Course Title: ENGLISH STYLISTICS For Undergraduates Course Tutor: Linda Yan School of Foreign Languages Huanggang Normal College
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Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Definition of Stylistics What is stylistics? Wales defines stylistics simply as ―the study of style‖ (1989) .
Widdowson (a famous stylistician) : ―By stylistics, I mean the study of literary discourse from a linguistic orientation and I shall take the view that what distinguishes stylistics from literary criticism on the one hand and linguistics on the other is that it is essentially a mean of linking the two‖
Leech (a linguist)defines stylistics as ―the study of the use of language in literature‖, and considers stylistics a ―meeting-ground of linguistics and literary study‖ (1969).
From Widdowson and Leech, we can see that stylistics is an area of study which straddles two disciplines: literary criticism and linguistics.
QianYuan(钱瑗): STYLISTICS is a branch of linguistics which applies the theory and methodology of modern linguistics to the study of STYLE. It studies the use of language in specific contexts and attempts to account for the characteristics that mark the language use of individuals and social groups.
In other words, stylistics refers to the way in which language is used in a given context, by a given person, for a given purpose, and so on. .
Illustration of style: Vocabulary: lovely day a bit chilly Utterance: Nice to meet you. It is an honour to meet you. Sentence: Overdue books shall be penalized. You‘ll be fined if you return the book too late.
Style is a matter of use and choices: —uses of the systems made by speakers or writers on particular occasions for particular purposes —choices of linguistic features in specific context —selection of linguistic features by the user from a linguistic repetoire(term) Scope of study —spoken and written varieties —literary and non-literary varieties
Relevant terms: variety dialect idiolect genre style
Variety: a system of linguistic expression whose use is governed by situational variables (regional, occupational, economic, social, etc.) Dialect: a variety, whether regional or social, has its own system of sounds, lexis and grammar
Idiolect: a variety characteristic of an individual Genre: discourse type traditionally a type of literature, art, music, sharing the same style or subject: epic, satire, poem, drama, novel, etc.
1.2 Emergence of Stylistics as an Interdisciplinary(跨学科) Field of Study Not until the late 1950s did stylistics begin to advance with significant and measurable strides. In 1958, the first conference on stylistics was held at Indiana University, U. S. A. and eleven years later, another conference which attracted specialists from over ten countries was convened in Bellagio, Italy.
Consequently, a number of more coherent and systematic works of both a theoretical and a practical nature were published in the field. Now, stylistics has developed into an interdisciplinary area of study with explicit(明确的) aims and effective techniques, and promises to offer useful insights into literary criticism and the teaching of literature.
English stylistics has developed on the basis of traditional rhetoric which may be traced back to Aristotle‘s time. Nevertheless, it was the ?three revolutions‘ in social sciences (Lott, 1988) that brought it to the right track and brought about its present status.
One of the revolutions is the modernist movement in art and literature, lasting from 1890 to the beginning of World War II. To a great extent, the revolution was a break with tradition in the ways it influenced both the content and language of literature. From this movement onwards, creative writers exercise no restraints on the sort of language they use in their writings. In modernist literature, readers could find much to surprise them in respect of content as well as language.
Another revolution is the one in literary criticism which has had a profound and radical influence on stylistics. In the 1930‘s, the critical theorist, I. A. Richards, expressed his dissatisfaction with those critics of his age. In his opinion, they seemed to be too much preoccupied with literature‘s role in educating the readers morally and emotionally. He called for a more objective approach to literary texts. In his famous book: Practical Criticism (1929), he established an approach to poetry which depended on close reading of the text.
The third revolution took place in linguistic science starting in the late 1950‘s. It was initiated by the work of Noam Chomsky and Michael Halliday whose thoughts were directly or indirectly influenced by the linguistic theory of F. de Sassure, the founder of modern linguistics.
Chomsky‘s transformational-generative grammar revealed a system of surface structure and deep structure in English syntax. It also brought about a new awareness of how the human mind is innately able to systematize reality by the use of language.
Halliday‘s systemic grammar has offered many insights into the methods of text analysis, particularly in respect of cohesion between sentences in discourse. The work done in the field of linguistics in the last three decade has provided the stylisticians with effective and completely new tools for investigating language in use in both literature and other types of discourse.
1.3 Schools of Stylistic Studies Modern stylistic has evolved from ancient Greek rhetoric. According to Greek philosophers, it is not adequate to know what to say, but how to say it. Style deals with ―how to say what to say.‖
1) The Geneva School Charles Bally (1865-1947) a French linguist, the student of Saussure Traitéde Stylistique Francaise 《法语文体论》(1920s) This book marks the beginning of modern stylistics. a stylistician concerned with the ways and effect of the linguistic expressions common to the same speech community the study of spoken variety excluding literature
— concentrates on the emotive dimension (Aspect) of language, (words, phrases and grammatical structures that express emotions) — zero style text without expressions of emotion No.(non-stylistic) Not bloody likely.(stylistic) shortcomings: impressionistic lacking objective criteria
2) Structuralist School Structuralist theory can be traced back to Immanuel Kant, a transcendentalist. He believes that a great part of thinking was generated in the structure of mind, not a reflection of experience. This view had much influence on linguistics and literary criticism. Roland Barthes: stylistic aesthetist
— the whole of writing is style — writing without style does not exist — a literary work – not a dualist structure of form and content, but a unity of various forms — There exists only forms, no content Shortcomings: too much emphasis of forms denial of theme and content
3) Psychological school The German stylisticians Leo Spitzer, Karl Vossller, Erich Auerbach —emphasis of intuition (―click‖ in the mind by Spitzer) One major concern of stylistician analysis is to check or validate intuitions by detailed analysis. —emphasis of repeated reading The understanding or appreciation of a literary work depends on intuition realized by reading and rereading.
