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直接引语和间接引语用法讲解


直接引语和间接引语用法讲解
一、概述 引用或转述别人说的话时有两种方法:直接引述别人的原话,这叫做直接引语(direct speech)。用自 己的话转述别人的话,叫间接引语(indirect speech)。一般地讲,直接引语前后要加引号,间接引语不用引 号,而用宾语从句来表达。 Mr. Black said, “I'm busy.”布菜克先生说:“我很忙”。(直接引语) Mr. Black said that he was busy.布菜克先生说他很忙。(宾语从句是间接引语) 从上例看来,直接引语改为间接引语时,除将直接引语改为宾语从句之外,还须对直接引语中的人称和 时态进行相应的变化, 如上例直接引语中的 I 改成了 he, am 则改成了 was。 现将由直接引语改为间接引语 时应注意的问题,分述如下: 二、直接引语是陈述句时 直接引语如果是陈述句,变为间接引语时,用连词 that 引导(that 在口语中常省去),that 从句之前 用 say、tell 等动词,从句中的人称、时态、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等要作相应的变化。 1、 人称的变化 、 直接引语改为间接引语人称要相应的变化。口诀如下:一随主,二随宾,第三人称不更新 一随主, 一随主 二随宾,第三人称不更新。“一随主” 即把直接引语中的第一人称(如:I,me,my,mine,we,us,our,ours)变为与主句的主语相一致的人 称。“二随宾”即把直接引语中的第二人称(you,your,yours)变为和主句的间接宾语(即听话人,如无听 话人,可根据上下文的体会人为确定一个人称)相一致的人称。 “第三人称不更新”即直接引语中的第三人 称(he,him,his,she,her,hers,it,its,they,their,theirs,them)变为间接引语时,人称不变。 一随主: 一随主:① He said , “I like it very much.” 他说:“我非常喜欢它”。 →He said that he liked it very much. 他说他非常喜欢它。(I 改为 he, it 不变) ②They said ,”our parents often go shopping with us.” →They said their parents often go shopping with them. 二随宾: 二随宾 ①He said, “You told me this story.”他说:“你给我讲过这个故事。” →He said that I had told him that story.他说我给他讲过那个故事。(You 改为 I, me 改为 him, told 改 为 had told) ②She said to Mary ,”How is your brother now?” →She asked Mary how her brother was then. 第三人称不更新:①He said to me, “She’s left her book in your room”.他对我说:“她把书放在你的房 第三人称不更新 间里去了。” He told me that she had left her book in my room. 他对我说她把书放在我的房间里去了。 (She’s→she had, her 不变,your→my) ②Mr White said,”Hand is a good worker.” →Mr White said Hand was a good worker. 直接引语 间接引语 2、 时态的变化 、 一般现在时 一般过去时 直接引语变为间接引语时, 从句的时态要作出相应的变化, 当主句为一般现在时,从句可以是任何时态;当主句为一般过 现在进行时 过去进行时 去时,从句必须为过去时的某个时态。即“主过从过,主现从 现在完成时 过去完成时 任”。情态动词也要变成相应的过去式: 一般过去时 过去完成时 Can—could;may — might;must — must/had to 过去完成时 过去完成时(不变) (1)主句的谓语动词是一般过去时 一般将来时 过去将来时 如主句的谓语动词是一般过去时, 直接引语变间接引语时, 一般将来进行时 过去将来进行时 从句的谓语动词在时态方面要作相应的变化。直接引语改为间 一般将来完成时 过去将来完成时 接引语时,动词时态相应变化表: ①He said, “I usually watch TV on Sunday.”他说:“我常在星期天看电视”。
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→He said that he usually watched TV on Sunday.他说他常在星期天看电视。 ②He said, “I'm using the knife.”他说:“我正在用小刀。” →He said that he was using the knife.他说他正在用小刀。 ③She said, “I have not heard from him since May.”她说:“自从五月份来我就没有收到他的来信。” →She said that she had not heard from him since May. 她说自从五月份以来她就没收到他的来信。 ④He said,“I came to help you.”他说:“我来帮助你。” →He said that he had come to help me.他说他来帮助我。 ⑤He said, “I had finished my homework before supper.”他说:“晚饭前我己做完了作业。” →He said that he had finished his homework before supper.他说晚饭前他己做完了作业。 ⑥Zhou Lan said, “I'll do it after class.”周兰说:“下课后我就去做。” →Zhou Lan said that she would do it after class.周兰说下课后她就去做。 ⑦He said,“I shall be doing my homework then.”他说:“那时我将正在做作业。” →He said that he should be doing his homework then.他说那时他将正在做作业。 ⑧He said, “We shall have finished the work by that time.”他说:“我们将在那时以前完成工作。” →He said that they should have finished the work by that time.他说他们将在那时以前完成工作。 注意:直接引语如果是客观真理、名人名言、与一个具体的过去时间连用说明客观事实时 的过去时间连用说明客观事实时, 注意:直接引语如果是客观真理、名人名言、与一个具体的过去时间连用说明客观事实时,变为间接 引语时,时态不变。 引语时,时态不变。 ①The teacher said, “The earth is round. ”老师说:“地球是圆的。” →The teacher said that the earth is round.老师说地球是圆的。 ②He said, “I was born in Shangdong in 1965.” 他说: “我 1965 年生于山东。” →He said that he was born in Shangdong in 1965. 他说他 1965 年生于山东。 ③He said, “Columbus discovered America in 1492.”他说:“哥伦布在 1492 年发现了美洲。” →He said Columbus discovered America in 1492.他说哥伦布在 1492 年发现了美洲。 (2)主句的谓语动词是现在时或将来时 如果主句的谓语动词是现在时或将来时,直接引语变为间接引语时,时态一律不变 ①He says, “I finished the work.”他说:“我做完工作了。” He says that he finished the work. 他说他做完工作了。 ②He will say, “I have watered the flowers.” 他会说:“我己经浇花了。” He will say he has watered the flowers. 他会说他己经浇花了。 3、指示代词、时间状语和地点状语的相应变化 见下表: 、指示代词、 直接引语 指示代词 this/these now today tonight this week (month…) 时间状语 yesterday last week (month…) two weeks (month)ago tomorrow next week (month…) 地点状语 动 词 bring take
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间接引语 that/those then that day that night that week (month…) the day before the week (month…)before two weeks (months)before the next day the next week (month…) there go

