral eggs does not influence dextral eggs. 在实验中,用取自右旋卵子的细胞质进行的注射,可改变左旋卵子的模式;用取自左旋卵子的细 胞质进行的注射却不能影响到右旋卵子. 115. Recently some scientists have concluded that meteorites found on Earth and long believed to have a Martian origin might actually have been blasted free of Mars's gravity by the impact on Mars of other meteorites. (4+) 最近, 某些科学家得出结论认为, 那些在地球上发现的并一直被相信源自火星的陨石 (meteorite) , 实际上有可能是由于其它的陨石撞击火星而致使其被震离火星的重力作用范围. 116. Under the force of this view,it was perhaps inevitable that the art of rhetoric should pass from the status of being regarded as of questionable worth (because although it might be both a source of pleasure and a means to urge people to right action,it might also be a means to distort truth and a source of misguided action)to the status of being wholly condemned. (4) 在这种观点的力量作用下,一件或许是不可避免的事情发生了:修辞艺术竟然从被视和具有让人 怀疑的价值这样一种地位(因为尽管它有可能既构成一种歪曲真理的手段和误导行为的来源)转 变到彻底遭谴责的地位. 117. None of these translations to screen and stage,however,dramatize the anarchy at the conclusion of A Connecticut Yankee , which ends with the violent overthrow of Morgan ' s three-year-old progressive order and his return to the nineteenth century,where he apparently commits suicide after being labeled a lunatic for his incoherent babblings about drawbridges and battlements. (4) 然则,在所有这些被搬上银幕和舞台的改编作品中,没有任何一部作品能生动地再现《康乃涅克 州的美国佬》结尾处的无政府状态.而在原作结尾处所描述的情节是,摩根历时三年之久苦心经 营的进步事业被暴力推翻,他又重返于十九世纪,在由于他的那些有关吊桥和城垛的语无伦次的 唠叨而被列为疯子之后,显然自杀身亡. 118. Calculations of the density of alloys based on Bernal-type models of the alloys metal component agreed fairly well with the experimentally determined values from measurements on alloys consisting of a noble metal together with a metalloid,such as alloys of palladium and silicon,or alloys consisting of iron,phosphorus,and carbon,although small discrepancies remained. (5) 以伯纳尔所建立的旨在研究合金中金属成分的那类模型为基础, 研究人员对合金密度进行了计算, 这些计算相当程度上与某些合金测量中通过实验确定的数据趋于一致,尽管一些细小的差异依然 存在.实验中测量的那类合金由一贵金属和一准金属构成,例如,钯和硅的合金,或由铁,磷, 和碳组成的合金. 119. And Walzer advocates as the means of eliminating this tyranny and of restoring genuine equality "the abolition of the power of money outside its sphere".(4) 而起,W 倡议把"在金钱的圈子之外废除金钱的力量"作为笑出这种暴政并且重新获得真正的平 等的方法. 120. It is now established that the Milky Way is far more extended and of much greater mass than

was hitherto thought. 现在,这已成为一个不争的事实:银河系要比迄今为止所想象的要来得远为浩瀚广阔,并具有远 高得多的质量. 121. Is it not tyrannical, in Pascal' sense, to insist that those who excel in "sensitivity" or "the s ability to express compassion" merit equal wealth with those who excel in qualities (such as "the capacity for hard work") essential in producing wealth? (5) 按照 P 的观点,坚持那些在"敏感性"或"表达同情心的能力"上突出的人应该与那些在对赚钱 很重要的能力(比如"刻苦工作的能力")上突出的人得到同样的财富,难道这种做法就不是暴 政么? 122. Yet Waizer's argument,however deficient,does point to one of the most serious weaknesses of capitalism-namely,that it brings to predominant positions in a society people who,no matter how legitimately they have earned their material rewards,often lack those other qualities that evoke affection or admiration. (5) 然则,沃尔泽的论点,无论它不充分到何种地步,确实揭示了资本主义体制中最严重的一个弱点, 即它将某一类人置于社会中的显赫地位置,这类人无论以怎样合法的方式获得了其物质报偿,却 常常缺乏其它那些能唤起他人受戴和钦佩的品质. 123. The appreciation of traditional oral American Indian literature has been limited,hampered by poor translations and by the difficulty,even in the rare culturally sensitive and aesthetically satisfying translation,of completely conveying the original's verse structure,tone,and syntax.(4 - ) 对美国印第安人传统口头文学的欣赏,一直被质量低劣的翻译所限制和妨碍,并且即使是那种不 可多得的既体现着文化敏感性, 又在美学上令人满意的译作, 也难以完全传递出原作的诗体结构, 语调和句法. 注:the difficulty (….) of:括号中的是插入语 124. Mores, which embodied each culture' ideal principles for governing every citizen, were s developed in the belief that the foundation of a community lies in the cultivation of individual powers to be placed in service to the community. (4+)"风俗习惯",体现了每一文化制约每个公民的理想 准则,它是在这种信仰中发展而来的,即一个社会的基础在于个人能力的培养,并将这些个人能 力置于对社会的服务之中. 125. Only in the case of the February Revolution do we lack a useful description of participants that might characterize it in the light of what social history has taught us about the process of revolutionary mobilization. (5) 唯独在二月革命(the February Revolution)这一情形中,我们缺乏一种有用的有关参加者的描述, 而这一描述则有可能按照社会历史有关革命动员过程所教给我们的内容来勾画出这场革命的性 质. 126. As a consequence, it may prove difficult or impossible to establish for a successful revolution a comprehensive and trustworthy picture of those who participated, or to answer even the most basic questions one might pose concerning the social origins of the insurgents.(5) 作为一个结果,有两件事就变得很困难或者根本不可能,1,为一次成功的革命建立起一个详尽的 并可信的关于参加者的描述;2,回答人们会问的,关于起义者的社会背景的甚至是最为基本的问 题. 127. Anthropologists and others are on much firmer ground when they attempt to describe the

