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新东方讲义—2010年考研英语强化写作


新东方讲义——2010 考研英语强化写作 新东方讲义——2010 年考研英语强化写作 ——
主讲: 主讲:王江涛

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考研考研英语强化写作讲义 2010 考研考研英语强化写作讲义 ——由网友 sail2011 上传分享
第一节 考研写作总论
一、课程安排: 1、考研写作总论:复习计划、时间分配、写作学习、大纲解读 2、段落写作:框架结构、启承转合、段落写作经典范文 3、图画作文: 4、词汇写作、句子写作 5、应用文:书信、备忘录、报告、摘要、告示 二、复习计划: 1、攻克词汇: 1) 词汇书: 2) 软件: 《新东方背单词》 (5) 3)记忆法:blog.sina.com.cn/jtwang 分类:考研复习:十天攻克考研词汇 2、精研真题:96-09 共 14 年真题 1)词汇: 2)选项: 3)句子结构: 4)背诵:阅读 A 节经典文章 5)英译汉:阅读 A 节、C 节经典文章 6)写作真题: 3、适当模考:2010 年 1 月 三、时间分配: 1)14:00-14:15 写作 A 节 2)14:15-14:50 写作 B 节 3)14:50-16:00 阅读 A 节 4)16:00-16:20 阅读 B 节 5)16:20-16:40 阅读 C 节 6)16:40-17:00 完型填空 四、写作学习:
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(一) 提高实力: 1、 中译英:仔细对比原文,寻找差距 2、 背诵:滚瓜烂熟、脱口而出、多多益善 3、 默写:仔细对比原文,发现写作弱点 4、 仿写: (二)掌握技巧:万能框架 附:20 大必背范文: (一)小作文: 1、新版考研写作教材(09 年 6 月版,下同)P.3 最新考研英语大纲样题 2、P.5 2005 年高分作文 3、P.5 2006 年高分作文 4、P.6 2007 年高分作文 5、2008 年范文:题目见 P.6 Dear Bob, I’m writing to apologize for having forgotten to return the “the Beatles” CD to you when I left Canada. I was in such a hurry that I packed everything in my luggage without checking carefully. Had I paid more attention then, I wouldn’t have made such a stupid mistake. Now something must be done to solve the problem because I understand you cherish the CD enormously. I can either send it to you by express mail or alternatively compensate you at a reasonable price. If you do not mind, I may bring it back to you next time I go to Canada. Please let me know which solution you prefer at your earliest convenience. I really hope you will accept my sincere apology. Faithfully yours, Li Ming 6、P.7 2009 年范文 Dear Editors, I have been reading your newspaper for many years with a great enthusiasm and interest. It is my view that limiting/prohibiting the use of disposable plastic bags is of utmost significance. To crack this hard nut, I would like to give/offer/render/propose several useful/practical recommendations as follows. First and foremost, it is imperative for us to ban the free use of disposable plastic bags. In addition, we should develop possible alternative forms to replace them, such as paper or clothing bags. Last but not least, plastic bags should be offered in a much higher price in department stores or supermarkets. I hope you would find the above proposals conducive and I would like to discuss this matter to further details. Your prompt attention to my suggestions would be highly appreciated. Yours sincerely, Li Ming 7、 Directions: You live in a room in college which you share with another student. You find it very difficult to work there because your roommate always has friends visiting and has parties in the room.

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Write a letter to the Accommodation Officer at the college and ask for a new room next term. You would prefer a single room. Explain your reasons. Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to express/air dissatisfaction/disappointment/concern regarding accommodation. I would prefer to move into a single room next semester, as I find the present sharing arrangement inconvenient. I must explain that the reason for my dissatisfaction is my roommate’s inconsiderate behavior. For one thing, his friends are constantly visiting him; for another, he regularly holds noisy parties. To solve this problem/surmount this difficulty/improve this situation/crack this hard nut, I hope to draw the attention of the authorities concerned. I am sure you will agree that the only solution for me is to move into a room of my own. Therefore, I would be grateful if you could find a single room for me, preferably not in the same building but as near to the college campus as possible. Yours sincerely, Li Ming 8. Directions: One of your friends wants to apply for a job working with foreign teenagers. Write a letter to recommend him/her, describe his/her past experience, and explain the reasons. Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to recommend one of my best friends, Zhou Botong, for this post. With his outstanding leadership and cheerful personality, he was elected chairperson of the Student Union of Tsinghua University several times. Busy as he was, he completed his major, teenage psychology, with an outstanding school record. Upon graduation he was assigned to be a teacher in Tsinghua Middle School. What is more, he loves his job and enjoys working with children. This won him great popularity among his students. Therefore, I do not hesitate to recommend him as an ideal candidate for the post you advertised. I am sure you will make a wise decision in hiring him. Yours sincerely, Li Ming 9. Directions: After being involved in an accident, you were looked after by Mr. Shakespeare. Write a special letter to express your thanks. Dear Mr. Shakespeare, I am writing to express my heartfelt gratitude. I am referring to that unfortunate accident the other day, when I was knocked off my bike by a taxi. If it had not been for your timely assistance in giving me first aid, I fear that the consequences might have been much serious. Everyone agrees that it was your quick-witted response in that emergency that has led to this satisfactory outcome.

