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阅读训练:大学英语四级阅读理解练习


阅读训练: 阅读训练:大学英语四级阅读理解练习一
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage: If women are mercilessly(无情地)exploited year after year, they have only themselves to blame. Because they tremble at the thought of being seen in public in clothes that are out of fashion, they are always taken advantage of by the designers and the big stores. Clothes which have been worn only a few times have to be put aside because of the change of fashion. When you come to think of it, only a women is capable of standing in front of a wardrobe (衣柜) packed full of clothes and announcing sadly that she has nothing to wear. Changing fashions are nothing more than the intentional creation of waste. Many women spend vast sums of money each year to replace clothes that have hardly been worn. Women who cannot afford to throw away clothing in this way, waste hours of their time altering the dresses they have. Skirts are lengthened or shortened; neck-lines are lowered or raised, and so on. No one can claim that the fashion industry contributes anything really important to society. Fashion designers are rarely concerned with vital things like warmth, comfort and durability(耐 用). They are only interested in outward appearance and they take advantage of the fact that women will put up with any amount of discomfort, as long as they look right. There can hardly be a man who hasn't at some time in his life smiled at the sight of a woman shaking in a thin dress on a winter day, or delicately picking her way through deep snow in highheeled shoes. When comparing men and women in the matter of fashion, the conclusions to be drawn are obvious. Do the constantly changing fashions of women's clothes, one wonders, reflect basic qualities of inconstancy and instability? Men are too clever to let themselves be cheated by fashion designers. Do their unchanging styles of dress reflect basic qualities of stability and reliability? That is for you to decide. 1.Designers and big stores always make money_______. A) by mercilessly exploiting women workers in the clothing industry B) because they are capable of predicting new fashions C) by constantly changing the fashions in women's clothing D) because they attach great importance to quality in women's clothing 2.To the writer, the fact that women alter their old-fashioned dresses is seen as________. A) a waste of money

B) a waste of time C) an expression of taste D) an expression of creativity 3.The writer would be less critical if fashion designers placed more stress on the _______ of clothing. A) cost B) appearance C) comfort D) suitability 4.New fashions in clothing are created for ________. A) the commercial exploitation of women B) the women's strength of character C) basic qualities of inconstancy and instability D) an important contribution to society 5.By saying "the conlusions to be drawn are obvious" (Line One, Paragraph Four) the writer means that________. A) women's inconstancy in their choice of clothing is often laughed at B) women are better able to put up with discomfort C) men are also exploited greatly by fashion designers D) men are more reasonable in the matter of fashion Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage: For some time past it has been widely accepted that babies--and other creatures--learn to do things because certain acts lead to "rewards"; and there is no reason to doubt that this is true. But it used also to be widely believed that effective rewards, at least in the early stages, had to be directly related to such basic physiological "drives"(欲望)as thirst or hunger. In other words, a baby would learn if he got food or drink or some sort of physical comfort, not otherwise. It is now clear that this is not so. Babies will learn to behave in ways that produce results in the world with no reward except the successful outcome. Papousek began his studies by using milk in the normal way to "reward" the babies and so teach them to carry out some simple movements, such as turning the head to one side or the other. Then he noticed that a baby who had had enough to drink would refuse the milk but would still go on making the learned response with clear signs of pleasure. So he began to study the children's reponses in situations where no milk was provided. He quickly found that children as young as four months would learn to turn their heads to right or left if the movement "switch on" a display of lights--and indeed that they were capable of learning quite complex turns to bring about this result, for instance, two left or two right, or even to make as many as three turns to one side.

Papousek's light display was placed directly in front of the babies and he made the interesting observation that sometimes they would not turn back to watch the lights closely although they would "smile and bubble(发出咯咯声)" when the display came on. Papousek concluded that it was not primarily the sight of the lights which pleased them, it was the success they were achieving in solving the problem, in mastering the skill, and that there exists a fundamental human urge to make sense of the world and bring it under intentional control. 6.According to the author, babies learn to do things which________. A) are directly related to pleasure B) will meet their physical needs C) will bring them a feeling of success D) will satisfy their curiosity 7.Papousek noticed in his studies that a baby_______. A) would make learned responses when it saw the milk B) would carry out learned movements when it had enough to drink C) would continue the simple movements without being given milk D) would turn its head to right or left when it had enough to drink 8.In Papousek's experiment babies make learned movements of the head in order to _______. A) have the lights turned on B) be rewarded with milk C) please their parents D) be praised 9.The babies would "smile and bubble" at the lights because________. A) the lights were directly related to some basic "drives" B) the sight fo the lights was interesting C) they need not turn back to watch the lights D) they succeeded in "switching on" the lights 10.According to Papousek, the pleasure babies get in achieving something is a reflection of _______. A) a basic human desire to understand and control the world B) the satisfaction of certain physiological needs C) their strong desire to solve complex problems D) a fundamental human urge to display their learned skills Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage: A breakthrough(突破)in the provision of energy from the sun for European Economic Community (EEC) could be brought forward by up to two decades, if a modest increase could be

provided in the EEC's researvh effort in this field, according to the senior EEC scientists engaged in experiments in solar energy at EEC's scientific laboratories at Ispra, near Milan. The senior West German scientist in charge of the Community's solar energy programme, Mr. Joachim Gretz, told journalists that at present levels of research spending it was most unlikely that solar energy would provide as much as 3% of the Community's energy requirements even after the year 2000. But he said that with a modest increase in the present sums, devoted by the EEC to this work it was possible that the breakthrough could be achieved by the end of the next decade. Mr. Gretz calculates that if solar energy only provided 3% of the EEC's needs, this could still produce a saving of about a billion pounds in the present bill for imported energy each year. And he believes that with the possibility of utilizing more advanced technology in this field it might be possible to satisfy a much bigger share of the Community's future energy needs. At present the EEC spends about $2.6 millions a year on solar research at Ispra, one of the EEC's official joint research centres, and another 3 millions a year in indirect research with universities and other independent bodies. 11.The phrase "be brought forward" in the first sentence of Paragraph One most probably means _______. A) be expected B) be advanced C) be completed D)be introduced 12.Some scientists believe that a breakthrough in the use of solar energy depends on_______. A) sufficient funding B) advanced technology C) further experiments D) well-equipped laboratories 13.According to Mr.Gretz, the present sum of money will enable the scientists to provide_______. A) a little more than 3% of the EEC's needs after the year 2000 B) 3% of the EEC's needs before the year 2000 C) less than 3% of the EEC's needs before the year 2000 D) only 3% of the EEC's needs even after the year 2000 14.The total yearly spending of the EEC on solar energy research amounted to _______. A) a billion pounds B) almost 3 million dollars C) almost 5 million dollars

D) almost 6 million dollars 15.The application of advanced technology to research in solar energy_______. A) would lead to a big increase in research funding B) would make it unnecessary to import oil C) would make it possible to meet the future energy needs of the EEC D) would provide a much greater proportion of the Community's future energy needs Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage: The black robin (知更鸟)is one of the world's rarest birds. It is a small, wild bird, and it lives only on the island of Little Mangere, off the coast of New Zealand. In 1967 there were about 50 black robins there; in 1977 there were fewer than ten. These are the only black robins left in the world. The island has many other birds, of course, of different kinds, large and small; they seem to multiply very happily. Energetic(有力的,积极的)steps are being taken to preserve the black robin-to guard those remaining and to increase their number. Detailed studies are going on, and a public appeal for money has been made. The idea is to buy another island nearby as a special home, a "reserve", for threatened wild life, including black robins. The organisers say that Little Mangere should then be restocked with the robin's food--it eats only one kind of seed--and so renewed for it. Thousands of the required plants are at present being cultivated in New Zealand. The public appeal is aimed at the conscience of mankind, so that the wild black robin willl not die out and disappear from the earth in our time at least. In the earth's long, long past hundreds of kinds of creatures have evolved, risen to a degree of success--and died out. In the long, long future there will be many new and different forms of life. Those creatures that adapt themslves successfully to what the earth offers will survive for a long time. Those that fail to meet the challenges will disappear early. That is Nature's proven method of operation. The rule of selection--"the survival of the fittest" is the one by which man has himself arrived on the scene. Life seems to have grown too tough for black robins. 16.The black robin is dying out mainly because________. A) people have been very careless about its survival B) its only food is becoming exhausted on Little Mangere C) the other birds on the island have destroyed it D) the appeal for money has come at the wrong time 17.The success of other small birds on Little Mangere shows that________. A) the island cannot have very much food left B) something has to die out, they can't all be winners

