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人教新课标高中英语必修四 Unit2 Working the land Grammar (共46张PPT)


Proof of composition(作文改错)

My dream is earn a lot of money.
改为:My

dream is earning a lot of money.

My dream is to earn a lot of money

动词的-ing形式做主语和宾语

我们常说的现在分词和动 名词是怎么回事?

现在分词和动名词都是由动词末 尾加 -ing 形式构 成,因此统称为动词的 -ing 形式。

V+-ing

千万要注意V-ing 形式的规则哟!
不能单独作谓语, 没有人称和数的变 化,可以有自己的 宾语和状语。现在 分词还有时态和语 态的变化。

时 态 和 语 态
类别

及 物 动



不及物动词

形式

主 动






doing



一般式 doing

being done

完成式 having done having been done Having done

作主语:动名词
Teaching is my full-time job.
Writing an English composition is not easy. It’s useless taking this kind of medicine.

动名词作主语的形式主语句型
1.It is no use /good doing…. 2.It is not any use/good doing…. 3.It is worthwhile doing…. 4.It is hardly worth doing…. 5.There is no doing…. 6.It’s a waste of time doing…. eg.It’s no good telling her all the truth. It’s no use crying over the spilt milk. There is no talking what will happen. It’s a waste of time arguing about it. It is worthwhile trying this experiment.

动名词和不定式作主语的区别:
动名词作主语表示一般或抽象的多次性行为; 不定式作主语往往表示具体的或一次性的动作。 eg. Playing with fire is dangerous. To play with fire will be dangerous.

Smoking is prohibited here.
To smoke so much isn’t good for you.

作表语
(1)动名词 My job is teaching. = Teaching is my job. Her full-time job is laying eggs. =Laying eggs is her full-time job.
(2)现在分词 The play is exciting. ≠ Exciting is the play. The story he told us was very interesting. ≠Interesting was the story he told us.

动名词作表语说明主语的内容,回答what 或doing what的问题 现在分词作主语说明主语的性质特征,回答how的问题. eg. The film is very interesting. ( How is the film ? ) His job is teaching. ( What is his job ? )

动名词与现在分词作表语的区别:

动名词和不定式作表语的区别:
动名词作表语表示一般或抽象的行为; 不定式作表语往往表示具体的某次动作,特别是 将来的动作时,多用不定式. eg. My favourite hobby is jogging. His idea is to give up the plan.

现在进行时着重强调动作正在进行. eg. He is cleaning the window.

作宾语:动名词
?I have just finished doing my home work. ?I suggested asking his brother for some money.

?He keeps buying expensive maps.
?He is fond of playing football.

一.只接动名词作宾语的常见 动词(短语)有: dislike, avoid, consider, finish, suggest, deny, imagine,risk, mind, keep, miss, enjoy, fancy,admit,delay,appreciate, practise, escape,can’t help, can’t stand, give up,put off, feel like, succeed in,等

太多了,怎么记呀?

Mrs Black missed a beef bag.

二.某些动词接不定式与动名词作宾语的区别
1) remember to do 记住要做某事 remember doing 记得过去做过某事 I remember meeting him in the street. 我记得在街上见过他。 I remember to write a letter to my parents. 我想起来要给我父母亲写信。 2)forget to do 忘记去做某事 forget doing 忘记做过某事 I forgot to mail the letter for her. 我忘了去为她寄那封信了. I forgot writing that composition. 我忘记了写过那篇作文.

3) stop doing 停止 做某事 stop to do 停下正在做的事而去做另外一件事 Stop smoking, please. 请不要抽烟 Let's stop to have a rest. 咱们停下来休息一下吧。 4) mean to do 打算做某事 mean doing 意味着…… I meant to catch up with the early bus. 我打算赶上早班车. This means wasting a lot of money. 这意味着花很多钱.

5) try to do 设法尽力做某事 try doing 试着做某事 You should try to overcome your shortcomings.

你设法尽力克服你的缺点. Try working out the physics problem in another way 试着用另一种方法去计算这物理难题.

