subject clause


名词性从句 noun clause

object clause

predicative clause

appositive clause

辨别下列名词性从句的类别: 1.How the book will sell depends on its author. 主语从句 2.John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 宾语从句 3.The fact is that he has not been seen recently. 表语从句 4.The fact that he has not been seen recently 同位语从句 disturbs everyone in his office. 5.He will talk to us about what he saw in U.S. 宾语从句 6.It is impossible that I go and attend the 主语从句 meeting.

That/wh-clause + v +…主语从句
S +be/link.v + that/wh-clause表语从句

S + vt + that/wh-clause宾语从句
S + vi + prep + wh-clause宾语从句

名词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和 同位语从句。 引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类: 连接词:that, whether, if 连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which. 连接副词:when, where, how, why 1。that只起连接主句和从句的作用,在从句中不担任任何成分, 本身也没有词义,宾语从句中可省略 2。不充当介宾 3。 引导主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句,that不可省略。 4. that whether, if, as if ,as though(以上在从句中均不充当任何 成分

主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句,通常 放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主语it代替,而本身 放在句子末尾。 1. It 作形式主语
It 作形式主语代替主语从句,主要是为了平衡句子结构,主 语从句的连接词没有变化。例如: It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film. It doesn’t interest me whether you succeed or not.

1.It + be + 形容词 + that从句
It is necessary / important/ obvious that…
It is believed that… 人们相信… It is known to us all that …. 众所周知… It has been decided that…… 已经决定……

2.It + be + -ed分词 + that从句

3.It + be + 名词 + that从句
It is common knowledge that… …是常识 It is a surprise that …. 令人惊奇的是… It is a fact that…… 事实是……
It appears that… 似乎… It happens that …. 碰巧… It occurred to me that…… 我突然想起……

4.It + 不及物动词 + that从句

? 另注意在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、

不相信、惋惜、理应如此等语气时, 谓语动词要用 虚拟语气 “(should) +do”,常用的句型有: ? It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc.) that … ? It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc.) that…

2. what 与that 在引导主语从句时的区别 what 引导主语从句时在句时在从句中充当 句子成分,如主语.宾语.表语,而 that 则 不然。例如: 1) What ______you said yesterday is right.
It is right what you said yesterday.

2) That ______she is still alive is a good thing.
It is a good thing that she is still alive.



1.主语从句通常被看作一个整体,主句的谓语动词用单数 形式.

is That they will come _______certain.
2. What 引导主语从句时,主句谓语动词的单复数由 表语的单复数决定.

are What he wants ______these books. is What he wants ______some water.


? ? ? ? ? ?

1_________ in the regulations that you should not tell other people the pass word of your e-mail account. .(2005 上海) A. What is required B .What requires C It is required D. It requires 2. The Foreign Minister said, “_______ our hope that the two sides will work towards peace.” (2006 北京) A. This B. There is C .That is D. It is 3.After Yang Liwei succeeded in circling the earth,_______ our astronauts desire to do is walk in space.(2004 上海) A .where B .what C .that D. how


宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的 名词性从句,通常放在主句谓语动词 (及物动词) 或介词之后。

1.She did not know what had happened.

2. Our

success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another. (作介词的宾语)
3. I

am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake.

? 注意1:在demand,order,suggest,

decide,insist, desire, request, command, doubt等表示要求、命令、 建议、决定等意义的动词后,宾语从 句常用“(should)+ 动词原形”。 ? I insist that she (should) do her work alone. 我坚持要她自己工作。 ? The commander ordered that troops (should) set off at once. 司令 员命令部队马上出发。

用whether或if引导的宾语从句, 其主语和谓语的顺序也不能颠倒, 仍保持陈述句语序。此外, whether与if 在作“是否”的意思 讲时在下列情况下一般只能用 whether,不用if: ? a. 引导主语从句并在句首时;b. 引导表语从句时;c . 引导从句作 介词宾语时;d. 从句后有“or not” 时;e. 后接动词不定式时。
? 2.

? Whether

there is life on the moon is an interesting question. ? The question is whether she should have a low opinion of the test? ? Everything depends on whether we have enough money. ? I wonder whether he will come or not. ? Can you tell me whether to go or to stay?

