kl800.com省心范文网

2007年6月——2011年12月历年大学英语四级CET-4历年真题及详解、免费下载(超详、超全、免费版)


2011 年 12 月全国大学英语四级考试试题(CET4) Part Ⅰ 注意:此部分试题在答题卡1上. For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Nothing Succeeds Without a Strong Will by commenting on the humorous saying, "Quitting smoking is the easiest thing in the world. I've done it hundreds of times." You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words. Outlines: 1.坚强的意志是成功的重要保证 2.意志坚定的人才能完成伟大的使命 3.学生也是这样,不刻苦学习,终究不会成为有用之才 Writing (30 minutes)

Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes) Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7 choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentence with the information given in the passage.

1

Why Integrity Matters What Is Integrity? The key to integrity is consistency- not only setting high personal standards for oneself (honesty, responsibility, respect for others, fairness) but also living up to those standards each and every day. One who has integrity is bound by and follows moral and ethical (道德 上的) standards even when making life's hard choices, choices which may be clouded by stress, pressure to succeed, or temptation. What happens if we lie, cheat, steal, or violate other ethical standards? We feel disappointed in ourselves and ashamed. But a lapse (缺失) of integrity also affects our relationships with others. Trust is essential in any important relationship, whether personal or professional. Who can trust someone who is dishonest or unfair? Thus integrity must be one of our most important goals. Risky Business We are each responsible for our own decisions, even if the decision, making process has been undermined by stress or peer pressure. The real test of character is whether we can learn from our mistake, by understanding why we acted as we did and then exploring ways to avoid similar problems in the future. Making ethical decisions is a critical part of avoiding future problems. We must learn to recognize risks, because if we can't see the risks we're taking, we can't make responsible choices. To identify risks, we need to know the rules and be aware of the facts. For example, one who doesn't know the rules a about plagiarism (剽窃) may accidentally use words or

2

ideas without giving proper credit or one who fails to keep careful research notes may unintentionally fail to quote and cite sources as required. But the fact that such a violation is "unintentional" does not excuse the misconduct, Ignorance is not a defense. "But Everybody Does It" Most people who get in trouble do know the rules and facts but manage to fool themselves about the risks they're taking by using excuses: "Everyone else does it." "I'm not hurting anyone", or "I really need this grade." Excuses can get very elaborate: "I know I'm look at another's exam, even though I'm supposed to keep my eyes on my own paper, but that's not cheating because I‘m just checking my answers, not copying." We must be honest about our actions and avoid excuses, if we fool ourselves into believing we're not doing anything wrong, we can't see the real choice we're making - and that leads to bad decisions. To avoid fooling yourself, watch out for excuses and try this test: Ask how you would feel if your actions were public and anyone could be watching over yore shoulder. If you'd rather hide your actions, that's an indication that you're taking a risk and rationalizing it to yourself. Evaluating Risks To decide whether a risk is worth taking, you must examine the consequences, in the future as well as right now, negative as well as positive, and to others as well as to yourself. Those who take risks they later regret usually focus on immolate benefits and simply haven't considered what might go wrong. The consequences of getting caught are

3

serious and may include a "O" on a test or assignment, an "F" in the class, suspension (暂 令停学) or dismissal from school and a ruined reputation. In fact, when you break a role or law, you lose control over your life and give others the power to impose punishment that you have no control over. This is an extremely vulnerable (脆弱的) position. There may be some matters of life and death or highest principle, which might justify such a risk, but there aren't many things that fall in this category. Getting Away with it - Or Not Those who don't get caught pay an even higher price. A cheater doesn't learn from the test, which deprives (剥夺) him her of an education. Cheating undermines confidence and independence: the cheater is a fraud, and knows that without dishonesty, he/she would have failed. Cheating destroys self-respect and integrity, leaving the cheater ashamed, guilty and afraid of getting caught. Worst of all, a cheater who doesn't get caught the first time usually cheats again, not only because he/she is farther behind, but also because it seems "easier." This slippery slope of eroding ethics and bigger risks leads only to disaster. Eventually, the cheater gets caught, and the later he/she gets caught, the worse the consequences. Cheating Hurts Other, Too Cheaters often feel invisible, as if their actions "don't count" and don't really hurt anyone. But individual choices have an intense cumulative (累积的) effect. Cheating can spread like a disease. Recent statistics suggest 30% or more of college students cheat. If a class is graded on a curve, cheating hurts others' grades. Even if there is no curve, cheating

4

"poisons" the classroom, and others may feel pressured to join in. ("If I don't cheat I can't compete with those who do") Cheating also has a destructive impact on teachers. The real reward of goof teaching is seeing students learn. But a cheater says. "I'm not interested in what you're trying to teach, all I care about is stealing a grade, regardless of the effect on others." The end result is a destructive attack on the quality of your education. Finally, cheating can hurt the reputation of the university and harm those who worked hard for their degree. Why Integrity Marten If cheating becomes the norm, then we are in big trouble. We must rely on the honesty and good faith of others, if not, we couldn't put money in the bank, buy food, clothing, or medicine from others, drive across a bridge, get on a plane, go to the dentist--the list is endless. There are many examples of the vast harm that is caused when individuals forget or ignore the effect their dishonesty can have. The savings and loan scandal, the stock market and junk bond swindles, and, of course, Watergate, have undermined the faith of many Americans in the integrity of political and economic leaders and society as a whole. Such incidents take a tremendous toll on our nation's economy and our individual well-being. For example, but for the savings and loan debacle, there might be funds available to reduce the national debt and pay for education. In sum, we all have a common stake in our school, our community, and our society. Our actions do matter. It is essential that we act with integrity in order to build the kind of world in which we want to live.

5

1. A person of integrity not only sets high moral and ethical standards but also _______. A) sticks to them in their daily life B) makes them known to others C) understands their true values D) sees that others also follow them 2. What role does integrity play in personal and professional relationships? A) It helps to create team spirit B) It facilitates communication C) It is the basis of mutual trust D) It inspires mutual respect 3. why must we learn to identify the risks we are going to take? A. To ensure we make responsible choices. B. To avoid being overwhelmed by stress. C. so that we don‘t break any rules. D. so that we don‘t run into trouble. 4. Violation of a rule is misconduct even if _______? A. it has caused no harm. B. it is claimed to be unintentional. C. it has gone unnoticed. D. it is committed with good intentions. 5. What should one do if he doesn‘t wish to fool himself?

6

A. Avoid making excuses. B. Listen to other people‘s advice. C. Make his intensions public. D. Have others watch over his shoulder. 6. Those who take risks they regret later on _______. A. will often become more cautious B. are usually very aggressive C. value immediate benefits most. D. may lose everything in the end 7. According to the author, a cheater who doesn‘t get caught right away will _______. A) pay more dearly B) become more confident C) be widely admired D) feel somewhat lucky 8. Cheaters at exam don‘t care about their education, all they care about is how to _____________________________. 9. Integrity matters in that all social activities rely on people‘s

_________________________. 10. Many Americans lost faith in the integrity of their political leaders as a result of ________________________________.

7

Part III Listening Comprehension Section A Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

11.A)Read the notice on the window. B)Go and ask the staff

C)Get a new bus schedule. D)Board the bus to Cleveland.

12.A)He was looking forward to seeing the giraffes. B)He enjoyed watching the animal performance. C)He got home too late to see the TV special. D)He fell asleep in the middle of the TV program. 13.A)she wants to take the most direct way. B)She may me late for the football game. C)She is worried about missing her flight. D)She is currently caught in a traffic jam. 14.A)At a restaurant C)At a clinic.

8

B)In a fish shop. 15.A)He is an experienced sales manager. B)He is being interviewed for a job. C)Heg is a close friend of the woman. D)He is good at answering tricky questions.

D)On a fishing boat.

16.A)The man should consider his privacy first. B)The man will choose a low-rent apartment. C)The man is not certain if he can find a quieter place. D)The man is unlikly to move out of the dormitory. 17.A)The woman is going to make her topic more focused. B)the man and woman are working on a joint project. C)One should be choose a broad topic for a research paper. D)It took a lot of time to get the man on the right track. 18.A)They went camping this time last year. B)They didn‘t quite enjoy their last picnic. C) They learned to cooperate under harsh conditions. D) They weren‘t experienced in organizing picnics. Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 19.A)He likes Sweden better than England. B)He prefers hot weather to cold weather. C)He is an English living in Sweden.

9

D)He visits London nearly every winter.

20.A)The bad weather B)The cold houses. C)The gloomy winter. D)The long night.

21.A)Delightful. B)Painful. C)Depressing. D)Refreshing.

22.A)They often stay up late reading. B)They work hard and play hard. C) They like to go camping in summer. D) They try to earn more and spend more. Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 23. A)Management. B)French C)English literature D)Public Administration

10

24. A)English teaching. B)Staff training. C)Careers guidance. D)Psychological counseling

25. A)Its pleasant environment. B)Its worldwide fame. C)Its generous scholarship. D)Its well-designed courses. Section B Passage One Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard. 26. What did Obcamp‘s speech focus on? A) Characteristics of Japanese artists B) Some features of Japanese culture C) The art of Japanese brush painting D) The uniqueness of Japanese art

27. Why do Japanese listeners sometimes close their eyes while listening to a speech? A) To calm themselves down

11

B) To enhance concentration C) To show their impatience D) To signal their lack of interest

28. What does the speaker try to explain? A) How listeners in different cultures show respect B) How speakers can win approval from the audience C) How speakers can misunderstand the audience D) How different Western and Eastern art forms are Passage Two Questions 29 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard. 29. What is Chris‘s main responsibility at Taxlong Company? A) Directing personnel evaluation. B) Buying and maintain equipment. C) Drawing up plans for in-service training. D) Interviewing and recruiting employees.

30. What problem did Chris encounter in his Division? A) Some of his equipment was damaged in a fire. B) The training program he ran was failure. C) Two of his workers were injured at work.

12

D) Two of his employees committed theft.

31. What does Chris hope for in the near future? A) A better relationship with his boss. B) Advancement to a higher position C) A better-paying job in another company D) Improvement in the company‘s management

32 What do we learn about Kim from the passage? A)She has more self-confidence than Chris. B)She works with Chris in the same division. C)She has more management experience than Chris. D) She is competing with Chris for the new job. Passage Three Questions 33- 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.

33. Why are proverbs so important? A) They help us see the important values of a culture. B) They guide us in handling human relationships. C) They help us express ourselves more effectively. D) They are an infinite source of human knowledge.

13

34. According to the speaker what happens to some proverbs with the passage of time? A)Their wordings may become different. B) The values they reflect may change. C)Their origins can no longer be traced. D) They may be misinterpreted.

35. What do we learn from the study of proverbs from around the world?

Section C Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written. 注意:此部分试题在答题卡 2 上作答。 Our lives are woven together. As much as I enjoy my own (36) _____________, I no longer imagine I can get through a (37) _____________ day, much less all my life, (38) _____________ on my own. Even if I am on (39) _____________ in the mountains, I

14

am eating food someone else has grown, living in a house someone else has built, wearing clothes someone else has (40) _____________ from cloth woven by others, using (41) _____________ someone else is distributing to my house. (42) _____________ of interdependence is everywhere; we are on this (43) _____________ together. As I was growing up, (44) __________________________________________________ __________________________.―Make your own way‖,‖ Stand on your own two feet‖ or my mother‘s favorite remark when I was face-to-face with consequences of some action: Now that you‘ve made your bed, lie on it!‖ Total independence is a dominant thing in our culture. I imagine that (45) ________________________________________________________________ ________________. But the teaching was shaped by our cultural imagines. And instead, I grew up believing that I was supposed to be totally independent and consequently became very reluctant to ask for help. (46) _________________________________________________________________ __________________. PartⅣReading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)

Section A

15

Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage. With the world's population estimated to grow from six to nine billion by 2050, researchers. businesses and governments are already dealing with the impact this increase will have on everything from food and water to infrastructure (基础设施) and jobs. Underling all this 47 will be the demand for energy, which is expected to double over the next 40 years. Finding the resources to meet this demand in a 48 . sustainable way is the 49 of

cornerstone (基石) of our nation's energy security, and will be one of the major

the 21st century. Alternative forms of energy- bio-fuels, wind and solar, to name a few are 50 being funded and developed, and will play a growing 51 in the world's energy

supply. But experts say that even when

52 , alternative energy sources will likely meet

only about 30% of the world's energy needs by 2050. For example, even with 53 development 54 in investments, such as the $93 million for wind energy

the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, important

16

alternative energy sources such as wind and bio-fuels 55 today.

only about 1% of the market

Energy and sustainability experts say the answer to our future energy needs will likely come from a lot of 56 both traditional and alternative.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。 A)stable B)solutions C)significant D)role E)progress F)marvelous G)included H)growth I)exactly J)consist K)comprise L)competitions M)combined N)challenges O)certainly

Section B Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four chokes marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

17

Passage One Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage. Boys' schools are the perfect place to teach young men to express their emotions and involve them in activities such as art, dance and music. Far from the traditional image of a culture of aggressive masculinity (阳刚), the absence of girls gives boys the chance to develop without pressure to conform to a stereotype. a US study says. Boys at single-sex schools were said to be more likely to get involved in cultural and artistic activities that helped develop their emotional expressiveness, rather than feeling they had to conform to the "boy code" of hiding their emotions to be a "real man". The findings of the study so against received wisdom that boys do better when taught alongside girls. Tony Little, headmaster of Eton, warned that boys were being faded by the British education system because it had become too focused on girls. He criticized teachers for failing to recognize that boys are actually more emotional than girls. The research argued that boys often perform badly in mixed schools because they become discouraged when their female peers do better earlier in speaking and reading skills. But in single-sex schools teachers can tailor lessons to boys' learning style, letting them move around the classroom and getting them to compete in teams to prevent boredom, wrote the study's author, Abigail James, of the University of Virginia.

18

Teachers could encourage boys to enjoy reading and writing with "boy-focused" approaches such as themes and characters that appeal to them. Because boys generally have more acute vision learn best through touch, and are physically more active, they need to be given "hands-on" lessons where they are allowed to walk around. "Boys in mixed schools view classical music as feminine (女性的) and prefer the modem genre (类型) in which violence and sexism are major themes, "James wrote. Single-sex education also made it less likely that boys would feel they had to conform to a stereotype that men should be "masterful and in charge" in relationships. "In mixed schools boys feel compelled to act like men before they understand themselves well enough to know what that means, " the study reported. 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。 57. The author believes that a single-sex school would ____ . A) force boys to hide their emotions to be "real men" B) help to cultivate masculine aggressiveness in boys C) encourage boys to express their emotions more freely D) naturally reinforce in boys the traditional image of a man 58. It is commonly believed that in a mixed school boys _____ . A) Perform relatively better B) grow up more healthily C) behave more responsibly D) receive a better education

59. What does Tony Little say about the British education system? A) It fails more boys than girls academically.

19

B) It focuses more on mixed school education. C) It fails to give boys the attention they need. D) It places more pressure on boys than on girls. 60. According to Abigail James, one of the advantages of single-sex schools is ______. A) teaching can be tailored to suit the characteristics of boys B) boys can focus on their lessons without being distracted C) boys can choose to learn whatever they are interested in D) teaching can be designed to promote boys' team spirit 61. Which of the following is characteristic of boys according to Abigail James' report? A) They enjoy being in charge. B) They conform to stereotypes. C) They have sharper vision. D) They are violent and sexist.

Passage Two Questions 62 to 66 are bated on the following passage. It's an annual argument. Do we or do we not go on holiday? My partner says no because the boiler could go, or the roof fall off and we have no savings to save us. I say you only live once and we work hard and what's the point if you can't go on holiday. The joy of a recession means no argument next year - we just won't go. Since money is known to be one of the things most likely to bring a relationship to its

20

knees, we should be grateful. For many families the recession means more than not booking a holiday A YouGov poll of 2, 000 people found 22% said they were arguing more with their partners because of concerns about money. What's less clear is whether divorce and separation rates rise in a recession - financial pressures mean couples argue more but make splitting up less affordable. A recent research shows arguments about money were especially damaging to couples. Disputes were characterized by intense verbal ( 言语上的) aggression, tended to be repeated and not resolved and made men, more than women, extremely angry. Kim Stephenson, an occupational psychologist, believes money is such a big deal because of what it symbolizes, which may be different things to men and women. "People can say the same things about money but have different ideas of what it's for." he explains. "They'll say it's to save to spend, for security, for freedom, to show someone you love them." He says men are more likely to see money as a way of buying status and of showing their parents that they've achieved something. "The biggest problem is that couples assume each other know what's going on with their finances, but they don't. There seems to be more of a taboo (禁忌) about talking about money than about death. But you both need to know what you're doing, who's paying what into the joint account and how much you keep separately. In a healthy relationship, you don't have to agree about money, but you have to talk about it." 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答: 62. What does the author say about vacationing?

21

A) People enjoy it all the more during a recession. B) Few people can afford it without working hard. C) It makes all the hard work worthwhile. D) It is the chief cause of family disputes. 63. What does the author mean by saying "money is known ... to bring a relationship to its knees"(Line 1, Para. 2)? A) Money is considered to be the root of all evils. B) Some people sacrifice their dignity for money. C) Few people can resist the temptation of money. D) Disputes over money may rain a relationship. 64. The YouGov poll of 2, 000 people indicates that in a recession ______ . A) conflicts between couples tend to rise B) it is more expensive for couples to split up C) couples show more concern for each other D) divorce and separation rates increase 65. What does Kim Stephenson believe? A) Money is often a symbol of a person's status. B) Money means a great deal to both and women. C) Men and women spend money on different things. D) Men and women view money in different ways. 66. The author suggests at the end of the passage that couples should ______ .

22

A) put their money together instead of keeping it separately B) make efforts to reach agreement on their family budgets C) discuss money matters to maintain a healthy relationship D) avoid arguing about money matters to remain romantic

Part Ⅴ

Cloze

(15 minutes)

Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each bland there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。 Employers fear they will be unable to recruit students with the skills they need as the economic recovery kicks in, a new survey 67 .