6)regret to do 对要做的事表示抱歉或遗憾 regret doing 对已做过的事表示后悔 I regret spending so much money. 我后悔花了那么多钱. I regret to tell you have failed the college entrance exam

我很遗憾地吿诉你,你高考失败了.

三.allow,advise, forbid, permit + doing allow,advise,forbid,permit +sb. +to do eg. We don’t allow smoking here. We don’t allow students to smoke.

四.need, require, want + doing (主动形式表被动意义) to be done eg. The window needs/ requires/ wants cleaning. to be cleaned 五.add to, look forward to, lead to, pay attention to, stick to, devote oneself to, object to, get down to, get / be used to + doing

六. love, like, prefer, hate, + doing 表示一般倾向性. to do表示一次具体动作 eg. I like chatting on the Internet. I like to go to the cinema tonight. 七. begin, start, continue + doing / to do 区别不大. 如果谈论一项长期的或习惯的动作,常用doing. eg. She starts making preparations at eight every day. I was beginning to get worried. She began to understand what they really wanted. The meat began to give off a bad smell. 八. Should / would like / love + to do eg.The little child would love to be taken to the zoo.

作宾语补足语:现在分词
I heard the girl singing in the classroom.
I noticed a long queue outside the bank waiting for it to open.

The baby watched his dad shaving his face with great interest.

能跟现在分词作宾语补足语的常见 动词有这些,看看有什么好方法可 以将它们记住: make、let、have、look at、see、 watch、hear、listen to、notice、 feel。

“三让,三看,两听,注意感觉”。

现在分词与不定式作宾语补足语的区别: 现在分词作宾补强调动作正在进行. 不定式作宾补强调动作的全过程. I saw the girl getting on the tractor. 我看见那个女孩正在上拖拉机. I saw the girl get on the tractor and drive off. 我看见那个女孩上了拖拉机, 然后把车开走了.

A on the kitchen. Can I call I smell something ___ you back in a minute ? A. burning B. burnt C. being burnt D. to be burnt

作定语
⑴动名词作定语表示性质或用途。通 常放在它所修饰的词之前. a washing machine

= a machine for washing
a swimming pool = a pool for swimming

This is a new washing machine.

作定语
⑵现在分词作定语表示动作。 如果是单个分词,放在被修饰的名词前; 如果是现在分词短语,就放在被修饰的名词之 后,相当于定语从句. a developing country = a country which is developing a sleeping boy= a boy who is sleeping China is a developing country. The man talking with my father is Mr. Wang. The man who was talking with my father is…

不定式与现在分词作定语的区别:主要表现在时态上 不定式作定语通常指将来的动作. 现在分词作定语表示动作正在进行.

eg. He has two letters to write. Do you know the man sitting at the desk ?

B for He is a student at Oxford University,_____ a degree in computer science. A. studied B. studying C. to have studied D. to be studying







现在分词作状语。表时间、原因、条件、结 果、伴随(方式)等。
Hearing the cry for help, he rushed out.(时间)

Being ill, he went home. (原因)
Seeing from the hill, you can get the whole town.(条件) European football is played in 80 countries, making it the most popular sport in the world. (NMET 98)(结果) He read a magazine waiting for the bus.(伴随)

现在分词作状语要记住:现在分词作状语,分词的 逻辑主语要与句子的主语一致. Working hard, you will succeed. Being ill, she stayed at home. Having failed many times, he didn’t lose his heart. Please answer the question using another way. B you some 1. Yesterday, I called you ,____ information on computer. A.asked B. asking C. and ask D. to ask 2.While building a tunnel through the mountain,__. A. an under gtound lake was discovered B. there was an undergtound lake discovered C. a lake was dscovered underground D D. the workers discovered an underground lake

现在分词与不定式作结果状语的区别: 现在分词作结果状语,一般表示显而易见的结果. 不定式作结果状语表示预想不到的结果.这两种结 构常位于句末,用逗号与句子分开.

eg. I hurried to the office, only to find it was closed. European football is played in 80 countries, making it the most popular sport in the world.

现在分词作状语要记住:现在分词作状语,分词的 逻辑主语要与句子的主语一致.但是当分词的逻辑 主语与主句的主语不同时,分词必须有自己的主语. eg. Weather permitting, we’ll go to the Great wall. The shower being over, we continued to march.
The guest having left, he began to take a short rest. Miss Gao falling ill, Mr Wang took her class instead.

