The man who lives next to us sells vegetables.

后 放置于名词之_____,修饰名词的从句 先行词 1. 关系词 2. 3.

连接作用 在从句中充当成分

who/that is 1) Do you know the man ________standing over there?

2) The girl ________we were talking about is Joan.

(that/which) I lost yesterday? 3) Did you see the pen _______

whose 4) Who is the person _____handwriting is the best of you

that/which 5) The book _______ is about the USA has been lost. whose 6) I am sitting in the chair ______legs ( are)broken.

关 系 代 词 的 用 法 小 结

指 人 的 关 系 代 词 指 物 的 关 系 代 词



一致 可 that/who(m) 宾语 省略 定语 主谓 主语 whose that/which


一致 可 that/which 宾语 省略 定语 whose

whose 可以指代人或者物

The house , ____ door is new ,belongs to Jim. The house, ____ the door is new , belongs to Jim.

Whose + 名词 = of which/whom +冠词+名词

冠词+名词+ of which/whom

非限制性定语从句中,要表示先行词的一 部分时,可用

“数词/代词 + of +whom/which”的结构,
1) There are 100 teachers in our school, __________ 60 are women teachers. of whom 2) There are 50 students in our class, ______________have been to Beijing. two-thirds of whom 3) That table has four legs, of which all___________ are very short.

“介词+ 关系词”的定语从句:
介词放在关系代词前面时,只有介词+which(指物)和 介词+whom(指人),这时关系代词一律不能省略。

Situation 1

Are these two sentences right?

The man who/whom you spoke The city that/which she lives


was a scientist.

is far away.

Situation 2 Are these two sentences right?

The man The city

to in

who/whom you spoke was a scientist. × that/which she lives is far away. ×

可见,who、that 不能用与介词之后 而且,引导词在介词后是不能省略的.

Situation 3

Can we put the prepositions of these 2 sentences before the attributive clause?

Is this the watch that you are looking for? The old man whom I am looking after is better .

在固定短语中介词不能提前,如: care for, call on, put off, listen to, look for, look after ,take care of …

介词的判断 一根据前面的先行词 二根据词语搭配

1a b c d

on which she spent $10? Do you like the book Do you like the book for which she paid $10? from which she learned a lot? Do you like the book about which she often talks? Do you like the book

with 2A) The pen ____ which he is writing now was bought yesterday. without B) The gas _______ which we can not live is called oxygen.

Can you work them out????


when on 1 A). I’ll never forget the day _____ which she said good-bye to me. for why B)Who can give me the reason ______ which he hasn’t turned up yet?
on 2A) The farm __ which we worked ten years ago isn’t where what it used to be. under where B) This is the tree ____which he we used to play games.

Relative adv. (used as adverbial)

when, where, why

prep.+which e.g when=in/on/at/during …+which, where=in/on/at/under…+which, why=for+which.


when 引导定语从句
在从句中作时间状语,先行词是表 示时间的名词。 ☆ Four o’clock is the hour when
the school is dismissed. ☆ The summer of 1969, when men first set foot on the moon, will never be forgotten.

先行词是时间时,并非都用when引导从句来 修饰,试比较: ☆ Do you still remember the days when _________there was no electricity? 从句中缺少时间状语 ☆ Do you still remember the days (which/that) we spent together? ____________


where 引导定语从句
在从句中作地点状语,先行词通常是表示 地点的名词。
☆ A one-way street is a street where vechicles can only go one way. ☆ The Tower of London, where so many people lost their lives , is now a tourist attention.

where The place ________Lu Xun once worked has become a museum.

先行词是地点时,并非都用where引导从句来修 饰,试比较:

(which/that) I visited last week is The place___________ in Hong Kong. 从句中缺少宾语 vt.

Why 引导定语从句
The reason why he left is still not clear to us.

先行词是the reason时并非都用why 从句中缺少原因状语

why That’s the reason _______he was late. (which/that) That’s the reason _______________he gave me. vt.

when, where,why和 that, which
这主要看两点: 一是定语从句是否完整 (即充当什么句子成分); 二是定语从句中的谓语动词是否是一个 及物动词。

? 补充: ? 关系副词 where 的先行词亦可是有 地点含义的抽象名词 ? He has reached the point where a change is needed. ? There are cases where the word “that”can be omitted.

2.先行词 the way 后的关系词:

All depends on the way ( that / in which ) you start the work.

3. 定语从句中的主谓一致: The book which lies on the desk is mine The books which lie on the desk are mine. This is one of the best novels that have appeared this year. This is the only one of the best boys who was praised.

