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Unit 4 Lesson Planning


Unit 4

Lesson Planning

What do we mean by lesson planning? The importance of lesson planning The components of a lesson plan

Principles for good lesson planning

What is a lesson plan?
? A framework ? what ? how

Teachers need to think about:
? ? ? ? aims materials activities techniques and resources

What should we do when planning a lesson? ? Before the lesson ? ????
? After the lesson ? ????

Before the lesson
? ? ? ? ? ? ? aims contents teaching aids activities techniques time potential problems

After the lesson
? reflection and comments ? successful and less successful parts, problems

What to write in after school reflection
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? what happened, students’ performances, unexpected incidents, surprises, things went well, things went wrong, things to be improved things to be given more attention

Basic principles for good lesson planning
?
? ?

Aims
Variety Flexibility

?
?

Learnability
Linkage

Clear aims: the realistic goals for the lesson

Objectives should be Operational (可操作性) Checkable (可检测性)

Variety: different types of activities and a wide selection of materials.

Flexibility:
A. planning to use a number of different methods and techniques rather than being a slave to one methodology;

教学有法,教无定法,重在得法。

Flexibility:
B. Preparing some extra and alternative tasks and activities so that teachers always have the options to cope with unexpected situations rather than being the slaves of written.

Learnability :
Contents and tasks should be within the Ss’ learning capability.

Linkage:
The stages and the steps should be linked with one another, transit smoothly

A plan is just a plan.

Things often do not happen according to our plan no matter how experienced we are.
Good teachers should be flexible and respond creatively to what happens in the classroom.

Level of lesson planning
?

Macro planning

? Micro planning

macro planning and micro planning
? a longer period ? group work
? get an overall feeling or idea about the course and get familiarized with the context in which language teaching takes place

? a shorter period ? individual work
? deciding what to teach and how to teach a lesson in the classroom

A planning continuum (连续体)

Macro planning

Micro planning

Programme/ Whole course planning

One semester planning

Unit
planning

Lesson planning

Half a semester planning

Language contents & Language skills
? Language contents: (be taught) ? Structures (grammar), vocabulary, functions, topics etc. ? Language skills: ? (be practiced ) ? Listening, speaking, reading and writing

What should be considered when planning lesson?

Who exactly are the students? Why do you want to do it? What will it achieve? How should it be done? What might go wrong? What will be needed? How long will it take? How will it fit in with what comes before and after it? How will it fit in with the term plan and the syllabus?

Stages and procedures
? Stage: the major chunks of activities that teachers go through in a lesson. ? e.g. ? PPP (a new structurebased lesson); ? 3-stage model (a skilloriented lesson, a reading/ listening lesson) ? procedures are the detailed steps in each teaching stage. e.g. skimming, scanning

What to do in the stage of lead-in?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? A song; Questions and answers; A daily conversation; A story; A guessing game; A picture description; Homework checking; etc.

What to do in the stage of summary
? To refer back to the learning objectives; ? To create a sense of achievement and completion of tasks for the students; ? To develop with the students a habit of reflection on learning; ? Stimulate interest, curiosity and anticipation about the next phase of learning ? Highlight the important conceptions; ? ……

III. Components of a Lesson Plan
? Teaching aims ? Language contents and skills ? Teaching stages and procedures

Teaching / Lesson Plan
? Teacher:
? Time: ? Teaching material:

Objectives
? ? ? ? ? 1. Knowledge: 2. Skills: 3. Feelings and attitudes: 4. Cultural awareness: 5. Learning strategies:

设定目标
教学目标的特点 ? Observable and measurable ? Unambiguous ? Results oriented / clearly written / specific ? Communicate a successful learning in behavioral terms ? Written in terms of performance

可以用于表述教学目标的动词
? tell, list, define, name, identify, state; ? transform, change, describe, explain, restate/retell, infer; ? apply, practise, employ, use, demonstrate, illustrate, show, report; ? analyze, distinguish, examine, compare, contrast, investigate, categorize, classify, organize; ? create, compose, construct, design, produce, discuss, imagine; ? judge, decide, select, justify, evaluate
Knowledge Comprehension (understanding) Application

(using)
Analysis (Taking part)

Synthesis
(creating new) Evaluation

可以用于表述教学目标的 动词
? 知识理解:指认、辨认、命名、标示、排列、选择、列题 纲、阐述、说/答出具体事实,名称、地点、事件等; ? 知识运用和能力发展 :读懂,询问,描述,讲述,举例、 计划、表演,展示,说明,推测,想像,创造,表达个人 见解,写出,改编… ? 认知和思维能力发展:知道为什么,区分,分类、比较、 归纳与概括、举例、推理、判断等 ? 学习策略 发展的描述:积极运用英语进行表达,能够借助 图片理解故事主要内容,能够利用手势、表情进行交流, 能够反思自己的学习情况,等

? Key points: ? Difficult points: ? Teaching methods: ? Teaching aids:

Teaching procedure
? Speaking (3Ps)
? Reading (3-stage)

The PPP model (a new structurebased lesson)
Presentation: ? The teacher introduces the new vocabulary and grammatical structures in whatever ways appropriate. Practice: ? The lesson moves from controlled practice to guided practice and exploitation(拓展) of the texts when necessary. Production: ? The students are encouraged to use what they have learned and practice to perform communicative tasks. The focus is on meaning rather than accurate use of language forms.

The 3-staged model (a skill-oriented lesson)
? A reading/listening lesson: ? Stage 1: Pre-reading / Pre-listening
(setting a scene, warming-up, providing new information, such as key words);

? Stage 2: While-reading / While-listening
(carry out activities or tasks that the students must perform while they are reading or listening);

? Stage 3: Post-reading / Post-listening
(provide a chance for students to obtain feedback on their activities, in which students relate what they have read or heard to their own life and use the language spontaneously)

Step1: Lead-in
? Activity 1: Free talk ? [设计说明]

Step2: Presentation
? Activity 1: Functional items/ useful expressions ? Activity 2: Situational Dialogues (2)

Step3: Practice
? Activity 1: Look, listen and say

? Activity 2: Look and say

Step 4: Production
? Activity 1: Read and say

? Activity 2: Free talk

Step 5: Homework
? Write a short dialogue ….

Blackboard design

Step1: pre-reading
? Activity 1: Appreciating An English Song (3 minutes) ? ? Activity 2: Brainstorming (1 minute) ? Activity 3: Guessing (2 minutes)

Step2: while-reading
? Activity 1: Scanning (1 minute)
? Activity 2: Understanding Main Ideas (3 minutes)

? Activity 3: Detailed Reading (12 minutes)

Step1: post-reading
? Activity 1:Retelling (4 minutes)
? Activity 2: Talking (2 minutes) ? Activity 3. Discussion (5 minutes)

Step 5: Homework

ESA

Engage

Study

Activate

Engage

get students interested in what they learn

Study

Some new language or new experience to be gained

Activate

Have chance to produce language in meaningful way.


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