Nearly half of the organizations told researchers they were already struggling to find 68 with skills in science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). 70 69 even

more companies expect to experience three years.

of employees with STEM skills in the next

The Confederation of British Industry across the public and Half are 73 72

71

694 businesses and organizations

sectors, which together employ 2.4 million people.

they will not be able to fill graduate posts in the coming years, while

23

a third said they would not be able to 74 enough employees with the right A-level skills. " 75 we move further role recovery and businesses plan 76 growth, the

demand for people with high-quality skills and qualifications will 77 ." said Richard Lambert, Director General, CBI. "Firms say it is already hard to find people with the right 78 or engineering skills. The new government must

make it a top 79 to encourage more young people to study science-related 80 ." The survey found that young people would improve their job prospects 81 they

studied business, maths, English and physics or chemistry at A-level. The A-levels that employers 82 least are psychology and sociology. And while many employers don't insist on a 83 degree subject. A third prefer to hire those with a STEM-related subject. The research 84 worries about the lack of progress in improving basic skills in

the UK 85 . Half of the employer expressed worries about employees' basic literacy and numeracy(计算)skills, while the biggest problem is with IT skills, reported concerns. 67. A) submits B) reveals 68. A) audience B) officials 69. A) while B) because C) launches D) generates C) partners D) staff C) for D) although 86 two-thirds

24

70. A) exits B) shortages 71. A) surveyed B) searched 72. A) collective B) private 73. A) confronted B) conformed 74. A) bind B) attain 75. A) Lest B) Unless 76. A) with B) for 77. A) dominate B) stretch 78. A) creative B) technical 79. A) priority B) option 80. A) procedures

C) absences D) departures C) exposed D) exploited C) personal D) civil C) concerned

D) confused C) transfer D) recruit C) Before D) As C) on D) by C) enforce D) intensify C) narrative D) physical C) challenge D) judgment C) thoughts

25

B) academics 81. A) until B) since 82. A) rate B) discuss 83. A) typical B particular

D) subjects C) whereas D) if C) order D) observe C) positive D) general C) focused D) touched C) faculty D) communities C) where D) why

84. A) highlighted B) prescribed 85. A) masses B) workforce 86. A) what B) whom

Part Ⅳ

Translation

(5 minutes)

Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets Please write your translation on Answer Sheer 2 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答,只需写出译文部分。

26

87.Charity groups organized various activities to ________________(为地震幸存者 筹款)。 88. Linda_______________(不可能收到我的电子邮件)otherwise, she would have : replied. 89.It's my mother________________(一直在鼓励我不要灰心)when I have difficulties in my studies. 90.The publishing house has to ______________(考虑这部小说的受欢迎程度)。 91.It is absolutely wrong to ________________(仅仅以金钱来定义幸福) 。

2011 年 6 月大学英语四级真题

Part I

Writing

(30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic of Online Shopping. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below: 1.现在网上购物已成为一种时尚 2.网上购物有很多好处,但也有不少问题 3.我的建议 Online Shopping

27

注意:此部分试题在答题卡 1 上。

Part II

Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)

(15 minutes)

Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage. British Cuisine: the Best of Old and New British cuisine (烹饪) has come of age in recent years as chefs (厨师) combine the best of old and new. Why does British food have a reputation for being so bad? Because it is bad! Those are not the most encouraging words to hear just before eating lunch at one of Hong Kong's smartest British restaurants, Alfie's by KEE, but head chef Neil Tomes has more to say. "The past 15 years or so have been a noticeable period of improvement for food in England," the English chef says, citing the trend in British cuisine for better ingredients, preparation and cooking methods, and more appealing presentation. Chefs such as Delia Smith, Nigel Slater, Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay made the public realise that cooking and eating - didn't have to be a boring thing. And now, most of the British public is familiar even with the extremes of Heston BlumenthaPs molecular gastronomy, a form of cooking that employs scientific methods to create the perfect dish.

28

"It's no longer the case that the common man in England is embarrassed to show he knows about food," Tomes says. There was plenty of room for improvement. The problems with the nation's cuisine can be traced back to the Second World War. Before the War, much of Britain's food was imported and when German U-boats began attacking ships bringing food to the country, Britain went on rations (配给). "As rationing came to an end in the 1950s, technology picked up and was used to mass-produce food," Tomes says. "And by then people were just happy to have a decent quantity of food in their kitchens." They weren't looking for cured meats, organic produce or beautiful presentation; they were looking for whatever they could get their hands on, and this prioritisation of quantity over quality prevailed for decades, meaning a generation was brought up with food that couldn't compete with neighbouring France, Italy, Belgium or Spain. Before star chefs such as Oliver began making cooking fashionable, it was hard to find a restaurant in London that was open after 9pm. But in recent years the capital's culinary (烹饪的) scene has developed to the point that it is now confident of its ability to please the tastes of any international visitor. With the opening of Alfie's in April, and others such as The Pawn, two years ago, modern British food has made its way to Hong Kong. "With British food, I think that Hong Kong restaurants are keeping up," says David Tamlyn, the Welsh executive chef at The Pawn in Wan Chai. "Hong Kong diners are extremely responsive to new ideas or presentations,

29

which is good news for new dishes." Chefs agree that diners in Hong Kong are embracing the modern British trend. Some restaurants are modifying the recipes (菜谱) of British dishes to breathe new life into the classics, while others are using better quality ingredients but remaining true to British traditions and tastes. Tamlyn is in the second camp. "We select our food very particularly. We use US beef, New Zealand lamb and for our custards (牛奶蛋糊) we use Bird's Custard Powder," Tamlyn says. "Some restaurants go for custard made fresh with eggs, sugar and cream, but British custard is different, and we stay true to that." Matthew Hill, senior manager at the two-year-old SoHo restaurant Yorkshire Pudding, also uses better ingredients as a means of improving dishes. "There are a lot of existing perceptions about British food and so we can't alter these too much. We're a traditional British restaurant so there are some staples (主菜) that will remain essentially unchanged." These traditional dishes include fish and chips, steak and kidney pie and large pieces of roasted meats. At Alfie's, the newest of the British restaurants in town and perhaps the most gentlemen's club-like in design, Neil Tomes explains his passion for provenance (原产地). "Britain has started to become really proud of the food it's producing. It has excellent organic farms, beautifully crafted cheeses, high-quality meats." However, the British don't have a history of exporting their foodstuffs, which makes it difficult for restaurants in Hong Kong to source authentic ingredients. "We can get a lot of our ingredients once a week from the UK," Tamlyn explains. "But there

30

is also pressure to buy local and save on food miles, which means we take our vegetables from the local markets, and there are a lot that work well with British staples." The Phoenix, in Mid-Levels, offers the widest interpretation of "British cuisine", while still trying to maintain its soul. The gastro-pub has existed in various locations in Hong Kong since 2002. Singaporean head chef Tommy Teh Kum Chai offers daily specials on a blackboard, rather than sticking to a menu. This enables him to reinterpret British cuisine depending on what is available in the local markets. "We use a lot of ingredients that people wouldn't perhaps associate as British, but are presented in a British way. Bell peppers stuffed with couscous, alongside ratatouille, is a very popular dish." Although the ingredients may not strike diners as being traditional, they can be found in dishes across Britain. Even the traditional chefs are aware of the need to adapt to local tastes and customs, while maintaining the Britishness of their cuisine. At Yorkshire Pudding, Hill says that his staff asks diners whether they would like to share their meals. Small dishes, shared meals and "mixing it up" is not something commonly done in Britain, but Yorkshire Pudding will bring full dishes to the table and offer individual plates for each diner. "That way, people still get the presentation of the dishes as they were designed, but can carve them up however they like," Hill says. This practice is also popular at The Pawn, although largely for rotisseries (烤肉馆), Tamlyn says. "Some tables will arrive on a Sunday, order a whole chicken and a shoulder of

31

lamb or a baby pig, and just stay for hours enjoying everything we bring out for them." Some British traditions are too sacred (神圣的) to mess with, however, Tomes says. "I'd never change a full English breakfast." 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 1 上作答。 1. What is British food generally known for? A)Its unique flavour. B)Its bad taste. C) Its special cooking methods. D) Its organic ingredients.

2. The Second World War led to _ in Britain. A) an inadequate supply of food B) a decrease of grain production C) an increase in food import D) a change in people's eating habits

3. Why couldn't Britain compete with some of its neighbouring countries in terms of food in the post-war decades? A)Its food lacked variety. C) It was short of well-trained chefs.

B)Its people cared more for quantity. D) It didn't have flavourful food ingredients. 4. With culinary improvement in recent years, London's restaurants are now able to appeal to the tastes of A)most young people B)elderly British diners C) all kinds of overseas visitors D) upper-class customers .

5. What do Hong Kong diners welcome, according to Welsh executive chef David Tamlyn? A)Authentic classic cuisine. C) New ideas and presentations.

32

B)Locally produced ingredients.

D) The return of home-style dishes.

6. While using quality ingredients, David Tamlyn insists that the dishes should . A)benefit people's health B)look beautiful and inviting C) be offered at reasonable prices D) maintain British traditional tastes

7. Why does Neil Tomes say he loves food ingredients from Britain? A)They appeal to people from all over the world. B)They are produced on excellent organic farms. C)They are processed in a scientific way. D)They come in a great variety. 8. Tamlyn says that besides importing ingredients from Britain once a week, his restaurant also buys vegetables from _______. 9. The Phoenix in Mid-Levels may not use British ingredients, but presents its dishes ______. 10. Yorkshire Pudding is a restaurant which will bring full dishes to the table but offer plates to those diners who would like to _______.

Part III Section A

Listening Comprehension

(35 minutes)

Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about

33

what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。 11. A) He is careless about his appearance. B)He is ashamed of his present condition. C)He changes jobs frequently. D)He shaves every other day. 12.A) Jane may be caught in a traffic jam. B)Jane should have started a little earlier. C)He knows what sort of person Jane is. D)He is irritated at having to wait for Jane. 13.A) Training for the Mid-Atlantic Championships. B)Making preparations for a trans-Atlantic trip. C)Collecting information about baseball games. D)Analyzing their rivals' on-field performance. 14.A) He had a narrow escape in a car accident. 25. He is hospitalized for a serious injury. 26. He lost his mother two weeks ago.

34

27. He has been having a hard time. 15.A) The woman has known the speaker for a long time. B)The man had difficulty understanding the lecture. C)The man is making a fuss about nothing. D)The woman thinks highly of the speaker. 16.A) He has difficulty making sense of logic. B)Statistics and logic are both challenging subjects. C)The woman should seek help from the tutoring service. D)Tutoring services are very popular with students. 17.A) Her overcoat is as stylish as Jill's. C) Jill wore the overcoat last week. B) Jill missed her class last week. 18. A) A computer game. B) An imaginary situation. D) She is in the same class as the man. C) An exciting experience. D) A vacation by the sea.

Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 19. A) Beautiful scenery in the countryside. C) Pain and pleasure in sports. B) Dangers of cross-country skiing. D) A sport he participates in.

20.A) He can't find good examples to illustrate his point. B) He can't find a peaceful place to do the assignment. C) He doesn't know how to describe the beautiful country scenery. D)He can't decide whether to include the effort part of skiing.

35

21. A) New ideas come up as you write. B)Much time is spent on collecting data. C)A lot of effort is made in vain. D)The writer's point of view often changes.

Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 22. A) Journalist of a local newspaper. B)Director of evening radio programs. C)Producer of television commercials. D)Hostess of the weekly "Business World". 23. A) He ran three restaurants with his wife's help. B)He and his wife did everything by themselves. C)He worked both as a cook and a waiter. D)He hired a cook and two local waitresses. 24. A) He hardly needs to do any advertising nowadays. B)He advertises a lot on radio and in newspapers. C)He spends huge sums on TV commercials every year. D)He hires children to distribute ads in shopping centers. 25. A) The restaurant location. B) The restaurant atmosphere. C) The food variety. D) The food price.

36

Section B Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。 Passage One Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard. 26. A) Its protection is often neglected by children. B) It cannot be fully restored once damaged. C) There are many false notions about it. D) There are various ways to protect it. 27. A) It may make the wearer feel tired. B) It will gradually weaken the eyes of adults. C) It can lead to the loss of vision in children. D) It can permanently change the eye structure. 28. A) It can never be done even with high technology. B) It is the best way to restore damaged eyesight. C) It is a major achievement in eye surgery. D) It can only be partly accomplished now.

37

Passage Two Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard. 29. A) They think they should follow the current trend. B) Nursing homes are well-equipped and convenient. C) Adult day-care centers are easily accessible. D) They have jobs and other commitments. 30. A) They don't want to use up all their life savings. B) They fear they will regret it afterwards. C) They would like to spend more time with them. D) They don't want to see their husbands poorly treated. 31. A) Provide professional standard care. and seek help from others. B) Be affectionate and cooperative. D) Make full use of community facilities. C) Be frank

Passage Three Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard. 32. A) Health and safety conditions in the workplace. B) Rights and responsibilities of company employees. C) Common complaints made by office workers. D) Conflicts between labor and management. 33. A) Replace its out-dated equipment.

38

B)Improve the welfare of affected workers. C)Follow government regulations strictly. D)Provide extra health compensation. 34. A) They requested to transfer to a safer department. B)They quit work to protect their unborn babies. C)They sought help from union representatives. D)They wanted to work shorter hours. 35. A) To show how they love winter sports. B)To attract the attention from the media. C)To protest against the poor working conditions. D)To protect themselves against the cold weather.

Section C Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.

39

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。 Contrary to the old warning that time waits for no one, time slows down when you are on the move. It also slows down more as you move faster, which means astronauts (宇航员) someday may (36) _____ so long in space that they would return to an Earth of the (37) _____ future. If you could move at the speed of light, your time would stand still. If you could move faster than light, your time would move (38) _____. Although no form of matter yet (39) _____ moves as fast as or faster than light, (40) _____ experiments have already confirmed that accelerated (41) _____ causes a traveler's time to be stretched. Albert Einstein (42) _____ this in 1905, when he (43) _____ the concept of relative time as part of his Special Theory of Relativity. A search is now under way to confirm the suspected existence of particles of matter (44)

____________________________________. An obsession (沉迷) with time – saving, gaining, wasting, losing, and mastering it – (45) ____________________________________. Humanity also has been obsessed with trying to capture the meaning of time. Einstein (46)

____________________________________. Thus, time and time's relativity are measurable by any hourglass, alarm clock, or an atomic clock that can measure a billionth of a second.

Part IV

Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)

(25 minutes)

40

Section A Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once. Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage. The popular notion that older people need less sleep than younger adults is a myth, scientists said yesterday. While elderly people __47__ to sleep for fewer hours than they did when they were younger, this has a(n) __48__ effect on their brain's performance and they would benefit from getting more, according to research. Sean Drummond, a. psychiatrist (心理医生) at the University of California, San Diego, said older people are more likely to suffer from broken sleep, while younger people are better at sleeping __49__ straight through the night. More sleep in old age, however, is __50__ with better health, and most older people would feel better and more __51__ if they slept for longer periods, he said. ―The ability to sleep in one chunk (整块时间) overnight goes down as we age but the amount of sleep we need to __52__ well does not change,‖ Dr Drummond told the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Diego.

41

―It's __53__ a myth that older people need less sleep. The more healthy an older adult is, the more they sleep like they did when they were __54__. Our data suggests that older adults would benefit from __55__ to get as much sleep as they did in their 30s. That's __56__ from person to person, but the amount of sleep we had at 35 is probably the same amount as we need at 75.‖ 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。 A) alert B) associated C) attracting D) cling E) continuing F) definitely G) different I) formally J) function K) mixed L) negative M) sufficient N) tend O) younger

Section B Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage. Several recent studies have found that being randomly (随机地) assigned to a roommate of another race can lead to increased tolerance but also to a greater likelihood (可能性) of conflict.

42

Recent reports found that lodging with a student of a different race may decrease prejudice and compel students to engage in more ethnically diverse friendships. An Ohio State University study also found that black students living with a white roommate saw higher academic success throughout their college careers. Researchers believe this may be caused by social pressure. In a New York Times article, Sam Boakye – the only black student on his freshman year floor -said that "if you're surrounded by whites, you have something to prove." Researchers also observed problems resulting from pairing interracial students in residences. According to two recent studies, randomly assigned roommates of different races are more likely to experience conflicts so strained that one roommate will move out. An Indiana University study found that interracial roommates were three times as likely as two white roommates to no longer live together by the end of the semester. Grace Kao, a professor at Penn said she was not surprised by the findings. "This may be the first time that some of these students have interacted, and lived, with someone of a different race," she said. At Penn, students are not asked to indicate race when applying for housing. "One of the great things about freshman housing is that, with some exceptions, the process throws you together randomly," said Undergraduate Assembly chairman Alec Webley. "This is the definition of integration." "I've experienced roommate conflicts between interracial students that have both

43

broken down stereotypes and reinforced stereotypes," said one Penn resident advisor (RA). The RA of two years added that while some conflicts "provided more multicultural acceptance and melding (融合)," there were also "jarring cultural confrontations." The RA said that these conflicts have also occurred among roommates of the same race. Kao said she cautions against forming any generalizations based on any one of the studies, noting that more background characteristics of the students need to be studied and explained. 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。 57. What can we learn from some recent studies? A)Conflicts between students of different races are unavoidable. B)Students of different races are prejudiced against each other. C)Interracial lodging does more harm than good. D)Interracial lodging may have diverse outcomes. 58. What does Sam Boakye's remark mean? A)White students tend to look down upon their black peers. B)Black students can compete with their white peers academically. C)Black students feel somewhat embarrassed among white peers during the freshman year. D)Being surrounded by white peers motivates a black student to work harder to succeed.

44

59. What does the Indiana University study show? A)Interracial roommates are more likely to fall out. B)Few white students like sharing a room with a black peer. C)Roommates of different races just don't get along. D)Assigning students' lodging randomly is not a good policy. 60. What does Alec Webley consider to be the "definition of integration"? A)Students of different races are required to share a room. B)Interracial lodging is arranged by the school for freshmen. C)Lodging is assigned to students of different races without exception. D)The school randomly assigns roommates without regard to race. 61. What does Grace Kao say about interracial lodging? 34. It is unscientific to make generalizations about it without further study. 35. Schools should be cautious when making decisions about student lodging. 36. Students' racial background should be considered before lodging is assigned. 37. Experienced resident advisors should be assigned to handle the problems.

Passage Two Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage. Global warming is causing more than 300,000 deaths and about $125 billion in economic losses each year, according to a report by the Global Humanitarian Forum, an organization led by Annan, the former United Nations secretary general.

45

The report, to be released Friday, analyzed data and existing studies of health, disaster, population and economic trends. It found that human-influenced climate change was raising the global death rates from illnesses including malnutrition (营养不良) and heat-related health problems. But even before its release, the report drew criticism from some experts on climate and risk, who questioned its methods and conclusions. Along with the deaths, the report said that the lives of 325 million people, primarily in poor countries, were being seriously affected by climate change. It projected that the number would double by 2030. Roger Pielke Jr., a political scientist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, who studies disaster trends, said the Forum's report was "a methodological embarrassment" because there was no way to distinguish deaths or economic losses related to human-driven global warming amid the much larger losses resulting from the growth in populations and economic development in vulnerable (易受伤害的) regions. Dr. Pielke said that ―climate change is an important problem requiring our utmost attention.‖ But the report, he said, "will harm the cause for action on both climate change and disasters because it is so deeply flawed (有瑕疵的)." However, Soren Andreasen, a social scientist at Dalberg Global Development Partners who supervised the writing of the report, defended it, saying that it was clear that the numbers were rough estimates. He said the report was aimed at world leaders, who will meet in Copenhagen in December to negotiate a new international climate treaty.