here come

①He said, “I met Mr. Smith this morning.”他说“我今天早晨见到史密斯了。”

He said that he had met Mr. Smith that morning. 他说他那天早晨见到史密斯了。 ②He said, “We went to the cinema yesterday.” 他说:“我们昨天去电影院了。” →He said they had gone to the cinema the day before. 他说前一天他们去电影院了。 ③Lily said, “I will come back next month.” 莉莉说:“我下个月回来。” →Lily said that she would go back the next month. 莉莉说她下一个月就回去。 ④He said, “It is nine o'clock now.”他说:“现在九点了。” →He said that it was nine o'clock then.他说那时九点了。 ⑤He said, “I haven't seen her today.”他说:“今天我没见到她。” →He said that he hadn't seen her that day .他说那天他没有见到她。 ⑥She said, “I went there yesterday.”她说:“昨天我去了那儿。” →She said that she had gone there the day before.她说前一天她去了那儿。 ⑦She said, “I'll go there tomorrow.”她说:“明天我将去那儿。” →She said that she would go there the next day.她说第二天她将去那儿。 ⑧He said, “My sister was here three days ago.”他说:“三天前我妹妹在这儿。” →He said that his sister had been there three days before.他说三天前他妹妹在那儿。(here→there; ago→before) ⑨She said, “I will come here this evening.”她说:“今晚我将来这儿。” →She said that she would go there that evening.她说那晚她将去那儿。(come→go;here→there; this→that) 以上这些变化,要根据说话的具体时间和具体地点的情况而定, 不可机械照搬。 如果就在当地转述, here 就不必改为 there, come 也不必改为 go,如果就在当天转述,yesterday 或 tomorrow 等时间状语也不必改 变。直接引语中的一般过去时如与一个具体的过去时间状语连用,间接引语的一般过去时时态不变。 ①Father said,“I am free this afternoon ”父亲说:“我今天下午有空。” →Father said that he was free this afternoon. 父亲说他今天下午有空。 ②He said, “I am going there tomorrow.”他说“我明天去那里。” He said that he was going there tomorrow. 他说他明天去那里。 巧记: 巧记 当直接引语为陈述句,主句为过去时,变成间接引语的“顺口溜”是: 要灵活, 去掉引号加 that,人称变化要灵活,时态向后退一步,状语变化按规定 ,人称变化要灵活 时态向后退一步,状语变化按规定。 She said ,”My brother doesn’d want to go there.” →She said that her brother didn’t want to come here. 三、直接引语是疑问句时 直接引语如为疑问句,改为间接引语时,须将疑问句的语序改为陈述句的语序。其人称、时态等相应 的变化同上。 巧记: 或 替引号, 巧记:if(或 whether)替引号,陈述语序要记牢。时态、人称和状语要变化,千万别把它忘掉。 替引号 陈述语序要记牢。时态、人称和状语要变化,千万别把它忘掉。 1、直接引语是一般问句 一般问句 变为间接引语时,须用连接词 whether 或 if 将其引出,使其成为间接引语的宾语从句。如果主句中的 谓语动词为 said, 则将其改为 asked。 如果谓语动词后没有间接宾语, 可以加上一个间接宾语 me, him, her, them, us 等。 ①She said, “Is your father an engineer?” 她说:“你父亲是工程师吗?” →She asked me whether my father was an engineer.她问我说我父亲是否是工程师。 ②The teacher said to Li Ming, “Have you finished your homework?”老师对李明说:“你做完作业了 吗?” →The teacher asked Li Ming whether he had finished his homework.老师问李明是否已做完作业 了。 2、直接引语是特殊问句 特殊问句

