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大学英语六级翻译练习(含时态,语态,虚拟语句等--总之很全)1


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大学英语六级翻译练习(含时态,语态,虚拟语句等--总之很全)
大学英语六级考试 CET6 中翻译共有 5 句话。翻译分值占卷面总分 5%。我们的目标是全拿!英语六级翻译 高分指导及练习大全系列文章中会给大家介绍一些翻译策略和应试技巧,相信对大家做题有所帮助。精品 网祝各位朋友们考试顺利! [1] 翻译题的做题策略及练习 [2] 答案和详解 应试技巧 汉语主动句译成英语被动句 我们在汉译英时,往往也需要把汉语主动句译成被动句。这是因为:为了保证上下文连贯,使衔接更 紧密,句子更自然;或强调动作承受者;或使语气婉转、措辞恰当。具体转换方法有如下两种。 1)把汉语主动句的宾语译成英语被动句的主语。 例 1 (将领你们去参观我们的新车间)by the secretary. 译文:You will be shown our new workshop. 简评:如果这句话不是划线填内容,你完全可以将它翻译成 The secretary will show you our new workshop。正是因为题型是补全句子,这就给翻译带来了一定的难度,你必须去适应题型要求而不是让题 型来适应你。让我们看看译文已给出部分:by the secretary 显然是一个被动语态特征,"秘书"在译文里已经 由原来的主语变成了译文句子的补足成分。所以,题目是暗示我们要把原句中"你们"转换成译句里的主语, 这样才符合出题要求。 例 2 You (我们期待你能组织贸易推广活动)this time. 译文:are expected to organize the trade publicity campaigns. 简评:根据题目可推知全句意思是:我们期望你能组织这次的贸易推广活动。中文句子主语、谓语、 宾语分别是:我们、期望、你。但是在英文译文的给出部分中我们看到句子以 you 开头,也就是说"你被期 望能组织这次贸易推广活动"。中文的宾语变成了英文的主语,这就要求我们在翻译时要使用被动语态。全 句完整答案是:You are expected to organize the trade publicity campaigns this time. 2)当汉语句以"我们"、"人们"、"大家"等泛指性代词作主语时,在翻译成英文的时候常常可以忽略主 语不译, 并把英文译句处理成被动语态。 处理后的英文译句往往带有 know, find, see, say, suppose, estimate, report,suggest,stress,consider,expect,admit,point,understand 等动词。 例 3 如果原子失去一个或多个电子,我们就说这个原子带正电荷。 译文:If one or more electrons are removed,the atom is said/believed/thought to be positively charged. 简评:这句话是一个条件从句。即:在原子失去一个或多个电子的情况下,这个电子带正电荷。"我们 就说这个原子带正电荷"可理解为"这个原子被认为/ 被确信/ 被说成是带正电荷"。那么根据前面所说的原 则,我们在翻译时可以将泛指性主语"我们"省略不译,并使用被动语态。 从这个例子里我们还可以看出,在科技文章中,根据英语表达习惯我们应当多采用被动语态,以强调 事物的客观性。 例 4 人们采用各种措施来防止腐蚀。 译文:All kinds of measures are taken to prevent corrosion. 简评:这句话可以按原文译成主动态,即:People have taken all kinds of measures to prevent corrosion。 也可以用被动语态来翻译--All kinds of measures are taken to prevent corrosion。 两者比较而言, 被动态译文更 突出表明所有、种种措施已经付诸实施,all kinds of measures 得到强调,而主动态译法只是平铺直叙,重 点不突出。 此外,汉语句子中有"据说"、"据了解"、"据报道"、"据估计"、"据传言"等词语时,可以酌情译成相应 的英语被动句, It is supposed that 据推测……) It is said that 据说……) It is estimated that 据估计……) 如: ( , ( , ( , It is calculated that(预计……) is reported that(据报道……) is suggested that(有人建议) is stressed ,It ,It ,It
that(有人强调……) is thought that(有人认为……) is considered that(有人认为……) is expected that ,It ,It ,It (据期望……) It is well known that 众所周知……) It must be admitted that 必须承认……) It must be pointed , ( , ( , out that(必须指出……) is understood that(谁都知道……) may be safety said that(可以有把握地说……) ,It ,It 等。 例 5 据了解,这个地区有丰富的自然资源。 译文:The area is known to be rich in natural resources. 例 6 众所周知,自然光其实是由许多种颜色构成。 译文:It is well known that natural light is actually made up of many colors. Exercise Ten 1. A dog has won a German government award (因协助警方劝阻一名妇女自杀). 2. The manager points out (我们的工作进展令人满意). 3. (这栋房子需要现代化) has no bathroom or electricity. :it 4. (飞机什么时候起飞)has not been announced. 5. His idea is (应该立即执行计划).
