kl800.com省心范文网

BRANDING OVER MOBILE AND INTERNET ADVERTISING-THE CROSS-MEDIA EFFECT.


JUNE 2007 ? VOL. 2 NO. 1

BRANDING OVER MOBILE AND INTERNET ADVERTISING: THE CROSS-MEDIA EFFECT
Alex Wang

Abstract: This study examined the effect of cross-media int

egration of an advertiser’s Short Message Service (SMS) messages and website that featured relevant advertising messages on consumers’ perceived media engagement, message strength, and brand attitudes. The results revealed that the cross-media effect of mobile and Internet advertising was evident on consumers’ perceived media engagement, message strength, and brand attitudes. In addition, message strength mediated media engagement on brand attitude. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Keywords: mobile advertising, internet advertising, cross-media integration, branding

INTRODUCTION While consumers increasingly consume media on many platforms such as mobile phones and the internet, a current trend of media and advertising is the movement away from assuming that media exposure equals advertising effectiveness to considering the role of media integration on advertising effectiveness (Calder & Malthouse, 2005; Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2004; Trappey & Woodside, 2005). For example, research has revealed that more than 78% of web viewers have visited a television website (Ferguson & Perse, 2000; Schlosberg, 2000). Thus, television networks have established their own websites based on the concept of enhanced television, the use of internet features to improve the viewing experience (Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2004). This strategy employs cross-media integration as television programmers believe that the enhanced television features they provided on their websites can build viewer loyalty, increase retention, and attract new viewers (Fahey, 2000; Griffin, 1996). As a manifestation of the convergence between television and the internet, websites are expected to create a new world of hybrid media content encompassing product information, games, and advertising (Arlen, 2000; Baldwin, McVoy, & Steinfeld, 1996; Wang, 2006b). However, little research has examined the cross-media effect between mobile and Internet advertising on branding. In essence, advertisers may benefit from integrating advertising messages on the web with short message service (SMS) text messages and specialized content (Chan-Olmsted & Jung, 2001). In light of the importance of branding over mobile and Internet

4

International Journal of Mobile Marketing

advertising, this study explores the role of integrating an advertiser’s SMS and website specifically designed for the ad campaign in facilitating consumers’ perceived media engagement, message strength, and brand attitudes. From the perspective of mobile marketing, the findings of this study may substantiate the strategic value of crossmedia integration by assessing the value of branding over mobile and Internet advertising. This study will add to the literature in the dynamics between an advertiser’s SMS text messages and website specifically designed for the ad campaign. With a better understanding of the strategic use of cross-media integration in the mobile advertising context, advertisers can effectively promote their brand ideas to mobile consumers. Moreover, the findings of this study also add to the literature in branding. Branding is especially important for advertisers because brand attitude is a strong indicator for behavioral intention that leads to actual consumption (Laczniak & Carlson, 1989; MacKenzie & Lutz, 1989). LITERATURE REVIEW Cross-Media Integration Calder and Malthouse (2005) have suggested that consumers must be contacted in ways that affect their media experience and lead them to a brand concept. Cross-media integration of advertising can create a specific set of contacts that affect media engagement and brand experience (Wang, 2006a; Wouters & Wetzels, 2006). These contact points involve the media plan, managed in an integrated way over time and other dimensions of consumer behavior to yield the media experience dictated by the brand concept. For example, Trappey and Woodside (2005) have examined the cross-media effect between electronic SMS messages and television on viewing television shows in U.K. and U.S. markets. Their results revealed that respondents higher in social class were the most willing to accept SMS messages and respond favorably to SMS-TV integrated communications. Specifically, about 6% of respondents receiving SMS-TV outbound campaigns watched the program on the day they received the message. A further 39% have watched television media since receiving the message. While 12% of respondents felt more positive about the show because of having received the message, 29% of respondents were more likely to watch the show because of having received the message. Wouters and Wetzels (2006) used a quasi-experimental study to investigate the recall effect of SMS as a complementary communications instrument. They compared the recall

between an experimental group, consisting of participants who had called the SMS number mentioned in a car brand campaign, and a control group, consisting of participants who replied on a television quiz question through an SMS response. The results showed that SMS could boost the recall effect of an advertising campaign. Reading, Bellman, Varan, and Winzar (2006) have explored the potential for telescopic advertising, a form of interactive television advertising allowing viewers to save and watch extended advertising content, in the context of personal video recorders (PVRs). They found viewers exposed to telescopic advertising

“…it is especially important for advertisers to utilize cross-media integration of mobile and internet advertising to promote their brands or products. Such synergy will be fundamental to a healthy coexistence for media such as the mobile phone and internet.”
had stronger attitudes toward the ad, brand attitudes, and behavioral intentions than audiences exposed to traditional 30-second ads and long-form infomercials.

