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文体学课堂总结


Brief Summary of Stylistics
General
Stylistics is the science which explores how readers interact with the languages of texts in order to explain how we understand and are affected by texts when we read them. The stylistic mainly concerns about the examination of grammar, lexis, semantics, as well as 使用语言的一门学科,主要关注语法, phonological properties and discursive 词汇,语义,语音特征和表达手段。 devices.It’s developing and not come to 文体学目前是不完善的,处于发展阶 maturity now. 段。 According to different standards, the stylistics mainly divide into two major types : linguistic stylistics and literary stylistics. And there are many school of stylistics such as lingvo-stylistics, literary stylistics, applied stylistics, contrastive 根据不同的标准,文体学分为两大 stylistics, applied stylistics and so on. 类:普通文体学和文学文体学.并且文 体学有许多不同的学派,如形式文体 In the basic notions of stylistics, the 学,话语文体学,文学文体学,应用

通述
文体学是为一门教我们怎么更好的

文体学,社会文体学,认知文体学, 比较文体学等。

Prague School of the early twentieth century. In the early twentieth century, the famous person of stylistics is Charles Bally and in the late twentieth century is Roman Jakobson.

在文体学的基本概念中, 值得注意的是表达方式和文体手段。 expressive means and the stylistic devices 表达方式是表述特定内容所使用的特 should be noticed. Expressive means of 定的语言方法,手段。文体手段为达 the language are units of different 成特定的艺术效果所普遍认可的特定 language levels: phonetic, morphological, 组合。 word-building, syntactic, lexical,

phraseological, which serve the purpose of logical and emotional intensification of the utterances. A stylistic device is a generalized pattern, which activates a conscious and intentional intensification of a certain property of a language unit, designed to achieve a particular artistic effect. 文体学起源于古老的经典修辞学, Stylistics origins from theancient classical 特别是亚里士多德的修辞论.但现代文 rhetoric, especially the rhetoric of 体学起源于俄罗斯的形式主义和 20 世 Aristotle. But the modern stylistics roots 纪早期的相关的布拉格学派。20 世纪 in Russian Formalism and the related

早期的代表人物是法国的巴特利, 20 世纪晚期的则是罗曼雅各布森。

at least the Middle Kingdom period .The Egyptians held eloquent speaking in high esteem, and it was a skill that had a very high value in their society.

It is clear that the Stylistics has much contacts with Rhetoric,. Rhetoric is the art of discourse, an art that aims to improve the capability of writers or speakers to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. Its best known definition comes from Aristotle, who considers it a counterpart of both logic and politics, and calls it ?the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.?

文体学和修辞学密不可分。修辞, 是依据题旨情景,运用各种表现手段 方法,对语言材料进行加工,提高语 言表达效果的一种活动,而研究这种 提高语言表达效果规律的科学,就叫 做修辞学。西方修辞学发展史上,真 正将修辞界定为一门学科的人是亚里 士多德,他将修辞学界定为?在每一 件事上发现可用的说服手段的能 力。?

Rhetoric
About the history of Rhetoric, Rhetoric has its origins in Mesopotamia. And In ancient Egypt, rhetoric had existed since

修辞学
修辞起源于美索不达米亚.在古埃及, 修辞学自中王国时期就存在,古埃及 人关注雄辩,认为修辞学在社会生活

中具有重大价值。

study manifested in the establishment of departments of rhetoric and speech at academic institutions, as well as the formation of national and international professional organizations.