答案解析: 答案解析: 1. for helping police persuade a woman not to commit suicide 解析:本句考查的是句子逻辑关系。根据意思可知,句子前半句是果,后半句是因。"一只狗因为协助 警方阻止了一名妇女的自杀而获德国政府奖项"。英语通常把表示目的、假设、原因、让步等内容放在句子 的后部,因此这句话可以由 because,for 来引导。"自杀"有一个固定短语 commit suicide,"劝阻"要用强调 结果成功的 persuade。 2. that our work is progressing satisfactorily 解析:本题考查词性的转译,即:将原汉语句子中的动词"令人满意"转移成英语的副词 satisfactorily。 这种词性转换是翻译常用技巧,适当的转换可使译文通顺,符合英文表达习惯。另外,句子需填入部分在 全句中充当宾语从句,因而不能漏译 that。 3. This house needs modernizing 解析:本题同样考查汉英词性转换技巧。全句意为:这栋房子既没有浴室也没有电, (因而)需要现代 化。"现代化"在汉语里是一个名词,在这个句子中实际上指的是"房子"需要配置现代化设备,它的含义不等 同于 modernization,"配备现代化设施"可以用 modernizing 来表示。英语里很多以 -ing 结尾的动词表示该 动作的过程,通常与 need 连用,如:These clothes need washing. 本题是从名词到动词的转换。 4. When the plane is to take off 解析:本题考查的是以连接副词 when 引导的主语从句的翻译。中文意思是:飞机什么时候起飞还没 有公布。这样的主语从句一般可以采用顺序法翻译。顺序法同样也适用于以 that,what,whatever,who, whoever, where, how, why 等引导的主语从句。 认识他的人都信任他。 如: (Who knows him will believe him.) 本题的另一个考点是:"什么时候起飞"是一个将来时态,可以用 be to 来表达。 5. that the plan should be carried out immediately 解析:本题综合考查了表语从句、无主语翻译以及惯用搭配。首先,His idea is 前半部分是一个完整的 主谓结构,句子需填入部分在全句中充当表语;其次,"应该立即执行计划"中"计划"是被用来执行的,但是 题干中并没有提到谁会来执行这个计划。因此,在主语没有出现的情况下,可以采用被动译法。"执行计划 "在英语里可以用 carry out the plan,perform the plan,implement the plan 来表示。
二、汉译英专项练习 一、倍数增减的表示法 1) Force N1 (比力 N2 大 2.5 倍).
2) This substance (反应速度是另外那种物质的三倍). 3) The earth (是月球大小的 49 倍). 4) The landlord (想将租金提高三分之一). 5) They (计划将投资增加一倍). 二、时态 1) Be quick, (否则等我们到达教堂时婚礼就已经结束了). 2) When she got home, (孩子们已经睡着了). 3) When I prepare for the college entrance examination, (我姐姐将在海边 度假). 4) I(一上午都在修改我的简历). 5) Do you often go on holiday? (不,我已经有五年没有度假了). 6) He joined the army in October, 2001. (他参军已五年了). 三、被动语态 1) The blackboard and chalk (正在被电脑和投影机所取代). 2) The book (到今年年底就将已出版). 3) Computer models (可以用来演示细胞工作的方式). 4) When the bill of fare was brought, (我惊呆了, 价格大大超出了我的预 料). 5) (必须立即采取有效措施)to eliminate sandy storms. 四、情态动词 1) The phone is ringing, (但是没人接听。她一定不在家). 2) I can’t find my sunglasses. (我可能昨天落在咖啡店里了). 3) You screamed in your sleep last night. (你一定梦见什么可怕的东西 了). 4) It’s a pity. (你本应该邀请她来参加你的毕业典礼的). 5) (其实我没必要穿上我最好的套装去参加那次聚会的); most of the guests were wearing jeans and sweaters. 五、虚拟语气 1) I wish (我年轻的时候有你们这样的机会). 2) If only (他知道这病是可以治好的)! Then he would not have killed himself. 3) —— Would you like him to paint your door with yellow stars? —— I’d rather he (漆成蓝色的,而且不带任何装饰). 4) It’s high time that (采取措施解决交通堵塞的问题). 5) Hugh usually talks (仿佛在大会上发表演说似的). 6) We insist that (让杰克立刻进医院). 7) It was advised that (在居民区设立更多的流动商店). 8) His proposal was that (他们成立一个专门委员会来检查这个问题). 9) We are going to discuss his suggestion that (取消期中考试). 10) It is ridiculous that (我们在一个总是下雨的国家还缺水). 11) It is essential that (每个人都为紧急情况做好准备). 12) (如果他按照我告诉他的办法订票), we would have had quite a comfortable journey. 13) I was to have made a speech (要不是有人把我的话打断了).