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Although nowadays people in mounting numbers talk about the need to be unselfish, we see very few people practice what they preach. If there were more people like you, this world would be a much nicer place. Yours sincerely, Li Ming 10、 Directions: The Students’ Union of your department is planning a Chinese Speaking Contest. Write an announcement which covers the following information: 1) the purpose of the contest, 2) time and place of the contest, 3) what is required of the candidates, 4) details of the judges and awards. You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use Department of Chinese Language and Literature at the end of the announcement.

Chinese Speaking Contest
January 10, 2009 To improve students’ ability to speak Chinese and enrich after-class activities, the Students’ Union of Department of Chinese Language and Literature is organizing a school-wide Chinese-speaking contest to be held on Saturday next week (17 January) at the Students’ Auditorium. Those who are interested in taking part in it may sign up with the monitor of their classes before Tuesday next week. Five professors will be invited to be judges. The first six winners will be given awards. Everybody is welcome to be present at the contest. The Students’ Union Department of Chinese Language and Literature

参 考 译 文 1、 尊敬的先生或女士: 我写信是为了询问关于雅思考试的考试准备资料的信息。 我想知道您是否有一本包括雅思考试所需词汇的词汇书,以及有答案和范文的历年试 卷。其次,我应该如何付款——通过现金、支票还是其他任何方式?如果可能的话,我想使 用信用卡。最后,这些书如何送来,我大约什么时间可以收到?如果额外费用不多的话,请 您最好使用特快邮件。 如果您能尽快答复,我将非常感谢。 您真诚的, 李明 2、 尊敬的王先生: 十分感激您两个月之前聘用我为杂志《设计与时尚》的编辑。我非常珍惜这个和您以及 其他同事共事的机会。这将是我一生中的难忘经历。

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但是, 对于一个喜欢计算机科学远多于时尚设计的年轻人来说, 我认识到目前的工作并 不符合我的教育背景与个人能力。 因此, 我决定辞职, 找一份与我从前教育背景相关的工作。 我为离开可能造成的不便深表歉意。 您真诚的, 李明 3、 尊敬的先生或女士: 希望工程这项高尚的事业感动了我, 同时这项工程迄今所取得的成就也鼓舞了我。 因此, 我想通过给贵省偏远地区的一个孩子提供经济帮助,来为希望工程贡献我的微薄之力。 如果您能帮助我找到一个刚开始上学但家庭无法为其负担学费的小女孩,我将不胜感 激。 本人计划按年度支付她的学费直至她中学毕业。 我希望把捐款直接汇给她的家人在当地 开设的银行帐户中。 您真诚的, 李明 4、 尊敬的先生/女士: 我是本校的一名学生,常来图书馆度过业余时间。总而言之,您这里提供的服务相当不 错,但我有一些建议希望您采纳。如果您能好心考虑我的建议,我将非常感谢。 首先, 是否可以请您延长阅读时间?在白天, 大多数学生在上课, 来不了图书馆。 其次, 书架上有些书已经过时了。 如果您能好心提供一些例如最新杂志等的书籍, 我们将非常感谢。 我确实希望拥有一个更加舒适的图书馆。再次感谢您的时间和关注。 您真诚的, 李明 5、 亲爱的鲍勃: 我写此信的目的是为了向你道歉。在离开加拿大时,我忘了把那盘披头士乐队的 CD 还 给你。走的时候太匆忙了,我把所有东西都塞到行李中,没有仔细检查。当时要是多加注意 的话,就不会犯这种低级错误了。 因为我知道你特别珍爱那盘 CD,所以一定要想办法解决这个问题。我可以寄快递包裹 给你,也可以按合理的价格赔偿你的损失。如果你不介意的话,我也可以在下次去加拿大的 时候把它给你带回去。 请在方便的时候尽快让我知道你倾向哪一种解决方案。希望你能接受我真诚的道歉。 您真诚的, 李明 6、 尊敬的编辑: 多年来我一直怀着极大的热情与兴趣阅读贵报。我认为限制使用一次性塑料袋非常重 要。 为解决这个难题,我想提出如下几个实用的建议。首先,我们急需禁止免费使用一次性 塑料袋。其次,我们应该开发取代塑料袋的替换方式,如纸袋或布袋。最后,在商场或超市 应以更高的价格提供塑料袋。 我希望您觉得上述建议有益, 同时希望进一步讨论这一问题。 十分感谢您对我的建议给 予及时的关注。 您真诚的