—attaching importance to linguistic analysis The smallest detail of language can unlock the soul of a literary work. Shortcomings: —too subjective —lacking in scientific basis
4) London School Under the influence of linguist J. R. Firth, the British stylistic analysts took social factors into consideration –— register. Register is a variety distinguished according to use. The introduction of register enhanced analytic precision and accuracy.
Style: three major components of discourse: —field of discourse – the content(讲话的内容) —mode of discourse – the manner(讲话的方式) —tenor of discourse – the relations between addresser and addressee(讲话人于听
Halliday, Leech, Crystal, David, Short The Inheritors (William Golding) a masterpiece of stylistic analysis
Prague School Roman Jacobson: ?Moscow Linguistic Group‘ (1915) Viktor Shklovsky: ?Poetic Language Research Society‘ (1916) —pay special attention to the form and language literature As a result, their opponents called them formalists. —literature, poetry in particular, aims to change the process and make what is familiar unfamiliar so as to obtain a new vision of things.
—poetry is an organized violence committed on ordinary speech for artistic effect. —literary language is literary theme shortcomings; overemphasis on literary language neglect of content
The Five Clocks Martin Joos: a book of about 140 pages, 1962 Unlike British linguists who concerned themselves with the effect of contextual factors on style, Joos takes style for granted and thinks － Stylistician‘s task is to give a description of it. －Stylistic study should focus on the internal linguistic features of texts.
Five clocks: Frozen (庄严的文体、冷冻体） Formal (正式的文体） Consultative (商议性的文体):everyday getting-things-done language日常办事语言 Casual(随意的文体):relaxed conversations between friends Intimate(亲密的文体):between family members or lovers
— revealing the true features of language use — fuzziness — more flexible — more realistic
1.4 Two Important Assumptions of Stylistics The first important assumption of stylistics is that literature is made of language. Halliday states: ― Perhaps the first step towards becoming a stylistician… will be to recognize that literature is made of language‖ (1983).
Since literature is made of language, linguistics which is the scientific study of language should in principle be most help to us in analyzing and interpreting literary texts.
The second assumption of stylistics is just as basic and important as the first one. The assumption is that literature is a type of communicative discourse. Widdowson:―a piece of language use, literary or otherwise, is not only an exemplification of linguistic categories… but is also a piece of communication, a discourse of one kind or another‖
The assumption that literature is a type of discourse allows stylisticians to account for literary texts not just intra-sententially but also inter-sententially, not only in terms of linguistic facts and theory but also in terms of sociolinguistic facts and theory.
1.5 The Goals, Components and Procedure of Stylistic Inquiry
Halliday identifies two possible goals of stylistic inquiry. The first is ―to show why and how the text means what it does‖ (1983). According to Halliday, this goal is more immediate and unquestionably attainable.
In attaining the goal it is necessary to describe and interpret the text, in the process of which we may find that we have done more than simply show why the text means what we knew it meant already. We may have discoursed fresh meanings we had not previously been aware of, though we may have been reacting to them unconsciously. To attain this goal means that we should be able to say ―I can demonstrate why this text means all that I say it means‖ (1983).
The second goal Halliday puts forward is much more difficult to attain. It is of ―showing why the text is valued as it is‖ (1983). This, Halliday says, might be taken as an aim that is characteristic of stylistics, as distinct from text analysis in general. To attain this goal means that one should be able to say why this text is good and that one is not, or why this text is better than that one, or why this text has been received into the canon of major literary works.
When discussing components of literary criticism, Short has pointed out: ―the three parts are logically ordered: Description ←Interpretation ←Evaluation‖ (1984). Description is logically prior to interpretation because a reasonably convincing interpretation of a literary text is only derived from a careful and systematic examination of its language. Interpretation is also logically prior to evaluation.
In discussing the components and procedure of stylistic analysis, Halliday (1983) uses the term ?phase‘ instead of the term ?part‘ employed by Short. He mentions two phases, analytic phase (similar in meaning to what Short calls description) and interpretative phase. Evaluation phase is not explicitly mentioned, but it undoubtedly implied since Halliday sets evaluation as a goal of stylistic inquiry.
1.6 The Nature of Stylistic Analysis Stylistic analysis is generally concerned with the uniqueness of a text; that is, what it is that is peculiar to the uses of language in a literary text for delivering the message. This naturally involves comparisons of the language of the text with that used in conventional types of discourse.
Stylisticians may also wish to characterize the style of a literary text by systematically comparing the language uses in that text with those in another. Halliday points out, ―The text may be seen as ?this‘ in contrast with ?that‘, with another poem or another novel; stylistic studies are essentially comparative in nature…‖ (1971).
Widdowson : ―All literary appreciation is comparative, as indeed is a recognition of styles in general‖ (1975). Thus, we may conclude that stylistic analysis is an activity which is highly comparative in nature.
Chapter 2 Three Views on Style What is style? Liu Shisheng speaks of the difficulties in definition style and lists 31 definitions. Below are a dozen of these definitions: 1) Style as form (Aristotle) 2) Style as eloquence (Cicero) 3) Style is the man (Buffon) 4)Style as personal idiosyncrasy (Murry) (文体即个人特点的综合)
5) Saying the right thing in the most effective way (Enkvist)(文体以最有效的方式讲恰当的事情) 6) Style as the choice between alternative expressions (Enkvist) (文体即在不同表达方式中的选择) 7) Style as equivalence (Jakobson) 8) Style as foregrounding(突出) (Leech and Short, Mukarǒvsky) 9) Style as deviation (变异) (Mukarǒvsky & Spitzer)
10) Style as prominence (Halliday) 11) Style as the selection of features partly determined by the demands of genre, form, theme, etc. (Traugott and Pratt) 12) Style as the linguistic features that communicate emotions and thought (Enkvist)
we will consider three of these views, namely style as deviance, style as choice, and style as foregrounding. 2.1 Style as Deviance Widdowson: the distinctiveness of a literary text resides in its departure from the characteristics of what is communicatively normal. This has led to approaches to style as deviance.