14) It didn’t rain last night. (要是下了,地就会湿的). 15) (如果我一直住在纽约), I would know the U.S. well now. 16) If the doctor had not come in time, (他现在就不在人间了). 17) But for his help, (我们就不会以这么低的价格租到房子了). 18) I used my calculator; (否则,我会花更长的时间才能算出这道题). 19) Were I in your place, (我会毫不犹豫地抓住机会). 20) Had it not been for their opposition, (这项法案早就通过了). 21) Should there be another world war, (人类的继续存在就会有危险). 22) He walked lightly (以免惊醒婴儿). 六、不定式 1) It was a great achievement (10 个月建成一栋 24 层的楼). 2) It is necessary (我们在考试前好好地睡一晚上觉). 3) It is generous (你把这么多钱捐给灾区人民). 4) The teacher decided (不惩罚那些上课迟到的学生). 5) Mr. Green was wondering (是否去看望在法国的儿子). 6) The gardener (刚才警告我不要在中午给花浇水). 7) We (请他给我们做有关现代艺术的讲座). 8) He feels it challenging (在这么大一所大学做学生会主席). 9) We hope to have more opportunities (把我们在课堂上学到的东西应 用于实践). 10) The bad weather (破坏了我们在露天放电影的计划). 11) The environmentalists are against (在郊区建一座核电站的决定). 12) Sally Ride was the first (探索外部空间的美国妇女). 13) They lifted a rock (结果砸了自己的脚). 14) He was surprised (在这个山村遇见一个中学同学). 15) I am sorry (占用了您这么多时间). 16) I happened (在他冲进来的时候站在门口). 17) She doesn’t like (被当作客人). 18) If you want to save money, you’d better (到校园书店买旧书). 19) We did nothing (除了整天打桥牌). 20) We were made (进屋之前在垫子上擦擦脚). 七、分词 1) This is the first time that I heard (用意大利语唱“祝你生日快乐”). 2) The cars (停在消防通道的) will be ticketed. 3) The war went on for years, (夺去了成千上万人的生命). 4) The farmers used a new insecticide, thus (将平均产量提高了 15%). 5) Einstein watched the toy in delight, (想推导出它的运转原理). 6) (看到大家都在聚精会神地看书), we stopped talking and began to study. 7) (被这个男孩的事迹深深打动了), they decided to pay for his education. 8) (从一个年轻朋友的眼光来看), Einstein was a simple, modest and ordinary man. 9) (好久没有收到父母的来信了), he was worried about them. 八、动名词
1) (每天洗冷水澡) does him a lot of good. 2) They tried to avoid (让女儿做她不喜欢的事情). 3) Developing varieties is the key to (使我们的产品进入国际市场). 4) It is no use (为洒了的牛奶而哭泣). 5) He denied(偷看了同桌的试卷). 6) We congratulated her on (被提升为经理). 九、非谓语动词用法区别 1) Success means (非常努力地工作). 2) John meant (开车去那儿,但他的车出了故障). 3) I heard him (在跟他的母亲谈话). 4) I heard him (跟他的母亲谈了一个小时). 5) He jumped into the pool to save the child (结果却摔断了自己的腿). 6) He jumped from the burning house, (摔断了双腿). 7) He was happy (看到父母很健康). 8) (看到父母安然无恙), he issued a sigh of relief. 9) (跟随着它的脚印), the zoologists spotted the hungry panda. 10) The pop, (后面跟着两个保镖), came to meet his fans. 十、名词从句 1) (他们为什么离开家乡去云南) is still a secret. 2) (最让我不解的) was that he spoke English so well. 3) (这么做是故意的) became obvious. 4) It is not clear yet (谁应该为这件事负责). 5) It is none of your business (玛丽与谁订婚). 6) Don’t put off till tomorrow (今天能做的事). 7) This novel is just (我一直在寻找的). 8) It is not yet known (机器人是否有一天能拥有象人一样的视力). 9) (她是否喜欢那个礼物) is not clear to me. 10) My main problem right now is (我是否应该请求另一笔贷款). 11) It all depends on (他们是否会支持我们). 12) You have yet to answer my question (我是否可以指望你的投票). 13) Finally, the workers got an answer (政府做不了什么事来提高他们工 资). 14) Obviously, there was little certainty (主席会同意他的提议). 十一、 十一、定语从句 1) Everyday many tourists come to visit (鲁迅出生的那栋房子). 2) The old lady died (在她儿子到达的那天). 3) This is (我赞成这一改革的理由). 4) Let ABC be (一个三边不等长的三角形). 5) Some of the roads were flooded, (这使我们的旅程更为艰难). 6) He introduced me to his students, (他们大部分是英语专业的学生). 7) (众所周知), water is a liquid. 十二、 十二、状语从句 1) (不管我们谈论什么), Jim brings polities into the discussion. 2) (不管哪一方获胜), I shall be satisfied.