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如果直接引语为特殊疑问句, 改为间接引语时,仍用特殊疑问句中的疑问词 what, where, when, who, how many 作为连接词将其引出,构成间接引语中的宾语从句,但须将疑问式的动词改为陈述式。如果主 句中的谓语动词为 said,则将其改为 asked。 巧记:直接去引号,陈述语序莫忘掉。 巧记:直接去引号,陈述语序莫忘掉。助动 do(does)、did,要去掉。 、 ,要去掉。 ①“What do you do every Sunday morning?”my friend said to me.我的朋友问我说,每星期天上午 你做什么? →My friend asked me what I did every Sunday morning. 我的朋友问我每星期天上午我做什么。 ②“Where have you been, Li Ming?”the teacher asked. 老师问道:“你上哪里去了,李明?” →The teacher asked Li Ming where he had been. 老师问李明曾去过哪儿。 ③I asked her, “How many English books will you read next term?” 我问她说:“下学期你将读多少 本英语书? ” →I asked her how many English books she would read the next term.我问她下学期将读多少本英 文书。 ④“When did you get up this morning?”asked my father.我父亲问道:“今天早晨你什么时候起床的?” →My father asked me when I had got up that morning. 我父亲问我那天早晨我是什么时候起床的。 注意: 直接引语里是:What's wrong with……?/What's the matter? /What's the trouble?/What has happened?/等特殊疑问句时,间接引语的语序不变。 He said to her“What’s the matter with you?”他问她 你怎么了?” 他问她“你怎么了 他问她 你怎么了? He asked her what was the matter with her. 他问她怎么了。 四、直接引语是祈使句 当直接引语是祈使句,变为间接引语要用”tell sb. (not) to do sth.”结构。 The teacher said to her mother ,”Please give me the book.” →The teacher told her mother to give her the book. 巧记: 须记住,直引若是否定式, 前部。 巧记:去掉引号要加 to;ask,order 须记住,直引若是否定式,not 加在 to 前部。 ; , 转述祈使句时,要使祈使句的动词原形变为带 to 的不定式,并在不定式的前面根据句子的意思加上 tell、ask、order 等动词,如果祈使句为否定式,在不定式的前面加 not。如果祈使句中有 please 一词,改 为间接引语时,就将 please 去掉。成为:told (asked, ordered, warned)someone (not) to do something 结构。 ①He said,“Sit down, please.” 他说:“请坐。” →He asked me to sit down. 他让我坐下。 ②The teacher said, “Don’t talk in class! ” 老师说:“上课不要讲话! ” →The teacher told us not to talk in class!老师要我们上课不要讲话。 ③The captain said to his men,“Fire! ”上尉对他的士兵们说“开火!” →The captain ordered his men to fire. 上尉命令他的士兵们开火! ④The policeman said to the children,“Don't play football in the middle of the street.”警察对孩子们 说:“别在马路中间踢足球。” →The policeman warned the children not to play football in the middle of the street.警察警告孩子 们不要在马路中间踢足球。 五、点击考点 I.改错: 1.He said that he is going to London. 2.Tom said they had finished the job yesterday. 3.She asked me don’t smoke in the room. 4.They asked that he was there. 5.I asked you where was he going. 6.The teacher told us not talk any more.
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7.The doctor said to his wife, Not wait for me. 8.He asked me who I am. 9.Mary said that she would see you tomorrow. 10.Mother asked what the matter was. II.将下列句子改为间接引语 1. “Where will you go tomorrow?”, Mother asked me. 2.The old woman said to me, “Please lock the door for me.” 3.The boy told his teacher, “We went to an exhibition yesterday.” 4.He said, “I'll go to the station to see off a friend of mine this afternoon.” 5. “Hello,how are you?”, he said to me. 6.Tom said to me angrily, “Why don’t you tell me you have been here for two weeks?” 7.John said to Mary,“Do you remember I borrowed a diamond necklace from you?” 8.The teacher said to Li Ming,“Don’t make the same mistake again.” 9. “Are you leaving today or tomorrow?”, I asked her. 10.The nurse said to the children, “The sun rises in the east.”

参考答案: 2.yesterday→the day before 3.don’t→not to 4.that→if I. 1.is→was 5.was he→he was 6.not 后面加 to 7.Not→Don't 8.am→was 10.was the matter 9.tomorrow→the next day II. 1.Mother asked me where I would go the next day. 2.The old woman asked me to lock the door for her. 3.The boy told his teacher that they had gone to an exhibition the day before. 4.He said that he would go to the station to see off a friend of his that afternoon. 5.He asked me how I was. 6.Tom asked me angrily why I didn't tell him I had been there for two weeks. 7.John asked Mary if she remembered he had borrowed a diamond necklace from her. 8.The teacher told Li Ming not to make the same mistake again. 9.I asked her whether she was leaving that day or the next day. 10.The nurse told the children that the sun rises in the east.

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