One of the chief proponents of the concept of style as deviance was Jan Mukarǒvsky, a leading linguist and literary critic of the Prague School in the 1930‘s. His famous essay ―Standard language and poetic language‖ has been regarded as a classic in stylistics. In this essay, he speaks of style as ―foregrounding‖, stating that ―the violation of the norm of standard(qualitative deviation), (对于常规的变异即为质的变异)(its systematic violation is what makes possible the poetic utilization of language; without this possibility there would be no poetry‖
According to Mukarǒvsky, normal uses of language ―automatize‖ language to such as extent that its speakers no longer see its expressive or aesthetic power; poetry must ―de-automatize‖ or ―foreground‖ language by breaking the rules of everyday language.
To demonstrate what Mukarǒvsky‘s statements mean, let us first quote a classic example, the phrase ―a grief ago‖ from a poem of that name by Dylan Thomas. The phrase violates two rules of English: a) the indefinite article a clashes syntactically with the uncountable noun grief, because it normally modifies a countable one; b) the postmodifying adverb ago clashes semantically with the head word grief, for it usually is able to modify a noun to do with time.
But grief is a word which expresses emotion. The highly deviant nature of the phrase attracts much attention from the reader to itself, and thus makes it possible for the poet to express what cannot be expressed through the normal use of language. Thomas here seems to be measuring time in terms of emotion. It is not unreasonable, therefore, to suggest that the speaker of the poem may have experienced grief repeatedly so that he can measure time in term of it.
E. E. Cummings‘ poem anyone lived in a pretty how town This poem shows not only the extremity of rule violations in poetry, but also the systematicity of violations. Here is part of the poem:
( anyone lived in a pretty how town (with up so floating many bells down) spring summer autumn winter he sang his didn‘t he danced his did women and men (both little and small) cared for anyone not at all they sowed their isn‘t they reaped their same sun moon stars rain
To avoid complication let us limit our discussion here only to the use of auxiliary in the poem fragment. There are three auxiliaries in this part of the poem: didn‘t, did and isn‘t. They are all used in positions where we normally employ common nouns and, therefore, they obviously violate a syntactic rule. Each of these auxiliaries on its own does not seem to make much sense.
However, because they are used systematically, i.e. in the same way, we are able to impose some kind of interpretation upon them. Here didn‘t and did can be taken as antonyms. A possible interpretation we could construct for the last two lines of the first stanza, therefore, may go as follows: all the year round, he greeted with equal happiness things, acts or actions of opposite consequences that came to him.
The approach of style as deviance as introduced above has the advantage of helping us to see and keep in mind that there is a difference between everyday language and the language of literature. It also helps us realize that deviant features provide important clues for interpretation.
This approach also has a number of disadvantages. The chief disadvantage, which is a much debated problem, is that it is difficult to define the nature and the status of the norm from which style of a text deviances. Bloch, for example, considers the basis of norm to be statistical(数字统计). He defines style as ―the message carried by the frequency distributions and transitional probabilities of linguistic features, especially as they differ from those of the same feature in the language as a whole‖ (1953). (语音,语法,词汇等项
目出现的频率及所占比例是否超过其他同类作品,如果 超出就构成了量的变异(quantitative deviation))
Freeman points out: ―The ?frequency distributions and transitional probabilities‘ are not known, and never will be, and even if they could be ascertained, they would constitute no particularly revealing insight into either natural language or style‖ (1971)
Another disadvantage of this approach, as Traugott and Pratt point out, is that of ―encouraging the linguist to look at the language of grammatically highly deviant authors like E. E. Cummings at the expense of the relatively non-deviant ones such as T. S. Eliot and Wallace Stevens. More generally it tends to undervalue all nondeviant language, both within literature and without‖ (1980).
2.2 Style as Choice(文体即选择) By style as choice is meant that style ―result from a tendency a speaker or writer to consistently choose certain structures over others available in the language‖ (Traugott and Pratt, 1980). ―With this view‖, Traugott and Pratt say, ―we can distinguish between ?style‘ and ?language‘ by saying that language is the total sum of the structures available to the speaker, while style concerns the characteristic choices in a given context‖.
Style as choice is often considered to be a matter of form or expression, i.e. as choice among different ways of expressing a predetermined content. However, it only takes a moment or two to reflect that writer also choose content.
Enkvist‘s paper ?On the place of style in some linguistic theories‘ It is pointed out that ―Hemingway elects to write about men of action—bull fighters, deep-sea fishermen, soldiers, big-game hunters — is as much a stylistic fact as his habit of writing in short, simple sentences, preferring the ?dramatic‘ to the ?interior monologue‘ point of view in narration, etc.‖ (Chatman, 1971)
An interesting case was once considered by Short. In writing The Eve of St. Agnes, Keats first produced the line, ?As though a rose should close and be a bud again‘. But when he reread the line, he substituted the word shut for close: ?As though a rose should shut and be a bud again‘.
On a first casual reading we may get the impression that since close and shut are synonyms, the replacement of one with the other does not make much difference, and is therefore not necessary. But when we scrutinize the two versions, we may decide that shut is a much better choice.