3) (不管观众中的一些人如何使劲地难为他), the comedian always had a quick, sharp reply. 4) We climbed high (这样我们就可以看到更好的风景). 5) The problem so very complicated (花了我们两个周才解决). 6) You can go out (只要你答应晚上 11 点以前回来). 7) I remember the whole thing (仿佛是昨天发生的). 十三、 十三、比较级最高级 1) Does she dance (跟她姐姐一样地优美)? 2) The buildings look (在伦敦比在这儿难看得多). 3) This is (他画的最好的画之一). 4) The higher you climb, (空气就越稀薄). 十四、 十四、倒装句 1) Scarcely had she fallen asleep (一阵敲门声就把她吵醒). 2) No sooner had Anne arrived (就生病了). 3) The husband was not hospitable to the visitor. (他妻子也没说一句欢迎 的话). 4) Only then (那个医生才意识到他的病人需要手术). 5) Only when you adjust down your price (我们才能做成这笔买卖). 十五、 十五、强调句 1) (正是 Jefferson 写下了)the Declaration of Independence. 2) (作者是带着真挚的情感)praises all that is progressive. 3) (正是因为水涨了)we could not cross the river. 4) (人们听见正是 Jim 这个无情的家伙) shouting at his mother in the dead of night. 5) (直到我告诉她) Mrs. Williams knew anything about it. 三、汉译英专项练习答案及解析 一、倍数增减的表示法 1) is 2.5 times greater than Force N2 (考点:倍数 + 形容词/副词比较级 + than) 2) reacts three times as fast as the other one (考点:倍数 + as + 形容词/副词 + as) 3) is 49 times the size of the moon (考点:倍数 + 名词) 4) wants to raise the rent by a third (考点:动词 + by + 数词/百分比/倍数) 5) plan to double their investment (考点:double + 名词) 二、时态 1) or the wedding will have finished by the time we get to the church (考点:将来完成时) 2) the children had fallen asleep (考点:过去完成时) 3) my sister will be taking her vacation at the seaside (考点:将来进行时)
4) have been revising my resume all the morning (考点:现在完成进行时) 5) No. It has been five years since I went on holiday (考点:It has been … since sb. did sth. 表示某人有多长时间没有做某事了) 6) He has been in the army for 5 years (考点:1. 现在完成时;2.要用持续性动词才能接一段时间) 三、被动语态 1) is being replaced by the computer and the projector (考点:被动语态的现在进行时) 2) will have been published by the end of this year (考点:被动语态的将来完成时) 3) can be used to demonstrate the way that cells work (考点:1. 被动语态与情态动词联用; 2. 汉语有些没有“被”字等标志词的句子也表示被 动, 要译成英语的被动语态) 4) I was startled, for the prices were a great deal higher than I had anticipated (考点:同“3”的考点 2) 5) Effective measures must be taken immediately (考点:汉语的无主句通常翻译成英语的被动语态) 四、情态动词 1) but there is no answer. She can’t be at home (考点:情态动词可以表示可能性,can’t 表示“一定不”) 2) I may have left them in the coffee shop yesterday (考点: “情态动词 can/could, may/might, must + 完成式”用于表示对过去发生的动作的主 观判断) 3) You must have dreamed of something terrible (考点:同上) 4) You should have invited her to your graduation ceremony (考点:“情态动词 should/ought to + have done” 用于评论过去应该做而实际并未做的动 作,含有批评的意思) 5) I needn’t have put on my best suit to go to the party (考点:“情态动词 needn’t + have + done”表示对过去发生的动作进行评论,认为“无须发 生”,“不必做”) 五、虚拟语气 1) I had had your opportunities when I was young (考点:I wish 后的 that 从句中用过去完成式表示过去没有实现或不可能实现的愿望) 2) he had known this disease is curable (考点:If only 引导的感叹句表示“但愿”或“要是……就好了”,用法与 I wish…基本相 同) 3) painted it blue, and without any decorations (考点:would rather 后的 that 从句中用过去式表示不是事实) 4) measures were taken to solve the problem of traffic jams (考点:It’s (about/high) time 后的 that 从句中用过去式,表示“该是……的时候了”) 5) as though he were delivering a speech at an assembly (考点: if / as though 引导的从句中用过去式表示和现在事实相反或对现在情况有所怀 as