A

nother stream of research focuses on cross-media integration between television programs and the internet. Ha (2002) has compared U.S. cable and broadcast network websites and proposed enhanced television strategy models that broadcast and cable networks can use as a new revenue source and a new way to attract and keep viewers. Enhanced television features lies in their ability to interact with the viewers, fulfilling communication needs before, during, and after watching a television program (Ha & Chan-Olmsted, 2004). Lin (2006) also suggests that broadcasting over the internet presents a new frontier for media and advertising industries since the unique advantage that a television station website can offer involves providing locally-oriented webcasting services as well as serving as a portal to features and other websites of local interest. Even though studies about cross-media integration are limited, these studies supported the concept of using cross-media interaction of advertising to enhance media engagement and consumer response, such as attitude toward the ad, brand attitude, and behavioral intention.

GROUNDING THEORIES OF CROSS-MEDIA INTEGRATION The Multiple Resource Theory (MRT) on inter-media comparisons has supported the cross-media effect (Wickens,

Branding Over Mobile And Internet Advertising: The Cross-media Effect

5

JUNE 2007 ? VOL. 2 NO. 1

1984). “The MRT is concerned with the manner in which stimulus properties of tasks, the priorities or strategies adopted by an individual, and the processing operations performed on each task may influence overall and individual task performance” (Leigh, 1992, p. 55). At the core of this processing is the concept of the schema, being integrally involved in a perceptual cycle (Neisser, 1976). A schema is that portion of the entire perceptual cycle that is internal to the perceiver, modifiable by media experience, and specific to what is perceived (Leigh, 1992). Since the primary sources of developing an active schema are the stimulus information and the exposure environment (Leigh, 1991), cross-media integration of advertising may produce or enhance a schema of advertising that is internal to viewers, and modifiable by media engagement (Wang, 2006a). This processing is highly relevant to the expected effect of cross-media integration as advertising messages related to a developing or active schema are more likely to be remembered coherently and interpreted correctly. For example, Wang (2006a) has examined whether higher ad engagement initiated by contextual relevance increases viewers’ responses. He has revealed that higher ad engagement increases ad recall, message involvement, and message believability. Leigh (1992) reviewed the effects of message congruence among multiple stimulus modalities to demonstrate the importance of congruence to the subject of comparisons between television and radio broadcast media. He found that highly congruent audio and video stimuli exhibited comparable positive effects on processing and memory, compared to the cases where the audio and video provided weakly related information. Information processing literature regarding repetition effects and multiple sources has also provided different perspectives that support the cross-media effect. Several studies have suggested that repetition elevates the accessibility of a brand name and its core association (Pham & Vanhuele, 1997) and results in better product attitude (Calder & Sternthal, 1980) by providing additional processing opportunities. Research has also demonstrated that mere repetition, generally considered as an opportunity enhancement strategy, can facilitate learning and contribute to liking a message (Machleit & Wilson, 1988) since multiple exposures to the message increase viewers’ familiarity with the message, leading viewers to increase their positive associations with the message (Moorthy & Hawkins, 2005). Chang and Thorson (2004) have found that hearing about a subject from two or more independent sources, or hearing different executions of the same message with the same theme or story line can result in greater learning. Their results are consistent with the priming effect, suggesting that the first message source has the potential to prime an issue in a particular manner, orienting viewers to interpret the second message source in a manner consistent with the priming in the first message source (Domke, Shah, & Wackamn, 1998). The notion that messages from different sources regarding a

product could produce a stronger product attitude is based on the premise that viewers try to make sense of multiplesource messages (Maheswaran & Chaiken, 1991).

