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雅思阅读实战训练(4)


雅思阅读实战训练(十三) ★ Hackers target the home front Thursday February 15, 2007 The Guardian 1. One of the UK's leading banks has been forced to admit that organised hacking gangs have been targeting its executives. For the past year, Royal Bank of Scotland has been fighting systematic attempts to break into its computer systems from hackers who have sent personalised emails containing keyloggers to its senior management. This has included executives up to board level and is now the subject of a separate investigation by the Serious and Organised Crime Agency. 2. The hackers are homing in on the trend for people to work from home. The hackers make the assumption that the computers being used outside the work environment are more vulnerable than those protected by a corporate IT department. Growing threat 3. For companies it is a growing threat as home working increases: a recent survey from the Equal Opportunities Commission found that more than 60% of the UK's population wants the option of flexible working. 4. And the hackers are employing increasingly sophisticated techniques. Each email they send is meticulously built to make it attractive to its target, who the criminals have carefully researched by trawling the internet for information. Once the email is composed, the malware is just as carefully designed: it is often modified to avoid detection by security software. 5. The keylogger contained in the email installs itself automatically and then collects details of logins and passwords from the unsuspecting user. This means that hackers can, using the usernames and passwords stolen by the keyloggers, connect to VPNs, or Virtual Private Networks, which many companies use to create an encrypted pathway into their networks. 6. Once inside a bank's network, the hackers can communicate directly with computers holding account information and manipulate funds. 7. Has this actually happened? In some cases sources claim that the login details of VPNs have been obtained and used though there has been no confirmation that any losses have occurred as a result. The attacks are not believed to have focused on RBS but to have been across the whole of the banking industry. 8. Royal Bank of Scotland said that the bank had suffered no losses as a result of the attacks and added: "RBS has extremely robust processes in place in order to protect our systems from fraud. Trojan email attacks are an industry-wide issue and are not isolated to a particular area or a particular bank." 9. It is not just banks that have been targets. Last year attempts were made to steal information
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from the Houses of Parliament using malicious email. Messagelabs, the company responsible for monitoring much of the email traffic of the government and big business for suspect software, said at the beginning of the year that criminals have been evolving more sophisticated techniques to attack corporate networks. 10. According to Mark Sunner, chief technology officer of Messagelabs, the number of malicious emails targeted at individuals has been increasing. Two years ago they were being seen once every two months, but now they are seeing one or two a day. This has been accompanied by an increase in quality in the creation of Trojans and spyware. 11. "The hackers are now aiming to take over computers, particularly those of home users. Some of the malicious software that we are routinely seeing for that purpose will have its own antivirus system built into it so that they can kill off the programs of their competitors." Increased vigilance 12. Tony Neate, the head of Get Safe Online, a government-funded organisation set up to raise awareness among UK businesses of computer criminals, says: "There is now an attempt to target individuals within UK businesses - including the banking sector. What is happening is that crime is doing what it always does, which is look for the weakest link. Home working is where they perceive a weakness. 13. "This points to a need for increased vigilance and security by those working from home and by those responsible for letting them work from home. For home working to be effective, security needs to be as effective as if working in an office."

