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高中英语《Module4SandstormsinAsia第4课时》学案外研版必修3

Period 4: Grammar

学习目标 1. 扎实掌握词汇与语法的用法,提升综合语言运用能力。
自主学习,合作探究;学会分析与总结的方法并学以致用。 学习难点:动词不定式的用法 学习重点:如何掌握动词不定式的用法 课前预习 预习自测: 用括中动词的适当形式填空 学情诊断

(1)Do tell me the way you think of ______ _______ the problem as soon as possible.(solve) (2)As an employee,I couldn’t help but _____________ still for hours as the boss told me to.(stand)

(3)If there’s a lot of work _____________,I’m happy to just keep on until it’s finished.(do)

(4)I want to find some interesting books _____________.(read)

(5)I have no choice but _____________ the fact.(accept) 课内探究

一、动词不定式

定义:在语法中,它是 动词的一种不带词形变化从而不指示人称、数量、时态的形式。由 to+动词原形构成, 否定式 not to do.

1.动词不定式的时态和语态形式

时态

主动

被动

一般式

to do

to be done

进行式

to be doing

完成式

to have done

to have been done

(1)一般式:表示不定式的动作与谓语动作同时发生或动作发生于谓语动作之后。

He seems to understand what I said.他似乎明白我说的话。 (2)进行式:表示不定式的动作与谓语动作同时发生且动作正在进行。

The two cheats pretended to be working hard.那两个骗子假装在努力工作。 (3)完成式:表示不定式动作发 生于谓语动作之前。

She seems to have seen this film.她似乎已看过这部影片。 (4)被动语态:表示不定式与逻辑主语之间的动宾关系。

The meeting to be held tomorrow is about how to stop the pollution.

明天要举行的会议是关于如何停止污染的。

2.动词不定式的句法功能

不定式的句法功能是作主语、表语、宾语、宾语补足语、主语补足语、定语、状语等。

To get there by bike will take us half an hour. 我们骑自行车去那里要花半个小时。(主语) When our visit to the farm was over, we expected to start back on foot. 当参观农场结束时,我们期望步行返回。(宾语) He asked me to do the work with him. 他要求我同他一起做这项工作。(宾补)

I was asked to help him with his lessons. 我被请求帮他学功课。(主语补足语)

Some scientists went to Germany to attend a medical conference.

一些科学家去德国参加医学大会。(目的状语)

To tell the truth, I don't agree with you.说实话,我不同意你。(独立成分)

[考题印证 1] George returned after the war, only ________ that his wife had left him.

A.to be told

B.telling C.being told D.told

3.不定式的复合结构

(1)for+名词(或代词宾格)+动词不定式

其中 for 本身无意义,for 后面的名词或代词是不定式的逻辑主语,这种不定式在句中可作主语、表语、宾

语、定语或状语。

It is very important for us to get everything ready for the harvest. 为收获季节准备好一切对我们来说很重要。

(2)带有逻辑主语的结构 of/for sb. to do sth.

当作表语的形容词表示不定式的逻辑主语的性质或特征时,用介词 of 引出不定式的逻辑主语,这些形容词

一般有 good,nice,kind,wise,silly,stupid,foolish,right,wrong, careless, impolite 等。

句中的形容词用来说明动词的特征时要用介词 for。这类形容词有 hard, easy, heavy, necessary, possible,

important, difficult 等。

The first thing for students to do is to study.学生首先要做的事情就是学习。

It is foolish of you to say such words.说这种话你太蠢了。

It's easy for you to learn English well.对你来说,学好英语很容易。

4.疑问词+动词不定式

疑问代词和疑问副词后可加动词不定式构成不定式短语,在句中可作主语、表语或宾语。

The problem is how to get there on time.问题是怎么按时到达那儿。

I don't know what to do next.我不知道下一步该做什么。

[考题印证 2]Twenty students want to attend the class that aims to teach ______ to read fast.

A.what B.who

C.how

D.why

二、but+不定式

but 后跟不定式时有以下两种情况:

1.在 can't but, can't help but, can't choose but(不得不,只能)结构后,不定式不带 to。

There being no buses, I can't but walk home.由于没有公共汽车,我只能步行回家。

We can't choose but accept the offer.我们只能接受提议。

It's raining hard. I cannot help but stay at home.天在下大雨,我只好待在家里。

2.动词不定式在介词 but, except, besides 等表示“除了……”之意的词后面时,如果这些介词之前有行为动

词 do 的各种形式(do, does, did),那么介词后的不定式要用不带 to 的不定式,否则要用带 to 的不定式。

Tom did nothing except wait before his parents came home. 父母回家之前,汤姆只有等待。

I have no choice but to accept the fact. 除了接受这一事实,我别无选择。

There was nothing to do but send for a doctor. 除了派人去请医生,没有什么可以做的。

[考题印证 3]If he takes on this work, he will have no choice but ________ an even greater challenge.