H

arkins and Petty (1987) have also provided an information utility explanation of greater processing for cross-media integration. They suggest consumers see messages as independent bits of information and the sources as viewing the information from different orientations, similar to drawing on different bodies of information when messages are presented by multiple sources. Viewers may think about and process each source thoroughly to reach an integrated conclusion. For example, Maheswaran and Chaiken (1991) found a strengthening effect of multiple sources on viewers’ attitudes. Sengupta and Johar (2002) found viewers perceived stronger product attitude as multiple sources regarding a product were considered in relation to one another in an effort to create an integrated evaluation. Based on the relevant theories and studies discussed above regarding cross-media integration, this study tests the following hypotheses. H1: Consumers in the condition with cross-media integration of advertising will perceive stronger media engagement than consumers in the condition without cross-media integration of advertising. H2: Consumers in the condition with cross-media integration of advertising will perceive stronger message strength than consumers in the condition without cross-media integration of advertising. H3: Consumers in the condition with cross-media integration of advertising will exhibit stronger brand attitude than consumers in the condition without cross-media integration of advertising. H4: Consumers’ perceived message strength will mediate their perceived media engagement on their brand attitudes. METHODOLOGy One-way between-participants design with post measures was employed in this study. The between-participants variable was the cross-media effect (without versus with). One hundred and sixty nine college students were recruited to participate in this study. While 96 participants were in the condition without cross-media integration of advertising, 73 participants were in the condition with cross-media integration of advertising. The cross-media integration was operationalized by a condition where participants received an SMS message that invited participants to visit a website, followed by a visit to the website to process relevant advertising messages. The condition without cross-media integration of advertising was operationalized by the exposure of the SMS message to participants without a visit to the website.

6

International Journal of Mobile Marketing

STIMULI AND PROCEDURES This study used American Express as the tested brand and American Express’ cross-media integration of advertising campaign, Andy’s Mojo, as the tested stimuli. The SMS messages and the website formed the manipulations of cross-media integration. The SMS messages asked, “Have you seen Andy’s Mojo? Go to Andysmojo.com.” The website (Andysmojo.com) featured two ads and product information regarding American Express. In the first ad, a tennis star, Andy Roddick, was arriving at the hotel to prepare for a tournament. He went to sleep only to have his Mojo emerge out of his body and take his American Express card. His “Mojo” partied while Roddick tossed and turned in his bed. The ad then continued to the next day as Roddick hit balls into the net while playing with fellow American Mardy Fish. Roddick was frustrated. “Mardy, do you ever feel like you are missing something?” Roddick asked him. After Mardy said no, a voiceover questioned, “Will Andy get his Mojo back?” “To be continued” appeared as the voiceover asked the viewers to find out what happened in the second ad. In the second ad, Mojo showed up in a press conference and defended Andy’s match losses. Mojo announced that they have decided to seek redemption by going to the tennis court to practice hard next morning.

MEASURES The questionnaire administered used published items and scales. Perceived media engagement was measured by asking the participants how engaging/relevant/correlated the advertising messages were in their overall media experience during the study, where 1 indicated ‘not at all’ and 7 indicated ‘extremely’ (Wang, 2006a). Perceived message strength was measured by asking the participants whether the advertising messages were “powerful,” “convincing,” and “strong” (Hallahan, 1999). Post brand attitude was measured by asking the participants to complete the sentence, “I would describe American Express as … ,” using a 6-item scale composed of bad/good, unpleasant/ pleasant, low quality/high quality, do not like it/like it, not desirable/desirable, and unfavorable/favorable (Hallahan, 1999; MacKenzie & Lutz, 1989; MacKenzie, Lutz, & Belch, 1986). Each item was rated on a 7-point semantic differential scale where one indicated ‘not at all’ and seven indicated ‘extremely.’ The Cronbach’s α values for media engagement, message strength, and brand attitude were .9, .92, and .91 respectively. The results suggested that all measures were reliable. As a result, the values of constructs were computed as the mean of the ratings of the items associated with each construct. STATISTICAL ANALySIS Bivariate correlations tests were conducted to test the relationships among the three dependent variables. The results revealed all dependent variables were correlated with each other (p < .000). Thus, this study used MANCOVA as the statistical procedure for data analysis. An advantage of the MANCOVA procedure is that the set of dependent variables are considered simultaneously. That is, the test considers the correlations among the set of dependent variables. If there are main effects for the independent variables, condition differences with respect to the dependent variables are established. Consequently, this study can determine on which dependent variables the conditions differ. RESULTS A MANCOVA was run on perceived media engagement, message strength, and brand attitude as the dependent variables (Table 1). The cross-media effect was used as the fixed factor (or independent variable). Credit card usage (Wilks’ λ = .99, p < .52), Andy’s fan (Wilks’ λ = .98, p < .41), tennis watch behavior (Wilks’ λ = .98, p < .33), familiarity with credit card (Wilks’ λ = .97, p < .12), familiarity with the brand (Wilks’ λ = .97, p < .15), and gender (Wilks’ λ = .99, p < .71) were used as covariates. No covariates were found to contribute to the model significantly. The cross-media effect, Wilks’ λ = .9, F (3,160) + 5.72, p < .001, n? = .1, λ2 = .1, had a significant main effect on the dependent variables. In other words, the mean vectors were not equal and the set of means between conditions was different.