Questions 1-4 Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer. 1. What do the hackers use to attack the computer system of the Royal Bank of Scotland? 2. Which word is most likely to be used by hackers to describe home computers? 3. What do the majority of people in the UK prefer? 4. How do hackers collect information so as to compose emails? 5. What do hackers obtain illegally to gain access to banks’ computer network? Questions 5-12 Complete the sentences below with words from the passage. Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
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6. The use of login details of VPNs by criminals does not necessarily result in any ______________. 7. Royal Bank of Scotland claimed that they are not the only victim of ______________. 8. Corporate networks will be another target of hackers with improved _______________. 9. The attacks on individuals have been greatly increased within _______________. 10. With ________________, software used by criminals can eliminate its competing programs. 11. Home users are chosen as a target because they are considered as a __________ . 12. Get Safe Online is calling for an increase in _____________ to ensure safe home working. Answers Keys: 1. 答案: personalised emails/keyloggers (见第 1 段第 2 句: the past year, Royal Bank of Scotland For has been fighting systematic attempts to break into its computer systems from hackers who have sent personalised emails containing keyloggers to its senior management.) 2.答案:vulnerable (见第 2 段: The hackers make the assumption that the computers being used outside the work environment are more vulnerable than those protected by a corporate IT department. ) 3. 答案:flexible working(见第 3 段: For companies it is a growing threat as home working increases: a recent survey from the Equal Opportunities Commission found that more than 60% of the UK's population wants the option of flexible working.) 4. 答案: trawling (the) internet (见第 4 段第 2 句: Each email they send is meticulously built to make it attractive to its target, who the criminals have carefully researched by trawling the internet for information.) 5. 答案: logins and passwords/usernames and passwords (见第 5 段第第 1、2 句:The keylogger contained in the email installs itself automatically and then collects details of logins and passwords from the unsuspecting user. This means that hackers can, using the usernames and passwords stolen by the keyloggers, …) 6. 答案: losses (见第 7 段第 2 句: some cases sources claim that the login details of VPNs have In been obtained and used though there has been no confirmation that any losses have occurred as a result.) 7. 答案:Trojan email attacks (见第 8 段最后 1 句: Trojan email attacks are an industry-wide issue and are not isolated to a particular area or a particular bank.) 8. 答案: techniques(见第 9 段最后 1 句:…said at the beginning of the year that criminals have been evolving more sophisticated techniques to attack corporate networks. )
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9. 答案:two years (见第 10 段第 1、2 句:According to Mark Sunner, chief technology officer of Messagelabs, the number of malicious emails targeted at individuals has been increasing. Two years ago they were being seen once every two months, but now they are seeing one or two a day.) 10.答案:(an) antivirus system (见第 11 段: "The hackers are now aiming to take over computers, particularly those of home users. Some of the malicious software that we are routinely seeing for that purpose will have its own antivirus system built into it so that they can kill off the programs of their competitors." ) 11. 答案:weakness (见第 12 段最后 1 句: Home working is where they perceive a weakness. ) 12. 答案:vigilance and security (见第 13 段:"This points to a need for increased vigilance and security by those working from home and by those responsible for letting them work from home. For home working to be effective, security needs to be as effective as if working in an office.")