46

In a press release describing the report, Mr. Annan stressed the need for the negotiations to focus on increasing the flow of money from rich to poor regions to help reduce their vulnerability to climate hazards while still curbing the emissions of the heat-trapping gases. More than 90% of the human and economic losses from climate change are occurring in poor countries, according to the report. 62. What is the finding of the Global Humanitarian Forum? A)Global temperatures affect the rate of economic development. B) Rates of death from illnesses have risen due to global warming. C)Malnutrition has caused serious health problems in poor countries. D)Economic trends have to do with population and natural disasters. 63. What do we learn about the Forum's report from the passage? A)It was challenged by some climate and risk experts. B)It aroused a lot of interest in the scientific circles. C) It was warmly received by environmentalists. D)It caused a big stir in developing countries. 64. What does Dr. Pielke say about the Forum's report? A)Its statistics look embarrassing. C) It deserves our closest attention. D) Its conclusion is purposely exaggerated.

B) It is invalid in terms of methodology.

65. What is Soren Andreasen's view of the report? A)Its conclusions are based on carefully collected data. B) It is vulnerable to criticism if the statistics are closely examined.

47

C) It will give rise to heated discussions at the Copenhagen conference. D)Its rough estimates are meant to draw the attention of world leaders. 66. What does Kofi Annan say should be the focus of the Copenhagen conference? A)How rich and poor regions can share responsibility in curbing global warming. B) How human and economic losses from climate change can be reduced. C)How emissions of heat-trapping gases can be reduced on a global scale. D)How rich countries can better help poor regions reduce climate hazards.

Part V

Cloze

(15 minutes)

Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。 When it comes to eating smart for your heart, thinking about short-term fixes and simplify life with a straightforward approach that will serve you well for years to come. Smart eating goes beyond analyzing every bite ad you lift __67__ your mouth. "In the past we used to believe that __68__ amounts of individual nutrients (营养物) were the __69__ to good health," Linda Van Horn, chair of the American Heart Association's Nutrition Committee. "But now we have a __70__ understanding of healthy eating and

48

the kinds of food necessary to __71__ not only heart disease but disease __72__ general," she adds. Scientists now __73__ on the broader picture of the balance of food eaten __74__ several days or a week __75__ than on the number of milligrams (毫克) of this or that __76__ at each meal. Fruits, vegetables and whole grains, for example, provide nutrients and plant-based compounds __77__ for good health. ―The more we learn, the more __78__ we are by the wealth of essential substances they __79__," Van Horn continues, "and how they __80__ with each other to keep us healthy." You'll automatically be __81__ the right heart-healthy track if vegetables, fruits and whole grains make __82__ three quarters of the food on your dinner plate. __83__ in the remaining one quarter with lean meat or chicken, fish or eggs. The foods you choose to eat as well as those you choose to __84__ clearly contribute to your well-being. Without a __85__, each of the small decisions you make in this realm can make a big __86__ on your health in the years to come. 67. A) between 68. A) serious 69. A) key 70. A) strict 71. A) rescue 72. A) in B) through B) splendid B) point B) different B) prevent B) upon C) inside C) specific C) lead C) typical C) forbid C)for D)to D) separate D) center D) natural D) offend D)by

49

73. A) turn 74. A) over 75. A) other 76. A) conveyed 77 A) vital 78. A) disturbed 79. A) retain 80. A) interfere 81. A) at 82. A) out 83. A) Engage 84. A) delete 85. A) notion 86. A) outcome

B)put B) along B) better B) consumed B) initial

C) focus C) with C) rather C) entered C) valid C) amazed

D) carry D)beyond D)sooner D) exhausted D) radical D) amused D) maintain D) rest D) within D) up D) Pack D) spoil D) doubt D) commitment

B) depressed B) contain B) interact B)of B) into B) Fill B) hinder B) hesitation B) function

C) attain C) reckon C) on C) off C) Insert C) avoid C) reason C) impact

Part VI

Translation

(5 minutes)

Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2. 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答,只需写出译文部分。 87. The university authorities did not approve the regulation, _____________________ (也没

50

有解释为什么). 88. Jane is tired of dealing with customer complaints and wishes that she _____________________ (能被分配做另一项工作). 89. John rescued the drowning child _____________________ (冒着自己生命危险). 90. George called his boss from the airport but it _____________________ (接电话的却是 他的助手). 91. Although he was interested in philosophy, _____________________ (他的父亲说服他) majoring in law.

答案解析 Part I Writing 标准版 Doing Shopping Online With the development of the Internet, shopping is no longer a tiring thing. Just click your mouse to choose the articles you like, and the purchase is done. You don't even have to step out of the room. It seems all easy and quick. However, people's opinions vary on this trend. Some believe that on line shopping is time and money saving. With plentiful selection options, they

51

can buy whatever they like at any time convenient. Still others insist that mis-purchasing alone is annoying enough, not to mention the credibility of the sellers and the safety of their accounts. In my opinion, the convenience and excitement of on line shopping is beyond all doubts. In the meantime, we must always bear in mind that certain traps do exist, so we'd better make sure the sellers are trustworthy before buying. In addition, we should also guard ourselves from the potential hackers who might steal our account information. 文章点评: 这是一篇“中等偏上”的学生作文。 本文先对网购热潮进行简介,引出全篇; 接着对网络购物的正反两方面进行对比;最后提出自己的看法结束全篇。整体看思 路清晰,逻辑严密,行文流畅,用语较为地道。 下面说一下这篇文章的有待提高之处: 1. 文章结构上,能看得出该同学试图采用议论文的“三段式”(提出问题、分 析问题、解决问题) 但是,以“With the development of the Internet”为开 。 首语,有些落入俗套,有硬套模板的嫌疑。稍加注意,应该能写出更好的句子。 2. 微观语言点方面,有些语句稍显啰嗦,比如 With plentiful selection options? 简化成 With plentiful selections? 更好,意思没有丝毫减损,表达 力反而增强许多。 高分版 With the help of the ever rapid development of internet technology, online

52

shopping is coming into fashion in most of cities. Online shopping is welcomed by most people due to various reasons. From the perspective of consumer, it can save some time for people who don't have much spare time. Just click the mouse, they can get whatever they want while staying at home. For the retailers, it can cut some costs for those who don't have much circulating funds. They don't have to rent a house and spend money on employees compared with the traditional trade mode. However, there are still some defects in online shopping. First, lace of face to face deal makes online shopping less reliable and trustworthy. Second, people will lose the fun of bargain. It is undeniable that shopping on the internet has become an irresistible trend in modern society. It's of great urgency that we need to regulate the relative laws accordance with the rapid growth of online shopping. Only in this way can we enjoy the pleasure and convenience of online shopping without the concern of being treated. 点评: 本次四级作文探讨的是最近的热点话题之一——互联网网购。目前网购的风靡 程度是众所周知,因此,考生对于该话题还是比较熟悉的。但是,比较特殊的是, 题干所列出的要求的是考生从一个客观的角度来阐述该话题,而不是简单陈述自己 的意见。所以,考生应当审清楚题,在写作时不仅仅要列出网购的优点,还必须给 出相应的缺点。

53

按照四级作文的要求,考生在第一段时应该总述现象并引出话题; 第二段考生应当从正反两方面来论述网购,分别铺陈其优缺点;关于优点,网 购的优点很多,考生可择其最突出显著的方面来阐述,比如说网购可以节省很多时 间; 网购可以节省很多成本开支等; 其次, 缺点方面考生可以把重心放在诚信方面; 为了不至于跟优点相比,缺点方面太轻,考生可以考虑稍微提一下其他缺点,比如 说与传统购物相比,网购少去了很多砍价的乐趣; 第三点要求考生对于第二段列出的缺点给出自己的建议。此处我们可以根据第 二段列出的缺点方面给出相应的防范应对措施。 整篇作文话题比较好展开,难度不大,只要考生审好题,列出相应点,相信作 文不会他是难题。 外教版 Online shopping has been a boon to many industries and companies looking to expand their markets. Also, it's convenient for shoppers who are too busy to leave the house. However, in some cases nothing can replace a true face to face shopping experience. Internet shopping is convenient for the mothers who spend all day doing house chores and for the fathers who work a full-time job. On the other hand, there are limits to shopping online, for example: guessing the correct size of clothing on a computer screen can be very frustrating. For the busy mother and father, online shopping is a very useful and convenient tool. But, there are instances, like clothes shopping, where

54

nothing beats the real thing. 点评:

作者在第一段描述了网购作为一种时尚给大家的生活带来了便利,然后话锋一 转,说网购仍然取代不了面对面的购物交流。 第二段主要还是从正反两方面分析了网购的优势和不足,以此描述大家对网购 的不同反应。 第三段作者表明了自己的观点,对网购的便利和不足之处都做了描述。 综合来讲,本篇文章观点明确,结构清晰,语言表达地道,有不少闪光词汇, 但是,内容深度上来讲还有些欠缺,另外,最后一部分表达个人观点,和第二段稍 有重复。考生需要注意观点的清晰,不宜模棱两可。

Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) 1. B. Its bad taste 解析:题干中 generally known for 对应原文 a reputation for,根据原文第 一句 Why does British food have a reputation for being so bad? Because it is bad! 可知关键词为 bad,故选 B。 2. A. an inadequate supply of production 解析:由题干关键词 the Second World War 可以定位到原文第四段,二战之前, 英国的食品都是进口的,二战之后,食品供应船只遭到攻击,只能依靠配给。故选

55

A,食品供给不足。 3. B. Its people cared more for quantity 解析:由 compete with some of its neighbouring countries 可以定位到原 文第6段,they weren't looking for?, they were looking for?, this prioritization of quantity over quality prevailed for decades. 可见他们 对数量的追求高于质量,因此选 B。 4. C. all kinds of overseas visitors 解析:由题干关键词 culinary 定位到原文第7段,根据最后一句?its ability to please the tastes of any international visitor. 而 any international visitor 就等同于答案 all kinds of overseas visitors。故选 C. 5. C. New ideas and presentations 解析: 问题是按照 David Tamlyn 的观点, 香港的饮食者喜欢什么。 先根据 David Tamlyn 这个人名定位到原文第八段,再根据最后一句话 Hong Kong diners are extremely responsive to new ideas or presentations,?这里的 are extremely responsive to 在意思上等于题干中的 welcome。 6. D. maintain British traditional tastes 解析:一些饭店修改菜谱,采用新样式,而另外一些则保留英式口味,再根据 Tamlyn is in the second camp,可知 Tamlyn 属于后者,即保留原汁原味。故答 案选 D。 7. B. They are produced on excellent organic farms 解析:由 Neil Tomes 定位到原文第12段,根据最后两句话?It has excellent

56

organic farms, beautifully crafted cheeses, high-quality meats 可选出答案 B,Neil Tomes 喜欢英国原料的原因就在于原料产于优秀的有机农场。 8. the local markets 解析:根据原文,? which means we take our vegetables from the local markets, ?即除了从英国直接进口,还有部分蔬菜从本地市场购买的。 9. in a British way 解析: 先定位到 The Phoenix 那一段, 再找到下一段, use a lot of ingredients We that people wouldn't perhaps associate as British, but are presented in a British way. 10. share their meals 解析:At Yorkshire Pudding, Hill says that his staff asks diners whether they would like to share their meals.餐厅之所以在上菜之后再供应碟子,原 因就在于可能会有人愿意和别人分享食物。 Part III Listening Comprehension Section A 11. M: Shawn's been trying for months to find a job. But I wonder how he could get a job when he looks like that. W: Oh, that poor guy! He really should shave himself every other day at least and put on something clean. Q: What do we learn about Shawn?

57

答案:A. He is careless about his appearance. 解析: 男生 首先对肖恩能否找到工作表示怀疑,因为他邋遢。 女生 接着提 到肖恩不修边幅,又说他应该每隔一天刮一次胡子,把自己弄得整洁干净一点。由 此可知,肖恩是一个对仪容仪表不太注重,比较粗线条的人 shave,刮胡子;be careless about 不在乎,不介意; 12. W: I wish Jane would call when she know she'll be late. This is not the first time we've had to wait for her. M: I agree. But she does have to drive through very heavy traffic to get here. Q: What does the man imply? 答案:A. Jane maybe caught in a traffic jam. 解析:本题是推理题,在做题时要注意仔细推敲。女生说:“Jane 已经不是第 一次迟到让我们等了,我希望她能事先打电话告诉我们一下”,可见女生对 Jane 迟到的作法是不满的。 男生又说:“I agree. But she does have to drive through very heavy traffic to get here.”(我同意。但是她到这里的确要遭受很拥堵的交通。 )由此得出, 男生对此事的态度是理解或宽容的。Jane 可能被堵在半路了。 13. M: Congratulations! I heard your baseball team is going to the Middle Atlantic Championship.

58

W: Yeah, we're all working real hard right now! Q: What is the woman's team doing? 答案:A. Training for the Mid-Atlantic Championship. 解析: 对话开头男生提到女生所在的棒球队要参加 Mid-Atlantic Championship. 女生说:“we're all working real hard right now!”(我们现在正紧锣密鼓地 练习呢! )由此可知,女生所在的棒球队正在进行赛前训练。 此题还有一个迷惑选项 B, Making preparations for a trans-Atlantic trip, 必须注意的是:这里并不是准备旅行,而是准备参赛。 14. W: John's been looking after his mother in the hospital. She was injured in a car accident two weeks ago and still in critical condition. M: Oh, that's terrible. And you know his father passed away last year. Q: What do we learn about John? 答案:D. He has been having a hard time. 解析:根据听力原文可知,“John's mother is in the hospital and his father died last year.”(约翰的母亲出车祸住院了,父亲两年前也过世了)由此可见, John 的近况还是蛮悲惨的;答案也就显而易见了。 15. M: What a boring speaker! I can hardly stay awake. W: Well, I don't know. In fact, I think it's been a long time since I've heard anyone is good.

59

Q: What do we learn from the conversation? 答案:D The woman thinks highly of the speaker 解析:根据听力原文可知,男生觉得演讲无趣,女生却很淡定地说:“其实我 已经很久没有听到那么好的发言了”。由此可见,女生对发言还是很肯定的。选项 D 中“thinks highly of”即“对?评价高”,故 D 是正确答案。 16. W: I'm having a lot of trouble with logic and it seems my professor can't explain it in a way that makes sense to me. M: You know, there is a tutoring service on campus. I was about to drop statistics before they helped me out. Q: What does the man mean? 答案:C. The woman should seek help from tutoring services. 解析:首先女生说她逻辑学得很辛苦,接受不了老师的讲课方式也理解不了课 程内容。 而后男生说学校有辅导班,他在参加之前几乎要挂科了,辅导班帮了他大忙。 言下之意是推荐女生也去上辅导班。 17. M: This is a stylish overcoat. I saw you wearing it last week, did't I? W: Oh, that wasn't me. That was my sister Jill. She's in your class. Q: What does the woman mean? 答案:C. Jill wore the overcoat last week.

60

解析:首先男生问女生上周是否穿过拉风外套,然后女生说:“ That was my sister Jill. She's in your class.”(那是我姐姐 Jill,她和你同班)也就是 说男生很有可能看到的那个穿着拉风外套的人是女生的姐姐 Jill。 18. M: Jane, suppose you lost all your money while taking a vacation overseas, what would you do? W: Well, I guess I'd sell my watch or computer or do some odd jobs till I could afford a return plane ticket. Q: What are the speakers talking about? 答案:B. An imaginary situation. 解析:根据原文录音可知,对话开头男生讲到:“Jane, suppose you lost all your money while taking a vacation overseas, what would you do? ”这里的 "suppose"表明“假定、料想”由此可见,两人谈论的是一个虚拟场景。 Conversation One 听力原文 M: Hello, professor Johnson. W: Hello, Tony. So what shall we work on today? M: Well, the problem is that this writing assignment isn't coming out right. What I thought I was writing on was to talk about what particular sport means to me when I participate in, W: What sport did you choose?

61

M: I decided to write about cross-country skiing. W: What are you going to say about skiing? M: That's the problem. I thought I would write about how peaceful it is to be out in the country. W: So why is that a problem? M: As I start describing how quiet it is to be out in the woods. I keep mentioning how much effort it takes to keep going. Cross-country skiing isn't as easy as some people think. It takes a lot of energy, but that's not part of my paper. So I guess I should leave it out. But now I don't know how to explain that feeling of peacefulness without explaining how hard you have to work for it. It all fits together. It's not like just sitting down somewhere and watching the clouds roll by. That's different. W: Then you'll have to include that in your point. The peacefulness of cross-country skiing is the kind you earn by effort. Why leave that out? Part of your point you knew before hand but part you discovered as you wrote. That's common, right? M: Yeah, I guess so. Q19: What is the topic of the man's writing assignment? C) Pain and pleasure in sports Q20: What problem does the man have while working on his paper? D) He can't decide whether to include the effort part of skiing.