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李明 7、 尊敬的先生或女士: 我写信是为了表达关于住宿的不满。 由于我发现目前的居住状况很不方便, 我想下学期 搬到一个单间。 我需要解释的是,我不满的原因是我室友不体谅的行为。首先,他的朋友经常来访。其 次,他经常举办一些吵闹的聚会。 为了解决这个问题,我希望引起有关当局的注意。我相信您也会同意,唯一的解决措施 是搬到一个我自己的房间。因此,如果您可以给我找一个最好不在同楼,但离校园越近越好 的单间,我将非常感谢。 您真诚的, 李明 8、 尊敬的先生或女士: 我写信是为了推荐我最好的一个朋友周伯通申请这个职位。 由于拥有杰出的领导能力和 令人愉快的个性,他多次当选清华大学学生会主席。 尽管他很忙,但他完成了自己的学业——青少年心理学,并取得了出色的学习成绩。毕 业之后,他被分配到清华附中做一名教师。此外,他热爱自己的职业并喜欢和孩子们工作。 这使他在学生中很受欢迎。 因此, 我毫不犹豫推荐他作为您招聘职位的理想候选人。 我确信您将做出雇用他的明智 选择。 您真诚的, 李明 9、 尊敬的莎士比亚先生: 我写信是为了表达我衷心的感谢。 我指的是那天我被一辆出租车从自行车上撞下来的不 幸事件。 如果没有您给予我的第一手的及时帮助的话,恐怕后果会更严重。大家都认为正是您在 那个紧急事件中的快速反应才导致了满意的后果。 尽管现在越来越多的人谈论到大公无私的必要性, 但是我们看到很少有人言行一致。 如 果有更多人像您的话,世界会更加美好。 您真诚的, 李明 10、 中文演讲比赛 2009 年 1 月 10 日 为提高同学们中文演讲的能力并丰富课外活动,中文系学生会将于下周六(1 月 17 日) 在学生大礼堂组织全校中文演讲比赛。有兴趣参加的同学请于下周二之前在本班班长处报 名。我们将邀请五位教授担任评委,并将给前六名获奖者者颁奖。欢迎大家积极参加。 中文系学生会

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(二)大作文 1.98 年范文:考题见教材 16 页 The past several years have witnessed a phenomenon that a variety of promises have been arising from all walks of life. Regretfully, quite a lot of promises are sheer nonsense, just as the hen in the given cartoon commits herself to lay eggs which are round without any angles and corners and have shells, egg whites and yolks. Odd and funny as they sound, such false promises can be seen and heard everywhere in our country. Administration departments assure to perform their tasks effectively and fairly without taking any bribes; manufacturing units guarantee to turn out products of good quality; commercial enterprises swear to provide genuine commodities and polite and enthusiastic services. Can you find anything new and substantial other than their obligations, duties and jobs in these so called promises? I guess your answer will be negative. As a matter of fact, their intention to make such commitments is nothing but to put on civilized outer clothing to please or deceive the public. I dare say that our society is suffering corruption and cheat which are causing damage to society both materially and morally. But the hen and her like should know that by dishonest words no one can survive the intense competition under market economy system. They should remember the old saying, “Honesty is the best policy”. 2.01 年范文:考题见教材 18 页 When we use the word “love”, we do not simply mean an attraction to a person of the opposite sex, which is a very narrow definition of the word. The picture below illustrates the real meaning of love, by stressing the fact that love is emotional strength, which can support us no matter how dark the world around us becomes. As a matter of fact, throughout history people of many different cultures have regarded love as the most sublime of human emotions. As an illustration of the power of love, we should remember how the Chinese people of all nationalities respond to the call to help the victims of the deadly earthquake in Sichuan Province. Although their incomes are still low by international standards, people all over the country do not hesitate to donate whatever they can—— it money or goods—— help ——be ——to —— —— their needy fellow citizens. Furthermore, they do this with no thought of gain for themselves. It is my view that the best way to show love is to help people who are more unfortunate than we are. We should always be ready to give a helping hand to those who are in trouble, no matter whether they are family members or complete strangers. Only by doing so can we help to make the world a better place, for, as the picture shows, the darker the shadows of sorrow become, the more brightly the lamp of love shines. 3.02 范文:考题见教材 18 页 The picture vividly depicts a lovely American girl in traditional Chinese costume with a sweet smile on her face. She wears ribbons, necklaces and other accessories that are characteristic of the clothes of a certain Chinese minority group. Undoubtedly, the costume has added oriental charm/glamour to her beautiful look/appearance/features. What the picture conveys goes far beyond only/merely a new fashion trend. Instead, it carries cultural meanings/implications as well. The fact that people from different countries are attracted to mysterious Chinese culture indicates that to some extent a culture can be accepted, respected, appreciated and shared internationally. In other words, a nation’s