C) the big birds have all been attacking the black robin D) the robin has failed to meet the challenges of life 18.As regards selection and survival, the decisive factor seems to be________. A) the ability to adapt to changed or changing conditions B) the number of wild life reserves that are available C) the concern and generosity(慷慨)of the public D) the size of the home, or the amount of space one has to live in 19.The evidence seems to suggest that________. A) it is a disaster for everyone when one kind of bird dies out B) all creatures are concerned about the survival of others C) Nature expects and accepts the dying out of weaker breeds D) man is to blame when such a thing happens 20.The writer's attitude towards the protection of the black robins is _________. A) active B) passive C) indifferent D) pessimistic

阅读训练: 阅读训练:大学英语四级阅读理解练习二
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage: In the warm enclosed water of farm ponds, conditions are very likely to be lethal for fish when insecticides(杀虫剂)are applied in the neighbourhood. As many examples show, the poison is carried in by rains and runoff from surrounding lands. Sometimes the ponds receive not only polluted runoff but also a direct dose as crop-dusting pilots neglect to shut off the duster in passing over a pond. Even without such complication, normal agricultural use subjects fish to far heavier concentrations of chemicals than would be required to kill them. In other words, a marked reduction in the amount used would hardly change the fatal situation, for application of over 0.1 pound per acre to the pond itself are generally considered hazardous. And the poison, once introduced, is hard to get rid of. One pond that had been treated with DDT to remove unwanted shiners(银色小鱼)remained so poisonous through repeated draining and washing that it killed 94% of the sunfish with which it was later stocked. Apparently the chemical remained in the mud of the pond bottom.

In some parts of the world the cultivation of fish in ponds provides an indispensable source of food. In such places the use of insecticides without regard for the effects on fish creates immediate problems. In Rhodesia, for example, the young of an import food fish, the Kafue bream(鲷科海鱼), are killed by exposure to only 0.04 parts per million of DDT in shallow pools. Even smaller die, of many other insecticides would be fatal. The shallow waters in which these fish live are favorable mosquito-breeding places. The problem of controlling mosquitoes and at the same time conserving a fish important in the Central African diet has obviously not been solved satisfactorily. 1. The word "lethal" in the first sentence nearly means ________. A) dead B) important C) fatal D) vital 2. The author's tone in this passage can be best described as ________. A) depressed B) indifferent C) questioning D) objective 3.________ should be responsible for the presence of insecticides in ponds? A) Rhodesia B) Central Africa C) Conditions of farm ponds D) Human error 4. The author states a problem, ________ , and relates causes in this passage. A) gives examples B) proposes a solution C) explains his suggestion D) makes speeches 5. Which of the following titles best sums up the whole passage? A) The Effect of Insecticides on Fish B) The Water of Farm Ponds C) The Cultivation of Fish as Food D) Saving African Food Supplies Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage: There have been many great inventions, things that changed the way we live in. The first great invention was one that is still very important today 一 the wheel. This made it easier to carry heavy things and to travel long distances. For hundreds of years after that there were few

inventions that had as much effect as the wheel. Then in the early 1800's the world started to change. There was little unknown land left in the world. People did not have to explore much anymore. They began to work instead to make life better. In the second half of the 19th century many great inventions were made. Among them were the camera, the electric light and the radio. These all became a big part of our life today. The first part of the 20th century saw more great inventions. The helicopter in 1909. Movies with sound in 1926. The computer in 1928. And jet planes in 1930. This was also a time when a new material was first made. Nylon came out in 1935. It changed the kind of clothes people wear. The middle part of the 20th century brought new ways to help people get over disease. They worked very well. They made people healthier and let them live longer lives. By the 1960's most people could expect to live to be at least 60. By this time most people had a very good life. Of course new inventions continued to be made. But man now had a desire to explore again. The world was known to man but the stars were not. Man began looking for ways to go into space. Russia made the first step. Then the United States took a step. Since then other countries, including China and Japan, have made their steps into space. In 1969 man took his biggest step away from earth. Americans first walked on the moon. This is certainly just a beginning though. New inventions will someday allow us to do things we have never yet dreamed of. 6. Camera was invented after ________. A) 1850 B) 1950 C) 1800 D) 1900 7.Why did the world start to change in the early 1800's? A) Because there were few inventions that had as much effect as the wheel for hundreds of years. B) Because there was little unknown land left in the world. C) Because people did not have to explore much anymore. D) Because people began to work to make life better instead of exploring unknown world 8. In Paragraph Two, the word "they" in the sentence "they worked very well" refer to_______. A) helicopters, computers, jet planes, nylon B) new ways to help people get over disease C) new materials D) people 9. Why did man have a desire to explore again? A) Man wanted to move to other stars. B) Other countries wanted to catch up with the Americans. C) Other countries wanted to follow the Russians. D) Going into space is a dream for man to realize.

10. The possible title for the passage might be _________. A) Great Invention of the 20th Century B) How Wheels, Cameras and Computers Were Invented? C) People's Attitudes towards Inventions D) Great Inventions Influence Our Way of Living Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage: One hundred and thirteen million Americans have at least one bank-issued credit card. They give their owners automatic credit in stores, restaurants, and hotels, at home, across the country, and even abroad, and they make many banking services available as well. More and more of these credit cards can be read automatically, making it possible to withdraw or deposit money in scattered locations, whether or not the local branch bank is opened. For many of us the "cashless society" is not on the horizon-it's already here. While computers offer these conveniences to consumers, they have many advantages for sellers too. Electronic cash registers can do much more than simply ring up sales. They can keep a wide range of records, including who sold what, when, and to whom. This information allows businessmen to keep track of their list of goods by showing which items are being sold and how fast they are moving. Decisions to record or return goods to suppliers can then be made. At the same time these computers record which hours are busiest and which employees are the most efficient, allowing personnel and staffing assignments to be made accordingly. And they also identify preferred customers for promotional campaigns. Computers are relied on by manufacturers for similar reasons. Computer-analyzed marking reports can help to decide which products to emphasize now, which to develop for the future, and which to drop. Computers keep track of goods in stock, of raw materials on hand, and even of the production process itself. Numerous other commercial enterprises, from theaters to magazines publishers, from gas and electric utilities to milk processors, bring better and more efficient services to consumers through the use of computers. 11. According to the passage, the credit card enables its owner to _________. A) withdraw as much money from the bank as he wishes B) obtain more convenient services than other people do C) enjoy greater trust from the storekeeper D) cash money wherever he wishes to 12. From the last sentence of the first paragraph we learn that _________. A) in the future all the Americans will use credit cards B) credit cards are mainly used in the United States today C) nowadays many Americans do not pay in cash D) it is now more convenient to use credit cards than before