The word close in the first version connects backwards to rose to form an internal rhyme, which adds some poetic quality to the line, since internal rhyme is one of those features associated traditionally and typically with poetry. However, this connection is made only within the first part of the line. Furthermore, the connection does not in any way reinforce the meaning of the connected words, nor indeed that of the entire line. Therefore, we may say that it is rhyme for rhyme‘s sake.
In contrast with close, the choice of shut is more appropriate and significant in three respects: a)It connects forward phonetically and supraclausally to bud, thus forming a semirhyme or assonance. It also connects backward to should phonetically and visually and to rose with which it forms the next immediate constituent. Because the above connection run across both parts of the line instead of just one, the unity of the line is greatly strengthened.
b) The phonetic connection it forms with bud underlies the semantic connection between the two words, for shut semantically relates to bud in terms of the shape of the flower, while close does not have this relation.
c) Notice that vowel /Λ/ before a voiceless consonant / t / in the word shut takes a much short duration to produce than the diphthong / ?u / before a voiced consonant / z / in the word close. Notice also that the consonant / t / is a plosive which is produced with a rapid release of compressed air leading to short and sharp explosion, while the consonant / z / is a sibilant which is produced with the blade of the tongue making almost complete contact with the alveolar ridge but leaving a narrow groove along its median line.
Therefore, the production of the word shut may produce a sense of ?suddenness‘ and ?abruptness‘ in contrast with the production of the word close. This greatly reinforces the meaning of the line.
The view that style is choice also has limitations. It implies that every linguistic element in a text is a choice of the writer and therefore should be included in a discussion of the style of the text it is in. Our experience and intuition tell us that in interpretation a text, only a certain number of elements are interesting and relevant to the interpretation. The stylistician must select those features that are most relevant to his discussion and ignore the irrelevant ones in order to make a coherent and convincing interpretation.
2.3 Style as Foregrounding( 突出） The term foregrounding is a concept of pictorial arts, referring to that part of the composition that appears to be closest to the view (Mayer, 1969). The concept was applied to literature first by the pre-war Prague School linguists and literary critics, such as Mukarǒvsky, to refer to the unexpected departures from the accepted norms.
The proponents of the view of style as foregrounding extended the concept to include both the deviant features and those linguistic phenomena which are not deviant, but nevertheless striking. The latter are what Leech refers to as ―the opposite circumstance, in which a writer temporarily renounces his permitted freedom of choice, introducing uniformity where there would normally be diversity‖ (1971 )
Consider the following parallel structure : When he laughed, respectable senators burst with laughter, And when he cried the little children died in the streets. (W. H. Auden, Epitaph on a Tyrant) Auden could have chosen a different structure for each line, yet he limited himself to the same option. The parallel structure here draws the attention of the reader and makes him see the semantic connection between the two lines. This, therefore, is a type of foregrounding.
The view of style as foregrounding is explained in Short‘s article ―Who is stylistics‖: A.When a writer writes he is constantly involved in making linguistic choices － choices between one word and another, one structure and another, and so on. B. Examination of the choices that he makes (as opposed to the ones that he rejects) can help us to understand more fully the meaning he is trying to create and the effects he is striving to achieve.
C. He can make choice both inside and outside the language system. Choices outside the language system are deviant and thus produce foregrounding. D. Overregularity of a particular choice within the system (e.g. parallelism) also produces foregrounding. (Short, 1984 )
We can see from the above statement that importance is attached to the concept of choice. However, the most weight is given to two major types of choices, i.e. choices that are deviant and those that are overregular, for they both produce foregrounding. This is to say that it is foregrounded features that are stylistically relevant and merit consideration in a stylistic analysis. In other words, style is foregrounding.
Style as foregrounding has two advantages over style as deviance and style as choice: a) It can account for certain aspects of nondeviant language in literature which the approach of style as deviant fails to do. In other words, it is a broad view than the view of style as deviance. b) Compared with the view of style as choice, the view of style as foregrounding leaves much less to personal judgment, i.e. the identification and selection of stylistically relevant features for analysis are less of a problem for those taking the view of style as foregrounding.
Leech points out: ―Foregrounding is a useful, even crucial, concept in stylistics, providing a bridge between the relative objectivity of linguistic description and the relative subjectivity of literary judgment. It is a criterion by which we may select, from a mass of linguistic detail, those features relevant to literary effects‖ (1973)
It can be noticed from Short‘s statement that foregrounding is achieved either through deviation or through overregularity in language use. Deviation can be investigated and classified according to its linguistic level. In his book A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry (1969), Leech, for example, considers phonological, graphological, grammatical, lexical and semantic and dialect deviation.
He also discusses deviation of register and deviation of historical period. In our course, we will consider phonological, graphological, syntactic, lexical and semantic deviation. The first four types can be said to be surface-structure deviation. Semantic deviation may be said to be deepstructure deviation. We have used ?syntactic‘ instead of Leech‘s ?grammatical‘ because the term ?grammatical‘ can be ambiguous in that it may be used synonymously with ?linguistic‘ to cover phonological, syntactic as well as semantic matters.
Chapter 3 Surface-structure In this chapter, we will look at four types of surface-structure deviation. These are: phonological deviation, graphological deviation, syntactic deviation and lexical deviation.
3.1 Phonological Deviation（语音变异） Features at the phonological level function more by being overregular rather than being deviant, since they belong to the surfacestructure of the English language. However,the following phonological irregularities still need to be noted.
3.1.1 Omission 1) Aphesis－the omission of an initial part of a word, e.g. (1) Thou on whose stream, ‘mid the steep sky‘s commotion, Loose clouds like earth‘s decaying leaves are shed, (P. B. Shelley, Ode to the West Wind) The complete form of ‘mid in the line is ?amid‘.