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unique/distinctive culture can become international through worldwide economic and cultural exchanges. Since the trend of globalization become irresistible, the increasing cultural exchanges can effectively improve mutual understanding and friendship. It is my view that national culture as priceless spiritual treasure should be preserved and cherished. Meanwhile, there are good reasons to advocate international culture for those ideas from the other cultures, controversial or even absurd at first sight, can provide a different perspective for us to observe the world in the long run. Nevertheless, when we are confronted with a different culture, we should be sensible enough to absorb its essence and to resist its dark side. Only in this way can we promote cultural development positively and make our world dimensional, colorful and vigorous. 4.03 年范文:考题见教材 19 页 The set of drawings above vividly depicts the destiny of a flower in different circumstances. As is shown in the first cartoon, the flower is placed in a comfortable greenhouse that shelters it from the threatening lightning and storm. With proper temperature, moisture and fertilizer, the flower is growing in full bloom. On the contrary, when removed from the greenhouse and exposed to the driving rain, the flower soon fades and withers, with the petals scattered on the ground. To begin with, the purpose of the drawings is to show us that the flower growing in the green house cannot withstand the test of the storm, yet the symbolic meanings subtly conveyed should be taken more seriously. The delicate flower is naturally associated with young people, to be specific, the only children in our current society; the greenhouse epitomizes parents’ doting care and abundant material supplies that can shield the children from the storms, or the harsh reality. Once the young people begin to seek independence and accept challenges from the real world, they are found too spoiled to be strong enough in the face of difficulties. Accordingly, it is vital for us to derive positive implications from these thought-provoking drawings. On the one hand, we can frequently use them to enlighten the youth to be more independent in life. On the other hand, parents should be sensible enough to give their children more freedom to deal with troubles and problems. Only by undergoing more challenges and toils in adversity can young people cultivate strong personality and ability, and only in this way can they become winners in this competitive world. 5.06 年范文:考题见教材 20 页 As is vividly depicted in the photos above, Beckham, the smart British football superstar, is enjoying a striking popularity among the adolescents. In the first picture, Beckham’s name appears on a young man’s face. The caption indicates that worship for the idol is written on the face. In the second photo, another young man is doing Beckham’s chic hairstyle in a barbershop. We are informed that he is spending 300 yuan imitating his idol’s haircut. Undoubtedly, the pictures have subtly reflected the social phenomenon that idol worship is prevalent among the teenagers nowadays. Beckham represents the image of sport hero whose handsome appearance and unparalleled football skills are passionately adored by all the sports fans. Likewise, several teenage girls won their fame overnight in The 2005 Super Girl Contest in China, which provoked nationwide noisy debates on the value and harm of admiring these idols. Briefly speaking, young people are inclined to idolize the people who excel in appearance, intelligence or talent. Hence, idolatry, the thought-provoking social phenomenon, is a double-edged sword

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which can exert profound influence on the growth of young people. If we simply worship the idols by imitating their hairstyles or pursuing fashions unreasonably, the obsession will certainly waste us a great deal of money or time, endangering the efficiency of our work. On the contrary, we will lead a positive and fruitful life if we endeavor to improve ourselves by bridging the gap between our models and us. Accordingly, the latter attitude should be adopted to direct our way of life. 6. 08 年范文:教材 43 页 7.09 年范文:考题见教材 22 页 As is symbolically illustrated in the cartoon, a large number of people are surfing on line within a stretching spider web, either to entertain themselves or to meet the work's needs. Unfortunately, it seems rather ironic to present people separated from each other by the spider web when they attempt to communicate. Undoubtedly, the spider web serves as a symbol of Internet, both connecting people and isolating them from each other. The metaphorical and impressive portrayal has subtly revealed the duality of the relationship between man and Internet. On the one hand, there is no denying that Internet is currently one of the most efficient media used for interpersonal communication. As a college student, I get on line every day to discuss news with other people on BBS, to study English by registering for web courses, to chat freely through MSN Messenger with my friends. But on the other hand, a good many people admit that they are too much addicted to Internet to maintain face-to-face contact with their friends and colleagues. Once indulged in the fictitious world, people feel reluctant to approach others and to concentrate on real life. That's why some people have lost the skill of direct contact and get alienated from others. Hence, it is necessary for us to use Internet in a reasonable way and restrain from overindulgence. After all, Internet is invented to connect you and me, and to bring conveniences to our life rather than set a barrier to keep people beyond reach. 8、教材 27 页:2000 年高分作文(1) 9、教材 40 页:05 年高分作文 10、教材 42 页:07 年高分作文 参 考 译 文 1、 过去几年发生了一个现象:各行各业开始出现了各种各样的承诺。遗憾的是,相当多的 承诺纯粹只是空话,正如漫画中的这只母鸡一样,承诺下蛋不见棱见角,并保证有蛋皮、蛋 清、蛋黄。 尽管这些承诺听起来奇怪有趣, 但在全国各地都可以看到听到这样的虚假承诺。 管理部 门保证不接受任何贿赂,公正有效地履行指责;生产厂家保证生产高质量产品;商业企业发 誓提供真货和礼貌热情的服务。在这些所谓的承诺中,除了他们的义务、责任和工作之外, 你还能发现任何新的和实质性的东西吗?我想你的答案将是否定的。 事实上, 他们做这种承 诺的目的只是披上华丽的外衣以便取悦并欺骗公众。 我认为这个社会正在受到腐败和欺骗的影响,这在物质和道德上都在对社会造成了伤 害。但这只母鸡及其同类应该知道:在市场经济体系的激烈竞争中,没人能通过欺诈的言语 而生存下去。他们应该牢记这条谚语: “诚实为上策” 。 2、 当我们用到“爱”这个词时,我们不仅仅指对异性的吸引,这是对这个词非常狭隘的解