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雅思阅读实战训练(十四) ★Study Finds Web Antifraud Measure Ineffective Published: February 5, 2007 New York Times 1. Internet security experts have long known that simple passwords do not fully defend online bank accounts from determined fraud artists. Now a study suggests that a popular secondary security measure provides little additional protection. 2.The study, produced jointly by researchers at Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, looked at a technology called site-authentication images. In the system, currently used by financial institutions like Bank of America, ING Direct and Vanguard, online banking customers are asked to select an image, like a dog or chess piece, that they will see every time they log in to their account. 3.The idea is that if customers do not see their image, they could be at a fraudulent Web site, dummied up to look like their bank’s, and should not enter their passwords. 4.The Harvard and M.I.T. researchers tested that hypothesis. In October, they brought 67 Bank of America customers in the Boston area into a controlled environment and asked them to conduct routine online banking activities, like looking up account balances. But the researchers had secretly withdrawn the images. 5.Of 60 participants who got that far into the study and whose results could be verified, 58 entered passwords anyway. Only two chose not to log on, citing security concerns. 6.“The premise is that site-authentication images increase security because customers will not enter their passwords if they do not see the correct image,” said Stuart Schechter, a computer scientist at the M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory. “From the study we learned that the premise is right less than 10 percent of the time.” 7.He added: “If a bank were to ask me if they should deploy it, I would say no, wait for something better,” he said. 8.The system has some high-power supporters in the financial services world, many trying to comply with new online banking regulations. In 2005, the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, an interagency body of federal banking regulators, determined that passwords alone did not effectively thwart intruders like identity thieves. 9.It issued new guidelines, asking financial Web sites to find better ways for banks and customers to identify each other online. January 2007 was set as the compliance date, though the council has yet to begin enforcing the mandate. 10.Banks immediately knew what they did not want to do: ask customers to download new security software, or carry around hardware devices that feed them PIN codes they can use to authenticate their identities. Both solutions would add an extra layer of security but, the banks believed, detract from the convenience of online banking.
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11.The image system, introduced in 2004 by a Silicon Valley firm called PassMark Security, offered banks a pain-free addition to their security arsenals. Bank of America was among the first to adopt it, in June 2005, under the brand name SiteKey, asking its 21 million Web site users to select an image from thousands of possible choices and to choose a unique phrase they would see every time they logged in. 12.SiteKey “gives our customers a fairly easy way of authenticating the Bank of America Web site,” said Sanjay Gupta, an e-commerce executive at the bank. “It was very well received.” 13.The Harvard and M.I.T. researchers, however, found that most online banking customers did not notice when the SiteKey images were absent. When respondents logged in during the study, they saw a site maintenance message on the screen where their image and phrases should have been pictured. The error message also had a conspicuous spelling mistake, further suggesting something fishy. 14.Mr. Gupta of Bank of America said he was not troubled by the results of the survey, and stressed that SiteKey had made the bank’s Web site more secure. He also said that the system was only a single part of a larger security blanket. “It’s not like we’re betting the bank on SiteKey,” he said. 15.Most financial institutions, like Bank of America, have other ways to tell if a customer is legitimate. The banks often drop a small software program, called a cookie, onto a user’s PC to associate the computer with the customer. If the customer logs in from another machine, he may be asked personal questions, like his mother’s maiden name. 16.Rachna Dhamija, the Harvard researcher who conducted the study, points out that swindlers can use their dummy Web sites to ask customers those personal questions. She said that the study demonstrated that site-authentication images are fundamentally flawed and, worse, might actually detract from security by giving users a false sense of confidence. 17.RSA Security, the company that bought PassMark last year, “has a lot of great data on how SiteKey instills trust and confidence and good feelings in their customers,” Ms. Dhamija said. “Ultimately that might be why they adopted it. Sometimes the appearance of security is more important than security itself.” (811 words nytimes.com)

Questions 1-5 Do the following statements agree with the information given in the passage? Please write TRUE FALSE if the statement agrees with the writer if the statement does not agree with the writer

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NOT GIVEN

if there is no information about this in the passage

1.According to internet security experts, secondary security measures provide little additional protection against fraud. 2.In the Harvard and MIT study, two subjects didn’t log on without seeing the correct pictures. 3.According to Schechter, more than 90% of online banking customers studied logged on without seeing the right pictures. 4.The image system is the only security measure that the banks mentioned in the passage have currently. 5.Bank of America is the first bank that adopted the image system. Questions 6-13 Answer the following questions or complete the following sentences by choosing NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. 6.What is ING Direct and Vanguard? 7.What might online banking customers be cheated to give at a fraudulent Web site? 8.What may stop online banking customers from using new verification methods? 9.The key to online banking security is to verify the ______ of customers. 10.Where is PassMark Security located? 11.What is the reason why SiteKey is popular among online banking customers? 12.What was used instead of images in the Harvard and M.I.T. study? 13.How many security methods are mentioned in this passage? Answer keys 1. 第一段“Now a study suggests that a popular secondary security measure provides little additional protection.”似与问题文字很接近,但是原文中 a popular secondary security measure 是指特定的一个 措施,而非泛指所有 secondary security measure。原文没有其它 secondary security measure 安全有 效性的内容。故应选择 NG。 2. 见第 4、5 段内容。第四段 “But the researchers had secretly withdrawn the images.”即研究人员撤 下了图形,第五段“Only two chose not to log on, citing security concerns.”,有两个人因为安全考虑未 进入。