E

ach participant was given a pamphlet containing instructions and a questionnaire. The participants in the condition without cross-media integration viewed the SMS messages only, whereas the participants in the condition with cross-media integration viewed the SMS messages and then visited the website to find out what happened by watching the ads. Once participants finished the task, they were instructed to fill out a questionnaire that began with demographic and covariate questions such as credit card usage, whether they are a fan of Andy Roddick, tennis watch behavior, familiarity with credit card, familiarity with American Express, and gender. Then the participants answered questions that measured the dependent variables. PARTICIPANTS College students are an important segment for the credit card industry (Compton & Pfau, 2004). According to Nellie Mae Research Foundation (2000), 78% of college students had at least one credit card, and 32% had more than four cards. Thus, college students are extremely representative of the target population. Among the participants, 49.4% were males and 50.6% were females. Nine percent of the participants have acquired a credit card from American Express. Regarding brand preferences, 35% of participants considered VISA as their brand preference; 29% considered MasterCard as their brand preference. While brand preference for Discover and American Express were 2% and 4% respectively, 31% of participants did not have preferences for a credit card brand. As a result, the participants used in this study were representative and appropriate for the study.

Branding Over Mobile And Internet Advertising: The Cross-media Effect

7

JUNE 2007 ? VOL. 2 NO. 1

The tests of between-participants effects based on the individual univariate tests were reported in Table 2, whereas the means of the dependent variables were depicted in Figure 1. The participants in the condition with cross-media integration of advertising (M = 4.2, SD = 1.54) perceived higher media engagement than the participants in the condition without cross-media integration of advertising (M = 3.33, SD = 1.49), F (1, 162) = 15.32, p < .000, n2 = .09. H1 was supported. The participants in the condition with cross-media integration of advertising (M = 3.68, SD = 1.43) perceived higher message strength than the participants in the condition without cross-media integration of advertising (M = 3.1, SD = 1.47), F (1, 162) = 6.13, p < .014, n? = .04. The participants in the condition with cross-media integration of advertising (M = 3.36, SD = 1.71) exhibited stronger brand attitude than the participants in the condition without cross-media integration of advertising (M = 2.68, SD = 1.47), F (1, 162) = 6.57, p < .011, n2 = .04. H2 and H3 were supported.

Table 2: Tests of Between-Participants Effects Source Corrected Model Dependent Variable Media engagement Message strength Brand attitude Intercept Media engagement Message strength Brand attitude Credit card usage Media engagement Message strength Brand attitude Andy’s fan Media engagement Message strength Brand attitude SS 66.111 39.079 45.423 85.648 61.108 68.677 2.117 1.516 .048 4.862 2.891 .737 7.415 MS 9.444 5.583 6.489 85.648 61.108 68.677 2.117 1.516 .048 4.862 2.891 .737 7.415 df 7 7 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 F 4.389 2.744 2.679 39.806 30.038 28.351 .984 .745 .020 2.260 1.421 .304 3.446 p .000 .010 .012 .000 .000 .000 .323 .389 .889 .135 .235 .582 .065 n? .159 .106 .104 .197 .156 .149 .006 .005 .000 .014 .009 .002 .021

Table 1: Multivariate Tests Effect Intercept Credit card usage Andy’s fan Tennis watch behavior Familiarity with credit card Familiarity with the brand Gender The cross-media effect Wilks’ λ .747 .986 .982 .979 .965 .968 .992 .903 F 18.089 .762 .977 1.151 1.957 1.778 .455 5.717 df 3,160 3,160 3,160 3,160 3,160 3,160 3,160 3,160 p .000 .517 .405 .331 .123 .153 .714 .001 n? .253 .014 .018 .021 .035 .032 .008 .097 Familiarity with the brand Familiarity with credit card Tennis watch behavior

Media engagement Message strength Brand attitude Media engagement Message strength Brand attitude Media engagement Message strength Brand attitude