2) Syncope－the omission of a media part of a word, e.g. (2) A voice so thrilling ne‘er was heard In spring-time from the cuckoo-bird, Breaking the silence of the seas Among the farthest Hebrides. (Wordsworth, The Solitary Reaper) The original form of ne‘er in the first line is ?never‘.
3) Apocope－the omission of a final part of a word, e.g. (3) Till a‘ the seas gang dry, my dear, And the rocks melt wi‘ the sun I will love thee still, my dear, While the sands o‘ life shall run. (Robert Burns, A Red, Red Rose) Here, Burns has used a‘ for ?all‘, wi‘ for ?with‘ and o‘ for ?of‘.
They change the pronunciations of the original words so that the poet may better and more easily arrange sound patterns to achieve their intended communicative effects usually for rhyme and rhythm.
3.1.2 Mispronunciation and Sub-standard Pronunciation In order to vividly describe a character, the literary writer may choose to let his character mispronounce certain words or simply pronounce them in sub-standard ways. Consider the example in the following passages.
(4) ―Aha!‖ said the undertaker, glancing over it with a lively countenance, ―an order for coffin, eh?‖ ―For a coffin first, and a porochial funeral afterwards,‖ replied Mr. Bumble, fastening the strap of the leathern pocket book: which, like himself, was very corpulent. ―Bayton,‖ said the undertaker, looking from the scrap of paper to Mr. Bumble, ―I never heard the name before.‖ Bumble shook his head, as he replied, ―Obstinate people, Mr. Sowerberry, very obstinate. Proud, too, I‘m afraid, sir.‖
―Proud, eh?‖ exclaimed Mr. Sowerberry with a sneer. ―Come, that‘s too much.‖ ―Oh, it‘s sickening,‘ replied the beadle. ―Antimonial, Mr. Sowerberry!‖ ―So it is,‖ acquiesced the undertaker. ―We only heard the family the night before last,‖ said beadle; ―and we shouldn‘t have known anything about them, then, only a woman who lodges in the same house made an application to the porochial committee for them to send the porochial surgeon to see a woman as was very bad.
He had gone out to dinner; but his ‘prentice (which is a very clever lad) sent ‘em some medicine in a blacking‘-bottle, off-hand.‖ ―Ah, there‘s promptness,‖ said the undertaker. ―Promptness, indeed!‖ replied the beadle. ―But what‘s the consequence, what‘s the ungrateful behaviour of these rebels, sir?
Why, the husband sends back word that the medicine won‘t suit his wife‘s complaint, and so she shan‘t take it－says she shan‘t take it, sir! Good, strong wholesome medicine, as was given with great success to two Irish laborers and a coalheaver, only a week before－sent ‘em for nothing, with a blackin-bottle in, and he sends back word that she shan‘t take it, sir!‖ (Dickens, Oliver Twist)
In Dickens‘ passage, we may notice that Mr. Bumble, the parish beadle, mispronounced the word ?parochial‘ /????????/ (meaning: of or relating to a parish) as porochial /????????/ three times (lines 3, 21 and 22), and mispronounced ?blacking-bottle‘ /bl?ki?b?tl / as blackinbottle /bl?kinb?tl / (line 34). He also swallowed up certain sounds several times: ‘prentice for ?apprentice‘ (line 23), ‘em for ?them‘ (lines 23 and 34).
Why does Dickens describe Mr. Bumble in such a way? If we read the other parts of the novel, we will find that although Mr. Bumble was the lowest in rank as a parish officer, yet he considered himself important and liked to put on airs before those whom he considered to be inferior to him.
He was hypocritical, mean, and unsympathetic. His mispronunciations, substandard pronunciations and misuse of a word in the passage rightly capture his pretence and pompousness. In trying to show his importance by using long and technical words beyond his command, he only revealed his incompetence.
By presenting what he said and how he said it instead of direct authorial comment, Dickens has highly succeeded in portraying the character. It is small wonder then that some years after the publication of the novel, bumble became an English word and was recorded in the major English dictionaries.
(5) ―May God starve ye yet,‖ yelled an old Irish woman who now threw open a nearby window and stuck out her head. ―Yes, and you,‖ she added, catching the eye of one of the policemen. ―You bloody murthering thafe! Crack my son over the head, will you, you hard-hearted, murthering divil? Ah, ye－” (T. Dreiser, Sister Carrie)
In Dreiser‘s passage, the old Irish woman was depicted as speaking in a sub-standard fashion: ye for ?you‘, murthering for ?murdering‘, divil for ?devil‘, and thafe for ?thief‘. The employment of such deviant phonological features here, it seems, adds vividness to the happening as if it was the live transmission of the scene. Her accent also reveals that she is a working-class woman.
3.1.3 Special Pronunciation For convenience of rhyming, the poet may give special pronunciation to certain words, e.g. (6) The trumpet of a prophecy! O, Wind, If winter comes, can spring be bar behind? (P. B. Shelley, Ode to the West Wind) In this poem, the noun wind /wind/ is pronounced like the verb ?wind‘ /waind/ to rhyme with behind.
3.1.4 Change of Stress Some 19th-century poets placed word stresses in unusual places, e.g. ?bal‘uster‘ (Tennyson). Why do poets incorporate such changes? Is it merely for exigencies of metre(诗韵，verse rhythm）, or because of archaic affection, or obedience to some obscure principle of euphony(声音的和谐， pleasantness of sound)? Leech (1969) admits that he finds such stress changes hard to determine.