13. If computers record which hours are busiest and which employees are the most efficient, what will businessmen do? A) They will fire some employees and raise the work efficiency. B) They will arrange for different employees to do different jobs according to their abilities and performance. C) They will assign more work for the employees to do. D) They will allow the personnel to do whatever work they want to do. 14. The phrase "ring up sales" in Line Two, Paragraph Two, most probably means ________ . A) make an order of goods B) record sales on a cash register C) call the sales manager D) keep track of the goods in stock 15. What does the passage mainly discuss? A) Approaches to the commercial use of computers. B) Conveniences brought about by computers in business. C) Significance of automation in commercial enterprises. D) Advantages of credit cards in business. Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage: Ours has become a society of employees. A hundred years or so ago only one out of every five Americans at work was employed. Today only one out of five is not employed but working for himself. And when 50 years ago "being employed" meant working as a factory labourer or as a farmhand, the employee of today is increasingly a middle-class person with a substantial formal education, holding a professional or management job requiring intellectual and technical skills. Indeed, two things have characterized American society during these last 50 years: middle-class and upper-class employees have been the fastest-growing groups in our working population-growing so fast that the industrial worker, that oldest child of the Industrial Revolution, has been losing in numerical importance despite the expansion of industrial production. Yet you will find little if anything written on what it is to be an employee. You can find a great deal of very dubious advice on how to get a job or how to get a promotion. You can also find a good deal of work in a chosen field, whether it be the mechanist's trade or bookkeeping (会计). Every one of these trades requires different skills, sets different standards, and requires a different preparation. Yet they all have employeeship (雇员身份) common. And increasingly, in especially in the large business or in government, employeeshipis more important to success than the special professional knowledge or skill. Certainly more people fail because they do not know the requirements of being an employee than because they do not adequately possess the skills of their trade; the higher you climb the ladder, the more you get into administrative or executive work, the greater the emphasis on ability to work within the organization rather than

on technical abilities or professional knowledge. 16. It is implied that 50 years ago __________. A) 80% of American working people were employed in factories B) 20% of American intellectuals were employees C) the percentage of intellectuals in the total work force was almost the same as that of industrial workers D) the percentage of intellectuals working as employees was not so large as that of industrial workers 17. According to the passage, with the development of modern industry, __________. A) factory labourers will overtake intellectual employees in number B) there are as many middle-class employees as factory labourers C) employers have attached great importance to factory labourers D) the proportion of factory labourers in total employee population has decreased 18. The word "dubious" in Line Two, Paragraph Two,most probably means __________. A) valuable B) useful C) doubtful D) helpful 19. According to the writer, professional knowledge or skill is __________. A) less important than awareness of being a good employee B) as important as the ability to deal with public relation C) more important than employer--employee relations D) as important as the ability to co-operate with others in the organization 20. From the passage it can be seen that employeeship helps one ________ . A) to be more successful in his career B) to solve technical problems C) to be more specialized in his field D) to develop his professional skill

阅读训练: 阅读训练:大学英语四级阅读理解练习三
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage:

The science of. meteorology is concerned with the study of the structure, state, and behavior of the atmosphere. The subject may be approached from several directions, but the scene cannot be fully approached from any one vantage point (有利的地位). Different views must be integrated to give perspective to the whole picture. One may consider the condition of the atmosphere at a given moment and attempt to predict changes from that condition over a period of a few hours to a few days ahead. This approach is covered by the branch of the science called synoptic meteorology(天气学). Synoptic meteorology is the scientific basis of the technique of weather forecasting by means of the preparation and analysis of weather maps and aerological diagram (高空气象图) . The practical importance of the numerous applications of weather forecasting cannot be overestimated . In serving the needs of shipping, aviation, agriculture, industry, and many other interests and fields of human activity with accurate weather warnings and professional forecast advice, great benefits are obtained in the form of the saving of human life and property and in economic advantages of various kinds. One important purpose of the science of meteorology is constantly to strive, through advanced study and research, to increase our knowledge of the atmosphere with the aim of improving the accuracy of weather forecasts. The tools needed to advance our knowledge in this way are the disciplines of mathematics and physics applied to solve meteorological problems. The use of these tools forms that branch of the science called dynamic meteorology. 1.Which of the following statements best describes the organization of the third paragraph of the passage? A) A problem is examined and possible solutions are given. B) A procedure is explained and its importance is emphasized. C) Two contrasting views of a problem are presented. D) Recent scientific advancements are outlined in order of importance. 2. The author implies that increased accuracy in weather forecasting will lead to _______. A) a higher number of professional forecasters B) less-specialized forms of synoptic meteorology C) more funds given to meteorological research D) greater protection of human life 3.In the last sentence of the passage, the phrase "these tools" refer to ________. A) weather forecasts B) economic advantages C) mathematics and physics D) meteorological problems 4.The best title for the passage is _______. A) Approaches to the Science of Meteorology

B) New Advances in Synoptic Meteorology C) The limitations of Meteorological Forecasting D) The Basics of Dynamic Meteorology 5.Which of the following is referred to by the author as a field whose needs are served by weather forecasting? A) Teaching. B) Transportation. C) Medical service D) Boxing. Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage: Much attention has been given in the media to the so-called information superhighway which is supposed to use computer and telecommunication technology to completely change the way Americans will do business and receive information and entertainment at home in the future. There have been countless newspaper and magazine articles, television and radio discussions, meetings and conferences about it. However, according to a public opinion poll, most Americans say they have never heard of it. The people who conducted the poll didn't actually talk to most Americans, of course, but they did talk to 1255 individuals, and they say the result has a margin of error of plus or minus three percentage points. But even if it's off by three percentage points, it's still amazing. Two-thirds of Americans do not recall having heard of the information superhighway. And, even among the 34% who have heard of it,most say that they have little understanding of what it is. But even though most of those who have heard of it don't know what it is, six out of ten of them say that they are for it. It seems very odd that people can admit that they don't know what something is and yet say they are for it, or against it, for that matter. It generally works out better when you find things out, rather than this business of linking something before finding out what it is. This is the way they know anything about it or not. Unfortunately, this is the way political leadership works today: the so- called leaders read the polls to find out what the people want and here's the poll telling us that the people are ready to say what they want without knowing the first thing about it. This is the blind leading the blind. No wonder things are the way they are. 6. According to the passage, which of the following media covers the information superhighway? A) Television series B) Newspaper cartoons C) Speeches at the meetings

D) Concerts 7.________ don't really know what the information superhighway is. A) Most Americans B) Two-thirds of Americans C) All Americans D) More than half Americans 8. What point is the writer of the article trying to make about the American people? A) They do not know the information superhighway though they pretend to. B) They say they agree with the leaders before they know who the leaders are. C) They don't know much about telecommunication technology though they say they do. D) They express an opinion on something before they know anything about it. 9. The passage is a criticism of _________ in the U.S. . A) the mass media B) the information superhighway C) the political leadership D) the general public 10. The expression " the blind leading the blind" in the last paragraph means ________. A) the ignorant leaders are taken in by the mass media B) both the media and Americans are blind C) ill-informed leaders are leading ignorant people D) both the people and the leaders are taken in by the media. Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage: Taste is such a subjective matter that we don't usually conduct preference tests for food. The most you can say about anyone's preference, is that it's one person's opinion. But because the two big cola companies-Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola are marketed so aggressively, we have wondered how big a role taste preference actually plays in brand loyalty. We set up a taste test that challenged people who identified themselves as either Coca-Cola Classic(传统型)or Pepsi fans: find your brand in a blind tasting. We invited staff volunteers who had a strong liking for either Coca-Cola Classic or Pepsi, Diet (低糖的) Coke, or Diet Pepsi. These were people who thought they' d have no trouble telling their brand from the other brand. We eventually located 19 regular cola drinkers and 27 diet cola drinkers. Then we fed them four unidentified samples of cola one at a time, regular colas for the one group, diet versions for the other. We asked them to tell us whether each sample was Coke or Pepsi, then we analyzed the records statistically to compare the participants' choices with what mere guess-work could have accomplished.