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释。下面的图画注解了爱的真正含义,它强调了爱心是情感的力量,不论我们周围的世界多 么黑暗,爱心都能支撑我们。事实上,历史上处于不同文化中的人们都把爱当作人类最高尚 的情感。 举一个例子证明爱心的力量, 我们应该记得中国各族人民如何响应号召去支援四川地震 中的受难者。 尽管他们的收入按照国际标准衡量还是处于低水平, 但是全国人民毫不犹豫地 尽他们所能捐献——不管是钱,还是物品——去帮助那些受难的同胞们。并且,他们这么做 不考虑自己的得失。 我认为, 表示爱心的最好方式是帮助比我们更加不幸的人。 我们应该随时准备向有困难 的人伸出援助之手,无论他们是家庭成员还是素昧平生。这样,我们能够助一臂之力把世界 变成一个更美好的地方,因为,正如图画所描绘的,悲伤的阴影越黑暗,爱心之灯的光芒就 越闪亮。 3、 这幅图画生动描述了一位可爱的美国小女孩身穿传统的中国服装, 面带甜蜜的微笑。 她 戴着具有某个中国少数民族服饰特征的发带、项链和其他装饰品。毫无疑问,这套服装为她 美丽的外表增添了东方的魅力。 这幅图画所表达的远远不只是一种新的时尚潮流。反之,它具有文化内涵。神秘的中国 文化吸引了各国人民这一事实, 显示了在某种程度上, 一种文化可以被国际性地接受、 尊重、 欣赏和分享。换而言之,一个民族独特的文化可以通过全球性的经济和文化交流走向世界。 由于全球化潮流不可阻挡,所以文化交流可以有效增进相互间的理解和友谊。 在我看来,我们应该保存和珍惜作为无价精神财富的民族文化。同时,我们很有必要推 广世界文化,因为来自其他文化的观点,即使乍看起来相互矛盾或荒谬,但从长远看来,可 以为我们观察这个世界提供一种不同的视角。然而,在我们面临不同文化时,应该充满理智 地取其精华、去其糟粕。只有这样我们才能积极发展民族文化,并使我们的世界丰富多元、 五颜六色、充满活力。 4、 上述这组图生动描述了一朵鲜花在不同环境中的命运。 如第一幅漫画所示, 这朵鲜花被 放在舒适的温室里,保护它免于可怕的闪电和风雨。拥有合适的温度、湿度和肥料,鲜花正 在充分绽放。相反,当被搬出温室并暴露在风雨之下时,鲜花很快就凋谢枯萎了,花瓣散落 一地。 首先, 这些图画的目的是告诉我们温室花朵经不起风雨, 然而我们应该认真对待它们所 微妙传达的的象征含义。这朵娇弱的鲜花自然和我们的年轻人联系起来,具体而言,就是当 代社会的独生子女。 温室是保护孩子免受风雨的父母溺爱和优越物质条件的缩影, 而风雨就 是严峻的现实。 一旦年轻人开始寻求独立并且接受来自现实世界的挑战, 人们发现他们已经 被惯坏了,在困难面前无法足够坚强。 总之,我们很有必要从这些发人深思的图画中得出积极的含义。一方面,我们可以经常 利用它们来启发年轻人在生活中更加独立。 另一方面, 父母们应该充满理智给孩子们更多自 由来处理困难和问题。只有经历更多的挑战和磨练,年轻人才能培养强大的个性和能力,而 且只有这样他们才能成为这个竞争世界中的强者。 5、 以上的照片生动地显示出来,相貌英俊的英国足球巨星贝克汉姆在年轻人中广受欢迎。 在第一张照片中,贝克汉姆的名字出现在一个年轻人的额头上。文字表明:对偶像的崇拜写 在了脸上。在第二张照片中,这个年轻人正在理发店中做贝克汉姆的时髦发型。我们得到的 信息是他正花 300 元来模仿偶像的发式。 毫无疑问,照片巧妙地反映了这样一个社会现象:偶像崇拜目前在青年人中非常盛行。