3.2 Graphological Deviation（书写变异） By graphology is meant the encoding of meaning in visual symbols. Deviation at this level seems to be much more interesting. Graphology is concerned with such matters as spelling, capitalization, hyphenation（分 割词语）, italicization and paragraphing.
Many types of discourse have their conventional forms. It becomes noticeably expressive when a writer makes a graphological choice which is to some degree marked or unconventional.
It is a supplementary means to help convey meaning.
1.EARLS COURT Two couples To share mod F/F flat, W/M D/W, security entry, telephone. Close to tube +shops. ? pp pw incl. 55 Phone 071-386 8748 (eves.)
EARLS COURT: the name of a local place, the most important information Mod: modern F/F: first floor = second floor in America (good floor) W/M:washing machineD/M:dishing machine security entry: door used to prevent theft, etc. +: and ? pound : pp: per person pw: per week incl: included eves.: contact in the evenings
Easter Wings Lord, who createdst man in wealth and store, Though foolishly he lost the same, Decaying more and more, Till he became Most poore: With thee O let me rise As larks, harmoniously, And sing this day thy victories: Then shall the fall further the flight in me.
The shape of the poem has been designed in an unconventional way so that it may be suggestive of a certain literary theme. The shape of the poem strikes us as most unusual because it is not like that of a conventional poem. When we look more closely at the wording, and use some imagination, we may begin to speculate on why the poet has designed the poem in this way. We become able to appreciate the uniqueness and the originality of the poet‘s design.
The stone top The damp echo The cold wind The held breath The fading foothills The small trees The missing turning The hopeless face The chinks of light The life-line sky The greening moss The cold echo The stone steps
40 － middle couple ten when game and go the will be tween
Love aged playing nis the ends they home net still be them
The features that immediately draws attention is the shape of the poem. The poet has arranged them into two columns with two words even being divided into two parts (ten-nis, be-tween). The arrangement of the words into columns in a symmetrical and balanced way produces a visual image of a tennis court where the two sides are physically separated by a net.
Secondly, plosives : middle /d / aged /d / couple /p / playing /p/ ten /t / game /g / and /d / go /g / still /t / be /b / tween /t /
(line 1) (line 1) (line 2) (line 2) (line 3) (line 5) (line 6) (line 7) (line 9) (line 10) (line 11)
The employment of so many plosives in this poem produces an onomatopoeic effect. When the poem is read aloud, one may feel that one actually hears the sound of a tennis ball hitting the ground and the rackets.
The exact repetition of certain sounds. couple playing /pl/ (line 2) ten nis /n/ (line 3) go home /эu/ (line 7) will still /il/ (line 9) be be /b/ (line 10) On the one hand, it may function to knit the text together and to give balance to the text. On the other hand, the exact repetition may generate a sense of monotony.
Thirdly, we may see that the title of the poem is ambiguous. One interpretation is ?love at 40 years of age‘. Another interpretation is ?the score of three points (called 40) to zero point (love) in a tennis game‘.
This is a game played by a couple in their 40‘s. It appears to be a serious and conscious game and both sides seem to know and are willing to observe the rule of the game. However, the repetition of certain sounds shows the monotony of the game. There is no climax or thrilling surprise. In a word there does not seem to be much fun in the game.
This may be due to the fact that one side seems to be no match for the other, for he or she has scored nothing whereas the other side‘s score has reached the game point. This could be the marriage situation of the couple. The net represents the barrier that prevents the couple from becoming truly intimate.
呆 秀才 吃常斋 胡须满腮 经书不揭开 纸笔自己安排 明年不请我自来
A Foolish scholar Fasted so long Whiskers covered his cheeks Neglecting to study t he classics He left pen and paper aside He‘ll come without being invited next year
 two martinis ago a grief ago  He gave it to me － for an unbirthday present. (Lewis Carroll) The widow-making, unchilding unfathering deeps. G. M. Hopkins, The Wreck of he Deutschland
 And storms bugle his fame. Let him easter in us. The just man justice The achieve of, the mastery of the thing.  The author, Wife Norris and an anthology of children in Brooklin Heights.  It has the poorest millionaire, the littlest great men, the haughtiest beggars, the plainest beauties, the lowest skyscrapers, the dolefulest pleasures of any town I ever saw.
 You pays your money and you doesn‘t take your choice. (E.E. Cummings)  You don‘t know about me without you have read a book by the name of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, but that ain‘t no matter. That book was made by Mr. Mark Twain, and he told the truth, mainly. There was things which he stretched, but mainly he told the truth. (Mark Twain)
 Buffalo Bill‘s defunct who used to ride a watersmooth-silver stallion And break onetwothreefourfive pigeonsjustlikethat Jesus he was a handsome man and what i want to know is how do you like your blueyed boy Mister Death
n On my naming day when I come 12 I to gone front spear and kilt a wyld boar he parbly ben the las wyld pig on the Bundel Downs any how there hadn‘t ben none for a long time before him nor I ain‘t looking to see none agen.
 The ′sun / now ′rose / u′pon / the ′right / ′out of / the ′sea / came ′he.
 The way nothing is accompanied, he thought. His mouth was too dry to speak but he could not reach for the water now. I must get him alongside this time, he thought. I am not good for many more turns. Yes you are, he told himself. You‘re good forever. On the next turn he nearly had him. But again he fish righted himself and swam slowly away.
He took all his pain and what left of his strength and his long-gone pride and he put it against the fish‘s agony and the fish came over onto his side and swam gently on his side, his bill almost toughing the planking of the skiff, and started to pass the boat, long, deep, wide, silver and barred with purple and interminable in the water.