Getting all four samples right was a tough test, but not too tough, we thought, for people who believed they could recognize their brand. In the end, only 7 out of 19 regular cola drinkers correctly identified their brand of choice in all four trials. The diet-cola drinkers did a little worse-only 7 of 27 identified all four samples correctly. While both groups did better than chance would predict, nearly half the participants in each group made the wrong choice two or more times. Two people got all four samples wrong. Overall, half of the participants did about as well on the last round of tasting as on the first, so fatigue(疲 劳), or taste burnout, was not a factor. Our preference test results suggest that only a few Pepsi participants and Coke fans may really be able to tell their favorite brand by taste and price. 11. According to the passage the preference test was conducted in order to _______. A) find out the role taste preference plays in a person's drinking B) reveal which cola is more to the liking of the drinkers C) show that a person' s opinion about taste is mere guess-work D) compare the ability of the participants in choosing their drinks 12. The statistics recorded in the preference tests show _________. A) Coca-Cola and Pepsi are people's two most favorite drinks B) there is not much difference in taste between Coca-Cola and Pepsi C) few people had trouble telling Coca-Cola from Pepsi D) people's tastes differ from one another 13. It is implied in the first paragraph that ________. A) the purpose of taste tests is to promote the sale of colas B) the improvement of quality is the chief concern of the two cola companies C) the competition between the two colas is very strong D) blind tasting is necessary for identifying fans 14. The word 'burnout" in Line Four, Paragraph Five, refers to the state of ________. A) being seriously burnt in the skin B) being unable to burn for lack of fuel C) being badly damaged by fire D) being unable to function because of excessive use 15. The author's purpose in writing this passage is to ________. A) show that taste preference is highly subjective B) argue that taste testing is an important marketing strategy C) emphasize that taste and price are closely related to each other D) recommend that blind tasting be introduced in the quality control of colas Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage:

Lincoln was a strong executive who saved the government, saved the United States. He was a President who understood people and when time came to make decisions he was willing to take the responsibility and make those decisions no matter how difficult they were. He knew how to treat people and how to make a decision stick and that's why he is regarded as such a great Administrative. Carl Sandburg and a lot of others have tried to make something out of Lincoln that he wasn't. He was a decent man, a good politician, and a great President, and they've tried to build up things that he never even thought about. I'll bet a dollar and a half that if you read Sandburg's mouth and mind that never even occurred to him. He was a good man who was in the place where he ought to have been at the time important events were taking place, but when they write about him as though he belongs in the pantheon(众神庙)of the gods, that's not the man he really was. He was the best kind of ordinary man and when I say that he was an ordinary man, I mean that as a high praise, not deprecation (贬低) That's the highest praise you can give a man. . He's one of the people and becomes distinguished in the service that he gives other people. He was one of the people, and he wanted to stay that way. And he was that way until the day he died. One of the reasons he was assassinated(暗杀)was because he didn't feel important enough to have proper guards around him at Ford's Theatre. 16. According to the passage, Lincoln was __________. A) a man belonging in the pantheon of the gods B) deified(神化)by all the people C) as ordinary as all the other people D) a responsible person 17. What's the author's comment on Carl Sandburg's biography of Lincoln? A) It's objective. B) It is unfair to Lincoln. C) It sang high praise of Lincoln. D) It's too exaggerating. 18. What's the author's attitude toward Lincoln? A) Admiring B) Indifferent C) Critical D) Kind 19. Which of the following titles suits the passage best? A) Lincoln 一 an Ordinary Man B) Lincolna 一 Great Politician C) Lincoln's Biography by Carl Sandburg D) How was Lincoln Assassinated? 20. In the author's opinion,"an ordinary man"___________.

A) is a mediocre(平庸的)person B) can never become distinguished C) indicates deprecation D) can be used to praise a person

阅读训练: 阅读训练:大学英语四级阅读理解练习四
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage: Anybody over 70 who was brought up in a country village or town finds the social customs of young people today strangely familiar. In the 1800's or 1890's, it was normal to have boys and girls pair off in a more or less stable fashion, and such pairing often ended in marriage. Why have the younger people reverted so sharply to the ways of an earlier era and simpler society? There seems to be no clear-cut answer. The cause of the change has often been considered to be the Second World War, but this reversion was well under way before 1939. The new social customs may be related to the Great Depression 经济大萧条) ( when a boy putting out money for a girl on dance, movies, or the like wanted to be sure of some return on his investment. It is also true that the fiercely competitive social life of the twenties meant that a popular girl had a very good time indeed. But the majority of girls were not popular. They dreaded being neglected in parties. It may be that the less popular girls were the ones who slowly created the present democratic system, under which any girl with a steady(情侣)is just as well off as any other girl with a steady. Since each boy wants a steady, too, and since the number of boys and girls are about equal, everybody seems better off (较自在, 较幸福) present. On the other hand, girls would insist that the new at system was created by the boys who are aggressive, possessive, and jealous of all rivals. 1. The practice of going steady (仅与同一异性经常约会)is similar to a custom first popular ________. A) after the Second World War B) before 1900 C) in the 1920's D) during the Depression 2. According to the article, the question "Why have our young people reverted so sharply to the ways of an earlier era and simpler society?" A) can not be answered definitely

B) can be answered definitely C) cannot be answered D) is definitely answered in the article 3. The Second World War cannot be regarded as the cause of the change because ________. A) the Second World War began before 1939 B) the custom of going steady started before 1939 C) the Second World War changed American customs D) during the War, going steady was difficult 4. According to the author, going steady may have been revived during the Great Depression because ________. A) social life became more competitive B) boys could not afford to take girls to dances C) girls became more independent D) the practice was regarded by young men as a wise investment 5.According to the author, the custom of going steady is better for ________. A) boys B) the majority C) girls D) both boys and girls Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage: It remains to be seen whether the reserves of raw materials would be sufficient to supply a world economy which would have grown by 500%. South-East Asia alone would have an energy consumption five times greater than that of Westen Europe in 1970. Incidentally, if the underdeveloped countries started using up petrol at the same rate as the industrialised areas, then world reserves would already be exhausted by 1985. All this only goes to show just how important it is to set up a plan to conserve and divide up fairly natural resources on a world-wide scale. This is a matter of life and death because world population is exploding at an incredible rate. By the middle of the next century population will expand every year by as much as it did in the first 1500 years after Christ. In the southern, poor, parts of the globe, the figures are enough to make your hair stand on end. Even supposing that steps are taken to stabilise(稳定) world population in the next 50 years, the number of inhabitants per square kilometre will increase by from 4 in the United States to 140 in South-East Asia. What can we do about it? In the first hypothesis(假设)we do nothing. By the year 2000, the southern parts of the world then have a population greater than the total world population today. Calcutta would have 60 million inhabitants. It is unthinkable.