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贝克汉姆代表了体育界英雄的形象,他的英俊外表以及高超的球技正是球迷们热情追捧的。 同样,2005 年中国举办的“超级女生”大赛中,几个十几岁的女孩一夜成名。围绕着崇拜 这些偶像的意义和危害,这个事件激起了全国性的争论。总之,青年人往往容易崇拜那些在 外表、才华和特长方面极其出色的人。 在我看来,偶像崇拜这个发人深思的社会现象,其实是把双刃剑,可以深刻影响青年人 成长。 如果我们只是靠模仿偶像发型或追逐时尚的方式来崇拜他们, 这种痴迷将必定浪费我 们大量的金钱和时间,影响我们的工作效率。相反,如果我们靠弥补我们和榜样之间的差距 来努力提高自己,我们就会过一种积极和收获显著的生活。因此,我们应当采取后面一种态 度来指引我们的人生。 6、 如图画中生动所示, 尽管每人只有一条腿, 但是两个残疾人通过团队合作正在快速奔跑。 显而易见,正是合作才使得他们走南闯北成为可能。 尽管这幅图画很简单,但它向我们表达了发人深思的含义。随着经济和社会的发展,竞 争日渐激烈。 任何人都无法完全独立完成一份工作。 因此, 越来越多的人开始重视团队合作。 事实上,普遍公认合作的能力是想要获得成功的任何人都应该具备的最重要的素质。 因此, 我们迫切需要采取措施来提高人们的合作意识。 我们应该牢记合作对于社会和自 身都非常重要。每个人都应拥有合作的能力。只有这样我们才能获得成功,而且只有这样社 会才能变得更加和谐。 7、 这幅漫画象征性地阐释了无论是为了自我娱乐还是适应工作的需求, 很多人在一个拉伸 的蜘蛛网之内网上冲浪。然而,看来相当讽刺的地方是,这幅图呈现了他们在试图互相交流 的同时,却被蜘蛛网彼此隔开。毫无疑问,这个蜘蛛网作为互联网的一种象征,既连接了人 们,又使他们彼此隔离。 这幅比喻并使人印象深刻的图画象征性揭示了人与互联网之间的双重关系。 一方面, 不 可否认网络目前是用于人际交流的最高效媒介之一。 作为一名大学生, 我每天上网与他人在 BBS 上讨论新闻,通过注册网络课程来学习英语,借助 MSN 和我的朋友们免费聊天。但另 一方面, 很多人承认他们太沉迷于网络而不愿与朋友和同事保持面对面接触。 一旦沉迷于这 种虚幻世界, 人们不愿接近他人并关注现实生活。 这就是一些人丧失了直接沟通技能并与他 人疏远的原因。 因此,我们很有必要以一种合理的方式使用互联网,避免过度沉迷。毕竟,人们发明互 联网是为了连接你和我,为我们的生活带来方便,而非设置障碍使人彼此疏远。 8、 如图所示,我们可以清楚看出随着商业捕鱼的发展,鱼的数量明显下降。在一幅图中, 1900 年有很多种鱼,只有一艘捕鱼船。相反,在 1995 年,只有一条鱼,但是渔船很多。 这些图画的目的是告诉我们应该充分重视海洋资源的减少。 由于过渡捕捞, 鱼的数量明 显下降。如果我们让这种情况听之任之,我们不知道鱼的未来在哪。到那个时候,我们的环 境将遭受巨大的破坏。 因此,我们很有必要采取严厉措施。一方面,我们应该呼吁政府制定严格的法律控制商 业捕鱼。另一方面,我们应该提高人们的意识:海洋资源对我们非常重要。只有这样才能保 护我们的海洋资源。同时,我认为我们人类能够克服这个困难,并将拥有美好的未来。 9、 这幅图画反映了一些中国家庭中普遍存在的现象——子女成年后如何对待他们的父母。 当父母年龄太大,不能照顾自己的时候,他们就成了负担,被自己的子女们像足球一样踢来 踢去。这是一种不公正的可鄙现象,引起了很多中国人的愤慨。

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作为一个以很多美德闻名于世的民族, 中国人民自古以来一直奉行孝道。 许多广为传颂 的故事反复强调了这种历史悠久的爱老敬老的传统, 如西汉时缇萦舍身营救蒙冤的父亲免于 肉刑的故事。 那些千方百计逃避照顾双亲的责任的子女们应该牢记, 他们在出生和成长的过程中亏欠 父母太多了。 没有父母关怀备至的照料和不懈的工作, 他们怎能健康成长并且取得成功?他 们怎能虐待父母而不受到良心的谴责? 我们每个人都应该遵守从祖先那里传承下来的美德。只有这样我们才能无愧为中国人。 10、 如图所示,一场足球赛正在进行。左边的人似乎在守一个对于射门轻而易举、不可避免 的“大门” ,而右边的人由于拥有关于“巨大守门员”的幻觉,踢球很犹豫。显而易见,他 们两个人都夸大了面前的困难。 这幅图画确实反映了一个目前在中国很普遍同时发人深思的社会现象。由于问题超出他 们应对的能力,年轻人总是放弃。表面上看,这幅图画似乎有一些道理,但当我们仔细思考 时,我们就会发现在这个现象之下有一个明显的趋势:缺乏自信。首先,众所周知,我们生 活在一个充满各种困难的多元化世界。我们别无选择,只能面对。其次,态度是采取第一步 的关键。拥有勇气和信心来解决问题,你就会发现问题并非你想象的那么“严重” 。以我们 自己为例,研究生入学考试似乎是我们面前的一个可怕的怪物。有些人放弃了,而有些人则 坚持了下来。因此,拥有信心和对困难的正确估计,并且竭尽全力,我们就将解决所有的问 题。 总而言之,我认为我们年轻人应该以正确的方式面对困难。世上无难事,只怕有心人。 五、大纲解读:两大黄金原则(大纲见新教材 PP.1-2) 1. 印象原则:书写工整、卷面整洁、字迹清晰 2. 语言第一位、结构第二位、内容第三位 1) 语言: (1) 基本正确 (2) 丰富多变 2) 结构:逻辑性 (1) 段落结构:总分总 A. 主题句:1 句 B. 描述或论证:2-3 句 C. (小结:1 句) (2) 评分标准: A. 关联词 B. 同义替换 C. 代词替换 3)内容:不跑题

