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毕业设计外文翻译 产品设计 工业设计-概述产品设计过程


毕业设计(论文)

译文及原稿
译文题目:概述产品设计过程

原稿题目:OVERVIEW OF PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS

原稿出处:Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd ed.

概述产品设计过程
产品设计时,可减少使用一个团队的方法和关键参与者包括市场营销,研究 开发,工业设计,运营,和供应商的早期参与产品的设计时间。早期介入是一种 方法,管理人员和流程。它涉及到的上游投资时间,便于识别和下游的问题解决 方案,否则将增加产品的设计和生产成本,降低质量,和延迟产品信息。 基于时间的竞争对手们发现, 缩短产品设计时间提高了产品设计团队的生产 力。为了节省时间,公司组建的“越墙”的过程,从产品设计到基于团队的并发 进程。越墙依次进行的信息和思想交流有限。当使用这种方法时,问题往往发现 的晚,因为后期的参与者在过程中的早期决策被排除。其结果是,往往是糟糕的 决策。 产品设计是一个劳动力聚集的过程,需要训练有素的专业人士的贡献。通过 专家间的交流小组会变强,等待决定前的时间会减少,效率会提高。参与者在这 个团队的过程中会更快地做出更好的决策,因为他们正在建立一个共享的知识 库,增强学习和简化决策。通过共享开发活动,可以更迅速,更有效的决策,涉 及到职能专家之间的相互依存关系。重组过程将创建一个及时响应客户的需求, 更好的质量和更高的性价比都在一个实惠的价格。 有几个原因,为什么早期介入和并发活动带来这些改进。首先,产品的设计 转移顺序,反馈回路发生时,会遇到一个问题,并发的问题,其中很早就认识和 解决。重叠活动的能力,减少了产品设计时间。其次,当一个职能专家团队的协 同工作,同时在产品设计上,与会者学习,相互借鉴,扩大他们的知识基础。人 们能够更好地预见冲突,可以更容易地达成解决方案。因此,所花费的时间来完 成一项活动应该下降。 第三, 更少的变化更快, 更便宜的产品设计过程中的结果。 发现问题时已晚,他们需要更多的时间和金钱来解决。 产品设计的需要各种领域的专业知识和决策能力。市场营销,工业,运营, 财务,会计,信息系统都有着重要的作用。市场的作用是评估消费者的需求,确 定潜在的竞争压力的影响, 测量的外部环境。 工业的作用是通过塑造产品的设计, 该产品将判断的过程, 并考虑的产品和人之间的接口。 操作的作用是确保该产品 可以生产全规模生产。 财务的作用是制定计划筹集的资金, 以支持在全规模生产 的产品,并协助产品的利润评估。会计和信息系统提供决策信息的获取。跨职能 的团队合作和知识共享是成功的关键。

OVERVIEW OF PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS

Product design time can be reduced by using a team approach and the early involvement of key participants including marketing, research and development, engineering, operations, and suppliers. Early involvement is an approach to managing people and processes. It involves an upstream investment in time that facilitates the identification and solution of down-stream problems that would otherwise increase product design and production costs, decrease quality, and delay product introduction. Time-based competitors are discovering that reducing product design time improves the productivity of product design teams. To reduce time, firms are reorganizing product design from an "over-the-wall" process to a team-based concurrent process. Over-the-wall means to proceed sequentially with the limited exchange of information and ideas. When this approach is used, problems are often discovered late because late-stage participants are excluded from decisions made early in the process. As a result, poor decisions are often made. Product design is a labor-intensive process that requires the contribution of highly trained specialists. By using teams of specialists, communications are enhanced, wait time between decisions is reduced, and productivity is improved. Participants in this team-based process make better decisions faster because they are building a shared knowledge base that enhances learning and eases decision-making. By sharing development activities, design decisions that involve interdependencies between functional specialists can be made more quickly and more effectively. This reorganized process creates a timely response to customer needs, a more cost-effective product design process, and higher-quality products at an affordable price. There are several reasons why early involvement and concurrent activities bring about these improvements. First, product design shifts from sequential, with feedback loops that occur whenever a problem is encountered, to concurrent, where problems are recognized early and resolved. The ability to overlap activities reduces product design time. Second, when a team of functional specialists works concurrently on product design, the participants learn from each other and their knowledge base expands. People are better able to anticipate conflicts and can more easily arrive at solutions. As a result, the time it takes to complete an activity should decline. Third, fewer changes

later in the process results in faster and less expensive product design. When problems are discovered late, they take more time and money to solve. Product design requires the expertise and decision-making skills of all parts of the organization. Marketing, engineering, operations, finance, accounting, and information systems all have important roles. Marketing's role is to evaluate consumer needs, determine potential impact of competitive pressure, and measure the external environment. Engineering's role is to shape the product through design, determine the process by which the product will be made, and consider the interface between the product and the people. Operations' role is to ensure that the product can be produced in full-scale production. Finance's role is to develop plans for raising the capital to support the product in full-scale production and to assist in the evaluation of the product's profit potential. Accounting and information systems provide access to information for decision making. Cross-functional teamwork and knowledge sharing are thus keys to success.


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