3. 时态呼应


had finished his job. He told me that he ____________ (已经完成了工作)
否定转移 若主句谓语动词为think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine等,其后的宾语从句若含 有否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上,从句 谓语用肯定式。例如:

我认为他不会来这里. I think he won’t come here. I don’t think he will come here.

( (

) )

注意:如果主句中有形容词或名词作宾语补足 语时,一般用it来作形式宾语,把从句放在宾 补后面。 We think it our duty that we should help others.
我发现他两天之内完成工作是不可能的. I find it impossible that he can finish the work in two days.

Exercises: “it”作形式主语或形式宾语:
A when people talk with their mouths full. 1.I hate ____ A. it B. that C. these D. them B strange that he should be so careless. 2. I feel ____ A. / B. it C. that D. how B her hair was turning grey. 3. It worried her a bit ____ A.while B. that C.if D.for
4 Will you see to ____ C that the luggage is brought back? A. we B. yourself C. it D. them


表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句,放在系动 词之后,一般结构是“主语+连系动词+表语从句”。可 以接表语从句的连系动词有be, look, remain, seem等。另 外,常用的还有the reason is that… 和It is because 等结构。 例如: whether/how we can make good 1) The question is _________ preparation in such a short time. 2) This is ____ why we can’t get the support of the people. 3) But the fact remains ___ thatwe are behind the other classes. why he is late for school is ____ that he missed 4) The reason ______ the early bus.


1. 同位语从句的功能 同位语从句对于名词进一步解释,说明名词的具体内容,一般由 that引导,例如: 1) The king’s decision that the prisoner would be set free surprised all the people. 2) The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general.
2. 同位语在句子中的位置 同位语从句有时可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后面,而是被别 的词隔开。例如: He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off.

同位语从句和定语从句的区别: ? that作为关系代词,可以引导定语从句,充 当句子成分,在从句中作宾语时可以省略; that引导同位语从句时,起连词的作用,没 有实际意义,不充当句子成分,一般不能省 略。 ? I had no idea that you were here.(that 引导同位语从句,不能省略) ? Have you got the idea(that)this book gives you of life in ancient Greece? (that引导定语从句,作宾语,可以省略)

1.Doris’ success lies in the fact ________ she is cooperative and eager to learn from others.(2006 上海春季) A. which B. that C. when D. why 2.Do you have any idea_______ is actually going on in the classroom? (2005辽宁) A. that B. what c. as D. which 3. There is a feeling in me ______ we’ll never know what a UFO is– not ever.(2002上海) A. that B. which c. of which D. what 4.Information has been put forward_______ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. A. while B. that C. when D. as



B (1) They want to know _____ do to help us. A. what can they B. what they can C. how they can D. how can they (2) Can you make sure _____ C the gold ring? A. where Alice had put B. where had Alice put C. where Alice has put D. where has Alice put (3) Someone is ringing Mary. Go and see _____. D A. who is he B. who he is C. who is it D. who it is


在名词性从句中,除了关联词在从句之首 外, 陈述 的语序。 其它部分应用________

II.用if 或whether 填空
? ? ? ? ? ?

whether/if I’ll be free tomorrow. 1. I don’t know _______ whether or not I’ll be free tomorrow. 2. I don’t know _______ 3. The question is whether ______ this book is worth writing. 4. It depends on whether ______ we will have enough money. 5.Whether ______ they can do it matters little to us. 6._______ you are not free tomorrow , I’ll go without you If

a.主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句、介词后 whether,不能用if ; 面的宾语从句只能用________ whether b.后面紧跟 or not 时, 用___________.