疑) 6) Jack (should) be sent to hospital right now (考点:表示“建议、命令、要求、想法”的动词所接的宾语从句通常用“(that) sb. (should) do”的虚拟形式) 7) more mobile shops (should) be set up in the residential area (考点:表示“建议、命令、要求、想法”的动词所接的主语从句通常用“(that) sb. (should) do”的虚拟形式) 8) they (should) set up a special board/committee to examine this problem (考点:表示“建议、命令、要求、想法”的名词所接的表语从句通常用“(that) sb. (should) do”的虚拟形式) 9) the mid-term exams (should) be canceled (考点: 表示“建议、 命令、 要求、 想法”的名词所接的同位语从句通常用“(that) sb. (should) do”的虚拟形式) [表示“建议、命令、要求、想法”的动词及其名词常见的有:advise (advice), agree (agreement), decide (decision), decree, demand, determine (determination), grant, indicate (indication), insist (insistence), order, prefer (preference), propose (proposal), request, require (requirement), resolve (resolution), stipulate (stipulation), suggest(suggestion), urge, vote;常见的 这类动词还有: allow, arrange, ask, beg, concede, demonstrate, ensure, intend, move, pledge, pray 等] 10) we (should) be short of water in a country where it is always raining (考点:在 It is/was +形容词后的 that 从句中常用“sb. should do”的形式表示建议惊奇等。 这类形容词常见的有:advisable, anxious, appropriate, compulsory, crucial, desirable, eager, essential, fitting, imperative, important, impossible, improper, natural, necessary, obligatory, preferable, proper, urgent, vital, willing 等) 11) everyone (should) be prepared for emergency (考点:同上) 12) If he had booked tickets in the way I told him (考点:在非真实条件句中用过去完成式表示与过去的事实相反) 13) if I had not been interrupted (考点:同上) 14) If it had rained, the ground would be wet (考点:在非真实条件句中,当主句与从句表示的动作不是同时发生时,就根据情况用 适当的谓语动词形式) 15) If I had been living in New York (考点:同上) 16) he would be dead now (考点:同上) 17) we could not have rent a house at such a low price (考点:but for 经常作为非真实条件句中 if 的代用语) 18) otherwise, it would have taken me more time to work out this question (考点:otherwise 也经常作为非真实条件句中 if 的代用语) 19) I would seize the opportunity without hesitation (考点:在非真实条件句中如果有 were, had, should 这三个词,可以省去 if,采用主谓语 倒装的形式来表示条件)
20) this act would have been passed much earlier (考点:同上) 21) the continued existence of the human race would be in jeopardy (考点:同上) 22) lest he should awaken the baby (考点:lest (以免)引导的从句通常用 sb. should do 的形式表示虚拟) 六、不定式 1) to complete a 24-story building in 10 months (考点:不定式作主语时常用 it 作形式主语放在句首代替不定式,而将不定式移到谓语 后面) 2) for us to have a good night’s sleep before the test (考点:有时用“介词 for + 代词/名词”来表示不定式的逻辑主语,这时整句的谓语描述 的对象是事情, 这种情况下谓语中常用的形容词有: necessary, important, possible, impossible, all right, essential 等) 3) of you to donate so much money to the people in the disaster area (考点:有时用“介词 of + 代词/名词”来表示不定式的逻辑主语,这时整句的谓语描述的 对象是人, 这种情况下谓语中常用的形容词有: absurd, bold, brave, careful, careless, cowardly, cruel, foolish, generous, good, honest, kind, nice, polite, rude, selfish, silly, stupid, thoughtful, thoughtless, wicked, wise, wrong 等) 4) not to punish those students who had been late for class (考点:1. 用不定式结构作 decide 的宾语;2.不定式的否定形式是在 to 前加 not) (能带不定式作宾语的动词常见的有:afford, agree, ask, attempt, beg, begin, bother, care, choose, claim, consent, decide, demand, desire, dislike, endeavor, expect, fail, fear, forget, happen, hate, help, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, like, love, manage, mean, neglect, offer, plan, pledge, prefer, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, remember, resolve, start, threaten, undertake, venture, volunteer, vow, want, wish) 5) whether to visit their son in France (考点: “疑问词+不定式”作动词 wonder 的宾语。 