cultural norms for a small homogeneous tribe or village than when they undertake the formidable task of discovering the norms that exist in a complex modern nation state composed of many disparate groups. (4) 当人类学家和其他人试图去描述一个小规模的同一性质(homogeneous)部落或村落的文化标准 时,他们处在一种要坚实得多的基础上.相对而言,当他们着手从事这样一个艰巨的任务,即去 揭示存在于一个复杂的,由许多彼此间毫无联系的群体所构成的现代单一民族的独立国家 (nation-state)时,他们就具备一个同样坚实的基础. 128. The Italian influence is likely, whatever Valdez immediate source: the Mexican carpas themselves are said to have originated from the theater pieces of a sixteenth-century Spanish writer inspired by encounters with Italian commedia dell'arte troupes on tour in Spain.(4+) 不管 V 的直接来源是什么,意大利的影响都有可能存在:墨西哥的 C 戏剧本身就被认为来自于 16 世纪的西班牙作家的戏剧作品, 而那些作家的灵感来自与他们与在西班牙巡回演出的意大利 cd 剧团的遭遇. 129. It has thus generally been by way of the emphasis on oral literary creativity that these Chicano writers,whose English language works are sometimes uninspired,developed the powerful and arresting language that characterized their Spanish-language works. 因此,一般而言,正是通过对口 头文学创造性的强调,这些奇卡诺作家——其英语作品时常显得缺乏灵感——才得以发展一种强 有力的和富于吸引力的语言,并以此构成了他们西班牙语作品的特征. 130. To measure them properly,monitoring equipment would have to be laid out on a grid at intervals of at most 50 kilometers,with sensors at each grid point lowered deep in the ocean and kept there for many months. 为了恰当地测量它们,监测设备必须被设置在一网络上,彼此的间距最多为五十公里,位于每个 网点的感应器沉放至海洋深处,并在许多个月中一直固定在那里. 131. This declaration, which was echoed in the text of the Fourteenth Amendment, was designed primarily to counter the Supreme Court's ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford that Black people in the United States could be denied citizenship. (3) 这一在第十四条修正案的文本中被复述的宣言,主要是旨在对抗最高法院在"Dred Scott 诉 Sandford"一案中的判决,此判决裁定,在美国的黑人可被剥夺公民权. 132. The broad language of the amendment strongly suggests that its framers were proposing to write into the Constitution not a laundry list of specific civil rights but a principle of equal citizenship that forbids organized society from treating any individual as a member of an inferior class. (4)第十 四条修正案的宽泛笼统的语言强烈地暗示,其制定者所意欲载入宪法的不是一张具体民法的细目 清单,而是一种平等公民权的原则,这一原则禁止有组织的社会将任何一个个人作为劣等阶层的 成员来对待. 133. This doctrine has broadened the application of the Fourteenth Amendment to other, nonracial forms of discrimination,for while some justices have refused to find,any legislative classification other than race to be constitutionally disfavored,most have been receptive to arguments that at least some nonracial discriminations. sexual Discrimination in particular, are "suspect" and deserve this heightened scrutiny by the courts. (5) 所谓"怀疑分类",意指那种在有可能被理解成以种族为基础,针对某一群体进行的歧视这一信 条扩展了第十四条修正案的适用范围,使其同样也适用于其它的,非种族形式的歧视.因为虽然

某些法官拒不将除种族以外的立法分类裁定为非法的, 但绝大多数法官已经接受了这样一个论点, 即至少某些非种族性质的歧视,尤其是性别歧视,是"值得怀疑的",并理应接受法庭这种更高 程度上的审视. 134. Only when a system possesses natural or artificial boundaries that associate the water within it with the hydrologic cycle may the entire system properly be termed hydrogeologic. 只有当某一地质系统拥有自然的或人工的界限,将该系统内的水与水文循环起来,这整个系统方 能被恰当地称为与水文地质学相关.


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