62

Q21: What does the woman say is common in writing papers? A) New ideas come up as you write. 19. D) A sport he participates in 解析:题目问的是,男生论文的主题是什么,从 talk about what particular sport means to me when I participate in 一句中,可得对应选项 D。C 选项是一 个干扰项,pain and pleasure in sports, 意为运动中的痛苦与快乐,其中 sports 一词范围太大,对话中只谈到了 cross-country skiing, 因此,C 选项错。 20. D) He can't decide whether to include the effort part of skiing. 解析: 当男生打算将越野滑雪的艰辛剔除出论文时, 教授说了一句“Then you'll have to include that in your point.”对应选项 D 21. A) New ideas come up as you write. 解析:在对话的最后,教授提到“Part of your point you knew before hand but part you discovered as you wrote. That's common, right?”这句话意思 是说,在写论文之前,论点的一部分我们已经有了,但另一部分在写的过程中才会 发现,因此,对应选项 A。A 选项与 D 选项较易混淆,但从教授的话中,我们可以 看出,不是论点发生变化,而是在写作过程中,会有新的想法产生。 这篇长对话因为是围绕论文写作展开,而且涉及了一项我们中国人并不熟悉的 运动,越野滑雪,因此,乍听之下,有些小抽象,小陌生。但细听之后,我们会发 现,文中有一大段都提到了男生在写作中遇到的纠结处,那就是越野滑雪的畅快和 由此所付出的艰辛,文章的主旨自然呼之欲出了。 这篇对话主要考察对文章大意的理解,而不是纠结于一词一句的得失,因此,

63

大家在做题时,也要注意把握主干,不要因为听到了一个自己不太熟悉的运动就舍 本逐末。 Conversation Two W: Good evening and welcome to this week's Business World. It program for and about business people. Tonight we have Mr. Angeleno who came to the US six years ago, and is now an established businessman with three restaurants in town.Tell us Mr. Angeleno, how did you get started? M: Well I started off with a small diner. I did all the cooking myself and my wife waited on tables. It was really too much work for two people. My cooking is great. And word got around town about the food. Within a year, I had to hire another cook and four waitresses. When that restaurant became very busy, I decided to expand my business. Now with three places my main concern is keeping the business successful and running smoothly. W: Do you advertise? M: Oh yes. I don't have any TV commercials, because they are too expensive. But I advertise a lot on radio and in local newspapers. My children used to distribute ads. in nearby shopping centres, but we don't need to do that anymore. W: Why do you believe you've been so successful? M: Em, I always serve the freshest possible food and I make the atmosphere as comfortable and as pleasant as I can, so that my customers will want to

64

come back. W: So you always aim to please the customers? M: Absolutely!Without them I would have no business at all. W: Thank you Mr.Angeleno.I think your advice will be helpfull to those just staring out in business. Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 22 What is the woman's occupation D) Hostess of the weekly “Business World” 23 what do we learn about Mr.Angeleno's business at its beginning B) He and his wife did everything by themselves. 24 what does Mr. Angeleno say about advertising his business. B) He advertises a lot on radio and in newspapers. 25 What does the man say contribute to his success? B) The restaurant atmosphere 22. D) Hostess of the weekly “Business World” 解析:从对话中可以听出,这是一个访谈节目,因此这个女性是节目主持人。 23. B) He and his wife did everything by themselves. 解析: 题目问的是, 刚开始的时候, Angeleno 的生意怎么样?对话中提到, did I all the cooking myself and my wife waited on tables. Angeleno 负责做菜, 他妻子负责接待,对应选项 B。 24. B) He advertises a lot on radio and in newspapers.

65

解析:从 But I advertise a lot on radio and in local newspapers. 一句 中,可以得到对应选项。 25. B) The restaurant atomsphere 解析:题目问的是,什么有助于餐厅的成功?对话中提到,I always serve the freshest possible food and I make the atmosphere as comfortable and as pleasant as I can, so that my customers will want to come back. 可见,Angeleno 会提供尽可能新鲜的食物和舒适的用餐环境以吸引顾客,因此,对应选项 B,也许, 有童鞋会问,为什么不选 C?注意,C 选项是指各种各样的食物,与文意中“新鲜 的食物”不符,是错误选项。 这篇对话是一篇较为简单的访谈节目,主要涉及一些细节问题,其中,关键细 节包括餐馆经营情况,广告宣传情况等,也是考点所在。童鞋们在听时,可以相应 地做些简单的笔记,从而准确地选出选项。 Section B Passage One There are many commonly held beliefs about eye glasses and eyesight that are not proven facts. For instance, some people believe that wearing glasses too soon weakens the eyes. But there is no evidence to show that the structure of eyes is changed by wearing glasses at a young age. Wearing the wrong glasses, however, can prove harmful. Studies show that for adults there is no danger, but children can develop loss of vision if they have glasses inappropriate for their eyes.

66

We have all heard some of the common myths about how eyesight gets bad. Most people believe that reading in dim light causes poor eyesight, but that is untrue. Too little light makes the eyes work harder, so they do get tired and strained. Eyestrain also results from reading a lot, reading in bed, and watching too much television. However, although eyestrain may cause some pain or headaches, it does not permanently damage eyesight. Another myth about eyes is that they can be replaced, or transferred from one person to another. There are close to one million nerve fibres that connect the eyeball to the brain, as of yet it is impossible to attach them all in a new person. Only certain parts of the eye can be replaced. But if we keep clearing up the myths and learning more about the eyes, some day a full transplant may be possible. 篇章类型及提要:论证文 听力点睛: 本文主要介绍关于纠正一些对眼镜及视力的常识的错误认识。注意文章首句 "There are many commonly held beliefs about eye glasses and eyesight that are not proven facts." 通常这种文章首句就是主旨句。这是做听力短文题必须 要高度关注的。接下去可以推测下面内容必然围绕主题句展开,通过举例等来论证 作者要表明的观点。所以听的时候也要高度专注那些关键词句,如 for instance, however, but, evidence, although, Studies show that...这些关键词句后面的 内容是听力常考的地方。最后文章给出一个总结句呼吁人们破除固有的一些认识,

67

去更多了解我们的眼睛,头尾呼应。 Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard. 26. What does the speaker want to tell us about eyesight? 答案:C)There are many false notions about it. 解析:从"eyesight" 可以把答案定位于第一段,关键词有"weakens the eyes" "loss of vision". 注意题目中是问 speaker 要告诉我们的,所以不要被 some people believe...误导,看清题目要问什么很重要。容易混淆的是 A 选项,文中 提到如果孩子戴不合适的眼镜会使孩子的视力减弱,但并没有提到孩子经常忽视保 护视力。B、D 选项文中没有提及,可以排除。 27. What do studies about wearing the wrong glasses show? 答案:C)It can lead to the loss of vision in children. 解析:本题关键词是"studies" "wearing the wrong glasses". 文章中作者很 明显地给出了"Studies show that for adults..." 因此了解这个后面的内容,做 出本题难度不大。文中说到 "for adults there is no danger" ,因此排除 B 选 项。"there is no evidence... the structure of eyes is changed" "it does not permanently damage eyesight"可以排除 D 选项,注意如果漏听了 no,很可能就会 选错。A 选项前文没有提及,可以排除。 28.What do we learn about eye transplanting from the talk? 答案:D)It can only be partly accomplished now. 解析:本题关键词"eye transplanting",迅速定位于听力后面部分。A、B、C 选项文中没有提及,排除。文章最后部分"Only certain parts of the eye can be

68

replaced" "Only certain parts of the eye can be replaced"可以推断出答案 是 D 选项。 Passage Two When people care for an elderly relative, they often do not use available community services such as adult daycare centers. If the caregivers are adult children, they are more likely to use such services, especially because they often have jobs and other responsibilities. In contrast, a spouse usually the wife, is much less likely to use support services or to put the dependent person in a nursing home. Social workers discover that the wife normally tries to take care of her husband herself for as long as she can in order not to use up their life savings. Researchers have found that caring for the elderly can be a very positive experience. The elderly appreciated the care and attention they received. They were affectionate and cooperative. However, even when caregiving is satisfying, it is hard work. Social workers and experts on aging offer caregivers and potential caregivers help when arranging for the care of an elderly relative. One consideration is to ask parents what they want before they become sick or dependent. Perhaps they prefer going into a nursing home and can select one in advance. On the other hand, they may want to live with their adult children. Caregivers must also learn to state their needs and opinions clearly and ask for help from others especially brothers and sisters. Brothers and sisters are often willing to

69

help, but they may not know what to do Questions 29 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard. 29. Why are adult children more likely to use community services to help care for elderly parents? 答案:D)They have jobs and other commitments. 解析:细节题。本题询问原因,文章开头很快就给出了本题答案"because they often have jobs and other responsibilities." 注意 D 选项中的 commitments 的意思是 “承诺,保证;承担义务”和 responsibilities 意思相近。这也是四级 考试中常见的选项设置,用同义词或近义词替换掉文中的词汇。这要求考试在备考 时,重点词汇及其同义词反义词都要有所了解。其他选项文中没有提及,可排除。 30. Why are most wives unwilling to put their dependent husbands into nursing homes? 答案:A) They don't want to use up all their life savings. 解析:细节题。关键词"wives"" husbands"。本题不难,文章中已经直接给出 答案" in order not to use up their life savings"。 31. According to the passage, what must caregivers learn to do? 31. According to the passage, what must caregivers learn to do? 答案:C)Be frank and seek help from others. 解析:关键词"caregivers""learn to do",问看护人应该要学会做的事情,然 后迅速定位于最后部分,"One consideration is to ask...","Caregivers must also learn to state..." 主要有两件事情,C 选项是其中一个,另外一个选项中

70

没有,排除 A、B 和 D 选项。 Passage Three Since a union representative visited our company to inform us about our rights and protections. My coworkers have been worrying about health conditions and complaining about safety hazards in the workplace. Several of the employees in the computer department, for example, claim to be developing vision problems from having to stare at a video display terminal for about 7 hours a day. The supervisor of the laboratory is beginning to get headaches and dizzy spells because she says it's dangerous to breathe some of the chemical smoke there. An X-rays technician is refusing to do her job until the firm agrees to replace its out-dated equipment. She insists that it's exposing workers to unnecessarily high doses of radiation. She thinks that she may have to contact the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and asked that government agency to inspect the department. I've heard that at a factory in the area two pregnant women who were working with paint requested a transfer to a safer department, because they wanted to prevent damage to their unborn babies. The supervisor of personnel refused the request. In another firm the workers were constantly complaining about the malfunctioning heating system, but the owners was too busy or too mean to do anything about it. Finally, they all met an agree to wear ski-clothing to work the next day. The owner was too embarrassed to talk to his employees.

71

But he had the heating system replaced right away. Questions 32- 35 are based on the passage you have just heard. 32 What does the talk focus on? A) Health and safety conditions in workplace. 解析:主旨题。本题简单,了解了文章主要内容后,就可以直接选出答案。注 意不要被文章中员工们得对工作环境的 complaints 影响而混淆了。 33 What did the X-ray technician ask her company to do? Replace its out-dated equipments. 答案:A)Replace its out-dated equipments. 解析:细节题。作者有直接读出答案,比较简单。 34 What does the speaker say about the two pregnant women working with paint? A) They requested to transfer to a safer department. 答案:A) They requested to transfer to a safer department. 解析:细节题。作者有直接读出答案,比较简单。注意选 B 选项的同学可能犯 了想当然的错误。做题还是要按照文章的事实根据来。 35 Why did the workers in the firm wear ski-clothing to work? C) To protest against the poor working conditions. 答案:C)To protest against the poor working conditions. 解析:推理题。本题容易误选 D 选项。因为是 heating system 出了故障。但通 过下文"too embarrassed""had the heating system replaced right away" 从老

72

板的反应及采取的措施可以推断出,员工们穿滑雪服地原因其实为对差的工作环境 向老板提出抗议。 Section C Compound Dictation Contrary to the old warning that time waits for no one, time slows down when you are on the move. It also slows down more as you move faster, which means astronauts(宇航员) some day may survive so long in space that they would return to an earth of the distant future. If you could move at the speed of light, your time would stand still, if you could move faster than light, your time would move backward. Although no form of matter yet discovered, moves as fast as or faster than light, scientific experiments has already confirmed that accelerated motion causes a traveler's time to be stretched. Albert Einstein predicted this in 1905, when he introduced the concept of relative time as part of his special theory of relativity. A search is now under way to confirm the suspected existence of particles of matter that move at a speed greater than light, and therefore, might serve as our passports to the past. An obsession with time - saving, gaining, wasting, losing and mastering it - seems to have been a part of humanity for as long as human have existed. Humanity also has been obsessed with trying to capture the meaning of time. Einstein used a definition of time for experimental purposes, as that which is measured by a clock. Thus time and time's relativity are measurable by any

73

hour glass, alarm clock, or atomic clock that can measure a billionth of a second. 本文提要: 本篇属于科技类文章,主要围绕时间和运动的关系展开;用谚语开篇引出全文, 很有吸引力。中间引用爱因斯坦的相对论相关概念,具体阐述主题。 答案: 36. survive 解析:文章描述:运动越快,时间变慢得也更快,这也就意味着宇航员有朝一 日可以在太空中生存(survive)很久,如此一来他们就可以在遥远(distant)的 未来重返地球。 37. distant 解析: 这个空在 future 前面, 所以预判该填形容词常用搭配无非 near, close, distant 等 ,根据听力原文,如上所述,确定是遥远的未来;填 distant。 38. backward 解析:速度达到光速,时间静止;根据常识推断,若速度快于光速,那么时间 将后退,即 move backward,根据听力原文可确定这一推断。 39. discovered 解析:空缺部分作后置定语,从音频可知是发现(discovered),用其过去完成 时态。 40. scientific 解析:该空后接名词,应为形容词,scientific。

74

41. motion 解析: 原文描述, 实验已证明运动加快会使宇航员的时间延长。 这里的运动为 motion。 42. predicted 解析:爱因斯坦在1905年时作出预测,用过去时 predicted。 43. introduced 解析:这是爱因斯坦提出的一个相对时间的概念,用过去时 introduced。 44. that move at a speed greater than light, and therefore, might serve as our passports to the past. 解析:当下进行的研究旨在证实,是否有这样的物质,即能以超光速运行,并 可以作为我们回归过去的“通行证”。填句只需意思相近就可以,关键抓住核心: 超光速运行,可帮助人类回到过去。 45. seems to have been a part of humanity for as long as human have existed. 解析:人类对时间的节约,获取,浪费以及流失等的着迷,自人类诞生以来就 一直是其生活的一部分。核心:人类诞生以来就一直存在的,如影随形的。 46. used a definition of time for experimental purposes, as that which is measured by a clock. 解析:人类也对时间的含义非常着迷,爱因斯坦就曾提出一个试验性的定义, 这个定义下的时间可以用钟表来测量。核心意思:试验性的定义,可以用钟表来测 量。

75

解题密钥: 听类似文章时首先要注意把握逻辑结构,也即听第一遍听时把握大意,先不要 急于填写所有空缺,重点是要缕清思路,听懂文章在说什么,记录关键信息词;有 了对文章整体的把握后,第二遍听时就容易许多,这时就可以把空缺进量补齐,注 意填句部分不一定非得按原文填写,只要意思相近就行;第三遍是最后一遍,此时 要边听边检查已填写空缺,另外也可补填遗漏。 听力音频结束后,可对所填词汇进行检查,此时主要根据语法知识保证词形, 词性准确无误;另外也可重新组织语句,完善填句部分。

Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in depth) Section A 文章大意: 47 N tend 48 L negative 49 H efficiently 50 B associated 51 A alert 52 J function/ 53 F definitely 54 O younger

76

55 E continuing 56 G different 文章大意:本文主要讲述的是关于老年人睡眠的问题:是否老年人与年轻人相 比只需要较少的睡眠时间? 47. tend to 固定搭配;表示“倾向于;”符合句意; 48. 空格后是 effect, 前面是 a(n), 由此可见,该处需要填入一个形容词; 题目给出的形容词有 negative, sufficient, younger;根据前后语意,填入 negative 最为恰当,表示“少的睡眠时间对大脑的活动有负面的影响。” 49. 根据推测,该处应该填入一个副词,题目给出的副词有 efficiently, definitely, formally;前面提到,老年人在睡觉的时候更容易被打断,而后面用 while 提出一个对比的概念, 年轻人相比起来能获得更_______ 的睡眠; 综合起来, 选用 efficiently(最有效率的)最为准确。 50. be associated with 固定搭配; 表示“与?联系在一起”; 本句话表示“更 多的睡眠通常都与健康度联系在一起”; 51. 先看整句话的含义,“如果他们能睡更长的时间,他们的感觉应该会更好 以及?”那么, 该处应该填入一个褒义词, 选择 alert 比较恰当, 表示“更加警觉, 机灵”; 52. 根据判断,此处应该填入一个动词,剩下的动词有 cling, function;整句 话的意思是“当我们上了年纪的时候,我们一觉睡到天亮的能力下降了,但是,我 们需要?的睡眠量并没有改变; ”空格后的单词是 well, cling 在这里并不合适, 一般与 to 连用;选用 function 最为适合;

77

53. 作者在首段已经提出这个观点是一个 myth,那么显而易见最后一段中出现 的 myth 是作为一种强调手段,应填入 definitely; 54. 空格的前面是 when they were?, “当他们年轻的时候”;应填入 younger; 55. 本句的意思是“我们的数据显示老年人将从?获益;”空格的后面是“得 到和他们在三十多岁的时候能得到的睡眠一样多”;根据上下文意思,该处应填入 “continuing”; 56. different from 固定搭配;表示“和?不同”; 总的说来,建议大家在做题之前对所给的所有词汇进行一下简单的词性分类, 这样,更有助于考生快速有效地从最小的范围内选出答案。 Section B Passage One 57. What can we learn from some recent studies? 答案:D. Interracial lodging may have diverse outcomes. 关键词:recent studies, but also 定位:题干中 some recent studies 提示答案定位在第一段第一句话。 解析: 问题提问从最近的研究中我们可以了解到什么?第一段第一句中 Several recent studies found that?与题干对应, 由此可知 that 后的就是 recent studies 的内容,即 being randomly assigned to a roommate of another race can lead to increased tolerance but also to a greater likelihood of conflict。其 中“being randomly assigned to a roommate of another race”对应了选项 D

78

中的“interracial lodging”, “can? but also?”说明了 interracial lodging 是有利有弊的。因此 D 选项符合文意。而 C 选项“弊大于利”不符合文意, A“不 同种族学生之间的争执是不可避免的”选项与 B“不同种族的学生相互存在偏见” 原文中没有明确提及 58. What does Sam Boakye's remark mean? 答案:D. Being surrounded by white peers motivates a black student to work harder to succeed. 关键词:surrounded, something to prove 定位:题干中出现的人名 Sam Boakye 提示答案定位在第四段第一句话。 解析:问题提问 Sam Boakye 的话是什么意思?通过定位可以找到 Sam Boakye 的那段话,即 if you're surrounded by whites, you have something to prove. 这句话前面的插入语-the only black student on his freshman year floor- 介 绍了 Sam Boakye 作为黑人学生的背景,帮助我们理解之前那句话:如果你的周围 都是白人,那么一定会去证明些什么,言下之意就是选项 D“白人同伴的存在会激 励黑人学生更加努力地去取得成功”。而选项 A, B, C 在文中没有明确提及。本题 选项 C 有个干扰信息“the freshman year”,在原文中出现。某些考生看到这个 词,不假思索就选择了这个选项,但没有搞懂原文的意思,导致错误选择。请考生 留意。 59. What does the Indian University study show? 答案:A. Interracial roommates are more likely to fall out. 关键词:Indian University, more likely,

79

定位:题干中出现的机构名称 Indian University 提示答案定位在第七段第一 句话。 解析:问题提问 Indian University 的研究显示了什么?通过定位可以发现研 究结果显示 Interracial roommate were three times as likely as two white roommates to no longer live together,与选项 A 中的 more likely to fall out 对应,因此选择 D。此处,fall out 应该理解为“散伙,分开”有些考生可能因为 不理解意思而产生歧义,请考生留意。 60. What does Alec Webley consider to be the “definition of integration”? 答案:D. The school randomly assigns roommates without regard to race. 关键词:Alec Webley, definition of integration 定位:题干出现的人名 Alec Webley 提示答案定位在第十段第一句。 解析:通过定位找到人名,人名后出现“This is the definition of integration”,由“this”可知人名前就是我们要找的答案,即 the process throws you together randomly,“throw you together randomly”与“randomly assign”对应。意思与选项 D 符合。因此,此处选择 D。 61. What does Grace Kao say about interracial lodging? 答案:A. It is unscientific to make generalizations about it without further study. 关键词:Grace Kao, generalizations 定位:题干中出现的人名 Grace Kao 以及 generalizations 提示答案定位在文

80

章最后一段。根据最后一段意思:要得出 Interracial lodging 的一般规律,需要 对学生的背景特征有更多的研究,与选项 D 的意思相同。而选项 ABC 在文中没有明 确提及。 Passage Two 本篇文章主要是围绕一份来自 Global Humanitarian Forum 的报告展开的,在 解题之前,通过对5个题干的浏览,以及在原文中的定位,可以发现,这篇文章是 严格按照顺序原则来出题的。每一个题干中都有大写的字母,这些首字母大写的单 词既是关键词,也是定位词,可以有效地帮助我们到原文中准确定位,节省答题时 间。 62. What is the finding of the Global Humanitarian Forum? 答案:B. Rates of death from illnesses have risen due to global warming. 关键词:Global Humanitarian Forum 定位:第一段、第二段 解析:一般而言,四级的阅读题目大致遵循顺序原则,此篇文章正好是遵循此 规律的。在文章的第一段,第一行,我们看到“? 300,000 deaths and about $ 125 billion ?”,根据这里, 我们可以把答案锁定在选项 A (economic) 和选项 B (Rates of death),然后我们接着往下看,可以发现,第二段就没有再提到金钱方面了, 而都是在讲死亡和疾病的话题,如第二段的第三行“? death rates from illnesses ? ”。所以,最后正确的选项是 B。 63. What do we learn about the Forum's report from the passage? 答案:A. It was challenged by some climate and risk experts.