Alternatively(或), we could start acting right now to bring births under control within 15 years so that population levels off. Even then the population in the southern areas would not stop growing for 75 years. 6.World petrol reserves will be used up by 1985 if _________. A) Western European consumption continues to expand B) South-East Asia does not limit its consumption C) underdeveloped countries start to use petrol at the same rate as Western Europe D) world population continues to expand 7.The author thinks that we should ________. A) do nothing B) act now C) wait 10 years D) wait 20 years 8.Should we take the effective measures immediately, the world's population _________. A) would not stop growing for 75 years B) would stop growing in about 15 years' time from now C) could stabilise in about 75 years' time D) could stabilise in 35 years' time 9.The author suggests in the passage that _________. A) there will certainly not be enough raw materials for the world economy in the year 2000 B) world petrol supplies will have been exhausted by 1985 C) we need to use natural resources carefully and divide them up equally D) to slow down the economic growth in developed countries might be a possible solution to the problem 10.The purpose of the author in writing this piece is to _________. A) urge people to start taking action right away B) tell people about the surprising rate of population growth C) describe the problem the world will be faced with D) give an account of the relationship between population growth and industry Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage: One of the most interesting paradoxes(逆说)in America today is that Harvard University, the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, is now engaged in serious debate about what a university should be, and whether it is measuring up. Like the Roman Catholic 天主教的) ( Church and other ancient institutions, it is asking-still in private rather than in public-whether its past assumptions about faculty, authority, admissions,

courses of study, are really relevant to the problems of the 1980's. Should Harvard-or any other university-be an intellectual sanctuary(圣坛), apart from the political and social revolution of the age, or should it be a laboratory for experimentation with these political and social revolutions, or even an engine of the revolution? This is what is being discussed privately in the big houses of faculty members around the Harvard Yard. The issue was defined by Walter lippmann, a distinguished Harvard graduate, several years ago. "If the universities are to do their work, " he said, "they must be independent and they must be disinterested--- They are places to which men can turn for judgements which are unbiased by special interest. Obviously, the moment the universities fall under political control, or under the control of private interest, or the moment they themselves take a hand in politics and the leadership of government, their value as independent and disinterested sources of judgement is weakened --- " This is part of the argument that is going on at Harvard today. Another part is the argument among the students that a university is the keeper of our ideals and morals, and should not be "disinterested" but activist in bringing the nation's ideals and actions together. Harvard's men of today seem more troubled and less sure about personal, political and acadimic purpose than they did at the beginning. They are not even clear about how they should debate and resolve their problems, but they are struggling with them privately, and how they come out is bound to influence American university and political life in the 1980's. 11.The issues in the debates on Harvard's goals are whether the universities should remain independent of society and its problems, and whether they should ________. A) fight for freedom B) overcome the widespread drug dependency(依赖) C) take an active part in solving society's problems D) support our old and established institutions 12.In regard to their goals and purposes in life, the author believes that Harvard men are becoming _______. A) more sure about them B) less sure about them C) more hopeful of reaching a satisfactory answer D) completely disappointed at ever reaching a satisfactory answer 13.A "paradox" is ________. A) an unusual situation B) a parenthetical(插入成分的)expression C) an abnormal condition

D) a self-contradiction 14.In the author's judgement, the argument going on at Havard ________. A) is a sad symbol of our general bewilderment(迷惑) B) will soon be over, because times are bound to change C) is of interest mostly to Harvard men and their friends D) will influence future life in America 15.As used in the passage, the expression "is bound to" means________. A) is certain to B) is sure of C) is necessary to D) is essential to Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage: American's genius with high technology may have put men on the moon, but there is growing skepticism(怀疑态度)about its ability to solve human problems closer to home. In fact, a subtle but significant shift from purely technological solutions is already under way as scientists argue openly for new directions in research. A growing number of scientists insist that answers to the world's problems will not come from a flahier array(大量)of electronics and machines. Instead, as they see it, solutions must evolve from a better understanding of the humans that drive the system and from a fuller appreciation of the limits and potential of the earth's resources. What this means is an increased emphasis on the life and earth sciences, on sociology, psychology, economics and even philosophy. More and more of the best minds in science, particularly young researchers, are being drawn into these developing fields. All this is not to say that technological creativity will not play a critical role in solving energy and food shortages, or that answers to environmental difficulties will not come from further advances in the same technologies that may have helped cause the problems. Where the real challenge lies, in the view of the new type of scientists, is in finding ways to produce goods to meet the world's needs, using less of the raw materials that are becoming scarce. 16.Which of the following best expresses the main idea? A) A growing number of Americans are doubtful about what high technology can do in solving the world's problems.

B) Many scientists are beginning to believe that the better understanding of human beings will pay a more decisive role in solving the world's problems. C) More and more young scientists are trying their best to find new ways to solve the world's problems. D) Technological creativity will still play a very important part in solving the world's problems. 17.In the passage "environmental difficulties"refers mainly to ________. A) global food shortage B) resources depletion(枯竭) C) environmental pollution D) population problems 18.From the passage we know that ________. A) the development of present technologies can not provide any answers to today's problems B) an increasing number of young scientists are taking a great interest in biological and social sciences C) many people as well as scientists pay little attention to the limits of natural resources D) many scientists argue that high technology is everything 19.Young scientists demand that in order to satisfy human needs ________. A) existing products be improved B) more complex machines and electronic equipment be designed C) ways be found to produce better goods using fewer raw materials D) any new invention and innovation be encouraged in technology 20.The author would probably agree with which of the following? A) The environment crisis will not be solved unless we stop using all materials. B) In scientific research, a higher priority should be given to understanding all living systems. C) Exploration of outer space will finally lead to an improvement on human living conditions. D) US high-technology companies are applauding this new turning point in scientific research.

阅读训练: 阅读训练:大学英语四级阅读理解练习五
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage: People can be addicted (上瘾) different things, for example, alcohol, drugs, certain foods, to or even television. People who have such an addicition are compulsive(强迫的); i.e., they have a very powerful psychological need that they feel they must satisfy. According to psychologists, many people are compulsive spenders. They feel that they must spend money. This compulsion, like most others, is impossible to explain reasonably. For compulsive spenders, charge accounts (赊购帐户)are even more exciting than money. In other words, compulsive spenders feel that with credit, they can do anything. Their pleasure in spending enormous amounts is actually greater than the pleasure that they get from the things they buy. There is even a special psychology of bargain hunting. To save money, of course, most people look for sales, low prices, and discounts. Compulsive bargain hunters, however, often buy things that they don't need just because they are cheap. They want to believe that they are helping their budgets, but they are really playing an exciting game. When they can buy something for less than other people, they feel that they are winning. Most people, experts claim, have two reasons for their behavior: a good reason for the things that they do and the real reason. It is not only scientists, of course, who understand the psychology of spending habits, but also businesspeople. Stores, companies, and advertisers use psychology to increase business: They consider people's needs for love, power, or influence, their basic values, their beliefs and opinions, and so on in their advertising and sales methods. Psychologists often use a method called "behavior therapy" to help individuals solve their personality problems. In the same way, they can help people who feel that they have problems with money. 1. According to the psychologists, a compulsive spender is one who spends large amounts of money _______. A) and takes great pleasure from what he or she buys B) in order to satisfy his or her basic needs in life C) just to meet his or her strong psychological need D) entirely with an eagerness 2.According to the writer, compulsive bargain hunters are in constant search of the lowest possible prices _______. A) because they want to save money to help their budgets B) because they can openly boast of their triumph over others in getting things for less C) and will not have money problems if they can keep to their budgets D) but they seldom admit they feel satisfied if they can get things for less than others 3.Businesspeople ________. A) ask people to spend money for exactly the same reason that they need to buy things

B) can use the psychology of money to increase sales C) understand the psychology of compulsive buying better than scientists do D) do not have problems with money 4.The article is mainly about ________. A) the psychology of money -spending habits B) the purchasing habits of compulsive spenders C) a special psychology of bargain hunting D) the use of the psychology of spending habits in business 5.From the passage we may safely conclude that compulsive spenders or compulsive bargain hunters _______. A) are really unreasonable B) need special treatment C) are really helpless D) can never get any help to solve their problems with money Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage: For centuries man dreamed of achieving vertical flight. In 400 A.D. Chinese children played with a fan like toy that spun upwards and fell back to earth as rotation ceased. Leonardo da Vinci conceived 构思) first mechanical apparatus 装置)called a "Helix", which could carry a man ( the ( , straight up, but this was only a design and was never tested. The ancient dream was finally realized in 1940 when a Russian immigrant, an aeronautical engineer, piloted a strange-looking craft of steel tubing with a rotating fan on top. It rose awkwardly and vertically into the air from a standing start, hovered a few feet above the ground, went sideways and backwards, and then settled back to earth. That vehicle was called a helipcopter. Imaginations were fired. Men dreamed of going to work in their own personal helipcopter. Every man would have one in his backyard. People anticipated that vertical flight transports would carry millions of passengers as do the airliners of today. Such fantastic expectations were not fulfilled. The helicopter has now become an extremely versatile(多样化)machine. It excels in military missions, carrying troops, guns and strategic instruments where other aircraft cannot go. Corporations use them as offices in the air, many big cities use them in police work, construction and logging companies employ them in various advantageous ways,engineers use them for site selection and surveying, and oil companies use them as the best way to make offshore and remote work stations accessible to crews and supplies: Any urgent mission to a hard-to -get -to place is a likely task for a helicopter. Among their other kinds of uses, they deliver people across town, fly to and from airports, assist in rescue work, and aid in the search for missing or wanted persons.