Fill in the blanks: 1.The terrible typhoon killed the people and cattle that _______ were in the fields. that 2.The wind blew down the tallest tree _______ is in front of our school gate. (that) 3.This is the very thing ______ I was looking for. (that) 4.This is the second novel ______ I have ever read. that 5.There is nothing in the world _______ can frighten me. that 6.Who is the man _______ is reading under the tree? that 7.My hometown is not the same one _______ it used to be twenty years ago.

只用that, 不用which的情况:
1)先行词是不定代词, 如all, little, few, much, anything, everything, nothing, none, the one, some 等。

Is there anything that you want?

2)先行词被all, every, no, some, little, few, much, one of , the only, the very, the right, 等所修饰时。 The only thing that he remembered was her name.


This is the first film that I’ve seen since I came


They talked about the teachers and the things(that) they remembered in the school.

5)在以疑问词who或which开头的句 子中

Who is the man that is shouting there?
Which is the book that you want to buy?

She is not the girl that she used to be.
China is no longer the country that she used to be.

? (7).

有两个定语从句时,其中一个关 系代词已用which,另外一个宜用 that.

5.不宜用that 的情况: 1)关系代词前有介词时 2)非限制性定语从句中 3)先行词本身是that 时 The clock is that which tells the time.

6.先行词是人时只宜用who不宜用that的情况: 1)当先行词是one, ones, anybody, anyone, all, none, those 等, 指人时一般用who,不用that.

Anyone who breaks the law should be punished. Those who want to go to the cinema will have to wait at the gate of the school.

2)在 there be 开头的句子中 There is a comrade who wants to see you. 3) 在非限制性定语从句中 On the second floor, there lived a young man, who was a artist.

as 引导的限制性定语从句
Please complete the following sentences and compare: as This is the same pen ____I lost This is such an interesting book ____ we all like. as as This is so interesting a book _____ we all like.

that This is such an interesting book ____we all like it. that This is so interesting a book ____we all like it.

the same…as…, such….as…, so…as… 中as引导的是限制性定语从句

补充: as与which引导的非限制性定语从句:
1.As(正如,就像),引导的非限制 性定语从句可以放在句首、句中、句末。 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只能 放在句末。

As we all know, the earth is round.
As is known to all, the sun rises in

the east.

2.从句与主句语义一致时常用as, 反之

She has married again, as was

She has married again, which was unexpected.

3.as 在从句中做主语时,常接行为动
词的被动语态,如:as is known/said/ reported …, 如果从句中行为动词是 主动,一般用which. She has been late again, as was expected. Tom has made great progress,

which made us happy.

1(1)There are two boys in Peter's, both of whom are white. ____ (2)There are two boys in Peter‘s, and both of them are white. ___

2(1)This kind of plant grows best at the places ______ which/that are warm and wet. (2)This kind of plant grows best where it is warm and wet. ____

D 3 (1) Is this museum ____ you visited the other day? A (2) Is this the museum _____you visited the other day? A. that B. where C. in which D. the one
know 4(1)John is one of the students who _____ English. knows (2)John is the only one of the students who____ English. knows (3)One of the students ______ English。

5(1).It is the library_____I borrowed the book. where ( 定语从句 ) that (2).It is from this library____I borrowed the book. ( 强调句型 )

1.It is the same dress as I lost. 2. It is the same dress that I lost . 3.It is such a nice book as I like.

4.It is such a nice book that I like it very much.

Correct the sentences:
1. I’m using the pen which he bought it yesterday. 2. Is that factory which your father once worked in?
the ^ one

3. The man whom I spoke is from Canada.
^ to

4. July 1,1999 is the day when we’ll never forget. ____

Correct the sentences:
5. I still remember the holidays I stayed with them. ^ when
____ 6. I’m going to work in the hospital where needs me.
(that/which) who ___ 7. Those that haven’t been to the West Lake will

gather at the school gate.

8. I don’t like the way which you talked to your ^ friend. in

Correct the sentences:
9.This is the last time when I’ve given you lessons. ____

10. Soon they came to a farm house,and in front of which sat a small boy. ____

11. We heard the news which our team won the game. ____

12. The reason which he explained it sounds ____ reasonable. why

Correct the sentences:

13. Those at the desk want to buy tickets write down ^ your names. 14. That was the reason ______ she looked old. because

15. Miss Chen is the only one of the few teachers who give us wonderful English lessons in our school. ____
gives ____ 16. Taiwan, that we know, belongs to China. as

Correct the sentences:
____ 17. It is the one of the best films that have been shown recently. has ____ 18. The third place which we are going to visit is Hangzhou. that As _____ 19. Which is known to all, many satellite are going

around in the sky.
____ 20. The students and things which you spoke of are known to us. that

Correct the sentences:
21.Einstein is such a great scientist ____we must learn from. that 22. The student who’s book I had borrowed didn’t come to _____ school today. Whose 23. Who is the worker who took some pictures of the factory? ____ that 24. The bike on which I travelled was his. by ___




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