81

关键词:learn 、Forum's report 定位:第三段 解析:根据顺序原则,我们在接下来的第三段里就找到了63题的答案。第三段 的第一行就讲到“the report drew criticism from some experts on climate and risk”,这和 A 选项是完全相一致的,challenged 是 criticism 的同义替换。B 选 项中的“interest”表示“兴趣”,主要用于好的事物,这里讲的都是对 the Forum's repor 的批评,显然就不合适了。C 选项表达的意思跟原文正好相反,这 个是肯定要排除的。 然后, 有的同学可能会选到 D 选项, 可能是受到文中第四段“? primarily in poor countries ,were being seriously effected ?”这句话的 影响。但是 D 选项中“a big stir”“一阵巨大的骚乱”文中是完全没有提到的。 64. What does Dr. Pielke say about the Forum's report? 答案:B. It is invalid in terms of methodology. 关键词:Dr. Pielke、say 定位:第五段 解析:在第五段,我们可以很快找到 Pielke,然后找到他说的话,第二行“the Forum's report was ‘a methodological embarrassment'”,然后在第六行“but the report, he said‘will harm the ? it is so deeply flawed'”。根据这 两句话,选项中 invalid 是 flawed 的同义替换, 我们可以很容易地选到 B。 65. What is Soren Andreasen's view of the report? 答案:D. Its rough estimates are meant to draw the attention of world leaders.

82

关键词:Soren Andreasen 定位:第六段 解析:在第六段的第二行和第三行,可以看到“the number were rough estimates. He said the report was aimed at world leaders ? ”,根据这两 句话,我们就能较轻松地将正确答案锁定在 D 选项。 66. What does Kofi Annan say should be the focus of the Copenhagen conference?

答案:D. How rich countries can better help poor regions reduce climate hazards. 关键词:Kofi Annan、focus of the Copenhagen conference 定位:第七段(即文中的最后一段) 解析: 最后一段是 Kofi Annan 说的一段话。 我们在最后一段的第二行, focus on 后面“? from rich to poor regions to help reduce ? ”后面的内容就无需 再花时间去看了,因为他 focus(关注)的地方,在此就已经陈述清楚了,正确答 案就是 D。 Part V Cloze 文章大意: 67. to 68. specific 69. key

83

70. different 71. prevent 72. in 73. focus 74. over 75. rather 76. consumed 77. vital 78. amazed 79. contain 80. interact 81. on 82. up 83. fill 84. avoid 85. doubt 86. impact 这是一篇关于科学饮食的科技新闻。 为了让学生快速进入语境,文章第一段没有挖空。 从第一段中,我们可以获得全文主旨:科学饮食的真谛是从大处着眼, 67. 第二段首句有个定语从句:科学饮食远不止分析每一口放到嘴里的饭。这

84

里要选择一个介词,lift 的原意是高举,在这里的意思就是“放到嘴边”,to 表 示方向。 between 表示在某某之间,不合题意。inside 表示静态,与 lift 这个 动作相矛盾。同理,B 选项 through,表示穿过,lift 这个动作,到嘴边就结束了, 并没有穿过嘴巴。 68. 按照原文的逻辑,接下来的一句话,表达过去人们如何如何,是为了给出 “靶子”加以批评,所以,我们需要继续往后读,读到作者提倡的做法,然后反向 理解一下,便可选出答案。 69. 根据语法搭配,只有 key 才可以和后面的 to 相搭配,所以选择 A 选项。 70. 句首的 but,是题眼,表达对比之意,所以,下文开始讲述“另一种”“不 同的”饮食习惯。因此,选择 B 选项,different。 71. 这里是个不定式短语,需要一个动词,由宾语 heart disease 可知, “prevent”(预防)是最佳搭配。 72. 考察和 general 搭配的介词,只有 in 符合语法。 73. 需要一个动词和 on 搭配, 语法上四个选项都可以搭配, 只能从词义上判断, turn on 表示打开,focus on 表示注重,put on 表示穿衣,carry on 表示执行。 根据宾语,“更广的层面”,可知应该选择 focus on。 74. 需要一个和“时间段”搭配的介词,over a period of time 表示一段时 间以来,符合题意。 75. 这里表示“是什么而不是什么”,应该用 rather than 才能准确达意。 76. 这是个分词短语作后置定语修饰前面的“this or that”,这里的 this or that 代指食物。convey 是表达,不搭配。enter 可以表示“输入,记下”,也不

85

和食物搭配。和食物搭配的只有 B 和 D,consume 表示,消费或消耗。exhaust 表 示耗尽。很明显,这里的食物并不会耗尽,所以只能选 B 选项。 这里我们可以回过头来, 看一下第68题, 文章的主旨是, “Scientist now focus on the broader picture of the balance of food eaten over several days or a week”即“科学家现在注重最近几天内的均衡饮食”, 与此能够形成对比的, “单 个营养元素的定量摄入”,这里能表达特定量的词只有“certain”或者 “specific”,这里用 certain 更自然,但是没有提供选项,因此就只能选择 specific,表示“特定的”。 77. 需要个形容词, 做后置定语, for good health 搭配, 和 这里只有 vital 能 和 for 搭配,表示“对?重要”。 78. 这里是一个 The more?the more 的固定表达,表示“越??越??”, 这里用 amazed 表达科研人员,对新发现所产生的“惊奇之感”。 79. 这里的 they 表示食物,结合后面的动词,构成定语从句,修饰“必备营养 元素”,这里的用 contain 才能准确达意,“食物包含必备营养元素” 80. 需要一个动词和 with 搭配,只能选择 A 和 B,但从语义上判断,必备营养 元素之间会相互反应,肯定不会相互干扰。因此只能选择 interact。 81. 这里需要一个介词和 track 搭配,只有 on the right track 才符合语法 82. 这里根据题意, “蔬菜、 水果和谷物构成了饭菜的四分之三”, 这里 make up 表达“构成”之意。 83. 这里需要一个动词,宾语是“剩余的四分之一”,从语义上理解,我们需 要选择“填充”,因此,fill in 是符合语法的。

86

84. 这里需要一个动词,结合题意,这个空应该表达“不吃”,才能和前面的 eat 形成对比,这里的 avoid,表达避免的意思,比 delete(删除)更切题。 85. 文章在最后一句,要下一个结论,这里用 without a doubt 表达“毫无疑 问”,符合题目要求。 86. 这里需要一个名词,和 on 搭配,只有 impact 符合题意。 总之,今年四级的完型填空,涉及3处名词,5处介词,7处动词,4处形容词和1 处副词。 只有1题(第68题)需要整体把握,其余部分只要在句子内部或者句子之间进行 上下文逻辑比对或语法搭配,即可完成。 Part VI Translation 87. The university authorities did not approve the regulation, nor did they make any explanation / nor did they give the reason for doing so (也 没有解释为什么). 解析:本题考察了两个知识点。① nor 的倒装句用法,后半句表示“也不”的 否定意义,注意助动词的时态与上半句保持一致;② 对某事做出解释的表达,考 察了汉译英中动词转名词的技巧, explain → explanation, 或者 nor did they give the reason for doing so 同样可以。 88. Jane is tired of dealing with customer complaints and wishes that she could be assigned (to) another job(能被分配做另一项工作) 解析:本题考察了 wish 从句的虚拟语气用法(can→could)和“分配某人做某

87

事”的词组搭配,assign sb. to sth. 或者 assign sb. sth. 89. John rescued the drowning child at the risk of his own life (冒着 自己生命危险). 解析:本题考察了“冒着?的危险/风险做某事”的词组搭配,可以用 at the risk / expense of one's own life(冒着某人的生命危险做某事) 90. George called his boss from the airport but it ① was his assistant who answered / picked up the phone;② turned out that his assistant answered / picked up the phone(接电话的却是他的助手) 解析: 该句比较灵活, 在句法上, 既可以使用强调句结构, 也可以采用 turn out 的惯用搭配;在“接电话”的表达上,可以用 pick up / answer the phone。强调 句结构为 it be sb. who do sth. ,而 turn out 变化则较多,可以用 turn out to be sb. who do sth.或者 turn out + that + 从句。

91. Although he was interested in philosophy, his father persuaded him into / talked him into(他的父亲说服他)majoring in law. 解析:本题考察“说服某人做某事”的表达,persuade / talk sb. into doing sth. 整体评价:今年6月的翻译题难度适中,89和91题的词组搭配是拿分题,而87题 的倒装结构和88题的虚拟语气用法也是广大四级考生的“老朋友”,不熟悉实在说 不过去。

88

2010 年 12 月英语四级考试真题

Part I

Writing

(30 minutes)

Directions:For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled How Should Parents Help Children to Be Independent? You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below. 1. 目前不少父母为孩子包办一切 2. 为了让孩子独立,父母应该…… How Should Parents Help Children to Be Independent? 注意:此部分试题在答题卡 1 上 Part II Reading Comprehension(Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)

Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.

A Grassroots Remedy Most of us spend our lives seeking the natural world. To this end, we walk the dog, play golf, go fishing, sit in the garden, drink outside rather than inside the pub, have a picnic, live in the suburbs, go to the seaside, buy a weekend place in the country. The most popular leisure activity in Britain is going for a walk. And when joggers (慢跑者) jog, they

89

don‘t run the streets. Every one of them instinctively heads to the park or the river. It is my profound belief that not only do we all need nature, but we all seek nature, whether we know we are doing so or not. But despite this, our children are growing up nature-deprived (丧失). I spent my boyhood climbing trees on Streatham Common, South London. These days, children are robbed of these ancient freedoms, due to problems like crime, traffic, the loss of the open spaces and odd new perceptions about what is best for children, that is to say, things that can be bought, rather than things that can be found. The truth is to be found elsewhere. A study in the US: families had moved to better housing and the children were assessed for ADHD—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (多动症). Those whose accommodation had more natural views showed an improvement of 19%; those who had the same improvement in material surroundings but no nice view improved just 4%. A study in Sweden indicated that kindergarten children who could play in a natural environment had less illness and greater physical ability than children used only to a normal playground. A US study suggested that when a school gave children access to a natural environment, academic levels were raised across the entire school. Another study found that children play differently in a natural environment. In playgrounds, children create a hierarchy (等级) based on physical abilities, with the tough ones taking the lead. But when a grassy area was planted with bushes, the children got much more into fantasy play, and the social hierarchy was now based on imagination and

90

creativity. Most bullying (恃强凌弱) is found in schools where there is a tarmac (柏油碎石) playground; the least bullying is in a natural area that the children are encouraged to explore. This reminds me unpleasantly of Sunnyhill School in Streatham, with its harsh tarmac, where I used to hang about in corners fantasising about wildlife. But children are frequently discouraged from involvement with natural spaces, for health and safety reasons, for fear that they might get dirty or that they might cause damage. So, instead, the damage is done to the children themselves: not to their bodies but to their souls. One of the great problems of modern childhood is ADHD, now increasingly and expensively treated with drugs. Yet one study after another indicates that contact with nature gives huge benefits to ADHD children. However, we spend money on drugs rather than on green places. The life of old people is measurably better when they have access to nature. The increasing emphasis for the growing population of old people is in quality rather than quantity of years. And study after study finds that a garden is the single most important thing in finding that quality. In wider and more difficult areas of life, there is evidence to indicate that natural surroundings improve all kinds of things. Even problems with crime and aggressive behaviour are reduced when there is contact with the natural world. Dr William Bird, researcher from the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, states

91

in his study, ―A natural environment can reduce violent behaviour because its restorative process helps reduce anger and impulsive behaviour.‖ Wild places need encouraging for this reason, no matter how small their contribution. We tend to look on nature conservation as some kind of favour that human beings are granting to the natural world. The error here is far too deep: not only do humans need nature for themselves, but the very idea that humanity and the natural world are separable things is profoundly damaging. Human beings are a species of mammals (哺乳动物). For seven million years they lived on the planet as part of nature. Our ancestral selves miss the natural world and long for contact with non-human life. Anyone who has patted a dog, stroked a cat, sat under a tree with a pint of beer, given or received a bunch of flowers or chosen to walk through the park on a nice day, understands that. We need the wild world. It is essential to our well-being, our health, our happiness. Without the wild world we are not more but less civilised. Without other living things around us we are less than human. Five ways to find harmony with the natural world Walk: Break the rhythm of permanently being under a roof. Get off a stop earlier, make a circuit of the park at lunchtime, walk the child to and from school, get a dog, feel yourself moving in moving air, look, listen, absorb. Sit: Take a moment, every now and then, to be still in an open space. In the garden, anywhere that‘s not in the office, anywhere out of the house, away from the routine. Sit

92

under a tree, look at water, feel refreshed, ever so slightly renewed. Drink: The best way to enjoy the natural world is by yourself; the second best way is in company. Take a drink outside with a good person, a good gathering: talk with the sun and the wind with birdsong for background. Learn: Expand your boundaries. Learn five species of bird, five butterflies, five trees, five bird songs. That way, you see and hear more: and your mind responds gratefully to the greater amount of wildness in your life. Travel: The places you always wanted to visit: by the seaside, in the country, in the hills. Take a weekend break, a day-trip, get out there and do it: for the scenery, for the way through the woods, for the birds, for the bees. Go somewhere special and bring specialness home. It lasts forever, after all. 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 1 上作答。 1. What is the author‘s profound belief? [A] People instinctively seek nature in different ways. [B] People should spend most of their lives in the wild. [C] People have quite different perceptions of nature. [D] People must make more efforts to study nature. 2. What does the author say people prefer for their children nowadays? [A] Personal freedom. [B] Things that are natural. [C] Urban surroundings.

93

[D] Things that are purchased. 3. What does a study in Sweden show? [A] The natural environment can help children learn better. [B] More access to nature makes children less likely to fall ill. [C] A good playground helps kids develop their physical abilities. [D] Natural views can prevent children from developing ADHD. 4. Children who have chances to explore natural areas ________. [A] tend to develop a strong love for science [B] are more likely to fantasise about wildlife [C] tend to be physically tougher in adulthood [D] are less likely to be involved in bullying 5. What does the author suggest we do to help children with ADHD? [A] Find more effective drugs for them. [B] Provide more green spaces for them. [C] Place them under more personal care. [D] Engage them in more meaningful activities. 6. In what way do elderly people benefit from their contact with nature? [A] They look on life optimistically. [B] They enjoy a life of better quality. 7. [C] They are able to live longer. [D] They become good-humoured.

Dr William Bird suggests in his study that ________. [A] humanity and nature are complementary to each other

94

[B] wild places may induce impulsive behaviour in people [C] access to nature contributes to the reduction of violence [D] it takes a long time to restore nature once damaged 8. It is extremely harmful to think that humanity and the natural world can be______________ 9.The author believes that we would not be so civilised without ____________________ 10. The five suggestions the author gives at the end of the passage are meant to encourage people to seek _________________ with the natural world.

Part III (35 minutes) Section A

Listening Comprehension

Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked [A] [B] [C] and , ,

[D], and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer
Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre 注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。 11. [A] The man should visit the museums. [C] The beach resort is a good choice. [B] She can‘t stand the hot weather. [D] She enjoys staying in Washington.

95

12. [A] Her new responsibilities in the company. [B] What her job prospects are. [C] What the customers‘ feedback is. [D] The director‘s opinion of her work 13. [A] Combine her training with dieting. [B] Repeat the training every three days. [C] Avoid excessive physical training. [D] Include weightlifting in the program. 14. [A] When she will return home. [B] Whether she can go by herself. [C] Whether she can travel by air. [D] When she will completely recover. 15. [A] The woman knows how to deal with the police. [B] The woman had been fined many times before. [C] The woman had violated traffic regulations. [D] The woman is good at finding excuses. 16. [A] Switch off the refrigerator for a while. [B] Have someone repair the refrigerator. [C] Ask the man to fix the refrigerator. [D] Buy a refrigerator of better quality. 17. [A] He owns a piece of land in the downtown area.