6.What is a helicopter? A) An aircraft that can go faster than the ordinary airplane. B) An aircraft that can fit into the smallest possible place C) An aircraft that can fly vertically D) An aircraft that is used only for commercial service 7.What is said about the development of the helicopter? A) Helicopters have only been worked on by man since 1940. B) An Englishman was the first to achieve flight in a helicopter. C) Helicopters were considered more dangerous than the early airplanes. D)Some people thought they would become widely used by the average individual. 8.________ helicopters are found to be necessary. A) For overseas passenger transportation B) For extremely high altitude flight C) For high-speed transportation D) For urgent missions to inaccessible places 9.How has the use helicopters developed? A) Each year they have become larger to accommodate greater loads. B) They are taking the place of high-flying jets. C) They are often used for rescue work. D) They are now used exclusively for commercial projects. 10. Helicopters work on _______. A) a combination of propellers(螺旋桨)in front and on top B) a rotating propeller topside C) one propeller in the center of the aircraft and others at each end D) a propeller underneath for lifting power Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage: Most of us trade money for entertainment. Movies, concerts and shows are enjoyable but expensive. If you think that you can't have a good time without spending a lot of money, read on. A little resourcefulness(丰富资源)and a few minutes of newspaper-scanning should give you some pleasant surprises. People may be the most interesting show in a large city. Stroll through busy streets and see what everybody else is doing. You will probably see people from all over the world; you will certainly see people of every age, size, and shape, and you'll get a free fashion show, too. Window-shopping is also a safe sport -if the stores are closed. Check the listing in your neighborhood paper. Local colleges or schools often welcome the

public to hear an interesting speaker or a good debate. The film or concert series at the local public library probably won't cost you a penny. Be sure to check commercial advertisements too. A flea market(跳蚤市场)can provide hours of pleasant browsing(浏览). Perhaps you can find a free cooking or crafts demonstration in a department store. Plan ahead for some activities. It is always more pleasant not to have people in front of you in a museum or at a zoo. You may save money, too, since these places often set aside one or two free admission days at slow times during the week. Pretend that you are a tourist from time to time, and get to know your city all over again including the indispensable sights that people travel miles to see. If you feel like taking an interesting walk, find a free walking tour, or plan one yourself, you will see your city in a new perspective once you know more about its history or its architectural treasures. With imagination and a spirit of adventure you can quite easily find good entertainment at no cost at all. 11.You should be a tourist ________. A) and enjoy without spending much money B) and attend meetings to debate the issues people are interested in C) if the film shown at the local public library is often free of charge D) if you want to know more about the city you live in 12.The word "shape" in paragraph two refers to people being _______. A) old and young B) fat and thin C) tall and short D) beautiful and ugly 13.If you are wandering through the busy streets, which of the following will most attract you? A) Various buildings. B) Car driving. C) Window-shopping. D) Free walking. 14."--- one or two free admission days at slow times --- " means _______. A) business is good B) business is bad C) strolling is slow D) people are slow in learning 15.What is the best title for this passage? A) Amusement at Little Cost B) Movies, Concerts and Shows C) The Cheapest Window-shopping D) The most Enjoyable Street Musicians

Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage: If you want to stay young, sit down and have a good think. This is the research finding of a team of Japanese doctors, who say that most of our brains are not getting enough exercise-and as a result, we are aging unnecessarily soon. Professor Taiju Matsuzawa wanted to find out why otherwise healthy farmers in northern Japan appeared to be losing their ability to think and reason at a relatively early age, and how the process of aging could be slowed down. With a team of colleagues at Tokyo National University, he set about measuring brain volumes of a thousand people of different ages and varying occupations. Computer technology enabled the researchers to obtain precise measurements of the volume of the front and side sections of the brain, which relate to intellect(智能)and emotion, and determine the human character. (The rear section of the brain, which controls functions like eating and breathing, does not contract with age, and one can continue living wihtout intellectual or emotional faculties or functions.) Contraction of front and side parts-as cells die off-was observed in some subjects in their thirties, but it was still not evident in some sixty- and seventy-year-olds. Matsuzawa concluded from his tests that there is a simple remedy to the contraction normally associated with age-using the head. The findings show in general terms that contraction of the brain begins sooner in people in the country than in the towns. Those least at risk, says Matsuzawa, are lawyers, followed by university professors and doctors, white collar workers doing routine work in government offices are, however, as likely to have shrinking brains as the farm worker, bus driver and shop assistant. Matsuzawa's fingings show that thinking can prevent the brain from shrinking. Blood must circulate properly in the head to supply the fresh oxygen the brain cells need. "The best way to maintain good blood circulation is through using the brain," he says. "Think hard and engage in conversation. Don't rely on pocket calculators." 16.The team of doctors wanted to find out ________. A) why certain people are aging sooner than others B) how to make people live longer C) the size of certain people's brains D) which people are most intelligent 17.On what are their research findings based? A) A survey of farmers in northern Japan. B) Tests performed on a thousand old people.

C) Study of brain volumes of different people. D)The latest development of computer technology. 18.The doctor's tests show that ________. A) our brains shrink as we grow older B) the front section of the brain does not shrink C) sixty-year-olds have better brains than thirty-year-olds D) some people's brains have contracted more than other people's 19.The word "subjects" in paragraph five means ________. A) a team of colleagues of Professor Taiju Matsuzawa's at Tokyo National University B) persons chosen to be studied in a medical experiment C) doctors and nurses in the hospital D) patients in the hospital 20.According to the passage, which people seem to age slower than the others? A) Lawyers. B) Farmers. C) Clerks. D) Shop assistants.

