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Stylistics


Lecture 2
文体学 —— 历史与发展 Stylistics:History and Development

1. Style and Stylistics
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Style: variation in the language use of an individual, such as formal/informal style Literary style: ways of writing employed in literature and by individual writers; the way the mind of the author expresses itself in words

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Stylistics “studies the features of situationally distinctive uses (varieties) of language, and tries to establish principles capable of accounting for the particular choices made by individual and social groups in their use of language.” (Crystal 1980)

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Stylistics is the study of varieties of language whose properties position that language in context. For example, the language of advertising, politics, religion, individual authors, etc., or the language of a period in time, all belong in a particular situation. In other words, they all have ?place?.
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Stylistics also attempts to establish principles capable of explaining the particular choices made by individuals and social groups in their use of language, such as socialisation, the production and reception of meaning, critical discourse analysis and literary criticism.

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Other features of stylistics include the use of dialogue, including regional accents and people?s dialects, descriptive language, the use of grammar, such as the active voice or passive voice, the distribution of sentence lengths, the use of particular language registers, etc.

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Many linguists do not like the term ?stylistics?. The word ?style?, itself, has several connotations that make it difficult for the term to be defined accurately.
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However, in Linguistic Criticism, Roger Fowler makes the point that, in non-theoretical usage, the word stylistics makes sense and is useful in referring to an enormous range of literary contexts, such as John Milton?s ?grand style?, the ?prose style? of Henry James, the ?epic? and ?ballad style? of classical Greek literature, etc. (Fowler, 1996: 185).
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In addition, stylistics is a distinctive term that may be used to determine the connections between the form and effects within a particular variety of language.
Therefore, stylistics looks at what is ?going on? within the language; what the linguistic associations are that the style of language reveals.

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Review
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文体的概念:广义与狭义
All genres vs. Literary texts 文体学的概念:广义与狭义 General vs. Literary stylistics Linguistic Approaches in Stylistic Analysis of Varieties of Writing

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Literary Stylistics: Crystal (1987) observes that, in practice, most stylistic analysis has attempted to deal with the complex and ?valued? language within literature, i.e. ?literary stylistics?.
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The scope is sometimes narrowed to concentrate on the more striking features of literary language, for instance, its ?deviant? and abnormal features, rather than the broader structures that are found in whole texts or discourses. For example, the compact language of poetry is more likely to reveal the secrets of its construction to the stylistician than is the language of plays and novels.
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Lead-in Questions
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What do you know about the stylistic studies in China? How does linguistic theories affect the studies on stylistics?
What do you know about the different schools of thoughts in stylistics?
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西方古代的文体学研究
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古希腊时期
智者派(The Sophists, 500 - 300 B.C.) Oratory–Persuasion in public - Verbal Artistry– Embellishment

–Probability - Neutrality in Truth and Virtue – Logos and Pathos 柏拉图(Plato,427-347 B.C.)
Socrates'(469-399 B.C.) accusation and death of sophistry– True/False Rhetoric – Virtues - Ethos -

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亚里士多德(Aristotle,384-322 B.C.)
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Three Offices: Invention, Arrangement, Style Three types of rhetorical proof: Logos, Pathos, Ethos Three types/genres of civic rhetoric:
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Forensic: Judicial, to decide the truth/falsity of past events Deliberative: Political, to decide necessity of future actions Epideictic: Ceremonial, to praise or blame present values

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古罗马时期
西塞罗(Cicero, 106-43 B.C.)
五艺说(Five Canons): Invention, Disposition or arrangement,
Elocution or Style, Memory, Delivery

昆提良(Quintilian, 35-100 A.D.)
Criticism of style over substance – Emphasis on ethical

application in training of rhetoric (or style)

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西塞罗和昆提良的文体层次说
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High or grand style:calling for strong emotions and elevated
language, to move, or to sway an audience to resolution and decision Middle style:calling for sweetness, smoothness and flowingness, to please, or to win an audience by charming conciliation Low or plain style: calling for quiet simplicity and unadorned language, to teach, or to convince an audience by argument

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Division of stylistic registers

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中世纪(476-1453)至文艺复兴时期
? The Middle Age
Decline of the Roman Empire – Logic over rhetoric in the trivium - Rhetoric as highly scholastic – Rhetoric as an verbal art – Rise of letter writing and sermon writing
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St. Augustine (354-430): the rhetoric of the sermon 智者派占上风,强调雄辩技巧的重要性。

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修辞文体研究的三个流派:
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传统派:Five Canons 拉莫斯派:Elocution/style + delivery