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第二节 段落写作
一、考研论说文框架结构:3 段,12 句,160-200 词,5-7 个关联词,5-7 个从句 (一) 第一段:引言/起始/淘金段,图画描述,3 句 1、 总体描述:人物/动物/事物+动作+环境,1 句 2、 挖掘细节词、串连成句:1-2 句 3、 文字说明/象征寓意:1 句 (二) 第二段:主体段,意义阐释,5 句 1、 主题句:象征寓意,1 句 2、 论证:3 句 1) 因果论证:2007 年考题见教材 P.21,2008 年考题见 P.22 We are facing/encountering different/various kind of difficulties/challenges. Competition is becoming increasingly fierce. Everyone has his or her own advantages/benefits and disadvantages/shortcomings. We are lack of experience Stress/pressure 2) 举例论证: A. Numerous examples can be given, but this/these will suffice. B. I can think of no better illustration than the following one(s). C. This/These case(s) effectively clarify that… 3) 联系现实:图画作文创作原则(以小见大,把握象征寓意,个体想为 群体,具体想为抽象) 2002 年考题参见教材 P.18 The American girl represents a great many foreigners. The traditional Chinese costume symbolizes Chinese culture. The fact that the American girl wears traditional Chinese costume indicates that national culture can be accepted internationally. 4) 正反论证 3、 小结:1 句,概括论证,总结本段 (三) 第三段:结论段,建议措施,4 句 1、 结论句:1 句 2、 针对双方提建议:2 句 3、 包装结尾、展望未来:1 句 Only in this way can we solve this problem. It is high time that we solved this problem. 二、启承转合: (一) 启:启动观点、开篇点题 (二) 承:观点承接、正面论证 1、 First(ly), In the first place, First and foremost, Above all, On the one hand, For one thing, 2、 Second(ly), In the second place, Besides, In addition, What is more,

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Furthermore, Moreover, On the other hand, For another 3、 Third(ly), (The) Last but not (the) least, More importantly, Even worse, (三) 转:观点转折、反面论证 Conversely, Nevertheless, Unfortunately, Whereas, Yet, Instead, In/By comparison/contrast, On the contrary (四) 合:文章结尾、合并归纳 As a result/consequence, Consequently, Accordingly, Thus, Hence, Generally/Briefly speaking, 三、段落写作经典范文:参见第一节大作文(7) (2009 年范文) 四、范文学习五大步骤: 1、 读透:十遍精读: 1) 精彩词汇 2) 精彩词组 3) 精彩句型 4) 句子结构:简单句、从句、时态、冠词、主谓一致、名词单复数 5) 段落结构:总分总,主题句+论证+小结 6) 关联词:小作文 3-5 个,大作文 5-7 个 7) 同义替换:词汇+句型 8) 代词替换: 9) 精彩观点: 10) 分析评论: 2、 造句 3、 大声朗读 4、 背熟 5、 运用

第三节 图画作文
一、2007 年范文:见教材 P.42 二、2008 年范文:见教材 P.43

第四节 词汇与句子写作
一、遣词造句四大要素: 1、ACCURACY:extensive (a wide range of) knowledge, fierce competition 2、VARIETY: 1) (1)I hold the opinion that, As far as I am concerned, (2)cling to the idea, in my opinion/view, point out, (3)maintain, reckon, assert, hold, claim, emphasize, insist, suppose, assume 2)

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(1) Due attention has to be paid to, Importance should be attached to, (2) be of great importance/significance (3) vital, essential, crucial, significant 3)people in growing/expanding/increasing/mounting numbers 4)for the purpose of, aim to/at, in a bid to 3、DIFFICULTY:primary/fundamental factors/causes. 4、SPLENDOR: 1) My eyes were sparkling with delight. 2) He flied into a stormy rage. 3) I fell into the abyss of unspeakable pain. 4) Such is human nature, that a great many people are willing to sacrifice higher pay for the privilege of becoming white-collar workers. 二、词汇写作经典范文:见第一节大作文(1) (98 年高分作文) 三、七大亮点设置: 1、 1)Natural disasters claim hundreds of lives every year. 2)I do appreciate your efforts. 3)Once in front of me, lay a real chance. Yet, I did not value it. Not until the moment I lost it, did I realize how regretful I was. If God gave me another opportunity, I would never stop making progress. 4)I sat outside in the hall. Everything inside me has gone away. I didn’t think. I could not think. I knew she was leaving me, but I prayed she not. (Ernest Hemingway: The Sun Also Rises) 2、A culture can be accepted, respected, appreciated and shared. 3、environmental protection/awareness 4、with due consideration of, take into account/consideration 5、 1) (1) 只有这样下岗工人才能彻底摆脱贫困并且重新获得他们生命中的尊 严。 (2) 总而言之,只有长期学习才有助于你掌握大的词汇量。 (3) 考虑到上述所有论证,政府早就该实行改革把传统教育模式转变为 素质教育。 2) (1) Only in this way can laid-off workers completely shrug off poverty and regain their dignity in life. ( 2 ) In conclusion, it is persistent work that is conducive to your grasping a large/considerable vocabulary. (3)Given all the above arguments, it is high time that the authorities enforced reforms to convert traditional education strategy into education for all-round development/quality-oriented education. 6、As John F. Kennedy put it, “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”