The ?Egyptian rules of rhetoric? also clearly specified that ?knowing when not to speak is essential, and very respected, rhetorical knowledge.? Their ?approach to rhetoric ? was thus a ? balance between eloquence and wise silence. ? Their rules of speech also strongly emphasized ? adherence to social

埃及的修辞原则明确定义:知道什 么时候不说话是必不可少的,而且了 解非常受人尊敬和修辞的知识 . 古埃 及的修辞手法是雄辩和智慧的沉默的 平衡。他们演讲的原则强调坚持保持 现状的社会行为,并且他们认为好的 演讲应该是受人支持的,有利于社会 的,而不是被人质疑的。在古中国, 修辞回溯到中国的哲学家孔子和他的 追随者。在古希腊,最早涉及的是河 马的伊利亚特。20 世纪见证了修辞学 的再次兴起。当代学者继续在数世纪 的修辞传统上添砖加瓦,重新解释修 辞学来说明人类交流的重要性

behaviors that support a conservative status quo? and they held that ?skilled speech should support, not question, society.? In ancient China, rhetoric dates back to the Chinese philosopher,

Confucius. In ancient Greece, the earliest mention of oratorical skill occurs in Homer's Iliad. At the turn of the 20th century, there was a revival of rhetorical

persuasive arguments); memory (the process of learning and memorizing the speech and persuasive messages.)

Rhetoric typically provide heuristics for understanding discovering and developing arguments for particular situations. And we should know the Aristotle’s three persuasive audience appeals: logos, pathos, and ethos. And the five canons of rhetoric: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery. invention (the process of developing arguments); style (determining how to present the arguments); arrangement (organizing the arguments for extreme effect); delivery (the gestures, pronunciation, tone and pace used when presenting the

修辞学通常提供在特定条件下,关 于理解,认知和论据的探索法.

关于修辞,我们需要知道亚里士多 德的修辞学三种劝说方式: 逻辑诉求,情感诉求,人格诉求, 以及修辞五艺: 取材,布局谋篇,朗诵法,表达技巧, 默记: 取材——建立论据的过程;

表达技巧——如何表述

布局谋略——决定如何表达论据;

朗诵法——手势,发音,语调,表达 论据的步骤;

possessed, possessor) 默记——学习和记忆演讲信息的过程 Existential processes (existent)

Grammar
The system of transitivity is a particular grammatical facility used for capturing experience in language is the system of transitivity. In this system, it contain six process(the participant ): Material processes (actor, goal) Mental processes (senser, phenomenon) Behavioural processes ( behaver) Processes of verbalization (sayer, verbiage, receiver) Relational processes (carrier, attribute, identified, identifier,

语法
及物性系统是一个语义系统,他把 人们的经验表达出来,并指明过程所 涉及的参与者和环境成分。

在这个系统中,分为六个过程类型 (括号内为其参与者): 物质过程 (动作着,目标) , 心理过程 (感觉者,现象) , 行为过程 (行为者), 言语过程 (说话者,说话内容,受话者) , 关系过程 (载体,属性,被识别者,识别者,

被占有者,占有者) 存在过程 (存在物) 。

Imperative clauses, Interrogative clauses, and Declarative clauses. To test for the subject, complement and adjunct

elements of clause structure, we can ask various questions around the verb. A basic model of grammar should contain: sentence (or clause complex), clause, phrase (or group), word, morpheme. 句子, 从句, 词组, 单词, 语素。 语法的基本模型应该包含:

Four basic elements of clause structure: the Subject (S), the Predicator (P), the Complement (C) and the Adjunct (A). ——an ‘SPCA’ pattern。 We should notice that SPCA is the basic pattern of clause structure. But other types are existing such as

句子结构的四个基本要素: 主语, 谓语, 补语, 修饰语。

值得注意的是主谓补修是基本结构, 但是其他类型也存在,例如祈使句, 疑问句和陈述句。而且要检验句子的

基本要素,我们可以围绕动词询问一 系列问题。

Analogy , Paradox, Pun, Parallelism, Hyperbole and so on.