.598 .407 1.397

.598 .407 1.397

1 1 1

.294 .168 .649

.588 .682 .422

.002 .001 .004

12.069 6.313 1.286

12.069 6.313 1.286

1 1 1

5.933 2.606 .598

.016 .108 .441

.035 .016 .004

5.179 13.017 2.355 .002 .046 32.968

5.179 13.017 2.355 .002 .046 32.968

1 1 1 1 1 1

2.546 5.374 1.095 .001 .019 15.322

.113 .022 .297 .973 .891 .000

.015 .032 .007 .000 .000 .086

Gender

Media engagement Message strength Brand attitude

The cross-media effect

Media engagement Message strength Brand attitude

12.475 15.923 348.566

12.475 15.923 2.152

1 1 162

6.132 6.573

.014 .011

.036 .039

Error

Media engagement

8

International Journal of Mobile Marketing

Message strength Brand attitude Total Media engagement Message strength Brand attitude Corrected Total Media engagement Message strength Brand attitude

329.564 392.430 2744.444 2270.889 1938 414.677 368.643 437.853

2.034 2.422

162 162 170 170 170 169 169 169

DISCUSSION The findings have indicated that the effectiveness of cross-media integration of mobile and Internet advertising is positive for advertisers. With cross-media integration, consumers may be more engaged in processing advertising messages. Because of enhanced media engagement, consumers perceive stronger message strength from the advertising messages and exhibit stronger brand attitude. The cross-media effect enhances these variables as message strength mediates media engagement on brand attitude. Research has suggested that websites may increase the interest and relevance of the television programs to viewers because the web is the ideal medium to develop audience relationships (Kerschbaumer, 2000). For example, television shows such American Idol and Apprentice encourage viewers to use SMS text messages to vote for the contenders in the show. On the same note, websites may also increase the interest and relevance of adverting messages to mobile phone users because the web is not only an ideal but also a complementary medium to develop consumer relationships. Mobile phone users can become enthusiastic with various interactive and engaging features on the websites. The results of this study substantiate this proposition in the branding context.

W
Figure 1: Cross-Media Effects

To examine the relations among perceived media engagement, message strength, and brand attitude, a series of linear regression models were used to test for a mediation effect (Judd & Kenny, 1981). Perceived message strength was regressed on perceived media engagement (β = .4, p < .000), F (1, 168) = 32.87, p < .000, R? = .16. The results revealed that stronger perceived media engagement enhanced participants’ perceived message strength. Brand attitude was regressed on perceived media engagement (β = .37, p < .000), F (1, 168) = 27.31, p < .000, R? = .14. The results revealed that stronger perceived media engagement enhanced participants’ brand attitudes. Brand attitude was regressed on perceived media engagement (β = .13, p = .05) and message strength (β = .61, p < .000), F (2, 167) = 69.02, p < .000, R? = .45. The results revealed that the effect of perceived media engagement was no longer evident, and participants’ perceived message strength enhanced their brand attitudes. A perfect mediation materialized (Baron & Kenny, 1986) as message strength mediated the media engagement on brand attitude. H4 was supported.

ang and Acar (2006) have found that male participants are more interested in reading breaking news and receiving product information on their mobile phones than female participants are. Tsang, Ho, and Liang (2004) have suggested, “both Internet and mobile advertising are emerging media used to deliver digital texts, images, and voices with interactive, immediate, personalized and responsive capabilities” (p. 68). Combing previous research with this study’s findings, cross-media integration of Internet and mobile advertising is an important strategy for advertisers to leverage. Moreover, 91% of the participants in this study were not current customers of American Express. Thus, the results are promising, especially for the effectiveness of cross-media integration on attracting new customers. In terms of theoretical broadening, the results of this study have extended previous research in the context of cross-media integration of mobile and Internet advertising. Previous research tried to establish a cause and effect relationship between cross-media integration and interest in television programs, whereas the results of the current study are largely correlational and cumulative in examining the cross-media effect. IMPLICATIONS AND APPLICATIONS Based on the results, advertisers should consider enhancing their media strategies. On one hand, they should encourage consumers to visit their websites by sending them SMS messages with their permissions since commercialrelated text messages sent by permissions can create