A.meets B.meeting

C.meet

D.to meet

当堂检测:

Ⅰ.用所给单词的适当形式填空

1.The bank is reported in the local newspaper _____________(rob) in broad daylight yesterday.

2.I'd love _____________(drink) some wine at the party, but I had a stomachache that day.

3.Lily's mobile phone was left in a taxi accidentally, never _____________

(find) again.

4.I'll do whatever I can _____________ (improve) my English.

5.For nearly three hours we waited for the decision, only to _____________ (tell) to e again the next day.

6.How about the two of us _____________ (take) a walk down the garden?

7.The puter center, ____________ (open) last year, is very popular among the students in this school.

8.Charles Babbage is generally considered _____________

(invent) the first puter.

9.The students expected there ___ __________

(be) more reviewing classes before the final exams.

10.Since he doesn’t want to accept your advice, it is no use

_____________ (talk) to him again.

Ⅱ.单项填空

1.Many buildings in the city need repairing, but the one ________ first is the library.

A.repaired

B.bei ng repaired C.repairing D.to be repaired

2.________, you need to give all you have and try your best.

A.Being a winner B.To be a winner C.Be a winner D.Having been a winner

3.We are invited to a party ________ in our club next Friday.

A.to be held B.held

C.being held D.holding

4.With the world changing fast, we have something new ________ with all by ourselves every day.

A.deal

B.dealt

C.to deal D.dealing

5.Edison was the first scientist ________ a modern research and development centre.

A.built

B.having built C.to build

D.to be building

6.If you don't know _______ a word, look it up in a good dictionary.

A.to use

B.how to use C.how using

D.how should use

7.He hurried to the booking office only ________ that all the tickets had been sold out.

A.to tell

B.to be told

C.telling

D.told

8.I would love ______ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report.

A.to go

B.to have gone

C.going

D.having gone

9.Schools across China are expected to hire 50,000 college graduates this year as short-term teachers, almost

three times the number hired last year, ________ reduce unemployment pressures.

A.help

B.to have helped

C.to help

D.having helped

10.With Father's Day around the corner, I have taken some money out of the bank ________ presents for my dad.

A.buy

B.to buy

C.buying

D.to have bought

11. _____ in a heavy rain, M iss White had a bad cold and couldn’t but ____ for a leave.

A. To catch; ask B. Caught; ask C. Caught; asking D. To have caught; ask

12. _____ a long bridge requires a large amount of money.

A. To build B. To be built C. To have built D. To have been built

13.When caught________,he begged for my pardon and tried________punishment.

A.stealing;escaping B.stealing;to escape

C.to be stealing;escaping D.to be stealing;to escape

14.All the students injured in that accident are still in hospital,________for further observation.

A.kept

B.keeping C. having kept

D.to be kept

15.Ten million people have been forced_______their homes because of the flood.

A.leaving

B.to leave C.to be left D.being left

16.Hearing his words,I couldn't decide________or remain.

A.whether to go abr oad 课后训练

B.if I go abroad

C.if to go abroad

D.to go abroad

1.____about Lucy,the teacher called her parents to find out why she was so often absent from class.

A.Concerning

B.Considering C.Concerned D.Considered

2.I was just talking to Joan when Bob ________.

A.cut in

B.cut down

C.cut out D.cut up

3.Don't worry,mother;we still have ________ time to go to the railway station.

A.a great deal

B.masses of C.a great number of

D.a great many

4.—Would you please tell me the methods you think of ________ the problems if you hav e time?

—Sure! A.to solve

B.solving C.solve

5.He was __________ at the sight of a snake.

D.being solved

A.frightening

B.frightful C.frightened D.fright

6.Simon made a big bamboo box ________the little sick bird till it could fly.

A.keep

B.kept C.keeping

D.to keep

7.It's likely that he is the only American hip-top artist________in China.

A.to have ever lived B.to live ever C.having ever lived D.ever living

8.Increasing the number of women leaders will be a slow________.

A.step

B.process C.ceremony D.achievement

9.Now,I have him in my________,I can make him do anything I want.

A.strength

B.energy C.power

D.force

10.Li Ming is clever, honest, and hardworking. ________, he is a good student and we should learn from him.

A.In a nutshell B.After all C.On the other hand

D.By the way