III. that 与whether / if 的选择:
(1) _____ knowledge comes from practice is known to all. A. What B. Where C. If D. That (2) It makes no difference _____ our sports meet will be held this week or next week. A. that B. either C. whether D. when whether / if he will come soon. (3) I doubt _____________

(4) I do not doubt _____________ he will come soon. that

that (5) Do you doubt ____________ he will come soon?


that 表示是否时用__________,表示肯定时用_______

whether /if

Ⅳ. that, what引导名词性从句的区别
What I can’t understand is why he has 1._________ changed his mind. 2.___________ the earth is round is known to us all. That

That he won the race was ______ what we expected. 3. ______

_______ that: 只起连接作用,在从句中不充当任何成分,没有词义

what: _______起连接作用,且在从句中充当主语,宾语或表语,

Ⅴ. what & whatever

引导名词性从句的区别 who & whoever which & whichever

Whatever is worth doing is worth doing well. 1.___________ What 2. __________we need is more time. Who 3.___________ made the long distance call to him is not important. 4.___________ Whoever breaks the law will be punished. Whoever,whatever 等引导的名词性从句不 ? ___________________ 含有疑问意义,相当于名词后加一个定语从句, 而 Who, what ? ____________________等引导的名词性从句都 含有疑问意义。

1. It's generally considered unwise to give a child _______ he or she wants. A. which B. that C. whatever D. all what 2. These wild flowers are so special that I would do _______ I can to save them. A. which B. that C. whatever D. all what 3. _____ kills, sells or eats wild animals or birds, is to blame. A. Anyone B. Anyone who C. Those who D. Those

Ⅵ. 名词性从句中的虚拟语气:
He suggested that a meeting (should) be held immediately.

It was suggested that a meeting (should) be held immediately.
His suggestion was that a meeting (should) be held immediately.

He made a suggestion that a meeting (should) be held immediately.

表示建议, 请求, 命令, 要求,坚持等的名词性从句中 谓语动词用虚拟语气.

2.在主语从句中用来表示惊奇, 不相信,惋惜,理应如此等, 谓语动词用虚拟语气( should ) + do,常用句型有 1)It is necessary( important, natural, strange, etc) …… that…… 2) It is a pity( a shame, no wonder etc,) ……that……
e.g.It is strange that she (should) think so.

Do you know the fact that he stole the car? (同从) Do you know the fact that they were talking about? (定从)
注意:1. 如果是定语从句,它的从句肯定是 不完整的,关系词肯定在句中充当成分的;而 同位语从句中的that只起连接作用。 2. 定语从句是对先行词起修饰作用, 而同位语从句则解释说明前面名词的具体内容。


1. (NMET 1995) D is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. A. There B. This C. That D. It 2.(NMET 1996) A we can’t get seems better than we have. A. What,what B. What,that C. That,that D. That,what 3.(NMET 2001春)I read about it in some book or other, does it matter D it was? A.where B.what C.how D.which 4.(NMET 1997)It’s generally considered unwise to give a child B he or she wants. A. however B.whatever C. whichever D.wherever 5.(NMET 1999) –I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. -Is that A you had a few days off? A.why B.when C.what D.where

Consolidation: 1.The question is ____the film is worth seeing. A. if B. what C. whether D. how
2.They received orders _____ the work be done at once. A .which B. when C. / D .that 3.The reason ____ I have to go is ____ my mother is ill in bed. A .why; why B. why; because C. why ; that D. that; because

4. ___ I can’t understand is ___ she wants to change her mind. A. What; why B. Which; how C. That; why D. What; because
5. ____ his dream of going to college will come true is uncertain. A. That B. Whether C. If D. Even if

6. It is known to us ___ where there is pollution, there is harm. A. which B. where C. what D. that

7. I have the information ____. A. of what he’ll come soon B. that he’ll come soon C. of that he’ll come soon D. his coming soon 8. --- I saw your neighbor break your window with a basketball. --- ____ it made me nearly mad. A. That he broke B. What he broke C. He broke D. His break

9.It remains a question ____ we can get so much money in such a short time. A. how B. that C. when D. what
10.--- Can I help you? --- Yes, do you know ____? A. when comes the bus B. when will come the bus C. when does the bus come D. when the bus comes

11. He made a promise ___ anyone set him free he would make him very rich. A. that B. if C. what D. that if 12. They lost their way in the forest and ____ made matters worse was ___ night began to fall. A. what; that B. it; that C. what; when D. which; what

13.I hate ____ when people talk with their mouths full. A. it B. That C. these D. them 14. I feel ____ strange that he should be so careless. A. / B. it C. that D. how 15. It worried her a bit ____ her hair was turning grey.(MET92) A.while B. that C.if D.for


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