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Stylistics 3Chapter 4


Foreign Languages College

Stylistics
Yang Xueqian
Mar 9, 2011

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Foreign Languages College

? From the Context we can look into: ? Dialect Who (Social:status, gender, age, ethnic…)? When? (Temporal) Where? (Regional) ? Register What? Field of discourse To whom? Why? Tenor of discourse How? Mode of discourse
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Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

Foreign Languages College

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description
? From the text itself we can look into: ? Levels of language Level One: Phonology or Graphology Level Two: Lexis and Grammar Level Three: Semantics

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? Phonological features Segmentals: phonemes (consonants and vowels) supra-segmentals: syllable stress, rhythm, and intonation

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

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? Segmental features 1, Onomatopoeia: Imitation of sounds. Onomatopoeia is actually the mutual reinforcement of sense by sound and sound by sense. E.g. giggle, hee-hee, haw-haw, bang Crack! The stick broke in two. (喀嚓!棒子断为两截。)

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

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? Segmental features 2, Phonaesthesia (sound symbolism)

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description
(方言测试)
Examples: What do they pronounce/mean in common? [i:] [i] little, tittle, bit, thin, slit, chink, sliver [u:] [u] gloom, doom, loom, woe, forlorn [fl] flail, flap, flare, fling, flick, flop, flounce [gl] gleam, glint, glitter, glisten [le] [er] bubble, twinkle, jangle, ripple, twitter, flutter Phonaesthesia (语音象征,或语音感觉) occurs when certain sounds become associated with certain meanings, even though they do not attempt to imitate the sound.
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? Segmental features 2, Phonaesthesia (sound symbolism) scr-:scramble(争抢),scrape(刮擦),scratch (抓),scream(尖叫), screak (嘎嘎作响),screech (尖叫),scranch (嘎咂嚼碎),scraunch (同“scranch”), scroop (发轧轧声), scrub(擦洗),scrunch(嘎吱嘎吱地 作响),scribble(乱写), scrabble (乱涂), scrawl(乱 划)。根据其发音特征,一般都和刮、擦等刺耳不悦的声 音有联系。 ? sc -:scan(扫描),scat(迅速走开),scud(飞 奔),scutter(疾走),scuttle(急促地跑),scoot(疾 走),scamper(奔走),scurry(疾跑),scour(疾 跑)。都和快速移动动作有关联。
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Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

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? Segmental features 3, Assimilation and Elision Read: Please send them! Please sen~them! You must do that! You musdo that! 我们去吧 表酱说嘛

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

When rendered in written form, they often become markers of a very informal, or very casual style, with a hint of sloppiness and laziness in speech.
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? Segmental features 3, Sound Patterning: matching of identical or similar sounds between two or more words. Monosyllabic sound patterning: ? C V C Alliteration 头韵 ? C V C Assonance 腹韵 ? C V C Consonance 辅韵 ? C V C Reverse Rhyme 倒韵 ? C V C Pararhyme 头尾韵 ? C V C Rhyme 韵

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

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? Segmental features 3, Sound Patterning: matching of identical or similar sounds between two or more words. Monosyllabic sound patterning: ? C V C Alliteration drip-dry ? C V C Assonance hit or miss ? C V C Consonance fits-starts ? C V C Reverse Rhyme time-tide ? C V C Pararhyme hell-hole ? C V C Rhyme fat-cat

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

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? Segmental features 3, Sound Patterning (examples) Alliteration 头韵

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

Alliteration is a kind of parallelism in sound. It can create harmony, connection and achieve special stylistic effects.

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? Segmental features 3, Sound Patterning (examples) Alliteration 头韵

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

Here piles of pins extend their shining rows, Puffs, Powders, Patches, Bibles, Billets-doux. Now awful Beauty puts on all its Arms; The Fair each moment rises in her Charms,… -Alexander Pope “The Rape of the Lock”
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? Segmental features 3, Sound Patterning (examples) Alliteration 头韵

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

Helen, thy beauty is to me Like those nicean barks of yore, That gently, o’er a perfumed sea, The weary, way-worn wanderer bore To his own native shore -E.A. Poe “To Helen”
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? Segmental features 3, Sound Patterning (examples) Assonance 腹韵

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

It refers to the use of the same, or related, vowel sounds in successive words. It can create harmonious effect.

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? (examples) Assonance
Morning opened Like a rose, And the snow on the roof Rose-colour took Oh, how the street Toward light did leap! And the lamp went out. Brightness fell down. From the steeple clock To the row of shops And all that day Was a fair tale Told once n a while To a good child. -Donald Justice

腹韵
The assonance between open and rose signify a similarity in meaning; /u/ shows that the snow on the roof took rose colour, stressing expressive relations; /i/ in the assonance between street and leap stresses the feature of animation: it seems that the static street goes lively towards the light. Then /au/ shows that the lamp went out finally and the brightness is disappearing (down).