96

[B] He has got enough money to buy a house. [C] He can finally do what he has dreamed of. [D] He is moving into a bigger apartment. 18. [A] She is black and blue all over. [B] She has to go to see a doctor. [C] She stayed away from work for a few days. [D] She got hurt in an accident yesterday. Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 19. [A] She was a bank manager. [B] She was a victim of the robbery. [C] She was a defence lawyer. [D] She was a witness to the crime. 20. [A] A tall man with dark hair and a moustache. [B] A youth with a distinguishing mark on his face. [C] A thirty-year-old guy wearing a light sweater. [D] A medium-sized young man carrying a gun. 21. [A] Identify the suspect from pictures. [B]Go upstairs to sign some document. [C] Have her photo taken for their files.[D] Verify the record of what she had said. Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 22. [A] By reading a newspaper ad. [C] By listening to the morning news.

97

[B] By seeing a commercial on TV. [D] By calling an employment service. 23. [A] She could improve her foreign languages. [B] She could work close to her family. [C] She could travel overseas frequently. [D] She could use her previous experiences. 24. [A] Taking management courses.[C] Working as a secretary. [B] Teaching English at a university. [D] Studying for a degree in French. 28. [A] Prepare for an interview in a couple of days. [B] Read the advertisement again for more details. [C] Send in a written application as soon as possible. [D] Get to know the candidates on the short list. Section B Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A],

[B][C] and [D] Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single , .
line through the centre. 注意: 此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。 Passage One Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard. 26. [A] They cannot see the firefighters because of the smoke.

98

[B] They do not realize the danger they are in. [C] They cannot hear the firefighters for the noise. [D] They mistake the firefighters for monsters. 27. [A] He travels all over America to help put out fires. [B] He often teaches children what to do during a fire. [C] He teaches Spanish in a San Francisco community. [D] He provides oxygen masks to children free of charge. 28. [A] He saved the life of his brother choking on food. [B] He rescued a student from a big fire. [C] He is very good at public speaking. [D] He gives informative talks to young children. 29. [A] Firefighters play an important role in America. [B] Kids should learn not to be afraid of monsters. [C] Carelessness can result in tragedies [D] Informative speeches can save lives. Passage Two Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard. 30. [A] To satisfy the needs of their family. [B] To fully realize their potential. [C] To make money for early retirement. [D] To gain a sense of their personal worth.

99

31. [A] They may have to continue to work in old age. [B] They may regret the time they wasted. [C] They may have nobody to depend on in the future. [D] They may have fewer job opportunities. 32. [A] Making wise use of your time. [B] Enjoying yourself while you can. [C] Saving as much as you can. [D] Working hard and playing hard. Passage Three Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard. 33. [A] Hardworking students being accused of cheating. [B] Boy students being often treated as law-breakers. [C] Innocent people being suspected groundlessly. [D] Junior employees being made to work overtime. 38. [A] Forbidding students to take food out of the restaurant. [B] Requesting customers to pay before taking the food. [C] Asking customers to leave their bags on the counters. [D] Allowing only two students to enter at a time. 39. [A] He was taken to the manager. [B] He was closely watched [C] He was asked to leave Section C [D] He was overcharged.

100

Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.

注意:此部分试题在答题卡 2 上作答。 Writing keeps us in touch with other people. We write to communicate with relatives and friends. We write to (36) __ our family histories so our children and grandchildren can learn and (37) ______their heritage (传统). With computers and Internet connections in so many (38) _____, colleges, business, people e-mailing friends and relatives all the time—or talking to them in writing in online (39) ____ rooms. It is cheaper than calling long distance, and a lot more (40) ________ than waiting until Sunday for the telephone (41) _____ to drop. Students are e-mailing their professors to (42) _____ and discuss their classroom assignments and to (43) _____________ them. They are e-mailing classmates to discuss and collaborate (合作) on homework. (44) __________________. Despite the growing importance of computers, however, there will always be a place and need for the personal letter. (45) _____________. No matter what the content of the message, its real point is, ―I want you to know that I care about you.‖ (46)

101

__________________________, but only in the success of human relationships. Part Ⅳ minutes) Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage. What determines the kind of person you are? What factors make you more or less bold, intelligent, or able to read a map? All of these are influenced by the interaction of your genes and the environment in which you were environment interact to influence 48 47 . The study of how genes and Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25

activity is known as behavioral genetics. 49 to the biological revolution, providing

Behavioral genetics has made important

information about the extent to which biology influences mind, brain and behavior. Any research that suggests that 50 to perform certain behaviors are based in

biology is controversial. Who wants to be told that there are limitations to what you can 51 based on something that is beyond your control, such as your genes? It is easy to

accept that genes control physical characteristics such as sex, race and eye color. But can genes also determine whether people will get divorced, how 52 they are, or what 53 to

career they are likely to choose? A concern of psychological scientists is the

which all of these characteristics are influenced by nature and nurture(养育), by genetic makeup and the environment. Increasingly, science 54 that genes lay the 55 like

groundwork for many human traits. From this perspective, people are born undeveloped photographs: The image is already captured, but the way it 56

appears

can vary based on the development process. However, the basic picture is there from the

102

beginning.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。 [A] abilities [B] achieve [C] appeal [D] complaints [E] contributions [F] displayed [G] essentially [H] eventually Section B Passage One Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage. It is pretty much a one-way street. While it may be common for university researchers to try their luck in the commercial world, there is very little traffic in the opposite direction. Pay has always been the biggest deterrent, as people with families often feel they cannot afford the drop in salary when moving to a university job. For some industrial scientists, however, the attractions of academia (学术界) outweigh any financial considerations. Helen Lee took a 70% cut in salary when she moved from a senior post in Abbott [I] extent [J] indicates [K] proceeds [L] psychological [M] raised [N] smart [O] standard

103

Laboratories to a medical department at the University of Cambridge. Her main reason for returning to academia mid-career was to take advantage of the greater freedom to choose research questions. Some areas of inquiry have few prospects of a commercial return, and Lee‘s is one of them. The impact of a salary cut is probably less severe for a scientist in the early stages of a career. Guy Grant, now a research associate at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics at the University of Cambridge, spent two years working for a pharmaceutical (制药的) company before returning to university as a post-doctoral researcher. He took a 30% salary cut but felt it worthwhile for the greater intellectual opportunities. Higher up the ladder, where a pay cut is usually more significant, the demand for scientists with a wealth of experience in industry is forcing universities to make the transition (转换) to academia more attractive, according to Lee. Industrial scientists tend to receive training that academics do not, such as how to build a multidisciplinary team, manage budgets and negotiate contracts. They are also well placed to bring something extra to the teaching side of an academic role that will help students get a job when they graduate, says Lee, perhaps experience in manufacturing practice or product development. ―Only a small number of undergraduates will continue in an academic career. So someone leaving university who already has the skills needed to work in an industrial lab has far more potential in the job market than someone who has spent all their time on a narrow research project.‖ 注意: 此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。

104

57. By ―a one-way street‖ (Line 1, Para. 1), the author means ________. [A] university researchers know little about the commercial world [B] there is little exchange between industry and academia [C] few industrial scientists would quit to work in a university [D] few university professors are willing to do industrial research 58. The word ―deterrent‖ (Line 2, Para. 1) most probably refers to something that ________. [A] keeps someone from taking action [B] helps to move the traffic [C] attracts people‘s attention [D] brings someone a financial burden

59. What was Helen Lee‘s major consideration when she changed her job in the middle of her career? [A] Flexible work hours. [B] Her research interests. [C] Her preference for the lifestyle on campus. [D] Prospects of academic accomplishments.

60. Guy Grant chose to work as a researcher at Cambridge in order to ________. [A] do financially more rewarding work [B] raise his status in the academic world [C] enrich his experience in medical research [D] exploit better intellectual opportunities 61. What contribution can industrial scientists make when they come to teach in a university? [A] Increase its graduates‘ competitiveness in the job market

105

[B] Develop its students‘ potential in research. [C] Help it to obtain financial support from industry. [D] Gear its research towards practical applications. Passage Two Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage. Being sociable looks like a good way to add years to your life. Relationships with family, friends, neighbours, even pets, will all do the trick, but the biggest longevity (长寿) boost seems to come from marriage or an equivalent relationship. The effect was first noted in 1858 by William Farr, who wrote that widows and widowers (鳏夫) were at a much higher risk of dying than their married peers. Studies since then suggest that marriage could add as much as seven years to a man‘s life and two to a woman‘s. The effect holds for all causes of death, whether illness, accident or self-harm. Even if the odds are stacked against you, marriage can more than compensate. Linda Waite of the University of Chicago has found that a married older man with heart disease can expect to live nearly four years longer than an unmarried man with a healthy heart. Likewise, a married man who smokes more than a pack a day is likely to live as long as a divorced man who doesn‘t smoke. There‘s a flip side, however, as partners are more likely to become ill or die in the couple of years following their spouse‘s death, and caring for a spouse with mental disorder can leave you with some of the same severe problems. Even so, the odds favour marriage. In a 30-year study of more than 10,000 people, Nicholas Christakis of Harvard Medical School describes how all kinds of social networks have

106

similar effects. So how does it work? The effects are complex, affected by socio-economic factors, health-service provision, emotional support and other more physiological (生理的) mechanisms. For example, social contact can boost development of the brain and immune system, leading to better health and less chance of depression later in life. People in supportive relationships may handle stress better. Then there are the psychological benefits of a supportive partner. A life partner, children and good friends are all recommended if you aim to live to 100. The ultimate social network is still being mapped out, but Christakis says: ―People are interconnected, so their health is interconnected.‖ 注意: 此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。 62. William Farr‘s study and other studies show that _________. [A] social life provides an effective cure for illness [B] being sociable helps improve one‘s quality of life [C] women benefit more than men from marriage [D] marriage contributes a great deal to longevity 63. Linda Waite‘s studies support the idea that _________. [A] older men should quit smoking to stay healthy [B] marriage can help make up for ill health [C] the married are happier than the unmarried [D] unmarried people are likely to suffer in later life

107

64. It can be inferred from the context that the ―flip side‖ (Line 4, Para. 2) refers to _________. [A] the disadvantages of being married [B] the emotional problems arising from marriage [C] the responsibility of taking care of one‘s family [D] the consequence of a broken marriage 65. What does the author say about social networks? [A] They have effects similar to those of a marriage. [B] They help develop people‘s community spirit. [C] They provide timely support for those in need. [D] They help relieve people of their life‘s burdens. 66. What can be inferred from the last paragraph? [A] It‘s important that we develop a social network when young. [B] To stay healthy, one should have a proper social network. [C] Getting a divorce means risking a reduced life span. [D] We should share our social networks with each other. Part Ⅴ Cloze (15 minutes)

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。 Over half the world‘s people now live in cities. The latest ―Global Report on Human Settlements‖ says a significant change took place last year. The report from U.N. Habitat, a United Nations agency. 67 this week

108

A century ago,

68

than five percent of all people lived in cities. 70

69

the

middle of this century it could be seventy percent, or Already three-fourths of people in population 72 71

six and a half billion people.

countries live in cities. Now most urban

is in the developing world. 73 to social and economic progress, but also put 74 on

Urbanization can

cities to provide housing and people move 76

75 . The new report says almost two hundred thousand 77 79

cities and towns each day. It says worsening inequalities, 78 , could result in violence and crime

by social divisions and differences in cities plan better.

Another issue is urban sprawl (无序扩展的城区). This is where cities quickly into rural areas, sometimes growth. Sprawl is 82 81

80

a much faster rate than urban population

in the United States. Americans move a lot. In a recent study, Art 83

Hall at the University of Kansas found that people are moving away from the cities to smaller ones. He sees a 85 84 toward ―de-urbanization‖ across the nation. 86 that rural areas do not.

urban economies still provide many [B] came off

67. [A] came on out 68. [A] more 69. [A] By 70. [A] really

[C] came over

[D] came

[B] other [B] Through [B] barely

[C] less [C] Along [C] ever

[D] rather [D] To [D] almost

109

71. [A] flourishing 72. [A] extension 73. [A] keep 74. [A] pressure

[B] developed [B] addition [B] turn [B] load

[C] thriving [C] raise [C] lead [C] restraint

[D] fertile [D] growth [D] refer [D] weight [D] services [D] upon [D] pressed [D] category [D] whereas [D] enlarge [D] at [D] frequent [D] major [D] path [D] While

75. [A] surroundings [B] communities [C] concerns 76. [A] onto 77. [A] pulled 78. [A] situation 79. [A] when 80. [A] expand 81. [A] in 82. [A] common 83. [A] essential 84. [A] trend 85. [A] Then 86. [A] abilities Part VI minutes) [B] into [B] driven [B] wealt [B] if [B] split [B] beyond [B] conventio [B] prior [B] style [B] But [B] qualities [C] around [C] drawn [C] treasure [C] unless [C] invade [C] with [C] ordinary [C] primitive [C] direction [C] For

[C] possibilities [D] realities (5

Translation

Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2. 注意: 此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答,只需写出译文部分。

110

87. _________________________(为了确保他参加会议), I called him up in advance. 88. The magnificent museum ______________(据说建成于) about a hundred years ago. 89. There would be no life on earth _____________(没有地球独特的环境). 90. __________(给游客印象最深的) was the friendliness and warmth of the local people. 91. They requested that ___________________(我借的书还回图书馆) by next Friday.

2010 年 12 月英语四级真题答案解析 【作文范文】 范文 1: Today in China, many families have only one child. So the children usually doted upon by all family members. Gradually some of them get used to depending on their parents and family members, as a result they lack the ability to face their lives by themselves. There are some ways to help children to be independent. First, the child should have a chance to see the world around him individually to understand that there are various people and competitions in their lives, and learn to find his right position in the society

111

only by individual efforts. Second, it is impossible to ask a child not to depend on parents at once.The parents may give the child enough help and space to make him feel comfortable. A child needs help from their families. Because without any help, the child may lose his faith. Thirdly, parents can help their children make their own decisions, which can challenge his ability to deal with problems. A child should be praised when he is successful or encouraged when he fails. To be independent is vital for the children, because no parents can go with their children for the whole life. Only an independent person can live and enjoy a full and meaningful life. 范文 2: Nowadays, more and more parents indulge their children too much, showing too much love to them. The parents get used to make an arrangement of everything for their children. As result, many adult children will not deal with things by themselves but depend on their parents strongly. How should parents help children to be independent? On the one hand, parents should try to tell the children the importance of independence at an early age. If the children have no awareness early, how can we expect them to achieve independence later. On the other hand, let the children always have a try by themselves before asking for help. Let them know that independent thinking is an absolute necessity in their life.

112

Helping children towards independence will always be our businesses.

【快速阅读】 (1)选 A: People instinltively seek nature in different ways.

解析: 问题是作者的 profound belief, 第一段的最后一句给出了答案, whether we know we are doing so or not(不管我们知道与否)相当于句中的 instinctively(本能地).

(2)选 D: Things that are purchased.

解析:文中第二段最后一句给出了答案,―odd new perceptions about what is best for children, that is to say, things that can be bought‖,奇怪的新观念,什么对孩子最好,能 买到的东西。

(3)选 B: More access to the nature makes children less likely to fall ill.

解析:瑞典研究出现在文中的第四段第一句,在自然环境中玩耍的幼儿园小朋友比 在运动场玩耍的小朋友少患病,身体也更健康。很明显,B 选项最符合语意。

113

(4)选 D: are less likely to be involved in bullying

解析:此题对应的是第六段的第一句,the least bullying is in a natural area that the children are encouraged to explore,恃强凌弱的现象在孩子们感兴趣去发现的自然环 境中很少发生。因此,D 选项是正确答案。

(5)选 B: Provide more green spaces for them.

解析:第 8 段最后两句,众多研究表明,与自然接触对患有多动症的孩子最有益。 虽然如此,我们还是把钱花在了药物上,而非绿化环境。因此 B 选项,提供更多的 绿化面积,是正确答案。

(6)选 B: They enjoy a life of better quality.

解析: 第九段第一句: life of old people is measurably better when they have access to The nature. 如果老年人有接触大自然的机会,生活状况会明显改善不少。第二句点出老 龄人口增长的侧重点是在高质量的生活水平上,紧接着又指出绿色的生活方式是达 到这种高质量生活水平的最重要因素。

(7)选 C: access to nature contributes to the reduction of violence 解析:第 11 段第二 句话给出了答案,自然环境能减少暴力行为,因为其恢复过程有助于减少愤怒和冲

114

动。因此,正确的答案应该是 C。

(8)separated

解析:对应到文中第 12 段,humanity and the natural world are separable things,得到 答案 separated。照抄 separable 是不正确的。

(9)the wild word

解析: 最后一段第二句: Without the wild world we are not more but less civilized. 照抄 过来就行。

(10)harmony

解析:这道题考察的是最后几段的小标题,Five ways to find harmony with the natural world。因此 harmony 是正确答案。

【听力原文】

Section A 短对话 (11~18)

115

11. M: Oh my god! The heat is simply unbearable here. I wish we‘ve gone to the beach instead. W: Well, with the museums and restaurants in Washington I‘ll be happy here no matter what the temperature. Q:What does the woman mean?

12. M: How‘s the new job going? W: Well, I‘m learning a lot of new things, but I wish the director would give me some feedback. Q:What does the woman want to know?

13. M: Can you help me work out a physical training program John? W: Sure, but whatever you do be careful not to overdo it. Last time I had two weeks‘ worth of weight-lifting in three days and I hurt myself. Q: What does the man suggest the woman do?

116

14. M: I have an elderly mother and I‘m worried about her going on a plane. Is there any risk? W: Not if her heart is all right. If she has a heart condition, I‘d recommend against it. Q: What does the man want to know about his mother?

15. M: Why didn‘t you stop when we first signaled you at the crossroads? W: Sorry, I was just a bit absent-minded. Anyway, do I have to pay a fine? Q: what do we learn from the conversation?

16. M: I‘m no expert, but that noise in your refrigerator doesn‘t sound right. Maybe you should have it fixed. W: You‘re right. And I suppose I‘ve put it off long enough. Q: What will the woman probably do?

17. M: I did extremely well on the sale of my downtown apartment. Now, I have enough money to buy that piece of land I‘ve had my eye on and build a house on it. W: Congratulations!Does that mean you‘ll be moving soon?

117

Q: What do we learn about the man from the conversation?

18. W: My hand still hurts from the fall on the ice yesterday. I wonder if I broke something. M: I‘m no doctor, but it‘s not black and blue or anything. Maybe you just need to rest it for a few days. Q: what do we learn about the woman from the conversation?

长对话 (19~21)

M: Mrs. Dawson, thanks very much for coming down to the station. I just like to go over some of the things that you told police officer Parmer at the bank. W: All right. M: Well, could you describe the man who robbed the bank for this report that we‘re filling out here? Now, anything at all that you can remember would be extremely helpful to us. W: Well, just, I can only remember basically what I said before. M: That‘s all right. W: The man was tall, six foot, and he had dark hair, and he had moustache. M: Very good. All right, did he have any other distinguishing marks? W: Um, no, none that I can remember. M: Do you remember how old he was by any chance?