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3. T 4. F

见第 6 段。 见第 11、14 段。

5. F 见第 11 段“Bank of America was among the first to adopt it”,可见首批采用图形识别软件的银 行并非 Bank of America 一家。 6. A financial institution 7. (their) passwords 8. less convenience 9. identity 见第二段。 见第三段。 见第十段。

见第八、十段。 见第十一段。 见第十二段。

10. Silicon Valley 11. easy to use

12. site maintenance message 见第十三段“When respondents logged in during the study, they saw a site maintenance message on the screen where their image and phrases should have been pictured.” 13. 4 分别见第十段的“download new security software”和“hardware devices that feed them PIN codes”,第十五段的“a small software program, called a cookie”,以及本文提到的 site-authentication images。

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雅思阅读实战训练(十五) ★Seeking an energy holy trinity Jan 10th 2007 From Economist.com 1 NEELIE KROES, the European Union’s competition commissioner, did not mince her words when reporting on Europe’s energy markets on Wednesday January 10th. Europe’s energy firms have failed to invest in networks and so customers are suffering. Those “vertically integrated” energy companies such as Electricité de France (EDF) or Germany’s E.ON, widely dubbed as “national champions”, are effectively behaving like local monopolies. Shy of competition, eager for artificially high prices, they are helping to block the efficient generation, transmission and distribution of energy on the continent. 2 Energy prices vary wildly across Europe. Ms Kroes wants to see cheaper energy, and intends to push suppliers to divest their distribution network and to get them to invest more in transportation systems so that more energy—in the form of gas, or electricity, for example—can flow easily over borders. It is remarkably hard, for example, for gas-poor Germany to import from the neighbouring, gas-rich Netherlands. Companies that dominate national markets have, so far, had little interest in improving the interconnections which would mean lower prices for consumers across the continent. 3 Ms Kroes, of course, will struggle to get her way. The European Commission, which on the same day presented its recommendation for improving EU energy policy, also wants to see the unbundling of ownership, the legal separation of energy suppliers and transporters, something that the integrated energy companies and interested governments, notably in France and Germany, are bound to oppose ferociously. 4 Complicating the matter is an argument over the security of energy supply in Europe. Much has been made of the risk for western Europe of depending too heavily on Russian exports of gas. Russia under Vladimir Putin is prone to using energy exports as a blunt tool of foreign policy, especially when trying to bully countries in its hinterland. Last year Russia interrupted gas deliveries to Ukraine, affecting supplies in central and western Europe too. This week it blocked oil exports passing via Belarus to Europe, though that spat was soon resolved. 5 The risk is that concerns about security of supply may be used spuriously by those in Europe who oppose the sort of liberalisation encouraged by Ms Kroes. The likes of E.ON and EDF may claim that only protected national champions are able to secure supply, by striking long-term deals with powerful foreign suppliers. The Commission disagrees. Such deals are too often politically motivated and far from transparent. Protection has been tried for long enough and evidently has not worked for the internal market, nor have these companies secured the best deals for consumers from the Russians. 6 In contrast, the Commission's new policy proposes, ideally, a break-up of these companies into suppliers and distributors. (As a second best solution, especially for France and Germany, it recommends the management of the networks by a third party.) Properly independent managers of Europe's energy networks would have a strong incentive to build interconnecting pipelines and power lines across borders. For the gas market another means of ensuring competition and security would
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be finding a more diverse range of suppliers, for example by building more terminals for the import of liquified natural gas. It would also be likely to mean lower prices, if the example of liberalised Britain over the past ten years is anything to go by. 7 Whether any of this is likely to happen soon, however, is another matter. The Commission is also calling for European governments to agree on a common effort to reduce carbon emissions by at least 20% by 2020 (compared with 1990 levels). If America is willing to play ball, the Commission proposes to reduce emissions by as much as 30%. Achieving either target would mean promoting cleaner cars, a more effective emissions-trading system for Europe, wider use of public transport and a sharp increase in the use of renewable sources of energy, like wind and solar power. All that is laudable enough, but will also require political horse-trading as governments—Europe’s leaders are due to meet in March to discuss the various energy proposals—try to avoid commitments that may hurt domestic energy companies or make European firms less competitive than rivals in America, Asia and elsewhere. (689 words) Questions 1-5 Do the following statements reflect the views of the writer in the reading passage? In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet write YES NO NOT GIVEN 1. 2. 3. if the statement reflects the views of the writer if the statement contradicts the views of the writer if there is no information about this in the passage