Branding Over Mobile And Internet Advertising: The Cross-media Effect

9

JUNE 2007 ? VOL. 2 NO. 1

positive brand attitude based on the values of entertainment and usefulness (Tsang et al., 2004). More importantly, advertisers need to enhance advertising’s contextual relevancy to coordinate the cross-media effect. Because of the importance of advertising as the primary source of information for consumers to visit advertisers’ websites, advertisers should maximize consumers’ awareness and interest in their websites. The stimuli tested in this study are examples as contextual relevancy between mobile and Internet advertising enhances consumers’ perceived media engagement and message strength. Advertisers can send out interesting messages via SMS to promote enhanced features to which consumers can personally relate. Advertisers can also create motives in their SMS messages for consumers to visit their websites while making additional advertising messages on their websites engaging and complementary to the SMS messages (Wang & Nelson, 2006).

viewers to active participants of advertisers’ websites. As a result, active participants provide advertisers with many opportunities of converting regular hits to actual behaviors. Once converted, cross-media integration of advertising can become important for viewers who become highly engaged because of cross-promotion on the internet. LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH This study of cross-media integration of mobile and internet advertising opens a wide area for further research in crossmedia integration in this age of media convergence. This study is limited by investigating new customers, one brand, and two media that can feature advertising messages. Future study should investigate the cross-media effect on consumers’ responses generated by different customer profiles. Researchers should also include factors that may differentiate brands into studies of cross-media integration. For example, research has suggested that product messages concerning stronger brands may work as a signaling device for attention and encoding (Rao, Qu, & Ruekert, 1999). Stronger brands’ SMS messages may receive more attention and encoding than weaker brands’ SMS messages (Dahlén & Lange, 2005). Therefore, brand status may become an important encoding factor that influences the message strength perceived from cross-media integration. An interesting question is whether brand status moderates the cross-media effect on consumers’ responses when a stronger brand and a weaker brand both employ cross-media integration to carry their advertising messages. It is important to develop ways to measure the cumulative effect of cross-media integration for longer periods. Pretest/ posttest experimental designs will be suitable for this type of study. Future studies can also explore the relationship between advertising offers and website feature offerings that best fit the synergy. Finally, the future study of cross-media integration should address the dynamics of different media, new and traditional, in consumer behavior and the effect of such crossmedia integration in content creation. CONCLUSION A current trend in the world of media and advertising is cross-media integration (Calder & Malthouse, 2005). This study of cross-media integration of advertising investigated an imminent need for advertisers to enhance media engagement by integrating SMS text messages and website advertising. The results revealed that the effects of cross-media integration via mobile and internet advertising were evident on perceived media engagement, message strength, and brand attitude. In addition, message strength mediated media engagement on brand attitude. The results have suggested that it is especially important for advertisers to utilize cross-media integration of mobile and internet advertising to promote their brands or products. Such synergy will be fundamental to a healthy coexistence for media such as the mobile phone and internet.

O

n the other hand, advertisers also need to figure out what features or messages can enhance consumers’ media engagement since such consumer inertia applies in mobile media where the primary communication need is to satisfy information and entertainment needs (Wang, 2005; Wang & Nelson, 2006). For example, weather alerts can be sent to mobile phone users by SMS once consumers request the service online. Advertisers can examine the popularity of the various features and contents via SMS by asking consumers questions about the contents and features. For example, Yahoo encourages visitors and users to rate the contents and features and express their opinions about specific contents featured on the website (Wang, 2005). The results of this kind of investigation can help advertisers identify the success and appeal of customized and enhanced features and supplemental information on their websites. Consequently, SMS messages can be sent to inform consumers of wanted and available information. Lin (2006) explored the profile of early adopters of webcasting, the potential predictors of webcasting adoption, and audience interest in different types of local webcast features. She revealed that personal innovativeness, perceived utilities of webcasting, online-use frequency, and per-online-use duration were found to be significant predictors of webcasting adoption. Moreover, content features that can fulfill web viewers’ needs for affective release and cognitive stimulation should be the focuses of effective webcasting (Lin, 2006). These results can also be considered by advertisers to enhance the cross-media effect of Internet and mobile advertising. Finally, the implications for advertisers based on the results are specifically predictive for the cross-media effect on new customers. The results may not provide advertisers with enough evidence for the cross-media effect of advertising on predicting customer loyalty. However, the implications may be very useful in terms of estimating the possibility of the cross-media effect on changing new customers from passive

40

International Journal of Mobile Marketing

evaluation research.” Evaluation Research, 5 (3), 602-619. Alex Wang University of Connecticut-Stamford United States alex.wang@uconn.edu Kerschbaumer, K. (2000, September 25). “Television & the Internet: Old meets new.” Broadcasting & Cable, 55-58. Laczniak, R. N. & L. Carlson (1989). “Examining influences of attitude toward the ad on brand attitudes.” Journal of Business Research, 19 (4), 303-311. Leigh, J. H. (1992). “Modality congruence, Multiple Resource Theory and intermedia broadcast comparisons: An elaboration.” Journal of Advertising, 21 (2), 55-62.