能以这种结构作宾语的动词通常有 ask, consider, decide, discover, explain, forget, guess, know, learn, observe, remember, see, tell, understand, wonder 等) 6) warned me just now not to water flowers at noon (考点:不定式作宾语补语) 7) invited him to give us a lecture on modern art (考点:同上) (能带不定式结构作宾语补语的动词有 advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, challenge, command, compel, enable, determine, encourage, expect, feel, find, force, get, hate, have, hear, help, inform invite, let, like, make, mean, need, notice, notify, oblige, order, permit, persuade, remind, request, require, see, send, teach, tell, tempt, trouble, urge, want, warn, watch, wish 等。注:划线的动词 后面的不定式不带 to) 8) to be the chairman of students’ union in so large a university (考点:动词 + it + 形容词/名词 + 不定式。it 是形式宾语,不定式是真正宾语) 9) to apply what we have learned in class to practice (考点:不定式作定语) (不定式常用作以下名词/代词的定语:ability, ambition, anything, attempt, capability,
chance, curiosity, desire, decision, determination, effort, failure, intention, need, nothing, opportunity, place, plan, promise, reason, right, something, tendency, time, way, wish 等) 10) ruined our plan to show the film in the open air (考点:同上) 11) the decision to build a nuclear power station in the suburbs (考点:同上) 12) American woman to explore the outer space (考点:由 only, last, next,序数词或形容词最高级修饰的名词常用不定式作定语) 13) only to drop it on their own feet (考点:不定式作结果状语) 14) to meet a high school classmate in the mountain village (考点:不定式作原因状语) 15) to have taken up so much of your time (考点:1. 不定式作原因状语;2. 不定式的完成时) 16) to be standing in the doorway when he rushed in (考点:不定式的进行式) 17) to be treated as a guest (考点:不定式的被动形式) 18) go to the campus bookstore to buy used books (考点:不带 to 的不定式) 19) but play bridge the whole day (考点:同上) 20) to wipe our feet on the mat before going into the room (考点:当动词 see, make, hear 等用于被动语态时,不定式要保留 to) 七、分词 1) “Happy birthday to you” sung in Italian (考点:分词作宾语补语) (catch, discover, feel, find, get, have, hear, keep, leave, make, notice, see, watch 等动词常用 分词形式作宾语补语) 2) parked in the fire lane (考点:分词作定语) 3) killing thousands upon thousands of people (考点:分词作结果状语) 4) raising the average yield by 15 percent (考点:同上) 5) trying to deduce its operating principle (考点:分词作伴随状语) 6) Seeing that everyone was bending over his/her book (考点:分词作原因状语) 7) Deeply moved by the boy’s deeds (考点:同上) 8) Seen from the eyes of a young friend (考点:分词作方式状语) 9) Not having heard from his parents for a long time
(考点:1. 分词作原因状语;2.分词的否定形式;3.现在分词的完成式) 八、动名词 1) Taking a cold bath every day (考点:动名词作主语) 2) making their daughter do what she didn’t like to do (考点:动名词作动词的宾语) (下列动词后的宾语只能是动名词而不能是不定式:admit, advise, allow, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, delay, deny, dislike, dread, encourage, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, can’t help, imagine, keep, mind, miss, permit, postpone, practice, prevent, propose, recall, recollect, resent, resist, risk, can’t stand, stop, suggest) 3) getting our goods into the international market (考点:动名词作介词的宾语) 4) crying over spilled milk (考点:动名词用于固定结构。 