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修辞手段派:tropes

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16th-century: Revival and Rebirth of Classical Rhetoric
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Erasmus (1466-1536): Preference to elocution, and tropes and schemes, Latin Vives (1492-1540): Preference to letter writing, Latin

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The 1500s’ rise of vernacular rhetoric ? Leonard Cox: the earliest book on rhetoric in English The Art or Crafte of Rhetoryke (1524-1530) ? George Puttenham: Five Cannons ? Petrus Ramus (1515-1572):
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Invention + disposition ? dialectic Style (elocution) + memory + delivery ? rhetoric
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17th-century
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the style conform to the subject matter and to the audience, that simple words be employed whenever possible, and that the style should be agreeable. ? Thomas Hobbes(1588-1679): Hobbes, like Bacon, also promoted a simpler and more natural style that used figures of speech sparingly. ? The Royal Society was founded in 1660, which set up a committee to improve the English language. Among the members were John Evelyn (1620-1706), Thomas Sprat (1635-1713), and John Dryden (16311700). ? Thomas Sprat regarded "fine speaking" as a disease, and thought that a proper style should "reject all amplifications, digressions, and swellings of style" and instead "return back to a primitive purity and shortness" (History of the Royal Society, 1667).

Francis Bacon(1561-1626): On matters of style, he proposed that

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While the work of this committee never went beyond planning, John Dryden is often credited with creating and exemplifying a new and modern English style. His central point was that the style should be proper "to the occasion, the subject, and the persons." As such, he advocated the use of English words whenever possible instead of foreign ones, as well as vernacular, rather than Latinate, syntax. His own prose (and his poetry) became exemplars of this new style.

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At the turn of the twentieth century, there was a revival of rhetorical study in the departments of rhetoric and speech at academic institutions, as well as the formation of national and international professional organizations. Theorists generally agree that a significant reason for the revival of the study of rhetoric was the renewed importance of language and persuasion in the increasingly mediated environment of the twentieth century and through the twenty-first century, with the media focus on the wide variations and analyses of political rhetoric and its consequences. The rise of advertising and of mass media such as photography, telegraphy, radio, and film brought rhetoric more prominently into people's lives.

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17世纪启蒙时期

文体学与历史、诗歌、美文学(belle
lettre)联系起来,研究范围得到扩大。
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18世纪
崇高、优良的文体是人的禀赋的最佳体现

和艺术的最高境界(George de Buffon)。
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19世纪

修辞与文体研究的衰落,作文受到关注。
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现代西方文体学的兴起与发展
? 索绪尔与现代语言学的诞生
? 巴利与现代文体学研究的兴起 ? 现代文体学的流派

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作为理论资源的现代文体学
描述文体学 心理文体学 结构主义文体学 转换生成文体学 系统功能文体学 计算文体学 认知文体学
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现代文体学的三个发展阶段
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20世纪初至二十世纪30年代
--从文学作品到日常口语; --从孤立的修辞手段到语言形式与语言环境的结合 --代表人物:Charles Bally

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20世纪30年代至二十世纪50年代末
--Spitzer继承巴利的观点,并将标准运用于文学语言 --Jacobson功能说,Mukarovsky等的前景化说 --代表人物:Leo Spitzer,Roman Jacobson 20世纪50年代末至今 --Chomsky语言学理论打破了结构主义语言学的垄断地位 --语言学家开始关注文学语言,文学批评与与语言研究相结合 --文体研究与语言学理论结合,派生众多的文体学流派
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现代西方文体学流派理论来源
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结构主义理论,如里法泰尔(Riffaterre) 转换生成语言学理论,如 R. Ohmann 系统功能语言学理论,如 M.A.K. Halliday 言语行为理论,如 M. Pratt 话语分析理论,如 M. J. Toolan,P. Simpson,M. Short 计算机统计原理,如 Spolsky

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描述文体学
查理· 巴利:《法语文体学》(1909)
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着眼于研究整个语言的表现手段和效果, 研究抽象的语言如何变成具有各种感情 色彩的活的语言;
探讨了文体学研究的性质、任务和效果; 试图将文体学作为语言学分支建立起来。

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法国描述文体学代表人物:夏尔· 布吕诺、 儒勒· 马鲁佐、马塞尔· 克雷索等

查理· 巴利 1865-1947

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心理文体学
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列奥· 斯皮泽:《文体研究》 方法原理及研究方法 “语文圈循环”:试图通过回复往返的对 文体特征的研究来推断或解释一个作家乃 至一个民族的心理或精神特征。 案例分析:法国作家夏尔-路易·菲利浦的 小说《蒙帕纳斯的比比》