阅读训练: 阅读训练:大学英语四级阅读理解练习六
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage: Water on the earth is being recycled continuously in a process known as the hydrologic cycle (水循环). The first step of the cycle is the evaporation of water in the oceans. Evaporation is the process of water turning into vapor, which then forms clouds in the sky. The second step is the water returning to the earth in the form of precipitation (降水) :either rain, snow or ice. When the water returning to the earth's surface, it runs off into the rivers, lakes, and the ocean, where the cycle begins again. Not all water, however, stays on the surface of the earth in the hydrologic cycle. Some of it sinks slowly into the ground through infiltration (渗透) and collects under the earth's surface as groundwater. This groundwater is extremely important to life on earth, since 95 percent of the earth's water is in the oceans and is too salty for human beings or plants. Of the 5 percent on land, only .05 percent is above ground in rivers or lakes. The rest is underground water. This underground water is plentiful and dependable, because it doesn't depend on seasonal rain or

snow. It is the major source of water for many cities. But as the population increases and the need for water also increases, the groundwater in some areas is getting dangerously low. Added to this problem is an increasing amount of pollution that sinks into the groundwater through infiltration. In the future, with a growing population and more poisonous waste, the hydrologic cycle we depend on could become dangerously unbalanced. 1. The first paragraph of this passage tells about ________. A) the cycling of earth's water B) the evaporation of ocean water C) the formation of clouds D) the sources of river, lake and sea 2. Water returns to the earth by _________. A) infiltration B) precipitation C) pollution D) evaporation 3. The earth's groundwater __________. A) depends on seasonal rain B) is .05 percent of all water C) comes from polluted waste water D) collects under the earth 4. The amount of groundwater is __________. A) about 95 percent of all water B) less than 5 percent of all water C) .05 percent of above-ground water D) 95 percent of above-ground water 5. The supply of groundwater is getting low because of _________. A) conservation B) poisonous waste C) pollution D) population increase Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage: Advertising in America offers some great advantages to consumers. For example, in order to keep prices low through mass production, companies must have a mass market for their products. Mass advertising creates mass markets. Producers cannot afford to develop new products, put them on the market and wait for customers to discover them. This would take too long. Demand for some products must be created. This is done through advertising.

But advertising sometimes makes it difficult for consumers to make wise decisions. The fact is that when people are constantly flooded with messages through the mass media(大众媒体) persuading them to buy particular products, many respond by buying them. Advertising is designed to influence an individual to buy a product. Sellers often study human behavior to discover what will convince consumers to buy a certain item. This reason for buying is called a buying motive. Buying motives are usually broken down into two categories: rational and emotional. Rational buying motives include the desire to save money, the desire for comfort, or the desire for good workmanship. Emotional buying motives include buying out of fear, wanting to be liked, and wanting to have something better than your friends have. Emotional appeals are found in most consumer advertising today. Certain cars promise to make the driver feel "younger" and " freer". Shoes promise to make the buyer's whole life "springier". Life insurance policies promise to take the "care out of living". Most consumers believe that they are not easily influenced by emotional appeals. However, corporations that sell consumer products obviously think differently. They spend many millions of dollars every day on radio, television, newspaper and magazine ads that use these appeals. 6.It can be inferred from the passage that one of the advantages of advertising for consumers is that __________. A) it can create a big demand for consumer goods B) the mass market created by it leads to low prices C) producers can introduce new products to consumers D) it helps consumers discover new products 7.Consumers sometimes find it difficult to make a sensible decision when buying a particular product because __________ . A) many advertisements are too difficult for them to understand B) they are afraid to be taken in by dishonest advertisements C) mass advertising offers them a range of good and cheap products D) they are confused by the quantity of advertisements promoting it 8.According to the passage, a toothpaste ad promising that people who use the product will make a lot of friends is an example of an ad that appeals to __________ . A) rational buying motives B) the consumer's commonsense C) emotional buying motives D) the desire for a good product 9.The reason why companies spend enormous amounts of money on advertising is that ________ .

A) they believe people can be influenced to buy a certain produce B) it takes a lot of advertising to convince people to buy a certain product C) most consumers are not easily influenced by emotional appeals D) advertising based on emotional appeals are very effective 10.The best title for this passage would be ________ . A) Advertising can create demand B)The advantages of advertising C)What effective advertising can do D)The role of advertising in selling products Questions 11to 20 are based on the following passage: We find that bright children are rarely held back by mixed-ability teaching. On the contrary, both their knowledge and experience are enriched. We feel that there are many disadvantages in streaming 把…按能力分班) ( pupils. It does not take into account the fact that children develop at different rates. It can have a bad effect on both the bright and the not-so-bright child. After all, it can be quite discouraging to be at the bottom of the top grade! Besides, it is rather unreal to grade people just according to their intellectual (智力的) abilities. This is only one aspect of their total personality. We are concerned to develop the abilities of all our pupils to the full, not just their academic ability. We also value personal qualities and social skills, and we find that mixed-ability teaching contributes to all these aspects of learning. In our classrooms, we work in various ways. The pupils often work in groups: this gives them the opportunity to learn to co-operate, to share, and to develop leadership skills. They also learn how to cope with personal problems as well as how to think, to make decisions, to analyze and evaluate, and to communicate effectively. The pupils learn from each other as well as from the teacher. Sometimes the pupils work in pairs; sometimes they work on individual tasks and assignments, and they can do this at their own speed. They also have some library, and we teach them the skills they need in order to do this effectively. And expect our pupils to do their best, not their least, and we give them every encouragement to attain this goal. 11. Group work provides pupils with the opportunity_________. A) to develop academic abilities B) to learn to teach. C) to do some experiments D) to learn to be capable organizers. 12.By "held back" in the first paragraph the author means _________. A) drawn to their studies

B) prevented from advancing C) made to remain in the same classes D) forced to study in the lower classes 13.In the passage the author's attitude towards " mixed-ability teaching" is ________. A) questioning B) approving C) objective D) critical 14.The author's purpose of writing this passage is to _________. A) offer advice on the proper use of the library B) emphasize the importance of appropriate formal classroom teaching C) argue for teaching bright and not -so-bright pupils in the same class D) recommend pair work and group-work for classroom activities 15.The author argues that a teacher's chief concern should be the development of the student's _________. A) total personality B) intellectual ability C) learning ability and communicative skills D) personal qualities and social skills Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage: Most young people enjoy some form of physical activity. It may be walking, cycling or swimming, or in winter, skating or skiing. It may be a game of some kind of football, hockey, golf, or tennis. It may be mountaineering. Those who have a passion for climbing high and difficult mountains are often looked upon with astonishment. Why are men and women willing to suffer cold and hardship, and to take risk on high mountains? This astonishment is caused probably by the difference between mountaineering and other forms of activity to which men give their leisure. Mountaineering is a sport and not a game. There are no man-made rules, as there are for such games as golf and football. There are, of course, rules of a different thing that it would be dangerous to ignore, but it is this freedom from man-made rules that makes mountaineering attractive to many people. Those who climb mountains are free to use their own methods. If we compare mountaineering and other more familiar sports, we might think that one big difference is that mountaineering is not a "team game". We should be mistaken in this. There are, it is true, no "matches" between "teams" of climbers, but when climbers are on a rock face linked by a rope on which their lives may depend, there is obviously teamwork.

The mountain climber knows that he may have to fight forces that are stronger and more powerful than men. He has to fight the forces of nature. His sport requires high mental and physical qualities. A mountain climber continues to improve in skill year after year. A skier is probably past his best by the age of thirty, and most international tennis champions are in their early twenties. But it is not unusual for a man of fifty or sixty to climb the highest mountains in the Alps. They may take more time than younger men, but they probably climb with more skill and less waste of efforts, and they certainly experience equal enjoyment. 16. What's the meaning of " to take risk" in sentence two, paragraph two? A) "to play a team game" B) "to fight the forces of nature" C) "to face the possible danger" D)"to climb the highest mountain" 17.The difference between a sport and a game has to do with the kind of _________. A) activity B) rules C) uniform D) climbers 18. Mountaineering can be called a team sport because _________. A) it is an Olympic event B) teams compete against each other C) mountaineers depend on each other while climbing D) there are five climbers on each team 19. Mountaineers compete against _________. A) nature B) each other C) other teams D) intermational standards 20.Choose the best title for the passage: __________. A) Mountaineering Is Different from Golf and Football B) Mountaineering Is More Attractive than Other Sports C) Mountaineering D) Mountain Climber

