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Lesson Planning


The presentations of effective teachers usually appear so spontaneous that no planning is apparent. However, in most cases, these teachers have indeed---formally or informally---carefully planned each daily lesson. They have likely mastered the lesson content and the related teaching skills so well that their delivery is poised, secure and automatic.

------- Moore

Unit 12 Lesson Planning

1. Definition A lesson plan is a framework of a lesson in which teachers make advance decisions about what they hope to achieve and how they would like to achieve it. It may involves the aims, materials, activities, techniques and resources.

2. The Importance of Lesson Planning Teaching is a dynamic activities performed in and out of class, so a well-prepared lesson plan can aid language teachers in a number of the following ways: 1) A clear lesson plan makes the teachers aware of the aims and language contents of the lesson. 2) It helps teachers distinguish the various stages of a lesson and accordingly arrange the different difficulty levels.

3) Proper lesson planning gives teachers the opportunity to anticipate potential problems. 4) Good lesson planning gives teachers confidence in class. 5) By lesson planning, teachers also become aware of the teaching aids that are needed. 6) Lesson planning is a good practice and a sign of professionalism. 7) Lesson planning will enable the teacher to improve class timing. 8) Lesson planning is an aid to continuing development

3. Principles for Good Lesson Planning Generally speaking, there are five basic principles which can guide good lesson planning. 1) Aim: the realistic goals for the lesson. 2) Variety: planning a number of different types of activities and where possible, introducing students to a wide selection of materials so that learning is always interesting, motivating and never monotonous for the students.

3) Flexibility: preparing some extra and alternative tasks and activities as the class does not always go according to the plan so that teachers always have the options to cope with the unexpected situations rather than being the slaves of written plans or one methodology.

4) Learnability: the contents and tasks planned for the lesson should be within the learning capability of the students.

5) Linkage: the stages and the steps within each stage are planned in such a way that they are someway linked with one another.

4. Macro Planning vs. Micro Planning Macro planning is planning over a longer period of time. It is often done by a group of teachers who are teach the same course. Micro planning is planning for a specific unit or a lesson. Teachers may have different ways of writing their own lesson plans. Micro planning should based on macro planning, and macro planning is apt to be modified as lessons go on.

Lesson Planning

Macro planning

Micro planning

Whole course planning

Unit planning One semester planning Lesson planning Half a semester planning

Macro planning is not writing lesson plans fro specific lessons but rather helping teachers get overall view about the course. It involves the following: 1) Knowing about the profession 2) Knowing about the institution 3) Knowing about the learners 4) Knowing about the curriculum/syllabus 5) Knowing about the textbook 6) Knowing about the objectives

Components of a lesson plan

Background information Teaching aims Language contents and skills Stages and procedures Teaching aids assignments Teacher’s after-class reflection

5.1

Background Information
Who the students are; The number of the students in the class;

It should include

Which grade they are in; The time and date of the lesson; The time duration of the lesson

5.2 Teaching Aims
1. to learn the use of comparative form of adjectives Able to use a number of comparative adjectives to compare things or people

2. to learn the structure be going Able to talk about what their to by heart future plans are 3. to listen to a dialogue 4. to learn to write a letter Able to understand a conversation about shopping Can write a personal letter about one’s school life

5. to learn the new vocabulary of Able to name different sports in sports by heart English using pictures as cues and able to tell each other what sports they like.

1) Teaching aims or objectives should focus on the learners’ performance rather than the teachers’. 2) Teaching objectives should emphasize on language skills, knowledge, affects, strategies and culture awareness in order to lay a good foundation for continuing development. (abilities, not linguistic knowledge or concrete activities)

从教师的角度出发, 使学生…” PEP BOOK3 Unit Two ( 从教师的角度出发,“使学生…” “发 Part B: Let’s talk) 展学生的…” 训练学生的…” 展学生的…” “训练学生的…” “培养学 Teaching aims: 生的…”, 生的…”,目标主体均为教师 1. Aims on the knowledge
(1) To enable the children to grasp the usage of the single and plural forms of the stationeries. (2) To enable the children to understand and speak: “My school bag is heavy. What’s in it? Thank you so much.” Make sure that the children can use these sentences in real situations. 目标描述过于模糊和宽泛。 目标描述过于模糊和宽泛。一节课或者一个单元中出现的新单 2. Aims on the abilities 词和新的表达法往往不止一项。 listening and speaking. (1) To 词和新的表达法往往不止一项。教师要列出要求学生掌握的具 develop the children’s abilities of 体词汇,否则学生会因目标词汇过多而产生畏惧心理。 (2) To 体词汇,children’s ability of working in groups. train the 否则学生会因目标词汇过多而产生畏惧心理。 (3) To foster the children’s ability of communication and their innovation. 3. Aims on the emotion (1) To keep the children conscious of good co-operation and proper 目标过于宽泛, 目标过于宽泛,没有明确提出培养或提高何种阅读 competition. 技能和听的能力。 to show their love to the poor. 技能和听的能力。这类目标没有可操作性,不可测。 (2) To lead the children这类目标没有可操作性,不可测。