 狄 伦 ? 托 马 斯 (Dylan Thomas) 从 a while ago引出a dream ago, 甚至a grief ago. 这类 短语虽然在表层结构上有些相似, 但在深 层结构上却完全不同, 如在a grief ago中, 诗人使用grief是想形象地说明整个忧伤 的过程。 two martinis ago: two cups of martinis ago a grief ago: a period of grief ago Lexical Deviation
 unbirthday: wrong formation Lexical Deviation  widow-making, unchilding, unfathering: wrong formation, wrong use Lexical Deviation bugle/′bju:gl/:n.→v.brass musical instrument like a trumpet, used for giving military signals easter: →v. live in heart让他活在我们心中。 man→v. 好人有好报。正义的人得到正义 的回报。 achieve: v. →n. Lexical Deviation
 anthology: n. collection of poems or pieces of prose on the same subject or by the same writer an anthology of love poetry an anthology of children: many children Lexical Deviation doleful: adj. sad, mournful(令人沮丧的) littlest, dolefulest：Lexical Deviation Paradox(矛盾修饰法): Semantic Deviation
you pays, you doesn‘t: Syntactic Deviation  without: prep. → conj. was→ were Syntactic Deviation  Graphological Deviation  Lexical Deviation Syntactic Deviation Phonological Deviation Internal Deviation Mixed Deviation
 Internal Deviation Phonological Deviation  Internal Deviation
3.3 Syntactic Deviation（句法变异） Syntactic deviation refers to departures from normal (surface) grammar. These include a number of features such as unusual clause themes, unusual phrase structures.
3.3.1 Unusual Clause Theme The initial unit of a clause may be called its theme. Apart from the last stressed element of the clause structure which most naturally bears the information focus, the theme is the most important part of a clause from the point of view of its presentation of a message in sequence. The theme may be characterized as the communicative departure for the rest of the clause.
In English, the expected or ―unmarked‖ theme of a main clause is: 1. Subject of an indicative clause: She got a new dress. 2. Auxiliary in a yes-no question: Did she get a new dress? 3. Wh-element in a wh-question: Which dress did she get? 4. Main verb in an imperative clause: Get a new dress for her.
However, the literary writer can go beyond this and may place any of the rest of clause elements in the thematic position in order to achieve certain literary effect. My opinion of the coal trade on that river is, that it may require talent, but it certainly requires capital. Talent Mr. Micawber has, capital Mr. Micawber has not. (Dickens, David Copperfield)
The second sentence in the above paragraph is made up of two parallel clauses and each clause is initiated by a noun phrase which by function is the object of the clause. The function of the unusual clause theme here seems to be three-fold: a) it neatly knits the paragraph together and is thus a powerful device of textual cohesion, b) it serves to form a contrast in meaning between the two parallel clauses, c) it gives much emphasis to the two words shifted to the initial position
A number of adverbials appear typically in the initial position and therefore should be disregarded in considering what is the theme of a clause. However, some other adverbials especially those which would otherwise immediately follow an intransitive or intensive verb, may be treated as ―marked theme‖ when placed initially. Consider for example, the opening stanza of Wordsworth‘s poem The Solitary Reaper.
Behold her, single in the field, You solitary Highland Lass! Reaping and singing by herself; Stop here, or gently pass! Alone she cuts and binds the grain, And sings a melancholy strain; O listen! for the vale profound Is overflowing with the sound.
The adjunt alone in the fifth line if the stanza is seldom, if ever, placed initially. Putting it in the thematic position here makes it possible for the line to rhyme with the next one, and bestows a ?musical‘ quality to the poem. However, what seems to be more important is that this fronting of the adjunt makes the element highly noticeable. As can be seen even from the title and the first stanza of the poem, one of the major themes of the poem is the solitude of the young Highland girl who reaps crops in the field. Thus, making the element alone prominent greatly reinforces the theme of the poem.
The thematic fronting of an element is often associated with inversion which involves the reversal of subject and verb or subject and operator. Below are some examples. A. Here comes the bus. (A V S) B. Away went the car like a whirlwind. (A V S A) C. There are our friends. (A V S)
In literature, thematic fronting involving inversion often produces a much stronger rhetorical effect than that in previous examples. Take, for example, the following stanza by Longfellow. Out of the bosom of the Air, Out of the cloud-folds of her garments shaken, Over the woodlands brown and bare, Over the harvest-fields forsaken, Silent, and soft, and slow Descends the snow. (Snowflakes)
The piling up of seven adverbials in the thematic position strongly emphasizes the manners and the process of snow falling. Together with the inversion of the subject and the verb, this thematic fronting produces a strong suspense. The thematic fronting reinforced by the parallel structure in the first four lines and the alliteration and the use of adjectives as adverbs in line five makes the text very interesting to read. One cannot help marveling at the poet‘s artistic skills.
3.3.2 Deviant Phrase Structure
In order to achieve certain communicative effects, literary writers may use phrases that are structurally deviant. As an example, let us consider again Dylan Thomas‘ famous phrase ?a grief ago‘. In this phrase the word grief as an uncountable noun is used in a position where we would normally employ a countable one. The following line from a poem by Cummings which was quoted: ?he sang his didn‘t, he danced his did‘. As can be seen here, the structure of his didn‘t and his did is highly deviant. In non-literary discourse, possessive pronouns are never
O What a noble mind is here o‘erthrown! The courtier‘s, soldier‘s, scholar‘s, eye, tongue, sword. (Shakespeare, Hamlet) This is Ophelia‘s lament over Hamlet‘s supposed madness. Here, the sense of derangement is hightened by the fact that the order of the genitive nouns does not correspond semantically with the order of the things possessed. More importantly, the phrases are structurally deviant in that each possessor is separated from its possessed, so that both logic and everyday expectations of speech seem to be mixed up in the disaster.
