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Free Talk Text Review Language Points Grammar Exercises Special difficulties
Have you ever experienced any natural disasters? Can you tell some kind of natural disasters?
Please watch the video and try not to read the subtitle.
Questions on the text
Why were the surrounding villages of the hills threatened with destruction?
What had begun to appear in the blackened soil in place of the great trees?
Key words ＆ expressions
control smoke spray quantity flood authority
n. 控制 be in control of sth.指挥，管理或控制 =be in charge of sth Who is in control of the plan? be under control 在控制之中 The fire has been under control. 火势已受到控制。 Don’t worry, everything is under control. be out of control 失去控制 The Transformers was out of control.这个变形金刚失去了控 制。
I can control it. =I can manage it. 我能对付(口语)
①n. 烟（雾） full of smoke 充满烟雾 There is no smoke without fire. 无风不起浪 have a smoke 抽一只烟 smoker n. 抽烟的人 heavy smoker 烟瘾重的人 ； nonsmoker 不抽 烟的人 ②v. 吸烟 Don't smoke! = No smoking! He smoked heavily. smoking area / smoking room 吸烟室 cigarette = cigar n. 香烟
①威胁 ? threaten to do sth. 威胁着要做……（与人相连）；有迹 象表明…… He threatened to make the photo public. ? threaten sb. with sth. 以……来威胁/恐吓某人 The thief threatened him with a knife. ②有……预兆 ? It threatened to rain. 有迹象表明天要下雨了。 ? 联想：blackmail（勒索，敲诈），steal，rob
★desolate [‘des?l?t, ’des?leit] adj. 荒凉的
a desolate house 废屋 desolate adj. 荒凉的（与地方相连，表示无 人居住, 荒无人烟的）；极度孤独的(与人相连 时) a desolate hill lonely adj. 孤独的，荒凉的，偏僻的（与地 方连表示孤零零的，但并不表示无人居住）
①adj. 周围的 the surrounding country 近郊 ②(pl.)n. 周围的事物，环境 school surroundings ? surround v围绕，包围，围住 I live in an old town which is surrounded by beautiful woods. ? atmosphere n. 大气层, 氛围(在周边的人文环 境)
authority [?:'θ?r?ti] n. ①当局(常复 authorities) authorities concerned 有关当局；主管部门
②权力，职权 the authority for entering room ③权威人士，来源 She is an authority on Spanish.
Teachers are no longer the authority on everything and students are no longer the passive learners.
v. 喷撒 spray sth. over/on 往……上喷洒 spray water over/on flower spray grass-seed over/on the ground 草籽 草地 草籽播种机 群众
grassland grass-seeder grass roots
① n. 洪水, 水灾 at the flood 涨潮，在最有 利的时机 a flood of tears 泪如泉涌 ②v. 淹没 The room is flooded with water. ③v. 溢满 Warmth flooded my heart.
row against the flood 逆水行舟
★destruction [di'str?k??n] n.
①破坏, 毁灭 The fire caused the destruction of my books. ②引起毁坏的原因 Pride was her destruction. 骄傲是她致命的弱 点。 ? destructive adj. 破坏性的 a destructive fire ? destroy v. 破坏 ? construct v. 建设(为……创造更好的条件) ? construction n. 建设, 建筑 ? construction bank 建设银行
★quantity ['kw?nt?ti] n. （数）量
? quantities of 大量的…… =in large quantity 大量 small 少量
? quality ['kw?l?ti]
n. 质量 ? sth. with good quality 具有好质量的东 西 I prefer quality to quantity.
★root [ru:t, rut]
①n. 根，根茎 the root of a tree ②n. 本质;根源 the root of the problem ③v. 使立定不动；使固定 Fear rooted her to the ground. 她吓得呆若木鸡。
? take root
★ century [‘sent?uri] n. 世纪；百年
? at the turn of the century 在世纪之交
★blacken ['bl? k?n]
①v. 变黑，发暗 The smoke has blackened the walls. 烟 把墙熏黑了。 ②诽谤 Jim blackened his deskmate by giving him names. ? -en后缀表示动词，译为“使……变得……” weak adj. 虚弱的 ——> weaken v. 使……变 弱，削弱 ? Widen loosen whiten deepen darken…..
1、Firemen had been fighting the forest fire for nearly three weeks before they could get it under control.
◆fight sth. 和……作搏斗 ? fight for freedom为自由而战 ? fight a good fight 打了一场漂亮的仗 ? have a fight win a fight ,lose a fight ? We hope to break through soon in the fight against AIDS ? get it under control 表示“使它得到控制”
2、A short time before, great trees had covered the countryside for miles around. ◆a short time before和a short time ago都可以与段时间相 连 ? a short time before 不久以前，从过去某一点时间算起， 一段时间以前 （同义词组：a short while before, not long ago） ? a short time ago 过去某段时间，从现在算起，一段时间以 前 ? great trees 参天大树 ◆cover ? she covered her face with her hands. ? Don't judge the book by its cover. ? cover story 封面故事 ◆for miles around 方圆几英里（around表示“在周围，向 四周”） This is the only modern building for miles around.
3、Now, smoke still rose up from the warm ground over the desolate hills.
? ? ? ? ? rise up (from) 从 升上来 smoke rise up (烟、雾)弥漫 rise to one's feet 站起身 rise in the world 出头，发迹 the rise and fall of the Roman Empire 罗马帝国 的兴衰 ? The sun rises in the east.