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? Supra-segmental features 1, Stress: highlighting any word in a sentence. (P.46) She looks very happy at the party. 我下周要去海口

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

Stress in connected speech is subject to the speaker’s will and the meaning he wishes to convey.
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? Supra-segmental features 2, Rhythm: pattern formed by the stresses perceived as peaks of prominence or beats, normally in poems. (P.46)

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

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? Meter(格律) is simply a rhythm that has been chosen by the poet and which he repeats and uses consistently over the length of a stanza or complete poem. For a poem to be described as being written in meter, it has to have a specific rhythm that is repeated and used continually There are arious units of meter, or paterns, that a poet is likely to use. A foot(音步) usually consists of one stressed and two unstressed syllabus. A vertical line is used to saparate the foot. A foot of a poetry can be arranged in a variety of patterns. The two most commonly used feet are as follows: Iambic trochaic 按格律分: 抑扬格(Iambic Foot) 音步由一个非重读音节加上一个重读音节构成 扬抑格(trochaic Foot) 音步由一个重读音节加上一个非重读音节构成 扬抑抑格(Dactyl) 音步由一个重读音节加上两个非重读音节构成 抑抑扬格(Anapaestic Foot) 音步由两个非重读音节加上一个重读音节构成 抑扬抑格(Amphibrachy Foot) 这种格律是一个音步由三个音节组成,其中第一、 三个音节为非重读音节,第二个音节为重读音节,呈现模式为“ˇ - ˇ” 扬扬格(spondee) 这种格律秒表现为一个音步由两个重读音节构成的模式“ - - ” 抑抑格(pyrrhic) 这种格律秒表现为一个音步由两个非重读音节构成的模式“ˇˇ”

?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

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Example ? 抑扬格(Iambic Foot) 音步由一个非重读音节 加上一个重读音节构成
? And palm | to palm | is ho | ly pal | mer’s kiss

? 扬抑格(trochaic Foot) 音步由一个重读音节 加上一个非重读音节构成
? Tiger, | tiger, | burning | bright

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? Supra-segmental features 3, Intonation: rise and fall in pitch. He likes the car. One, two, three, four…
declarative or interrogative?

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

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? Supra-segmental features 4, pause: a temporary stop. Read:

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

获得小品类节目一等奖的是《同桌的你》。

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? Supra-segmental features 5, tempo: relative speed of utterance. (P.51) Slow=Seriousness Quick=Excitement

Chapter 4 Linguistic Description

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? Exercise: analyze the style of the poem
Spring, the sweet Spring, is the year’s pleasant king; Then blooms each thing, then maids dance in a ring; Cold doth not sting, the pretty birds do sing; Cuckoo, jug-jug, pu-we, to-witta-woo! Thomas Nash “Spring”

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? Exercise: analyze the style of the poem
? The semantic connections between the two parts of a line are further reinforced by synaesthesia between senses. Here the end ryhme by king and ring is linked by grammar: they form two parts of a sentence, and then they are further linked by structure through internal rhyme. Here the internal rhyme by /ig/ stresses fresh, livly, light atmosphere: pleasant king, dancing in a ring, birds do sing, then cuchoo and woo mimic actual sounds of the bird and create a world of all lively natural sounds.
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? Ex. Identify the Sound Patterning used in the following paragraph. What’s the author’s attitude towards the described persons? Once there was a lot of sound in my grandmother’s house, a lot of coming and going, feasting and talking. The summers there were full of excitement and reunion. The Kiowas are a summer people; they abide the cold and keep to themselves, but when the season turns and the land becomes warm and vital they cannot hold still; an old love of going returns upon them. The aged visitors who came to my grandmother’s house when I was a child were made of lean and leather, and they bore themselves upright. They wore great black hats and bright ample shirts that shook in the wind. They rubbed fat upon their hair and wound their braids with strips of colored cloth. Some of them painted their faces and carried the scars of old and cherished enmities. They were an old council of warlords, come to remind and be reminded of who they were. Their wives and daughters served them well. The women might indulge themselves; gossip was at once the mark and compensation of their servitude. They made loud and elaborate talk among themselves, full of jest and gesture, fright and false alarm. They went abroad in fringed and flowered shawls, bright beadwork and German silver. They were at home in the kitchen, and they prepared meals that were banquets.
? from The Way to Rainy Mountain N. Scott Momaday
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? Ex. Identify the Sound Patterning used in the following paragraph. What’s the author’s attitude towards the described persons? Once there was a lot of sound in my grandmother’s house, a lot of coming and going, feasting and talking. The summers there were full of excitement and reunion. The Kiowas are a summer people; they abide the cold and keep to themselves, but when the season turns and the land becomes warm and vital they cannot hold still; an old love of going returns upon them. The aged visitors who came to my grandmother’s house when I was a child were made of lean and leather, and they bore themselves upright. They wore great black hats and bright ample shirts that shook in the wind. They rubbed fat upon their hair and wound their braids with strips of colored cloth. Some of them painted their faces and carried the scars of old and cherished enmities. They were an old council of warlords, come to remind and be reminded of who they were. Their wives and daughters served them well. The women might indulge themselves; gossip was at once the mark and compensation of their servitude. They made loud and elaborate talk among themselves, full of jest and gesture, fright and false alarm. They went abroad in fringed and flowered shawls, bright beadwork and German silver. They were at home in the kitchen, and they prepared meals that were banquets.
? from The Way to Rainy Mountain N. Scott Momaday
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