Finally, let us consider a line again from Dylan Thomas: Do not go gentle into that good night (Do not Go Gentle into that Good Night)
Here the adjective gentle is used in a position where an adverbial phrase would be used. As can be seen, the line is also the poem‘s title. It is repeated six times throughout the whole poem. It expresses one of the major themes of the poem, i.e. one should not accept death without resistance. The deviant use of gentle here attracts much attention to the line itself, and makes the reader pause to think seriously about the meaning of the line. If we substitute ?gently‘ for gentle, there would be nothing unusual and the meaning of the line would not register in the mind of the reader. Thus, the
3.4 Lexical Deviation （词汇变异） Lexical deviation in literature refers almost exclusively to neologisms or the coinage of new words. The new words that the literary writer invents are usually made up for use on only one particular occasion, and can therefore be called ?nonce-formations‘. In the coinage of new words, the literary writer usually extends three major rules of word-formation: affixation, compounding and conversion.
3.4.1 Affixation Affixation is addition of a prefix to an item which already exists in the language. The following lines contain some typical examples of words coined by extension of this rule: And I Tiresias have foresuffered all. (T. S. Eliot) There was a balconyful of gentlemen. (Chesterton) We left the town refreshed and rehatted. (Fortherhill)
The nonce word foresuffered is coined by adding the prefix ?fore-‘ to the item ?suffer‘. The prefix ?fore-? conveys the meaning ?beforehand‘ and is normally reserved for joining with such items as ?see‘, ?tell‘ and ?warn‘. The novel use here, according to Leech, encapsulates a newly formulated idea: it is possible to anticipate mystically the suffering of the future, just as it is possible to ?foresee‘ and ?foretell‘ or to have ?foreknowledge‘ of the future events.
The coinage balconyful is the result of the addition of the suffix ?-ful‘ to the item ?balcony‘. The suffix ?-ful‘ when used to form nouns has the meaning ?as much as will fill the thing specified‘, and is usually added to items such as ?bowl‘, ?basket‘ or ?spoon‘. The coinage balconyful here affords a vivid description of the number of people staying on the balcony, thus making the work interesting to read.
Rehatted is formed by attaching the prefix ?re-‘ to the item ?hat‘. As can be easily seen, this coinage is in the phonetic harmony with its parallel refreshed and thus produces a humourous and comic effect.
3.4.2 Compounding Compounding is the combination of two or more items to make a single compound one. While I, joy-jumping, empty-eyed sang on the day my father died. (Edwin Brook) Babes wake Open-eyed; (W. H. Davies) They were else-minded then, altogether, the men (G. M. Hopkins)
Joy-jumping is a compound made up on the pattern of noun + ?ing‘ participle. However, it is different from the compounds of the same pattern such as ?music-loving‘, for ?music-loving‘ can be paraphrased as ?having love for music‘ whereas joyjumping cannot be paraphrased as ?having joy for jumping‘. The word is, in fact, coined from the idiom ?jump for joy‘ which means ?jump because of joy‘.
The extension of the compound rule here on an idiom makes the situation described in the poem much more ironical. This ironical effect is further reinforced and developed by another coinage, empty-eyed, which communicates the meaning that ?there are no tears in the eyes‘ of the speaker ?I‘. This word is invented on the same pattern as ?clean-shaven‘ and ?newly-laid‘.
The coinage open-eyed is similar to the nonce word empty-eyed in that each can be considered as a verbless adjective clause performing the grammatical function of subject complement. However, open-eyed expresses a result, in this instance the surprise and astonishment caused by the mingled loud noise of shouting, screaming and barking when school is out. Empty-eyed, in contrast, only expresses a state.
The example else-minded in Hopkins‘ line is formed by extension of the word-formation rule: adv. (or adj.) + ?ed‘ participle. At first glance, it may seem to be synonymous with ?absent-minded‘. But a close examination reveals that there is some difference in meaning. When we speak of a person being absent-minded we mean that he is either thinking of something other than what requires his attention or simply resting himself, doing no thinking. The coinage else-minded, however, conveys only the first layer of meaning of ?absent-minded‘. Thus it avoids ambiguity and more accurately captures the state of mind of
3.4.3 Conversion Conversion, which is often described as ?zero affixation‘, is the adaptation of an item to a new grammatical function without changing its form. Let us take a look at the following examples: 1) That hearts That spaniel‘d me at heels, to whom I give Their wish, do discandy, melt their sweets On blossoming Caesar; and this pine is bark‘d That overtopped them all (Shakespeare)
The verb spaniel’d is a conversion from ?spaniel‘, referring to a special long-haired breed of hunting dog with floppy ears, a silky coat and a usually docked tail. This coinage brings great immediacy to the scene being described, and gives a vivid picture of those who once followed Antony closely and obediently like a spaniel follows its master.
2) ―Don‘t be such a harsh parent, father!‖ ―Don‘t father me!‖ (H. G. Wells) The noun father is changed to a verb and used by the Father in a retort to his child to express his annoyance and discontent. The retort is made all the more forcefully by the fact that the statement may be interpreted in two ways which are both relevant to the situation. These two interpretations are: ?Don‘t call me father!‘ and ?Don‘t speak to me as if you were the father!‘
3) I was explaining the Golden Bull to his Royal Highness, ―I‘ll Golden Bull you, you rascal!‖ roared the Majesty of Prussia. (Macaulay) The noun phrase Golden Bull is turned to a verb to convey the meaning, to fight (someone) like a Golden Bull. Since Golden Bull was used as a proper noun in the preceding sentence, the conversion of it into a verb makes the passage highly cohesive. It also vividly manifests the boorishness of the Majesty of Prussia.