4、Winter was coming on and the hills threatened the surrounding villages with destruction, for heavy rain would not only wash away the soil but would cause serious floods as well.
◆winter was coming on 冬季即将来临 (季节的来临的通用表达式)， come on的过去进行时形式表示的是过去将来时，它在这里表示季节 的“到来，来临”： ◆for 因为，由于（用于主句之后，补充说明理由） ? I' ll follow his advice, for he is a doctor. 下面两个词也可以表示原因： ? As it is raining, let' s stay at home. ? Since you have no license, you are not allowed to drive. ◆wash away 冲掉，冲走，洗掉 ? A wooden bridge was washed away by the flood.
5、When the fire had at last been put out, the forest authorities ordered several tons of a special type of grass-seed which would grow quickly.
◆ put out 扑灭 ◆ order 定购 We can order some more books online. ? 命令，吩咐 order sb to do He ordered the army to circle the enemy. ◆type强调与其他同类的东西有明显不同的特征的种类，与 kind 有区别
6、The planes had been planting seed for nearly a month when it began to rain.
? plant seed /sow seed 播种
7、By then, however, in many places the grass had already taken root.
? take root 表示“生根”，这个短语也可以表 示某处思想/想法等“扎根”： ? This type of grass takes root easily. ? The idea has taken root in his mind.
8、In place of the great trees which had been growing there for centuries patches of green had begun to appear in the blackened soil. ◆in place of 替代，取代 (只能指代位置、空间，原来放的东西现在不在了) Jane answered the phone in place of Mary. ? in place 恰当的，在恰当的位置上 I like to have everything in place.我喜欢样样事都恰得其所。 ? out of place 不得其所 His dress was out of place at the ceremony. ? take the place of = replace Who will take the place of Mr White? 谁将代替怀特先生？ ? instead of 替代+没做的事 Instead of staying home, I went to school. （此句就不能用“in place of”，而指地点空间时，既可以用“in place of”也可以用 “instead of”。）
过去完成进行时 Grammar（the past perfect progressive tense)
一、构成：had been+现在分词 二、concept 1、过去完成进行时用于强调某动作在过去 更早的某一段时间内一直在进行，并对过 去某一时刻产生结果。与它经常连用的表 示时间的词有before, for, since ,all day等. She was very tired.She had been typing letters all days. I’d been racing horses for years before I met my wife.
过去完成时 （The simple past perfect tense )
1.构成，had+过去分词 2.概念，它表示过去某时或某动作发生之前已经完成的动 作或情况， 即“较早的过去”。常用的连词有when, after,as soon as,(not) until,by that time,(never) before,already,for,since,just等。 After he had said goodbye to us all, Captain Alison started his journey. 除此之外还常与连词no sooner…than和hardly…when连 用。 He had hardly had time to settle down when he sold the house and left the country.
过去完成进行时与过去完成时的比较 1、过去完成时和过去完成进行时有时可以替换使用： Dan had worked/had been working for the firm for fifteen years when I first met him. 我第一次遇到丹时，他已在该公司干了15年了。 2. She had cleaned the office, so it was very tidy. 她已经打扫过办公室了，所以很整洁。 (强调结果) She had been cleaning the office, so we had to wait outside. 她一直在打扫办公室，所以我们不得不在外面等着。 (强调动作一直在进行)
过去完成进行时与过去完成时的比较 3、需要表示某个工作已经完成时，只能用过去完成时. When I got home, I found that Jill had been painting her room. 我回到家时，看见吉尔在粉刷她的房间。（工作尚未完成） When I got home, I found that Jill had painted her room. 我回到家时，吉尔已经粉刷过她的房间了。（已完成） When I arrived, they’d already put the fire out. 我到达时，他们已经把火扑灭了。（不可用过去完成进行时）
1. they received the parcel that they c for a ___ long time. A. expected B. have expected C. had been expecting D. had expected 2. He __ more than 5,000 English words when heD entered university at the age of 15. A. has learned B. would have learned C. learned D. had learned 3. She didn’t pass the exams because she___ her lessons well. C A. wasn’t prepared B. wasn’t been prepared C. hadn’t prepared D. was preparing 4. We ___ four thousand new words by the end of last years. A. had learned B. have learned C. learned D. B will have learned
2..great and big, 它们都有大的意思，但great通常与重要性有关系，表示 “伟大的”、“重大的”、"重要的“等含义，big则较 为口语化，表示体积、规模等方面的”大“。 Frank has just made a great decision. 弗兰克刚作出一项重大的决定。 This picture is said to be painted by a great painter. 据说这幅画是一位伟大的画家画的。（不可用BIG) Sam is a big man. 萨姆是个大块头。 Your house is bigger than mine.(不用great ) 你家的房子比我家的大。
另外表 示大的 单词 large
3.、soil and ground soil主要用于指“土”、”土地“、”土壤“ Heavy rain will wash away the soil from desolate hills. 大雨将把泥土从荒凉的山丘上冲走。 Trees and grass grow quickly in rich soil. 草木在肥沃的土壤里生长迅速。 ground含义较广。它除了可以表示”土地“、” 土壤“外，还可以表示”地面“、”场地“等。 Don't sit on the ground. 不要坐在地上。 He threw the cup to the ground. 他把茶杯摔在地上。 There is a foorball ground in our university。 我们大学里有一个足球场。
Please close your textbooks and notebooks , try your best to recall what you have learned in this class.