Europe’s energy companies have funded the construction of the distribution network. There has been a wide range of energy prices within Europe. Gas-poor Germany has to pay a price higher than average to import gas from its neighbour.

4. E.ON and EDF may oppose the liberalisation due to their concerns about the security of energy supply. 5. The European Commission proposes to reduce carbon emissions by 30% if the U.S. is willing to cut its.

Questions 6-10 Look at the box of countries below.

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Choose One or Two countries to complete the following sentences. Write your answers in boxes 6-10 on your answer sheet. Countries A. B. C. D. E. F. G. 6. 7. Belarus Britain France Germany Russia Ukraine The U.S. It’s dangerous for western Europe to depend too much on gas imports from …… A liberalised policy of energy supply was enforced over ten years in …

8. Last year energy supplies in central and western Europe was affected owing to the interruption of gas deliveries to … 9. The governments in …… are bound to oppose the separation of energy suppliers and transporters? 10. Oil exports passing via … to Europe was blocked this week. Questions 11-14 Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the reading passage above for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 11-14. 11. The EC disagrees with energy firms to strike long-term deals with foreign suppliers because such deals are usually far from … 12. The EC proposes to split those “national champions” into … 13. A more diverse range of suppliers would guarantee …in the European gas market. 14. The realization of carbon emissions reduction would require the promotion of cleaner cars, a better emissions-trading system, wider use of public transport and more use of … of energy.
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Key and Explanations: 1. No See para.1: Europe’s energy firms have failed to invest in networks… 2. Yes See para.2: Energy prices vary wildly across Europe. 3. Not Given See para.2: It is remarkably hard, for example, for gas-poor Germany to import from the neighbouring, gas-rich Netherlands. 4. No See para.5: The risk is that concerns about security of supply may be used spuriously by those in Europe who oppose the sort of liberalisation encouraged by Ms Kroes. The likes of E.ON and EDF may claim that… 5. Yes See para.7: If America is willing to play ball, the Commission proposes to reduce emissions by as much as 30%. 6. E See para.4: Much has been made of the risk for western Europe of depending too heavily on Russian exports of gas. 7. B See para.6: It would also be likely to mean lower prices, if the example of liberalised Britain over the past ten years is anything to go by. 8. F See para.4: Last year Russia interrupted gas deliveries to Ukraine, affecting supplies in central and western Europe too. 9. C, D See para.3: …the legal separation of energy suppliers and transporters, something that the integrated energy companies and interested governments, notably in France and Germany, are bound to oppose ferociously.
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10. A See para.4: This week it blocked oil exports passing via Belarus to Europe, though that spat was soon resolved. 11. transparent See para.5: by striking long-term deals with powerful foreign suppliers. The Commission disagrees. Such deals are too often politically motivated and far from transparent. 12. suppliers and distributors See the sentences in para.1 (Those “vertically integrated” energy companies such as Electricité de France (EDF) or Germany’s E.ON, widely dubbed as “national champions”…) and para.6 (…the Commission's new policy proposes, ideally, a break-up of these companies into suppliers and distributors.) 13. competition and security See para.6: For the gas market another means of ensuring competition and security would be finding a more diverse range of suppliers… 14. renewable sources See para.7: Achieving either target would mean promoting cleaner cars, a more effective emissions-trading system for Europe, wider use of public transport and a sharp increase in the use of renewable sources of energy…