118

W: Well, I guess around 30, maybe younger, give or take a few years. M: Mm, all right. Do you remember anything about what he was wearing? W: Yes, yes, he had on a dark sweater, a solid color. M: OK. Um, anything else that strikes you at the moment? W: I remember he was wearing a light shirt under the sweater. Yes, yes. M: All right. Mrs. Dawson, I really appreciate what you‘ve been through today. I‘m just going to ask you to look at some photographs before you leave if you don‘t mind. It won‘t take very long. Can you do that for me? W: Oh, of course. M: Would you like to step this way with me, please? W: OK, sure. M: Thank you.

Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

19. What do we learn about the woman? 20. What did the suspect look like? 21. What did the man finally asked the woman to do?

长对话 (22~25)

119

W: Good morning, I‘m calling about the job that was in the paper last night. M: Well, could you tell me your name? W: Candider Forsett. M: Oh yes. What exactly is it that interests you about the job? W: Well, I thought it was just right for me. M: Really? Um… Could you tell me a little about yourself? W: Yes. I‘m 23. I‘ve been working abroad. M: Where exactly have you been working? W: In Geneva. M: Oh, Geneva. And what were you doing there? W: Secretarial work. Previous to that, I was at university. M: Which university was that? W: The University of Manchester. I‘ve got a degree in English. M: You said you‘ve been working in Geneva. Do you have any special reason for wanting to come back? W: I thought it would be nice to be near to the family. M: I see, and how do you see yourself developing in this job? W: Well, I‘m ambitious. I do hope that my career as a secretary will lead me eventually into management. M: I see. You have foreign languages?

120

W: French and Italian. M: Well, I think the best thing for you to do is do reply a writing to the advertisement. W: Can‘t I arrange for an interview now? M: Well, I‘m afraid we must wait until all the applications are in, in writing, and we‘ll then decide on the short list. If you are on the short list, of course we should see you. W: Oh, I see. M: I look forward to receiving your application in writing in a day or two. W: Oh, yes, yes, certainly. M: Ok, thank you very much. Goodbye. W: Thank you. Goodbye.

Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

22. How did the woman get to know about the job vacancy? 23. Why did the woman find the job appealing? 24. What had the woman been doing in Geneva? 25. What was the woman asked to do in the end?

Section B Passage One

121

One of the greatest heartbreaks for fire fighters occurs when they fail to rescue a child from a burning building because the child, frightened by smoke and noise, hides under a bed or in a closet and is later found dead. Saddest of all is when children catch a glimpse of the masked fire fighter but hide because they think they have seen a monster. To prevent such tragedies, fire fighter Eric Velez gives talks to children in his community, explaining that they should never hide during a fire. He displays fire fighters‘ equipment, including the oxygen mask, which he encourages his listeners to play with and put on. ―If you see us,‖ Velez tells them, ―don‘t hide! We are not monsters. We have come to rescue you.‖ Velez gives his presentations in English and Spanish. Growing up in San Francisco, he learnt Spanish from his immigrant parents. Velez and other fire fighters throughout North America, who give similar presentations, will never know how many lives they save through their talks. But it‘s a fact that informative speaking saves lives. For example, several months after listening to an informative speech, Pete Gentry in North Carolina rescued his brother who is choking on food, by using the method taught by student speaker, Julie Paris. In addition to saving lives, informative speakers help people learn new skills, solve problems and acquire fascinating facts about the exciting world in which they live.

26 Why do some children trapped in a burning building hide from masked fire fighters?

27 What does the passage tell us about fire fighter Eric Velez?

122

28 What do we learn about Pete Gentry?

29 What message is the speaker trying to convey?

Passage Two Some people want to make and save a lot of money in order to retire early. I see people pursuing higher paying and increasingly demanding careers to accomplish this goal. They make many personal sacrifices in exchange for income today. The problem is that tomorrow might not come. Even if it all goes according to plan, will you know how to be happy when you are not working if you spend your entire life making money? More importantly, who will be around for you to share your leisure time with? At the other extreme are people who live only for today. Why bother saving when I might not be here tomorrow, they argue. The danger of this approach is that tomorrow may come after all. And most people don't want to spend all their tomorrows working for a living. The earlier neglect of saving, however, makes it difficult not to work when you are older. You may be surprise to hear me say that if you must pick an extreme I think it's better to pick the spend-all approach. As long as you don't mind continuing to work, assuming your health allows, you should be OK. At least, you are making use of your money, and hopefully deriving value and pleasure from it. Postponing doing what you love and being with people you love until retirement can be a mistake. It may never come. Retirement can be a great time for some people. For others, it is a time of boredom, loneliness and poor health.

123

30 Why do some people pursue higher paying but demanding careers?

31 What is the danger facing people who live only for today?

32 What does the speaker seem to advocate?

Passage Three Imagine that someone in your neighborhood broke the law, and the judge put the whole neighborhood under suspicion. How fair will that be? Well, it happens everyday to high schoolers. Just because some students have stolen things in shops, all of us are treated like thieves. Even though I‘d never steal.

Store employees looked at me like I‘m some kind of hardened criminal. For example, during one lunch period, my friend Denny and I went to the Graben Gore Restaurant to have a hotdog. We arrived to find a line of students waiting outside. A new sign in the window told the story. ―No more than two students at a time‖. After 15 minutes, we finally got in. But the store manger laid the evil eye on us. I asked him about the new sign, and he said, ―You kids are stealing too much stuff.‖ You kids? Too much stuff? We were not only assumed to be thieves, but brilliant, greedy thieves. The most annoying thing though, is the way employees watched my friends and me. It‘s horrible.

124

Once, at a drug store, I was looking around and found a guy standing on a large box, stocking the shelves. He was watching my hands, more than he was watching his own. I showed him that my hands were empty. He got down off his box and rushed off, as if he was going to get the store manager. How crazy is that!

33. What does the speaker find to be unfair?

34. What measure did the Graben Gore Restaurant take to stop stealing?

35. What happened in a drug store that greatly annoyed the speaker?

Section C Writing keeps us in touch with other people. We write to communicate with relatives and friends. We write to preserve our family histories so our children and grandchildren can learn and appreciate their heritage. With computers and Internet connections in so many households, colleges, and businesses, people are e-mailing friends and relatives all the time -- or talking to them in writing in online chat rooms. It is cheaper than calling long distance, and a lot more convenient than waiting until Sunday for the telephone rates to drop. Students are e-mailing their professors to receive and discuss their classroom assignments and to submit them. They are e-mailing classmates to discuss and collaborate on

125

homework. They are also sharing information about concerts and sports events, as well as jokes and their philosophies of life.

Despite the growing importance of computers, however, there will always be a place and need for the personal letter. A hand-written note to a friend or a family member is the best way to communicate important thoughts. No matter what the content of the message, its real point is, "I want you to know that I care about you." This writing practice brings rewards that can‘t be seen in bank accounts, but only in the success of human relationships.

【听力答案及解析】 Section A 短对话(11~18) 答案及解析: 11. A) The man should visit the museums. B) She can‘t stand the hot weather. C) The beach resort is a good choice. D) She enjoys staying in Washington. 答案:D 解析:Woman 最后说到 I‘ll be happy here no matter what the temperature. 这表明 了她待在这里很愉快,很享受待在华盛顿,故选 D。 12. A) Her new responsibilities in the company. B) What her job prospects are.

126

C) What the customers‘ feedback is. D) The director‘s opinion of her work. 答案:D 解析: Woman 说到 but I wish the director would give me some feedback. 这表明了 她希望得到 director 的意见(即反馈) ,故选 D。 13. A) Combine her training with dieting. B) Repeat the training every three days. C) Avoid excessive physical training. D) Include weightlifting in the program. 答案:C 解析:Man 以自己上次因运动(举重)过量而受伤为例,建议女士应该量力而 行,避免过量运动,故选 C。 14. A) When she will return home. B) Whether she can go by herself. C) Whether she can travel by air. D) Whether she will completely recover. 答案:C 解析:Man 开头就说到 I‘m worried about her going on a plane. 从中可知,他担 心的是年老的母亲能不能乘飞机,故选 C。 15. A) The woman knows how to deal with the police. B) The woman had been fined many times before. C) The woman had violated traffic regulations. D) The woman is good at finding excuses.

127

答案:C 解析:警察开头问到 Why didn‘t you stop when we first signaled you at the crossroads? 通过这句话就可以知道女士没有遵守交通规则,故选 C。 16. A) Switch off the refrigerator for a while. B) Have someone repair the refrigerator. C) Ask the man to fix the refrigerator. D) Buy a refrigerator of better quality. 答案:B 解析:Man 说到 Maybe you should have it fixed,女士回答到 You‘re right. 这说明女士也同意男士的看法,但并未提到让这个男士来修,故选 B。 17. A) He owns a piece of land in the downtown area. B) He has got enough money to buy a house. C) He can finally do what he has dreamed of. D) He is moving into a bigger apartment. 答案:C 解析:Man 第二句话说到 Now, I have enough money to buy that piece of land I‘ve had my eye on and build a house on it. 表明他能实现买地建房的理想了,故选 C。 18. A) She is black and blue all over. B) She has to go to see a doctor. C) She stayed away from work for a few days. D) She got hurt in an accident yesterday.

128

答案:D 解析: Woman 说的第一句话是 My hands still hurts from the fall on the ice yesterday. 从中可知这位女士昨天在冰上滑倒受伤了,但是男士认为伤势并不严重,只建议她 休养几天就可以了,不必去看医生。C 是较强的干扰项,应该是女士现在需要休息 而不是过去已经休息了几天,故选 D。 对话精析: 第一个短对话: 谈论天气 the heat is unbearable,强调有了华盛顿的 museums and restaurants,天 气再热也无所谓 I‘ll be happy here no matter what the temperature. 学会看看生活中的积极因素,有了博物馆和餐馆,天气再热都热爱华盛顿,这 是何等的乐天精神啊! 第二个短对话: 谈论新工作,I‘m learning a lot of new things, but I wish the director would give me some feedback.我学了很多新东西呢,但是我希望上司能给我点反馈!!feedback 是 ! 反馈也是答案的题眼。这位女士想知道什么呢,想知道上司对她的看法嘛! 第三个短对话: 关于锻炼身体的,还是关于制定锻炼身体的计划的!Can you help me work out a physical training program, John?你能帮我制定个锻炼的项目吗?Sure, but whatever you do be careful not to overdo it. 当然啦,不过不管你做什么,得小心点别过头啊! 接下来的句子是举例子 Last time I had two weeks‘ worth of weight-lifting in three days and I hurt myself.上次我三天就完成了两个星期的举重的训练,结果我就受伤了。

129

问题是这个男人要建议这个女人什么? 四六级考试委员会一片苦心啊,这里分明在告诫同学们,平时锻炼身体悠着点 儿。 第四个短对话: 这个对话好!弘扬爱护老人的美德的! 儿子说,我妈妈年纪大啦,I have an elderly mother 然后表达他对妈妈乘飞机的 担心 I‘m worried about her going on a plane. Is there any risk?有没有危险啊? 接下来,医生的回答,再次体现四六级客观而乐观的精神,Not if her heart is all right. If she has a heart condition, I‘d recommend against it.她心脏没问题就没事啊,如 果她心脏有问题的话,那我就不建议她去(乘飞机啦) 第五个短对话: 交通违规怎么做?!四六级听力教你谦恭有礼做回答。首先,第一句的男士质 问, Why didn‘t you stop when we first signaled you at the crossroads?我们第一次示意让 你在交叉口停车,你干嘛不停呢?(潜台词是,瞧,还不是被我给逮回来训话了么?! 在这种情况之下,这位女士态度是诚恳的,Sorry, I was just a bit absent-minded. Anyway, do I have to pay a fine? 对不起啊,我有点心不在焉。但不管怎么说,我需 要罚款吗? 人嘛,都是有时候情绪化的嘛,并且我认罚,这句子学会了顺便大家开车的素 质都提高了哈! 第六个短对话: 家庭琐事。

130

第一个人说,I‘m no expert 我不是专家 but that noise in your refrigerator doesn‘t sound right. Maybe you should have it fixed.但是你冰箱里面的噪音听起来不大对啊, 也许你应该去修理了吧。 have it fixed 这个结构是考官们发誓要考生学会的 have sth done 的结构。 第二个人开腔了,You‘re right.对话基调钉牢,我同意你,就是冰箱确实坏了。 And I suppose I‘ve put it off long enough.我恐怕我已经拖得够久了, off,另一个考官 put 立誓要教会全中国考生的内容,拖延,put off,核心之核心。 问题,这女的可能会怎么做呢? 她学会了核心单词听懂了整个对话以后, 一定会去修冰箱! 并且, ! 这里强调 是 找人修冰箱, have it fixed 而不是她自己修! she will fix it herself. 第七个短对话: 买房问题。全国热议啊,考试考到的角度那是真叫一个艺术! 我市区的公寓卖得不错!I did extremely well on the sale of my downtown apartment.也就是说卖了一个好价钱啦! Now, I have enough money to buy that piece of land I‘ve had my eye on and build a house on it.现在,我可有钱买一块我早就看中的 地啦,我能建一所房子啦! 偷偷感叹下,这说明了城乡的房价是多么滴有茶具啊!不过考官还是仁慈的, 不考那么隐晦的, 来个简单的, 听到这句话的人呢说 Congratulations! Does that mean you‘ll be moving soon? 恭喜你啊,那这是不是说明你很快要搬家了啊?! 问题问我们知道第一个陈述的那个男人什么情况?!简单,字面意思就够你用

131

来解答了,卖公寓了有了钱买地建房子了! 第八个短对话: 还是运动, 不过这里面涉及了一点点西方的固定搭配, black and blue 又黑又蓝, 这实际上说的是咱中文里面的, 身上摔得又青又紫。 第一个人是在说她昨天在冰上摔了一跤,手到现在还疼呢,My hand still hurts from the fall on the ice yesterday. I wonder if I broke something.我想知道我是不是摔坏 哪儿了啊 (I wonder if 这个句型好, 走过路过不要错过, wonder if I could get married with I Sister Phoenix 我真想知道我能不能娶凤姐啊?! ) 下面这位男士的回答是, I‘m no doctor, but it‘s not black and blue or anything. Maybe you just need to rest it for a few days. 我不是医生, 但是如果没有什么又青又紫 也没其他问题的话,也许你只是需要休息几天罢了。 问题,此女发生了什么问题? 答案,手摔了,焦虑,问了一男的,这男的很冷静,告诉她没啥事。 长对话(19~25) 答案及解析: 19. What do we learn about the woman? 答案:D) She was a witness to the crime. 解析:文中男士需要女士描述一下抢劫银行的人(describe the man who robbed the bank) 。选项中 B 提到了 robbery,但是对话中没有说明女士是受害者(victim) ; D 选项提到了她目击了某个犯罪经过,robbery 显然是 crime 的一种。

132

20. What did the suspect look like? 答案:A) A tall man with dark hair and a moustache. 解析:原文中提到 The man was tall, six foot, and he had dark hair, and he had moustache.,对应选项 A。 21. What did the man finally asked the woman to do? 答案:A) Identify the suspect from pictures. 解析:对话结尾处,男士要求女士 look at some photographs,很显然,他的目 的是让女士通过照片来辨别嫌疑人。因此选择 A。 22. How did the woman get to know about the job vacancy? 答案:A) By reading a newspaper ad. 解析: job vacancy 指空缺的职位。在对话一开始,女士就说到她的目的:I‘m calling about the job that was in the paper last night.从这句话中可以看出她得知职位信 息的来源是 the paper last night,对应 A 选项。 23. Why did the woman find the job appealing? 答案:B) She could work close to her family. 解析:本题关键词是 appealing,意为引起兴趣的。女士提到她喜欢这份工作的 原因是 be near to the family.,close 是 near 的同义替换词,因此选择 B 选项。 24. What had the woman been doing in Geneva? 答案:C) Working as a secretary. 解析:女士提到她在日内瓦做了一些 secretarial work,也就是选项 C 中的 secretary。虽然她也提到之前在大学学习,但是她取得的学位是 a degree in English,

133

而非选项 D 中的 a degree in French. 25. What was the woman asked to do in the end? 答案:C) Send in a written application as soon as possible. 解析:对话中女士希望得到面试机会,但是男士要求先要递交书面申请(reply a writing to the advertisement) ,并不是所有人都能得到面试机会,因此选择答案 C。 题材考点分析: 长对话第二篇围绕女士求职面试展开,男士问了很多关于女士个人信息的问 题,女士做出回答。做题时需要考生把握住对话大意、抓住细节信息以及两人的态 度。 对话中的考点主要集中在细节、重点一些词组含义,以及同意词组替换。对话 中关键信息包括: been working in Geneva, secretarial work, degree in English, be near to the family, applications in writing 等。考题也正是针对这些关键信息出的,在听的时 候考察考生对于细节的把握,尤其是叙述相同类型的事情时,更需要记下其中的区 别,从而在做题时能够准确的选出选项。如对话中提到女士会 French 和 English, 区别是会说 French,拿到了 degree in English. 其中有几题考察同义词组替换。比如 23 题中用 close 替换了 near,24 题中用 secretary 替换了 secretarial work。 选项中频频出现同义词组替换, 由此可见考生平时 应该注意积累同一个意思不同的表达法。 另外,从说话的语气和表达情绪的词,也可以听出说话人的态度。比如女士在 问到能否安排面试时, 男士的回答 ―Well, I‘m afraid…‖ 由此看出男士否定了女士的 想法。因此在做题中,很容易地排除了安排面试的选项。

134

总体来说,这篇听力难度中等,关键是要抓住细节。 Section B Passage One 听力文章分析: 本文难度不大,生词和难词不是很多,关键是整体上的及关键句的理解。先是 消防队员在营救火灾中时常遇到小孩对消防队员的设备不熟悉,以为是带着面具的 怪兽 (monster) 从而躲起来, , 无法得到及时营救而丧失的现象入手, 引出 Eric Velez 为了防止此类现象再次发生,在社区里开始对孩子消防知识的教育。再举例进一步 说明教育性质的演讲在拯救生命的巨大作用。最后再简略地说下此类演讲的其他作 用。 做题要点: (1) 抓关键句。一般篇章类听力,篇幅较长,听的时候一定要学会准确提取 有用的信息,如原因目的、结果、数字、开头和结尾部分等。 ―because they think they have seen a monster‖ ―To prevent such tragedies, fire fighter Eric Velez gives talks to children in his community, explaining that they should never hide during a fire.‖ ―But it‘s a fact that informative speaking saves lives.‖ ―Pete Gentry in North Carolina rescued his brother who is choking on food,‖ ―In addition to saving lives,‖ 这几句就包括了所有题目的答案,只要抓住这几句并理解了其意,题目就不难 做出。 (2) 抓住细节,但无需执着于细节。 本文的题目每题都设置了很多细节干扰项。 如果太过执着于细节, frightened 如

135

by smoke and noise ;Eric Velez learnt Spanish from his immigrant parents 就会使得做 题时容易被细节分心,从而无法立即准确地判断和加以选择。 重点词汇: fire fighters 消防队员 monster 怪兽、 怪物 heartbreaks 伤心事 catch a glimpse of 瞥见 masked 戴面具的 oxygen mask 氧气面罩 informative 教育性的,有益的 答案及解析: 26. D) They mistake the firefighters for monsters. 解析:细节题,从开始 when children catch a glimpse of the masked fire fighter but hide because they think they have seen a monster 一句中便可得出因为不熟悉消防人员 戴面具的形象,孩子们以为来救援的消防人员是怪兽,所以躲起来。所以选 D。其 他选项文中都没有涉及到。 27. B) He often teaches children what to do during a fire. 解析:本篇文章大篇幅讲的是 Eric Velez 给社区里的孩子讲解消防知识,让他 们熟悉消防人员及消防工具的过程。选项 A,put out fire 虽然是 Eric Velez 的工作, 但是本文重点不是在其消防员救活这个工作上,C、D 选项很容易就可以排除。所 以选 B。 28. A) He saved the life of his brother choking on food. 解析:细节题,从 Pete Gentry in North Carolina rescued his brother who is choking on food 一句便可得出答案,文章中关于 Pete Gentry 的主要信息就是他救了噎着食 物的弟弟。所以选 A。做题时一定要把人名及其所做的事准确对应起来。 29. D) Informative speeches can save lives.