动名词经常与以下词组连用:be worth, have difficulty (in), it be no good/use/worthwhile, there be no need/no point in, how/what about, what’s the point of, what’s the use of) 5) having peeked at his neighbor’s test paper (考点:动名词的完成式) 6) being promoted to manager (考点:动名词的被动式) 九、非谓语动词用法区别 1) working very hard. (考点:mean 表示“意味着”) 2) to drive there, but his car broke down (考点:mean 表示“打算”) (类似需要区别的动词还有 forget, remember, regret, go on, stop 等) 3) talking to his mother (考点:强调正在进行) 4) talk to his mother for an hour (考点:强调整个过程) 5) only to break his own leg (考点:意料之外的结果) 6) breaking his legs (考点:意料之中的结果) 7) to see his parents in good health (考点:不定式作原因状语位于句末) 8) Seeing his parents safe and sound (考点:分词作原因状语位于句首) 9) Following its footprints (考点:现在分词强调主动) 10) followed by two body guards (考点:过去分词强调被动) 十、名词从句 1) Why they left their hometown for Yunnan
(考点:主语从句) 2) What confused me most (考点:同上) 3) That this was done on purpose (考点:同上) 4) who should be responsible for this matter (考点:较长的主语从句可以后置,用 it 作形式主语) 5) whom Mary is engaged to (考点:同上) 6) what can be done today (考点:宾语从句) 7) what I have been looking for (考点:表语从句) 8) whether/if robots will one day have vision as good as human vision (考点:whether/if 引导后置的主语从句) 9) Whether she likes the present (考点:whether 引导前置的主语从句) 10) whether I should ask for another loan (考点:whether 引导表语从句) 11) whether they will support us (考点:whether 引导宾语从句) 12) whether I can count on your vote (考点:whether 引导同位语从句) (9-12 中的 whether 不可以替换为 if) 13) that the Government could do nothing to raise their wages (考点:同位语从句) 14) that the chairman would agree to this proposal (考点:同上) 十一、 十一、定语从句 1) the house where Lu Xun was born (考点:先行词为地点,定语从句通常由 where 引导) 2) on the day when his son arrived (考点:先行词为时间,定语从句通常由 when 引导) 3) the reason why I am in favor of this reform (考点:先行词为 reason,定语从句通常由 why 引导) 4) a triangle whose three sides are of unequal length (考点:whose 引导的定语从句) 5) which made our journey more difficult (考点:非限制性定语从句) 6) most of whom were English majors (考点:同上) 7) As is known to all (考点:as 引导的定语从句) 十二、 十二、状语从句
1) Whatever we talk about (考点:让步状语从句) 2) Whichever side wins (考点:同上) 3) However hard some people in the audience tried to upset him (考点:同上) 4) so that we might get a better view (考点:目的状语从句) 5) that it took us nearly two weeks to solve it (考点:结果状语从句) 6) as long as you promise to be back before 11 at night (考点:条件状语从句) 7) as if it happened yesterday (考点:方式状语从句) 十三、 十三、比较级最高级 1) as gracefully as her sister (考点:同级比较) 2) far uglier in London than here (考点:用副词或词组来修饰比较级) 3) one of the best pictures that he has ever painted (考点:最高级) 4) the thinner the air becomes (考点:“越……越……”结构) 十四、 十四、倒装句 1) when a knock at the door awakened her (考点:Hardly…when…结构) 2) than she fell ill (考点:No sooner…than…结构) 3) Nor did the wife say a word of welcome. (考点:nor 表示“后者与前者一样地不……”) 4) did the doctor realize that his patient needed surgery (考点:only 引导的状语位于句首,句子倒装) 5) can we conclude the business (考点:同上) 十五、 十五、强调句 1) It was Jefferson who wrote (考点:强调主语) 2) It is with genuine feeling that the author(考点:强调状语) 3) It was because the water had risen that(考点:强调状语从句) 4) It was Jim, the heartless fellow, who was heard(考点:强调主语) 5) It was not until I told her that(考点:强调状语从句)

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