案例一

Teaching objectives

A udience B ehavior C ondition D egree

Teaching objectives(sample 1)
Original:Enable students to talk about : festivals and customs in English and express or support an opinion with suitable expressions Revised: After the functional practice (C), the students (A) will be able to say (B) fluently (D), the names of some important festivals in English, and say what people often do on these holidays. Questions to check: what’s the English for 圣 诞节? 诞节?What do people do on Christmas? ?

Teaching objectives(sample2)
Original version: : Help students learn to read science writing and know about scientists and their work

Teaching objectives (sample2)
Revised version:Through reading : and explanation (C), students (A) will be able to summarize the main contents of the passage (B), orally/in writing (C), from memory (D). Ways to check: ask students sum up the contents. Or ask them to write out the contents.

Teaching objectives
Behavioral verbs (a to z)
Analyze, apply, arrange, assemble Build Categorize, choose, classify, compare Deduce, define, demonstrate Estimate, evaluate, explain Generate, graph Identify, indicate Label, locate

Teaching objectives
Make, match, measure, modify Name Operate, order, organize, outline Predict, prepare, present, pronounce Read, reconstruct, reduce, revise Select, solve, sort, specify, state, suggest Tabulate, time, translate, type Underline Verbalize Write

What is your telephone number? Read and complete the ID card. Mrs. Wang: can I help you? Cathy: yes, please. I need a student ID. Mrs. Wang: no problem. What’s your last name? Cathy: Brown. Mrs. Wang: what is your first name? Cathy: Cathy. Mrs. Wang: what’s your address. Cathy: 45 Pine Road, Beijing. Mrs. Wang: and your phone number? Cathy: 6306 9816 Mrs. Wang: how old are you? Cathy: I’m thirteen. Here is my photo. Mrs. Wang: Thank you. Here you are, Cathy. Cathy: Thanks, Mrs. Wang. (Taken from Junior English. (2005) Book 11: 5)

1)students can introduce themselves in English--telling other people about their names, telephone numbers, addresses, and where they are from, etc. 2)students are able to find out information about other people in English. 3)students are able to ask other people to clarify if they do not understand 4)students can talk confidently and politely with strangers 5)students can make an ID card for themselves in English.

Procedures 1) Whatever procedures the teachers use, for almost every lesson, a warm-up or a starter is necessary. 2) A warm-up is an activity or a series of activities that a teacher does at the beginning of the lesson. It does not take long in a lesson, but it can fulfill a wide range of purpose.
A warm-up can take many forms: a song, questions and answers; a daily conversation, a story, a guessing game, a picture description, homework checking, etc. A warm-up should directly contribute to the overall lesson objectives.

5.5 Teaching Aids 1) In lesson planning, teaching aids are very necessary in providing resources and aiding learning for the students.

2) Teaching aids are not chosen at random but are strictly used to serve teaching and learning.

5.6 End of Lesson Summary

1) The end of lesson summary is a very important stage for the teacher to take learning further and deeper by helping students to refer back to the learning objectives.

2) End of lesson summary is also a time for the teacher to create a sense of achievement and completion of tasks for the students.

3) In addition, the teacher can use the time to develop with the students a habit of reflection on learning and help students draw out applications of what has been learned and highlight the important conception which has been developed.

5.7 Optional Activities and Assignment

Teachers should always remember to prepare some optional activities and decide on the type of assignment for the students after the class because they can successfully reinforce knowledge learned in class

5.8 After Lesson Reflection 1) Very often, teaching does not follow exactly what we plan and unexpected things happen during the lesson. So teachers are encouraged to keep a brief account of what happened in a lesson, which may include feeling about the lesson, students’ performances, unexpected incidents, surprises, things that went well, things went wrong and things to be improved or things to be given more attention in the next lesson.

2) Lesson reflections can contribute greatly to teachers’ professional development.


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