136

解析:主旨题,本文举了一个大例子,一下小例子来证明教育性的演说有救人 性命的好处。虽然在文章最后也列举了下其他好处,但是主旨还是拯救生命。所以 选 D。其他几个选项都主要讲细节处,很容易就可以排除。 Passage Two 听力文章分析: 本篇听力讲述的是截然不同的两种生活态度,一种是―make and save a lot of money in order to retire early‖,另一种则是―live only for today‖,作者在陈述两种不同 态度之后,针对两种态度给出了自己的看法―it's better to pick the spend-all approach‖。 本篇听力不是太难, 没有较难的词汇, 虽然有几个需要注意的句式, ―At the other 如: extreme are people who live only for today. Why bother saving… ‖等,但是通过上下文 也是不难理解的,而且结构也比较清楚,基本上可以分为三部分:两种不同的态度 和作者的观点,所考察的三道题也上针对了这三个主要的点。由此可见,听听力的 时候依然首先要从全文来把握,把握文章的要点,在把握要点的基础上,有重点的 去听一些细节,如与要点相关的原因和后果,以及作者本人对这些事情的看法,遇 到与此相关的信号词或者关键词时就一定要注意重点记忆。 答案及解析: 30. C) To make money for early retirement. 解析:本题考察原因,问为什么人们喜欢比较苛求但收入较高的工作,其实听 力一开始就用 in order to 给出了原因,即:retire early,所以选 C 项。 31. A) They may have to continue to work in old age. 解析:本题考察后果,问只为当下而活的人面临着什么危险,从―The earlier

137

neglect of saving, however, makes it difficult not to work when you are older.‖中可以看 出 A 是正确选项,及在年老时有可能不得不继续工作。 32. B) Enjoying yourself while you can. 解析:本课考察文章作者的态度,从 ―Postponing doing what you love and being with people you love until retirement can be a mistake.‖中可以看出,作者认为想等到退 休后再做自己想做的事情以及和自己喜欢的人在一起可能是一种错误,所以选 B, 即趁着自己还可以的时候要懂得享受生活。 Passage Three 听力文章分析: 此篇短文听力难度适中。叙述者,即文中的 speaker,通过记叙自己的境遇表达 个人观点。三个自然段分别对应文章后的三道题,结构清晰明了,题目答案导向明 确。 第一段通过开篇点题引出本文话题,―以偏概全‖着实有失公平; 第二段记叙一个发生在 Graben Gore 饭店的故事,关键句:A new sign in the window told the story. ―No more than two students at a time‖; 第三段同样是记叙一个发生在药店的故事,故事情节较为简单。 此三题听时关键在于抓关键句子,个别人名等不需做过多关注。 答案及解析: 33.C) Innocent people being suspected groundlessly。 文章第一段中,由‖How fair will that be‖的前一句和后一句均可推出此答案。前 一句即―一个邻居犯了法, 所有的邻居们都成了怀疑对象‖。 后一句即―因为有些学生

138

小偷小摸,所有的学生就都被当成小偷来看待……‖,二者表明一个意思,即―无辜 者被毫无理由的怀疑属实不公平‖。 34.D) Allowing only two students to enter at a time。 第一个小故事中的一个关键句后面紧跟答案。该关键句为,‖A new sign in the window told the story.‖ 而这个 sign 的内容就是紧随其后的―No more than two students at a time‖. 35.B) He was closely watched. 此题需要自己稍作总结,最后一个小故事说到文中的―我‖去药店,却一直被盯 着;此事让―我‖很是不满。 Section C 36. preserve 37. appreciate 38. households 39. chat 40. convenient 41. rates 42. receive 43. submit 44. They are also sharing information about concerts and sports events, as well as jokes and their philosophies of life. 45. A hand-written note to a friend or a family member is the best way to

139

communicate important thoughts. 46. This writing practice brings rewards that can‘t be seen in bank accounts

【仔细阅读】 SECTION A 47. M) raised 48. L) psychological 49. E) contributions 50. A) abilities 51. B) achieve 52. N) smart 53. I) extent 54. J) indicates 55. G) essentially 56. H) eventually

SECTION B PASSAGE 1

140

57. By ―a one-way street‖(Line 1,Para 1),the author means_______. A) university researchers know little about the commercial world. B) there is little exchange between industry and academia. C) few industrial scientists would quit to work in a university. D) few university professors are willing to do industrial research.

58. The word ―deterrent‖(Line 3,Para1) most probably refers to something that_______. A) keeps someone from taking action. B) helps to move the traffic. C) attracts people‘s attention. D) brings someone a financial burden.

59. What was Helen Lee‘s major consideration when she changed her job in the middle of her career? A) Flexible work hours. B) Her research interests. C) Her preference for the lifestyle on campus. D) Prospects of academic accomplishments.

60. Guy Grant chose to work as a researcher at Cambridge in order to_______. A) do financially more rewarding work.

141

B) raise his status in the academic world. C) enrich his experience in medical research. D) exploit better intellectual opportunities.

61.What contribution can industrial scientists make when they come to teach in a university? A) Increase its graduates‘ competitiveness in the job market. B) Develop its students‘ potential in research. C) Help it to obtain financial support from industry. D) Gear its research towards practical applications. 文章关于学术界和商界之间的一些关系。 很少有商界人士愿意改行做纯学术研究,但是也有例外的。这些人对高校学生的就 业意义比较大。

57 题,问单行道的意思是什么。文章第一段就说―It is pretty much a one-way street.While it may be common for university researchers to try their luck in the commercial world, there is very little traffic in the opposite direction.‖高校研究者到商界 去碰运气可能很常见,但是相反的方向却人很少。也就是说很少有商界的人愿意回 归学校做纯学术研究。所以选 C,很少有工业科学家愿意放弃去一个高校工作。 industrial scientists 在文中指的就是商界人士。

142

58 题,问 deterrent 这个词的意思。这题有一定迷惑性,要根据上下文来判断。上文 说的是很少有商界的人愿意回高校的。原因就在于薪酬(pay), 后面接着具体解释: 没人能接受换个高校的工作后工资下降。所以 deterrent 这个词是表明原因的,要么 是 A 选项阻碍因素, 要么是 C 选项促进因素。 而从上下文看薪酬是阻碍商界人士去 高校工作的,也就是阻碍因素,所以选 A。

另外,如果知道 deterrent 这个词的意思话可以迅速作答:威慑因素。

59 题, Helen Lee 在职业生涯中期换工作的首要考虑是什么。 问 第二段是这么说的: Her main reason for returning to academia mid-career was to take advantage of the greater freedom to choose research questions。利用更大的自由来选择研究的问题。也就是说 之前不在 academia 的时候,没有那么多的选择空间:什么赚钱做什么,现在可以自 己根据自己的喜好来 choose 了。所以选 B。

60 题,问 Guy Grant 问什么选择做剑桥研究者。第三段的最后一句话是这么说的: He took a 30% salary cut but felt it worthwhile for the greater intellectual opportunities.所 以这题选 D。

61 题, 问当工业科学家去高校教书时能做什么样的贡献。 答案在最后一段: They are also well placed to bring something extra to the teaching side of an academic role that will help students get a job when they graduate。他们给学术角色的教书面带来了一些额外

143

的东西,这些东西在学生毕业时可以帮助他们找工作。所以选 A:提高毕业生在就 业市场上的竞争力。

PASSAGE 2 62. Willian Farr's study and other studies show that.

A) social life provides an effective cure for illness

B) being sociable helps improve one's quality of life

C) women benefit more than men from marriage

D) marriage contributes a great deal to longevity

选择 D 项。

根据题目中的关键词 Willian Farr 找到对应的出题段落——文章第一段。 根据文章第 一段中 the biggest longevity(长寿) boost seems to come from marriage…直接可以得知 D 项正确。A 项―交际活动能有效治疗疾病‖和 B 项―好交际能提高一个人的生活质 量‖在文中找不到依据, 文章的重点是讲述交际活动 (主要是夫妻间) 对于寿命的积

144

极作用;由文中 marriage could add as much as seven years to a man's life and two to a woman's 可知 C 项错误。

63. Linda Waite's studies support the idea that.

A) older men should quit smoking to stay healthy

B) marriage can help make for ill health

C) the married are happier than the unmarried

D) unmarried people are likely to suffer in later life

选择 B 项。

由关键词 Linda Waite 锁定本题的出题源应该在第二段。 由第二段中的两个例子: 一 是患有心脏疾病的已婚老人要比没有相关疾病的未婚老人寿命长约 4 年;二是一个 每天要抽一包多香烟的已婚老人和一个从不吸烟的离过婚的老人寿命几乎一样长。 可以推断出 B 项―婚姻有助于人的身体健康。‖A 项―为了身体健康老人应戒烟‖并不 是

145

Linda Waite 的研究发现;C、D 两项在文中找不到依据。

64. It can be inferred from the context that the "flip side"(Line 5, Para. 2) refers to.

A) the disadvantages of being married

B) the emotional problems arising from marriage

C) the responsibility of taking care of one's family

D) the consequence of a broken marriage

选择 A 项。

由问题中的关键词 flip side 找到此题的出题源——文章第二段。 side 的字面意思 flip 是―反面,对立面‖,第二段短语 flip side 前面讲了两个例子来说明婚姻对老年人身 体健康的积极意义(见 63 题解析) ,后面用 however 一转,又给了两个研究发现: 一、 夫妻双方当其中一个去世了, 另一个在随后的几年内很可能生病或是离世; 二、 一人在照顾其换有精神错乱疾病的配偶时可能后来也患有相同的疾病。这两个发现 显然都是夫妻生活的负面影响,因此选择 A 项。

146

65. What does the author say about social networks?

A) They have effects similar to those of a marriage.

B) They help develop people's community spirit.

C) They provide timely support for those in need.

D) They help relieve people of their life's burdens.

选择 A 项。

由问题中的关键词 social networks 找到出题源——文章第二段最后一句。 all kinds 由 of social networks have similar effects 可推断选择 A 项。很显然这里的 similar effects 指的是 marriage‘s effects。 文章的第三段提到了社交网络对一个人的种种益处, 但并 未谈及 B、C、D 三项所陈述的内容。

66. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?

147

A) It's important that we develop a social network when young.

B) To stay healthy, one should have a proper social network.

C) Getting a divorce means risking a reduced life span.

D) We should share our social networks with each other.

选择 B 项。

题目问的是―由最后一段能推断出什么?‖最后一段主要讲的是―要想寿命长就要建 立社交网络‖。 有意思的是 Christakis 的这句话"People are interconnected, so their health is interconnected."(人类是相互联系的群体,他们的健康也是如此) 仔细品味它的 弦外之音,假如你的朋友个个身体欠佳,那么你身体也不会好到哪里去。由此可推 断出本题选 B 项。

【完型填空】 67. D came out 表示出版,公布,这里表示报告的公布。

68. C less 根据上下文可知这里说的是都市人口的增长,强调之前的少和现在的多,

148

所以用少于更合适。less than:少于,不到。

69. D by 在这里表示截止到某时间为止。

70. A almost 几乎,将近,对前面的解释,说明人口有多少。

71. B developed 根据上下文意思, 以及后文相对的 developing world 可知应该是发达 国家,即:developed countries。

72. C growth 仔细阅读的话可以发现下文就有答案,这里讲的是都市人口的增长, 所以用 growth。

73. B lead lead to 表示导致,通向,本段末也有出现过,在这里是说都市化有助于社 会和经济的进步。

74. A pressure 从下文的描述可以看出过快的都市化也给城市带来了巨大压力, 所以 选 pressure。

75. B services 服务,城市为人们提供住房和服务。

76. B into 介词选择,move into 移入,迁入;固定搭配。

149

77. C driven 表示推动,驱动,driven by 由…驱动,由什么原因引起的。

78. C wealth 财富; social division and differences in wealth 社会分化和财富上的差距。

79. C unless 除非, 这里说的是除非城市规划更好, 否则各部分财富分配不均的局面 将可能导致犯罪问题。

80. D expand 指扩张, expand into rural areas 扩张到农村地区。

81. C at at a much faster rate 以更快的速度,固定搭配

82. C common 表示某事件很普遍,平常。从下文的 across America 可知这种情况很 普遍很常见。

83. A major major cities,大城市,与后文中的 smaller cities 形成对比

84. D trend 趋势,这里是对前面情况的概括,a trend toward de-urbanization 表示一 种逆城市化的发展趋势。

85. C but 表示转折, 说城市还是有自身优点的, 与前面的―逆城市化‖形成转折关系。

150

86. B possibilities 可能性,这里表示城市依然能够提供农村所不能提供的机会和可 能性。

整篇解析: 这篇完型填空取材自 2009 年 10 月 9 日的 VOA Special English 节目,谈论的是城市 发展的问题。 (点击查看 VOA 原文>>)从抓主旨的角度来说,这样一篇小小 200 词的文章,纵览了世界城市发展史,又横览了城市化带来的种种问题,里面的核心 论点之间逻辑关联紧密,考生如果没有任何背景知识和推理能力,解题会遇到一定 的困难。比如说第二个空格,很多考生在 more 和 less 之中犹豫不决,在没有具体 背景信息的情况之下,就需要依据上下文的文脉进行推理。既然强调的是城市化的 迅速发展,从 5%到几乎 70%,这个 5%前面究竟填入超过还是不到。从作者的叙述 语气一致可以推知,他必定在感叹这个变化的巨大,因此前文应该是不到 5%。对 于 into/at 这样一些介词小词的考查历来都是完型填空的重点,move into cities/ at a faster rate,这都是比较容易选择的基础搭配。

【翻译】 87. To ensure that he can attend the meeting

88. is said to have been built

151

89. without the distinct environment of the earth

90. What impressed the tourists most

91. I return the book to the library

2010 年 6 月英语四级考试真题 Part I Writing (30 minutes) 注意:此部分试题在答题卡 1 上。 Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic of Due Attention Should Be Given To Spelling. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below: 1. 如今不少学生在英语学习中不重视拼写 2. 出现这种情况的原因 3. 为了改变这种状况,我认为… Due Attention Should Be Given To Spelling

_______________________________________________________________________

152

________ Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes) Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage. Caught in the Web A few months ago, it wasn't unusual for 47-year-old Carla Toebe to spend 15 hours per day online. She'd wake up early, turn on her laptop and chat on Internet dating sites and instant-messaging programs – leaving her bed for only brief intervals. Her household bills piled up, along with the dishes and dirty laundry, but it took near-constant complaints from her four daughters before she realized she had a problem. "I was starting to feel like my whole world was falling apart – kind of slipping into a depression," said Carla. "I knew that if I didn't get off the dating sites, I'd just keep going," detaching (使脱离) herself further from the outside world. Toebe's conclusion: She felt like she was "addicted" to the Internet. She's not alone. Concern about excessive Internet use isn't new. As far back as 1995, articles in medical journals and the establishment of a Pennsylvania treatment center for overusers generated interest in the subject. There's still no consensus on how much time online constitutes too much or whether addiction is possible. But as reliance on the Web grows, there are signs that the question is getting more

153

serious attention: Last month, a study published in CNS Spectrums claimed to be the first large-scale look at excessive Internet use. The American Psychiatric Association may consider listing Internet addiction in the next edition of its diagnostic manual. And scores of online discussion boards have popped up on which people discuss negative experiences tied to too much time on the Web. "There's no question that there're people who're seriously in trouble because they're overdoing their Internet involvement," said psychiatrist (精神科医生) Ivan Goldberg. Goldberg calls the problem a disorder rather than a true addiction. Jonathan Bishop, a researcher in Wales specializing in online communities, is more skeptical. "The Internet is an environment," he said. "You can't be addicted to the environment." Bishop describes the problem as simply a matter of priorities, which can be solved by encouraging people to prioritize other life goals and plans in place of time spent online. The new CNS Spectrums study was based on results of a nationwide telephone survey of more than 2,500 adults. Like the 2005 survey, this one was conducted by Stanford University researchers.About 6% of respondents reported that "their relationships suffered because of excessive Internet use." About 9% attempted to conceal "nonessential Internet use," and nearly 4% reported feeling "preoccupied by the Internet when offline." About 8% said they used the Internet as a way to escape problems, and almost 14% reported they "found it hard to stay away from the Internet for several days at a time." "The Internet problem is still in its infancy," said Elias Aboujaoude, a Stanford

154

professor. No single online activity is to blame for excessive use, he said. "They're online in chat rooms, checking e-mail, or writing blogs. [The problem is] not limited to porn (色 情) or gambling" websites. Excessive Internet use should be defined not by the number of hours spent online but "in terms of losses," said Maressa Orzack, a Harvard University professor. "If it's a loss [where] you

赞助商链接