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结构主义文体学
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结构主义诗学 雅各布逊 将语言的修辞方式区分为隐喻结构和转喻 结构

雅各布森
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法国结构主义叙事学: 托多洛夫和格雷马斯把重 点放在对小说文体手段的探讨 上,大大促进了人们对小说文 体属性与特征的认识。
格雷马斯 托多洛夫
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法国结构主义文体学:罗兰?巴特 认为写作即风格,“纯洁的写作”或“零 度的风格”不存在也不可能存在,而现有 文化将既定的写作风格视为自然的、合理 的甚至必不可少的观念,实际上不过是资 产阶级文化秩序的“合法化”需要。
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罗兰· 巴特

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转换生成文体学
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乔姆斯基:转换生成语法理论 能够解释文学语言中特殊语音、词 语和句法形式的意义; 用简单清晰的转换式语言句法结构 分析文学作品,对文学文体的精确 描述和不同作品文体间的比较研究 也很有帮助。 欧曼对福克纳的小说《熊》的分析

乔姆斯基

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系统功能文体学
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韩礼德:系统功能语法 着重从功能的角度来研究语言 选择的过程以及选择的结果所 产生的文体效应

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韩礼德:《语言功能和文学文
体:对威廉 · 戈尔丁的〈继承 者〉的语言的探索 》
韩礼德

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现代语言学和文学批评的影响
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现代文体学的形成与发展在很大程度上得益
于语言学研究的突破。语言学的发展方向大

大开拓了语言对于文学研究的解释能力。
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现代文学批评流派的兴起与发展对现代文体

学批评也影响深远。

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总的来看,现代文体学是现代语言学理论与 现代文学批评理论的基础之上发展起来的一 种研究形态,并且处于进一步的发展之中。

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现代文体学研究的理论特征
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以语言分析为本位 具有较强的可操作性

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强调客观性、实证性

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一、以语言分析为本位
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研究文体离不开对文学语言的分析。 凸现文学的语言性质,从文学文本中语言表 达的层次和效果入手来分析文学文本是文体 学的首要特征。

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一、以语言分析为本位
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虽然存在众多的文体学流派和文体批评方法, 但将文体学同语言学理论与方法联系起来, 突出文学的语言性质,却是文体学研究的共 同特征。

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二、具有较强的可操作性
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古尔灵(Wilfred L. Guerin)等人把文体分析中的
“细读”方法描述为三个相关的可操作性步骤

(《文学批评方法手册》);
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燕卜荪(William Empson)总结了“含混”的七种类型 (《含混七型》);

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利奇(Geoffrey Leech)提出文体特征范畴的

“核对清单”共包括五大类;
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托多洛夫(Tzvetan Todorov)提出叙事文体分 析的四个结构。

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三、强调客观性、实证性
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反对在批评实践中一味凭主观印象和个人感 受进行价值判断,主张对文本进行细读,要 求言必有据,同时又借鉴或采用了现代语言 学的基本理论和方法。

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三、强调客观性、实证性
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试图对文学的语言特征作出精确、系统的描 述,也紧紧把握了文学的存在方式——语言 活动,这也是文体学研究能够得以存在、发 展和逐渐壮大的根本原因。

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3. 文体学批评的操作方法
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语音及其变异分析 词汇及其变异分析

句法及其变异分析
篇章及其变异分析

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书写及其变异分析
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语音及其变异分析
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音韵、节奏、旋律结合成语音。 在文体学批评的语音分析层面,应当特别注 意作为形式因素的音韵与文学文体所表达的 情感或语义之间的内在联系。 文学文本中的语音变异及其常见的情形。
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词汇及其变异分析
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词汇的准确度和表现力。 词汇出现的数目和频率,常常是批评家分析 文学文体特征或文本风格时注意的对象。

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研究文学文本中书面语与口语的选择和运用

是分析文体风格差异的重要途径之一。
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词汇及其变异分析
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方言或俚语的选用也是形成文体特征的重
要因素,恰当的使用常常能使语言新颖、 活泼而且富于表现力。 词汇变异的主要形式 :词序的有意颠倒 、

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词性的活用 、褒词贬用等。

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句法及其变异分析
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句子的长度对文体风格的形成具有一定的 影响。 句法结构研究常常可以作为文体分析的一 个重要方面。

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句法及其变异分析
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句法变异的基本方式一些特殊的句型,如名 词句、无主句、独词句的运用也是文体分析 的重点之一。

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:有意颠倒句子的排列顺序、句法上的有意
重复、递进强调、摒弃或活用标点符号。