记住常见的非谓语固定用语 1)judging by/ from 根据……判断 Judging from his accent, he is from Hubei. 2) generally / strickly / broadly speaking 一般/ 严格/广义 说来 Generally speaking, the most important news is on the front page. 3)Taking everything into account 把一切都考虑在内 Taking everything into account, his decision is not so bad. 4) talking of 谈到,说道 Talking of the football match, which side won ? 5) not counting 不把……计算在内

There are only 8 apples left in the basket, not counting the spoilt ones. 6) Considering 考虑到 Considering the bad weather,the sports meet was delayed.

时 态 和 语 态
类别

及 物 动



不及物动词

形式

主 动






doing



一般式 doing

being done

完成式 having done having been done Having done

如果分词所表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作 同时进行,就用一般式。 eg. Hearing the news, she jumped with joy. They left the room talking and laughing. 如果分词所表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作 之前已经完成,就用完成式。 eg. Having finished my work, I took a rest. Having studied in the university for 3 years, he knows the place very well.

当句子的主语是分词动作的承受者时,分词用 被动语态,如果要强调分词的动作先于谓语动作, 就用分词完成式的被动形式。同时进行就用分词 一般式的被动形式。 eg. That building being repaired is our building. You’ll find the topic being discussed everywhere. Having been shown the labs, we were taken to see the library. Having been criticized by the teacher, Li Ming gave up smokjng .

V + -ing 形式用法归纳
现 在 分 词

1、作宾补(能跟现在分词作宾补的动词) 2、作状语 ( 与不定式的区别 ) 3、作表语 (与动名词的区别) 4、作定语(与动名词的区别)

1、作主语 (与不定式的区别) 动 2、作宾语(能跟动名词作宾语的词) 名 3、作表语 (与现在分词的区别) 词 4、作定语(与现在分词的区别)

Practice
A 1. The old farmer________ the badly-injured and wounded soldier, came out of the burning house, ________for help. A. supporting; calling B. supported by; called C. being supported by; called D. being supporting; called
B 2. The brave man died, ________ his young wife nothing but a broken cottage. A. left; B. leaving; C. left; D. to leave;

C 4. ________hard before, Tom is afraid of failing in the exam. A. Having been worked B. Not to have worked C. Having never worked D. Never have worked D 5.____the exam, the boy was punished by his father. A. No passing B. Having passed C. Not passing D. Not having passed C 6. Time________, I can have done it better. A. permit B. be permitted C. permitting D. to permit D 7.________, the boy couldn’t enter his house. A. Since the key has lost B. The key been lost C. Lost the key D. Having lost the key

D 8. ___into many languages, the story is well known all over the world now. A. Being translated B. Having translated C. To be translated D. Having been translated D 9. ___for the terrible accident, as the public thought, the mayor felt nervous and was at a loss what to do. A. Having blamed B. To blame C. Being to be blame D. Being to blame C 10. ________from heart trouble for years, Professor White has to take some medicine with him wherever he goes. A. Suffered B. To suffer C. Having suffered D. Being suffered

A 11. ________from what he said, he must be the thief who has stolen the car. A. Judging B. Judged C. To judge D. Judge A 12. _____with fright, a hungry fox hid himself in a small cave, ______his tail to the rain. A. Trembling; exposing B. Trembled; exposed C. Trembled; exposing D. Trembling; exposed D 16. We slept with the light________ all night long last night. A. burnt B. to burn C. being burnt D. burning

C 1.No one enjoys_________at. A.laughing B.to laugh C.being laughed D.to be laughed C 4.—Where is my passport? I remember _____it here. —You shouldn't have left it here. Remember ________it with you all the time. A.to put;to take B.putting;taking C.putting;to take D.to put;taking A 7.The young trees we planted last week require ___ with great care. A.looking after B.to look after C.to be looked after D.taken good care of

