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人教版高一英语英语必修3Unit1语法情态动词


Unit 1 Grammar

Modal Verb I 情态动词

什么是情态动词? (Modal Verbs)
情态动词表示说话人的某种感情或 语气,对某一动作或状态的某种态度。 表示“需要、可以、必须、应当”等。

Underline the modal verbs
① Most ancient festivals would

celebrate the end of cold weather.
② It is now a children's festival, when they can dress up

③ If the neighbors do not give any sweets,
the children might play a trick on them.
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Underline the modal verbs ④ In European countries, people will
usually decorate churches

⑤ She would never forget him.
⑥ At the Spring Festival in China, people may give children lucky money in red

paper.
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情态动词的语法特征
(除ought to; have to外) 2. 情态动词没有人称,数的变化,但有 些情态动词(如can, will)有一般式 和过去式的变化。

1. 情态动词不能单独做谓语,后接动词原形。

Modal Verb I
may/might can/could will/would shall/should must/can’t
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can和could
can的主要用法是:

1. 表示能力: eg. The girl can dance very well. 2. 表示说话者的推测﹑事物的可能性: eg. Can the news be true? 3. 在口语中, 表示请求或允许: eg. Can I sit here?

could的主要用法:
1. could ---can的过去式, 表示与过去 有关的能力或推测: eg. I can speak fluent English now , but I couldn’t last year.

2. could可以代替can表示请求, 但语气较can 客气、委婉: eg. Could you lend me your dictionary? Could I use your bike? ★用could 提问,答语用can (即:could 不能用于现在时态的答语中) ---Could I borrow your pen? ---yes, you can.

can和be able to辨析
can(could)和be able to都可以表示能力,意思

上没有区别。但can只有现在式和过去式,
而be able to则有更多的形式。如:

Those bags look really heavy, are you sure you’ll be able to carry them on your own?
2014年2月22日星期六 10

may和might
may 的用法:
1. 表示请求、允许(比can较为正式)
eg. May I come in ?

You may go now.
★用may 提问,否定回答用

must not (mustn’t) 禁止、阻止
had better not 最好别 may not 不可以

——May I smoke here? ——Yes, you may. No, you mustn’t No, you’d better not. No, you may not.

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2. 表示说话人的猜测(肯定句和否定句) 含有“也许”“大概” “可能”之意。 My friend may arrive this afternoon.

3. 表示祝愿; 但语气较正式: eg. May you succeed! May you have a good journey!

might 的用法
may 的过去时,表示可能性时,语气 显得更加不确定。 My friend might arrive this afternoon.

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will和would

Question: will/would 是助动词还是情态动词? will 构成将来时-----助动词。 表示“意志”“决心”“请求”---情态动词。 例: I will tell you something important. 我要告诉你一件重要的事情。(助动词) Will you tell her that I'm here? 请您告诉她说我在这儿,好吗?(情态动词)

will 和 would的用法
1、表示请求、建议等,用于第二人称
(用would比will委婉)

Will you please take a message for him? Would you please tell me your telephone number?
2014年2月22日星期六 16

2.表示习惯或倾向, 意为“总是”,“习惯于”。 eg: Fish will die without water. People will talk. (人们总会说闲话。) When we worked in the same office, we would often have coffee together.

shall和should
shall 用法
1. 表征求意见,用于一、三人称 , (疑问句)
Shall we go by train, Mom?

Shall he attend the meeting?

shall和should
shall 用法

2.用于二 、三人称 的陈述句中,表威胁、 警告、命令、允诺等语气 He shall be sorry for it one day, I tell you.
(警告) You shall do as I say. (命令) If your children don’t do as I tell you, you shall not go to the party. (威胁)

should 用法 1. 应该=ought to (劝告、建议)
You should study hard.

You should read his new book.

2. 表估计,可译为“按理应当”、“估计”。

Try phoning Robert, he should be home now.

should 用法 3. 用于第一人称,询问意愿,语气温和委婉 Should I trust him? What should I do now?

4. 万一,用在if引导的条件句中,表示一件事 听起来可能性很小,但也不是完全不可能。 或直接用于句首。

If I should be free tomorrow, I’ll come.
Should I be free tomorrow, I’ll come.

should 用法 5. “居然”,“竟然”,表说话人意料之外。

To my surprise, he should be a thief. Why should everyone want to marry Tony?

must的主要用法
1. 必须,应该。 语气比should,ought to 强烈。 eg: Everybody must obey the law.

You mustn’t drive so fast in the street. 2. 表示有把握的猜测。“一定”、“准是” 结构:must be eg: He must be an honest boy.

★用must 提问,回答方式 肯定回答:yes, please / I’m afraid so 否定回答 :needn’t / don’t have to

--Must I come back before ten? --No, you needn’t. ★表猜测的否定或疑问句用can/could,不 用mustn’t. If Mary didn’t leave here until 5:00, she can’t be home yet.

Exercise
1. ----____ I go out to play, mum? ----No, you___. You should do your homework first. A. Might; wouldn’t B. May; had better not C. Must; mustn’t D. Need; mustn’t

2. ---Where is Emma? ---I can’t say for sure where she is, but she___ be out shopping. A. can B. should C. must D. may

3. The room is in a terrible mess; it ____ cleaned. A. can’t have been B. couldn’t be C. may have been D. would be

4. There ____ be any difficulty about passing the road test since you have practised a lot in the driving school. A. mustn’t B. shan’t C. shouldn’t D. needn’t

1 Children under 12 years of age in that country ____ be under adult supervision when in a public library.
(2004 上海)

A. must C. can

B. may D. need

2 — What’s the name?

— Khulaifi. _____ I spell that for
you?(2006 北京) A. Might B. Would C. Can

D. Shall

3 Some aspects of a pilot’s job_____ be
boring, and pilots often _____ work at inconvenient hours. (2006 湖南) A. can;have to B. may;can

C. have to; may
D. ought to; must

4 The weather turned out to be fine yesterday. I _____ the trouble to carry my umbrella with me. (2006 江西) A should have taken

B could have taken
C needn’t have taken

D mustn’t have taken

5 —How’s your tour around the North
Lake? Is it beautiful? —It ________ be, but it is now heavily polluted. (2007 全国I) A. will B. would

C. should

D. must

6 I told your friend how to get to the hotel, but perhaps I have driven

her there. (2007 陕西)
A. could C. night B. must D. should


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