阅读训练: 阅读训练:大学英语四级阅读理解练习七
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or

unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage: As the horizons of science have expanded, two main groups of scientists have emerged. One is the pure scientist; the other, the applied scientist. The pure or theoretical scientist does original research in order to understand the basic laws of nature that govern our world. The applied scientist adapts this knowledge to practical problems. Neither is more important than the other, however, for the two groups are very much related. Sometimes, however, the applied scientist finds the "problems" for the theoretical scientist to work on. Let's take a particular problem of the aircraft industry: heat-resistant metals. Many of the metals and alloys(合金)which perform satisfactorily in a car cannot be used in a jet-propelled plane. New alloys must be used, because the jet engine operates at a much higher temperature than automobile engine. The turbine wheel in a turbojet (涡轮喷气发动机)must withstand temperatures as high as 1 600 degrees Fahrenheit, so aircraft designers had to turn to the research metallurgist 冶金学家) the development of metals and alloys that would do the ( for job in jet-propelled planes. Dividing scientists into two groups pure and applied is only one broad way of classifying them, however. When scientific knowledge was very limited, there was no need for men to specialize. Today, with the great body of scientific knowledge, scientists specialize in many different fields. Within each field, there are even further subdivisions. The various sciences have become more and more interrelated until no one branch is entirely independent of the others. Many new specialties-geophysics and biochemistry, for example-have resulted from combining the knowledge of two or more sciences. 1. Concerning the relative importance of pure and applied scientists, the writer thinks that ________. A) applied scientists are more important B) pure scientists are more important C) neither are important D) both are equally important 2. "The horizons of science have expanded" means that ________. A) scientists can see further out into space B) science has developed more fields of endeavor(事业) C) the horizon changes size from year to year D) scientists have made a machine for enlarging the horizon

3. The work of the pure scientist is __________. A) working out laws for practical problems B) developing materials to be applied to practice C) doing original research to understand the nature of the universe D) applying the basic laws to practical problems 4. New alloys must be found to ___________. A) perform satisfactorily in a car B) withstand high temperatures in jet-propelled planes C) operate a jet-propelled plane D) resist heat in a car 5. Different fields of science_________. A) can be further divided. B) are independent of the others. C) are against the basic laws D) have become less interrelated Questions 6-10 are based on the following passage: Thoughts from yesterday guide us toward tomorrow. More than 2000 years ago, Caecilius Statius, a Roman slave who became famous as a playwright, observed, "We plant trees to benefit another generation." His remark is as apt (适当 的) as it was when he made it and shows how thinkers of the past can still teach us something about the future. George Bernard Show, for instance, made an even more perceptive remark. "We are made wise, not by the recollection(回忆)of our past, but by the responsibility for our future." This responsibility begins when we recognize that we ourselves create our future that the future is not something imposed upon us by fate or other forces beyond our control. We ourselves build the future both through what we do and what we do not do. Once we recognize our power over the future, we inevitably begin to anticipate the consequences of what we do and to do those things that will improve our future; in short, we begin to act wisely. And our own responsibility for the future bears the promise of a better future world, because, as C. P. Snow, the novelist and philosopher, once remarked: "The sense of the future is behind all good policies. Unless we have it, we can give nothing either wise or decent to the world." And our obligations must be more to the future than the past. Our greatest responsibility is to be good ancestors. 6. According to the passage, the first sentence means ________. A) we should often think about our past, which will make us a good man B) should forget the past and get ready for the future

C) future is always promising than the past D) we should use what we learnt in the past to build our future 7. What can we learn from Caecilius Statius' remark? A) We should plant more trees than our descendants.(后代) B) Tree will be a great help to our descendants. C) We should do something useful (including planting trees) for another generation. D) Tree is important to the world. 8. According to George Bernard Shaw, ______can make us wise. A) what we learn in the past. B) what we should do for the future C) our memory of the past D) our respect of the future 9. What does the sentence "our own responsibility for the future bears the promise of a better future world" mean? A) Our own responsibility will build a better future world. B) We bear the burden of our responsibility in the past. C) We should make a promise to the next generation. D) We should work hard. 10. According to the writer, what can we do for our descendants? A) Anticipate the consequences of what we do B) Protect the environment. C)build the future D)recognize our power over the future Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage: Criticism of research lays a significant foundation for future investigative work, but when students begin their own projects, they are likely to find that the standards of validity(效力)in field work are considerably stricter than the standards for most library research. When students are faced with the concrete problem of proof by field demonstration, they usually discover that many of the important relationships they may have criticized other researcher for failing to demonstrate are very difficult to understand indeed. They will find, if they submit an outline or questionnaire to their classmates for criticism, that other students make comments similar to some they themselves may have made in discussing previously published research. For example,student researchers are likely to begin with a general question but find themselves forced to narrow its focus. They may learn that questions whose meanings seem perfectly obvious to them are not clearly understood by others, or that questions which seemed entirely objective to them appear to be highly biased (有偏见的) to someone else. They usually find that the formulation(准则) of good research questions is a much more subtle and

frustrating task than is generally believed by those who have not actually attempted it. 11. What does the author think about trying to find weakness in other people's research? A) It can be useful in planning future research. B) It may cause researchers to avoid publishing good works. C) It should only be attempted by experienced researchers. D) It is currently being done to excess.

12.
12. According to the passage, what is one major criticism students often make of published research? A) The researchers failed to provide an appropriate summary. B) The researchers did not adequately establish the relationship involved. C) The research has not been written in an interesting way. D) The research has been done in unimportant fields. 13. How do students in class often react to another student's research? A) They offer unusually good suggestions for improving the work. B) They are especially critical of the quality of the research. C) They react the way they do to any other researcher. D) They show a lot of sympathy for the student researcher. 14. What do student researchers often learn when they discuss their work in class? A) Some students feel that the conclusions are too obvious. B) Other students rarely have objective comments about it. C) Other students do not believe the researchers did the work themselves. D) Some students do not understand the meaning of the researcher's questions. 15.Students may have to change their research projects because ________. A) Their time is very limited B) Their original questions are too broad C) Their teachers do not give adequate abvice D) Their budgets are too high Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage: Dry regions in the south western United States have become increasingly inviting playgrounds for the growing number of recreation seekers who own vehicles such as motorcycles or powered trail bikes and indulge (being crazy) in hill-climbing contests or in carving new trails in the desert. But recent scientific studies show that these off-road vehicles can cause damage to desert landscapes that has long-range effects on the area's water-conserving characteristics and on the entire ecology (the scientific study of the pattern of relations of plants, animals, and people to each other and to their surroundings), both plant and animal. Research by scientists in the western Mojave Desert in California revealed that the compaction (压实) of the sandy dry soil resulting from the passage of just one motorcycle markedly reduced the infiltration (渗透) ability

of the soil and created a stream of rain runoff water that eroded the hillside surface. In addition, the researchers discovered that the soil compaction caused by the off-road vehicles often killed native plant species and resulted in the invasion of different plant species within a few years. The native perennial (多年生植物)(of a plant that lives for more than two years) species required many more years before they showed signs of returning. The scientists calculated that roughly a century would be required for the infiltration capacity of the Mojave soil to be restored after being compacted by vehicles. 16.What is the main topic of the passage? A) Problems caused by recreational vehicle. B) Types of off-road vehicles. C) Plants of the southwestern desert. D) The increasing number of recreation seekers. 17.According to the passage, what is being damaged? A) Motorcycles. B) The desert landscape. C) Roads through the desert . D) New plant species. 18.According to the passage, the damage to plants is ______________. A) unnoticeable B) superficial C) long-lasting D) temporary 19.According to the passage, what happens when the soil is compacted? A) Little water flows through. B) Better roads are made. C) Water is conserved. D) Deserts are expanded. 20.What is happening to the desert hillsides? A) The topsoil is being eroded. B) The surface is being watered. C) There are fewer types of plants growing on them. D) There are fewer streams running through them.

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