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篇章及其变异分析
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篇章结构的研究任务主要是找出各种文体的 结构要素以及这些要素之间的组合关系。就 文学文体而言,篇章结构分析应着眼于结构 的有机整体性。

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篇章及其变异分析
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篇章连接上的不同对文学文体风格的形成
有一定的影响。 句际关系是影响文体效果的重要因素。 篇章变异:主要出现在一些具有“反小说”

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倾向的作品中。

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语域及其变异分析
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语域的决定因素:对象(或读者)是谁; 讲什么内容;用口头还是书面来表达;通 过什么媒介来传递。

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语域及其变异分析
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语域变异的表现形式:在文学作品中大量借
用其他语域的词汇;利用文体分类中存在的

模糊性将文学文体与其他文体交织;在两个
或更多语域的差异对比中寻求文体效果。

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书写及其变异分析
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书写形式:如文字的拼写形式、大小写形式、 连词号的使用、斜体的使用和段落的划分、 语句的排列等等。 书写变异的主要形式:不同文字的混合使用; 非文字符号或图形的插入;利用斜体词来创 造一种耐人寻味的气氛;打破规范的字位布 局形式,用以取得特殊的文体效果。
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Literary Stylistics: In Literary Stylistics, we read the text

closely and with attention to the features, under the headings of lexis, grammar, phonology or sound patterns. When we have obtained a detailed account of all these features, we correlate them or bring them together in an interpretation of the text.
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We try to link “what is being said ” with “how it is being said”, since it is through the latter that the writers can fully express the many complex ideas and feelings that they want to convey.

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Levels of analysis
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Sound effects Vocabulary Phraseology Grammar Implicature

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2. Foregrounding
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The 1960 dream of high rise living soon turned into a nightmare.

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Four storeys have no windows left to smash But in the fifth a chipped sill buttresses Mother and daughter the last mistresses Of that black block condemned to stand, not crash.

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The red-haired woman, smiling, waving to the disappearing shore. She left the maharajah马哈拉加 ; she left innumerable other lights o? passing love in towns and cities and theatres and railway stations all over the world. But Melchior she did not leave.

2.1 What is ?foregrounding??
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In a purely linguistic sense, the term ?foregrounding? is used to refer to new information, in contrast to elements in the sentence which form the background against which the new elements are to be understood by the listener / reader.
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In the wider sense of stylistics, text linguistics, and literary studies, it is a translation of the Czech aktualisace (actualization), a term common with the Prague Structuralists.
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In this sense it has become a spatial metaphor: that of a foreground and a background, which allows the term to be related to issues in perception psychology, such as figure / ground constellations.

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The English term ?foregrounding? has come to mean several things at once:
the (psycholinguistic) processes by which - during the reading act - something may be given special prominence; ? specific devices (as produced by the author) located in the text itself. It is also employed to indicate the specific poetic effect on the reader; ? an analytic category in order to evaluate literary texts, or to situate them historically, or to explain their importance and cultural significance, or to differentiate literature from other varieties of language use, such as everyday conversations or scientific reports.
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Thus the term covers a wide area of meaning. This may have its advantages, but may also be problematic: which of the above meanings is intended must often be deduced from the context in which the term is used.

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2.2 Devices of Foregrounding
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Outside literature, language tends to be automatized; its structures and meanings are used routinely. Within literature, however, this is opposed by devices which thwart the automatism with which language is read, processed, or understood. Generally, two such devices may be distinguished, deviation and parallelism.
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Deviation corresponds to the traditional idea of poetic license: the writer of literature is allowed - in contrast to the everyday speaker to deviate from rules, maxims, or conventions.
These may involve the language, as well as literary traditions or expectations set up by the text itself. ? The result is some degree of surprise in the reader, and his / her attention is thereby drawn to the form of the text itself (rather than to its content). ? Cases of neologism, live metaphor, or ungrammatical sentences, as well as archaisms, paradox, and oxymoron (the traditional tropes) are clear examples of deviation.
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Devices of parallelism are characterized by repetitive structures: (part of) a verbal configuration is repeated (or contrasted), thereby being promoted into the foreground of the reader's perception.
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Traditional handbooks of poetics and rhetoric have surveyed and described (under the category of figures of speech) a wide variety of such forms of parallelism, e.g., rhyme, assonance, alliteration, meter, semantic symmetry, or antistrophe.

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Analysis of literary language
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Foregrounding on the level of lexis Foregrounding on the level of syntax: word order, word groups, deviant or marked structures Rewriting for comparative studies Meaning Context Figurative language


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