Stylistic devices
Stylistic devices contain : Figurative language,Sound techniques,Structure, Irony,Register。 Figurative language uses "figures of speech" - a way of saying something other than the literal meaning of the words. Simile, Metaphor, Synecdoche, Personification, Apostrophe, Charactonym, Symbol, Imagery, Motif, Metonymy,

文体手段
文体手段包括:比喻性语言,声音 技巧,结果,讽刺,语域。

比喻性语言使用?修辞格?——一 种说什么而不是字面意义的方式。

明喻, 暗喻, 提喻, 拟人, 呼语, 个性化诨名, 象征, 意向, 主题, 转喻,

类比, 悖论, 双关, 排比, 夸张 等。

Irony
Verbal Irony Situational irony Dramatic irony

Sound techniques:
It contains: Rhyme, Alliteration Assonance Consonance Rhythm Onomatopoeia

声音技巧
包括: 韵脚, 头韵, 元韵, 尾韵, 韵律, 拟声。

Structure
Formal structure (the forms of a text) Storyline and Plot Plot structure Flashback Frame story Foreshadowing Allusion

结构
形式结构, 故事线 情节, 倒叙, 框架故事, 伏笔, 典故.

purposes 。 It has two main guises,

讽刺
言语反讽, 情景反讽, 戏剧反讽

foregrounding as ‘deviation from a norm’ and foregrounding as ‘more of the same’.

Register
Diction Syntax Voice Tone

语域
措辞, 句法, 语态, 语气。

Literary Stylistics

文学文体学

The

modern

literary

stylistic

is

现代文体学创始人是法国文体学家 巴利,德国文体学家斯皮泽被普遍尊为 文学文体学之父.

established by Charles bally. Spitzer is the father of literary stylistic. It should be is noticed proposed that first the by

值得注意的是突出?一词首先是由 布拉格学提出的,国内也有学者译成 ?前景化? 。用特定方法突出以达到某 种文学审美效果。通常表现为与众不 同和老调重弹。

foregrounding

Mukarovsky of the Prague group.It refers to a form of textual patterning which is motivated specifically for literary-aesthetic

to the way character is developed through and by the semantic processes and participant roles embodied in narrative discourse.

And the structuralist poetician Roman Jakobson proposes a model of language which comprises six key functions: The emotive function The conative function The referential function The poetic function The phatic function The metalingual function

著名诗学家雅各布森提出了话语的 六大功能:

表情功能 意动功能 指称功能 组诗功能 人际功能 评释功能

Stylistic analysis

文体学分析

Narratives

记述文

Principalmode

ofnarrative

叙事特征的主要模式 是行为和事 件的传送。角色是按语义过程和叙事 话语中的参与者角色发展的。

characterisation is the transmission of ‘actions and events’. This mode refers

The stylistic analysis of poem mainly study from two ways: the relevant information and the structure style. the relevant information: title, author, writing year, subject matter. Planes of point of view in narrative fiction Point of view on the ideological plane Point of view on the temporal plane Point of view on the spatial plane Point of view on the psychological plane 叙事小说中的层面: 意识形态层面 时空层面 空间层面 心理感知层面

The analytical procedure of narratives: Source, author (style), theme narrative perspective language feature ( Sentence structure , vocabulary, ) Logical characteristics Conversational features figure of speech and so on

小说文体分析方法: 出处、作者(风格) 、主题 叙述视角 语言特点(句式结构、词汇)

逻辑特点 人物会话特点 修辞格等

Poem

诗歌

对诗歌文体进行分析主要是从诗歌 的相关信息与诗歌本身的结构形式两 方面着手。 相关信息包括: 题目、作者、写作年代、体裁、题材 Structure style: Overall layout Number and length of lines Metre Rhythm Figure of speech Adjectives have already been

figure of speech and so on the analysis of dialogue is important .A model for the analysis of dialogue was suggested which comprised two principal methodological orientations. 诗歌本身的结构形式: 总体布局 诗行数目,长度; 格律 韵律; 修辞格; 形容词是对诗歌进行文体分析的重 点。

highlighted as one of the main sites for stylistic experimentation in the poem.

Drama

戏剧

Stylistic analysis of drama Paraphrase or comment the text Script form language feature

戏剧分体分析方法: 解释剧本或评论 剧本形式 人物语言特点

修辞格等。 戏剧的对话是一大重点,可分为两 类。

The first of these involves a focus on the way spoken discourse is structured. The second orientation involves the study of discourse in terms of strategy.

一是对话结构,

二是对话策略。


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