References:
Arlen, G. (2000). “Hybrid content meets broadband convergence.” Interactive Week, E-26. Baldwin, T., D. McVoy, & C. Steinfield (1996). Convergence: Integrating media, information & communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Baron, R. M. & D. A. Kenny (1986). “The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (6), 1173-1182. Calder, B. J. & E. C. Malthouse (2005). “Managing media and advertising change with integrated marketing.” Journal of Advertising Research, 45 (4), 356-361. Calder, B. J. & B. Sternthal (1980). “Television commercial wearout: An information processing view.” Journal of Marketing Research, 17 (2), 173-186. Chang, Y. & E. Thorson (2004). “Television and Web advertising synergies.” Journal of Advertising, 33 (2), 75-84. Domke, D., D. V. Shah, & D. B. Wackamn (1998). “Media priming effects: Accessibility, association, and activation.” International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 10 (1), 51-74. Chan-Olmsted, S. M. & J. Jung (2001). “Strategizing the net business: How television networks compete in the age of the Internet.” International Journal on Media Management, 3 (4), 213-225. Compton, J. A. & M. Pfau (2004). “Use of inoculation to foster resistance to credit card marketing targeting college students.” Journal of Applied Communication Research, 32 (4), 343–364. Dahlén, M. & F. Lange (2005). “Advertising weak and strong brands: Who gains?” Psychology & Marketing, 22 (2), 473-488. Fahey, M. (2000, December 11). “Brands across the Web.” Cable World, 25 (10), 18. Ferguson, D. & E. Perse (2000). “The World Wide Web as a functional alternative to television.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44 (2), 155-174. Griffin, J. (1996). “The Internet’s expanding role in building customer loyalty.” Direct Marketing, 59 (7), 50-53. Ha, L. (2002). “Enhanced television strategy models: A study of television Web sites.” Internet Research: Electronic Applications and Policy, 12 (3), 235-247. Ha, L. & S. Chan-Olmsted (2001). “Enhanced television as brand extension: Television viewers’ perception of enhanced television features and television commerce on broadcast networks’ Web sites.” International Journal on Media Management, 3 (4), 202-213. Ha, L. & S. M. Chan-Olmsted (2004). “Cross-media use in electronic media: The role of cable television Web sites in cable television network branding and viewership.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48 (4), 620-645. Hallahan, K. (1999). “Content class as a contextual cue in the cognitive processing of publicity versus advertising.” Journal of Public Relations Research, 11 (4), 293320. Harkins, S. G. & R. E. Petty (1987). “Information utility and the multiple source effect.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52 (2), 260-268. Judd, C. M. & D. A. Kenny (1981). “Process analysis: Estimating mediation in