1.I cannot understand _____ such a well-paid job. A. him to give up B. him to have given up C. D. his being given up P his giving up 2.Jane’s summer vacation in England led to _____ an Englishman. A. her marry B. her to marry C. her being married D. her marrying P 3.She was sad because of _____ any chance left. A. there being not B. there not being P C. not there being D. there was not 4.If you think a letter is too slow, why not _____ a telegram? A. try to have sent B. trying to send C. to try to send D. try sending P 5.There is no chance _____ him today. A. in seeing B. to seeing C. of seeing D. about seeing P

6.I know you like _____ . Would you like _____ with me now? A. to swim, to swim B. swimming, swimming C. swimming, to swim D. to swim, swimming P 7.Before _____, the machine must be checked. A. B. using it P being used C. being used to D. using 8.To give up _____ means _____ . A. B. smoking, to stop smoking P smoking, stopping smoking C. to smoke, to stop to smoke D. to smoke, stopping to smoke 9. — What do you think of the book? — Oh, excellent. It’s worth _____ a second time. A. to read B. P reading C. to be read D. being read 10. “What has made you so upset?” “________ my new bike.” A. Lost B. Because of losing C. Since I lost D. Losing P

11. I still remember _____ to Beijing when I was six. A. to take B. taking C. having taking P D. having been taken 12. Some foreigner used to _____ on the left in their own countries, but now they have got used to _____ on the right in our country. A. driving, drive B. drive, drive C. Pdrive, driving D. driving, driving 13. He remained ____ there, for he grew ____ in many things there. A. staying, interesting B. staying, interested P C. to stay, interest D. stayed, interested 14. It is important for parents and young people to learn how to get through to each other and develop skill in understanding and _____. A. P being understood B. to be understood C. understand D. understood 15. _____ more trees is good for health and it is also important to stop waste from factories _____ our surroundings. A. To plant, pollute B. Planting, to pollute C. Plant, polluting D. P Planting, polluting

16. I would appreciate _____ back this afternoon. A. you to call B. you call C. D. you’re calling P your calling 17. How about the two of us _____ a walk down the garden? A. to take B. take C. D. to be taking P taking 18. “The light in the office is still on.” “Oh, I forgot _____ .” A. turning it off B. turn it off C. D. having turned it off P to turn it off 19. “I must apologize for _____ ahead of time.” “That’s all right.” A. letting you not know B. not letting you know P C. letting you know not D. letting not you know 20. It happened ______ when I left the station, so I had to wait until the rain stopped. P A. to be raining. to have rained C. to rain D. raining

21. ____ more attention, the trees could have grown better. A B . To give C . Giving D . Having given P. Given 22. Climbing mountains was ____, so we all felt ____. A. P tiring ; tired B. tired ; tiring C. tiring ; tiring D. tired ; tired 23. The ____ morning, the father came into the lonely house , ____ by his naughty boy . A. following ; following B. followed ; followed P C. following ; followed D. followed ; following 24. ____ these pictures, I couldn’t help thinking of those days when I was in Beijing and ____ from the top of a thirty-storyed building, Beijing looks more magnificent. A. P Seeing ; seen B. Seen ; seeing C. Seeing ; seeing D. Seen ; seen 25. Mrs. White was glad to see the nurse ____ after her son and her daughter and was also pleased to see children well ____ care of in the nursery. A. looked ; taken B. looking ; taken P C. looked ; took D. looking ; taking

26. I was fortunate to pick up a wallet ____ on the ground on the way home, but unfortunately for me, I found my colour TV set ____ when I got home. A. P lying; stolen B. laying; stealing C. lay; stolen D. lying; stealing 27. ____ better attention , the vegetables could have grown better with the sun shining brightly in the sky and ____ them light. A. Giving; given B. Given; given C. Giving; giving D. Given; giving P 28. ____ his head high , the manager walked into the room to attend the meeting ____ then . P A. Holding ; being held B. Held ; holding C. Having held ; held D. Held ; to be held 29. ____ but he still can not understand it. A. Told many times B. Having been told many times P C. He has been told many times D. Though he has been told many times 30. On hearing the ____ news, I was too ____ to sleep. P A. exciting ; excited B. excited ; exciting C. exciting ; exciting D. excited ; excited


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