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7、 1) Just as an old saying goes, “All work and no play make Jack a dull boy.” 2) Just as an old saying goes, “God only helps those who help themselves.” (天助自助者 /自助者天助之! ) 四、句子写作经典范文:见第一节大作文(2) (01 年范文)

第五节 应用文
一、课后复习: 1、消化笔记: 2、中译英、背诵、默写、仿写:20 大必背范文,滚瓜烂熟、脱口而出、多多益善 3、总结框架、考前模考: 二、书信格式: (一)称呼 1、题目无人名:Dear Sir or Madam, 2、题目有人名:Dear+人名, (二)正文:3 段、7 句、100-120 词、3-5 关联词、3-5 从句 1、第一段:1-2 句 1)自我介绍 (1)I am a staff member from your company/corporation. I am a staff member from Motorola (China) Electronics Ltd. (2)I am a freshman/sophomore/junior/senior/undergraduate/graduate from the Department of Chinese Language and Literature of Beijing University. 2)写作目的: ( 1 ) I am writing the letter in purpose of resigning from my current post/position. (2) am writing to inform you that I wish to request if you could help me find a I potential beneficiary of the Project Hope. 2、第二段:3-6 句 1)改写提纲一:1 句 2)改写提纲二:1 句 3)改写提纲三:1 句 3、第三段 1)表示感谢(私人建议信除外) (1) My appreciation to you for your generous help is beyond words. (2) Words fail me when I want to express my sincere gratitude to you. (3) I take this opportunity to show my heartfelt appreciation for the kind assistance you rendered me. 2)期待回信 (1)I am looking forward to hearing from you soon. (2)I look forward to a favorable reply at your earliest convenience. (3)Your prompt attention to my inquiry would be highly appreciated. (三)落款

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1、结尾客套:Yours sincerely, 2、签名:Li Ming 三、经典书信:2009 年范文(见第一节小作文 6) 四、其他应用文: (一)告示:见第一节小作文(10) (二)备忘录/报告: Directions: You are the president of a company. Write a memo to Percy Shelley, the vice-president on the employee’s training on computer, telling him the need to train the employees, detailed information, and ask him to write a plan. Date:January 20, 2008 To:Percy Shelley, Vice President From:Li Ming, President Subject:Computer Training of the Staff As we discussed earlier this week, I agree with you that our firm is faced up with problem of the high rate of computer illiteracy of the staff. We need to make up a plan for training our employees in the new field. I would like you to design our own in-house computer-training program. We had better classify the employees and put them through the program in turn. Write up a brief proposal, describing what you think the program should cover. Assume the class runs four hours a week for ten weeks. Also, assume people have no prior computer knowledge or any formal course work in computer science. (三)摘要: Directions: Write a summary of the following essay. A third kind of thinking is stimulated when anyone questions our beliefs and opinions. We sometimes find ourselves changing our minds without any resistance or heavy emotion, but if we are told that we are wrong we resent the imputation and harden our hearts. We are incredibly heedless in the information of our beliefs, but find ourselves filled with an illicit passion for them when anyone proposes to rob us of their companionship. It is obvious not the ideas themselves that are dear to us, but our self-esteem, which is threatened. We are by nature stubbornly pledged to defend our own from attack, whether it be our person, our family, our property, or our opinion. We may surrender, but rarely confess ourselves vanquished. In the intellectual world at least, peace is without victory. Few of us take the pains to study the origin of our cherished convictions; indeed, we have a natural repugnance to so doing. We like to continue to believe what we have been accustomed to accept as true, and the resentment aroused when doubt is cast upon any of our assumptions leads us to seek every manner of excuse for clinging to them. The result is that most of our so-called reasoning consists in finding arguments for going on believing as we already do. 参考答案

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A third kind of thinking occurs when we are told that our beliefs and opinions are wrong. We may have been heedless in their information, but our self-esteem will not permit us to change. We may have to give up, but we are not convinced. We do not study the origin of our beliefs; we believe as we have been accustomed to believe, and we seek arguments for continuing to believe as we already do. 五、 《红尘巅》 天风摇我兮冷雨寒,壮观四海兮入涯渊; 不到长城非好汉,瞬间屹此两千年。 心胸洞闪,独立峰巅; 恍若漓江之清叠影,洁雾缥缈兮寂寞何方仙? 问尔嬴家小儿何所有?只识捏泥弄瓦群丘间! 远古庄公遨游红尘间,携与姑射神人意杳闲; 昔时侠士弹节击剑易水寒,子昂驱马怆然涕下于幽燕。 况乃太虚幻境居梦阮,青莲傲彼蜀道难! 英雄美人今在安?何时梦想成真幻? 单枪匹马兮红尘巅,吾欲起兮飙浩瀚!

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