Leigh, J. H. (1991). “Information processing difference among broadcast media: Review and suggestions for research.” Journal of Advertising, 20 (2), 71-75. Lin, C. A. (2006). “Predicting webcasting adoption via personal innovativeness and perceived utilities.” Journal of Advertising Research, 46 (2), 228-238. Machleit, K. A. & R. D. Wilson (1988). “Emotional feelings and attitude toward the advertisement: The roles of brand familiarity and repetition.” Journal of Advertising, 17 (3), 27-35. MacKenzie, S. B. & R. J. Lutz (1989). “An empirical examination of the structural antecedents of attitude toward the ad in an advertising pretesting context.” Journal of Marketing, 53 (2), 48-65. MacKenzie, S. B., R. J. Lutz, & G. E. Belch (1986). “The role of attitude toward the ad as a mediator of advertising effectiveness: A test of competing explanations.” Journal of Marketing Research, 23 (2), 130-148. Maheswaran, D. & S. Chaiken (1991). “Promoting systematic processing in low-involvement settings: Effect of incongruent information on processing and judgment.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61 (1), 13-25. Moorthy, S. & S. A. Hawkins (2005). “Advertising repetition and quality perceptions.” Journal of Business Research, 58 (3), 354-360. Neisser, U. (1976). Cognition and Reality. Principles and Implications of Cognitive Psychology, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. Nellie Mae Research Foundation. (2000). “Summary statistics: Credit card usage analysis.” Retrieved June 6, 2006, from http://www.nelliemae.com/library/research 8.html. Pham, M. T. & M. Vanhuele (1997). “Analyzing the memory impact of advertising fragments.” Marketing Letters, 8 (4), 407-417. Rao, A. R., L. Qu, & R. W. Ruekert (1999). “Signaling unobservable product quality through a brand ally.” Journal of Marketing Research, 36 (2), 258-268. Reading, N., S. Bellman, D. Varan, & H. Winzar (2006). “Effectiveness of telescopic advertisements delivered via personal video recorders.” Journal of Advertising Research, 46 (2), 217-227. Schlosberg, J. (2000, March 5). “Television is an ideal medium for driving traffic to Web sites.” Media Life Magazine, Retrieved October 20, 2000, from http://www. medialifemagazine.com/news2000/feb00/news30201.html. Sengupta, J. & G. V. Johar (2002). “Effects of inconsistent attribute information on the predictive value of product attitudes: Toward a resolution of opposing perspectives.” Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (2), 39-56. Trappey, R. J. & A. G. Woodside (2005). “Consumer responses to interactive advertising campaigns coupling short-message-service direct marketing and TV commercials.” Journal of Advertising Research, 45 (4), 382-401. Tsang, M. L., S. C. Ho, & T. P. Liang (2004). “Consumer attitudes toward mobile advertising: An empirical study.” International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 8 (3), 65-79. Wang, A. (2005). “The effects of expert and consumer endorsements on audience

Branding Over Mobile And Internet Advertising: The Cross-media Effect

4

JUNE 2007 ? VOL. 2 NO. 1

response.” Journal of Advertising Research, 45 (4), 402-412. Wang, A. (2006a). “Ad engagement: A driver of message involvement on message effects.” Journal of Advertising Research, 46 (4), 355-368. Wang, A. (2006b). “When synergy in marketing communication online enhances audience response.” Journal of Advertising Research, 46 (2), 160-170. Wang, A. & S. A. Acar (2006). “Information search and mobile promotions.” International Journal of Mobile Marketing, 1 (2), 80-87. Wang, A. & Nelson, R. A. (2006). “The effects of identical vs. varied advertising and publicity messages on consumer response.” Journal of Marketing Communications, 12 (2), 109-123. Wickens, C. D. (1984). “Processing resources in attention.” In R. Parasuraman and D. R. Davies (Eds.), Varieties of Attention (pp. 63-102). New York: Academic Press. Wouters, J. & M. Wetzels (2006). “Recall effect of short message service as a complementary marketing communications instrument.” Journal of Advertising Research, 46 (2), 209-216.

4

International Journal of Mobile Marketing


李宁整合营销传播分析

As the IMC mentioned, advertising, direct marketing and online/internet ...But when you talk about Chinese sports brand, Li-Ning will cross people’...

广告术语

7)跨线 跨线服务,英文 CROSS THE LINE,即包括了...advertising (B2B advertising) B2B 广告 brand image...media service 媒介代理 merger 企业合并 online ...

国际营销期末论文

the cross-over promotion aims to reach those ...What is more, Li-Ning is the only one brand ...Internet advertising campaign, namely emails and ...

营销教材翻译术语对照表

advertising Cooperative branding Core service 种族(...See customer relationship management (CRM) Cross-...(IMF) Internet as type of media auctions ...

英语翻译翻译方向论文题...

Cross-culture Communication On E-C Translation of Puns in Advertising from ...Brand Name Translation--from the Perspective of Peter Newmark's Communicative...

Cultural Differences in English-Chinese Advertiseme...

there are more and more communication and operation of cross-cultural, ...internet and information communication technology, the international advertising ...

Social media and international advertising theoreti...

media advertising from a cross-cultural (or ...After the appearance of the internet, more and ...eWOM in global brands' Facebook or Twitter ...

金融英语

branding 联合品牌 code of ethics (职业)道德标准 ...cross-elasticity 交叉弹性 customary pricing 习惯性...advertising media 通过广告媒体的直接营销 direct ...

exercise-1-problems

Cross-function D) Customer, Control, Convenience... Mass media advertising E) Direct response ... delivers a brand message with the most impact?...

Chapter14 m

coordinated for the greatest communication impact....A) advertising a cheaper brand but only making ...Internet give companies new media for interacting ...