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雅思阅读实战训练(十六) ★Time to cool it Dec 13th 2006 From The Economist print edition 1 REFRIGERATORS are the epitome of clunky technology: solid, reliable and just a little bit dull. They have not changed much over the past century, but then they have not needed to. They are based on a robust and effective idea--draw heat from the thing you want to cool by evaporating a liquid next to it, and then dump that heat by pumping the vapour elsewhere and condensing it. This method of pumping heat from one place to another served mankind well when refrigerators' main jobs were preserving food and, as air conditioners, cooling buildings. Today's high-tech world, however, demands high-tech refrigeration. Heat pumps are no longer up to the job. The search is on for something to replace them. 2 One set of candidates are known as paraelectric materials. These act like batteries when they undergo a temperature change: attach electrodes to them and they generate a current. This effect is used in infra-red cameras. An array of tiny pieces of paraelectric material can sense the heat radiated by, for example, a person, and the pattern of the array's electrical outputs can then be used to construct an image. But until recently no one had bothered much with the inverse of this process. That inverse exists, however. Apply an appropriate current to a paraelectric material and it will cool down. 3 Someone who is looking at this inverse effect is Alex Mischenko, of Cambridge University. Using commercially available paraelectric film, he and his colleagues have generated temperature drops five times bigger than any previously recorded. That may be enough to change the phenomenon from a laboratory curiosity to something with commercial applications. 4 As to what those applications might be, Dr Mischenko is still a little hazy. He has, nevertheless, set up a company to pursue them. He foresees putting his discovery to use in more efficient domestic fridges and air conditioners. The real money, though, may be in cooling computers. 5 Gadgets containing microprocessors have been getting hotter for a long time. One consequence of Moore's Law, which describes the doubling of the number of transistors on a chip every 18 months, is that the amount of heat produced doubles as well. In fact, it more than doubles, because besides increasing in number, the components are getting faster. Heat is released every time a logical operation is performed inside a microprocessor, so the faster the processor is, the more heat it generates. Doubling the frequency quadruples the heat output. And the frequency has doubled a lot. The first Pentium chips sold by Dr Moore's company, Intel, in 1993, ran at 60m cycles a second. The Pentium 4--the last "single-core" desktop processor--clocked up 3.2 billion cycles a second. 6 Disposing of this heat is a big obstruction to further miniaturisation and higher speeds. The innards of a desktop computer commonly hit 80℃. At 85℃, they stop working. Tweaking the processor's heat sinks (copper or aluminium boxes designed to radiate heat away) has reached its limit. So has tweaking the fans that circulate air over those heat sinks. And the idea of shifting from single-core processors to systems that divided processing power between first two, and then four, subunits, in order to spread the thermal load, also seems to have the end of the road in sight.
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7 One way out of this may be a second curious physical phenomenon, the thermoelectric effect. Like paraelectric materials, this generates electricity from a heat source and produces cooling from an electrical source. Unlike paraelectrics, a significant body of researchers is already working on it. 8 The trick to a good thermoelectric material is a crystal structure in which electrons can flow freely, but the path of phonons--heat-carrying vibrations that are larger than electrons--is constantly interrupted. In practice, this trick is hard to pull off, and thermoelectric materials are thus less efficient than paraelectric ones (or, at least, than those examined by Dr Mischenko). Nevertheless, Rama Venkatasubramanian, of Nextreme Thermal Solutions in North Carolina, claims to have made thermoelectric refrigerators that can sit on the back of computer chips and cool hotspots by 10℃. Ali Shakouri, of the University of California, Santa Cruz, says his are even smaller--so small that they can go inside the chip. 9 The last word in computer cooling, though, may go to a system even less techy than a heat pump--a miniature version of a car radiator. Last year Apple launched a personal computer that is cooled by liquid that is pumped through little channels in the processor, and thence to a radiator, where it gives up its heat to the atmosphere. To improve on this, IBM's research laboratory in Zurich is experimenting with tiny jets that stir the liquid up and thus make sure all of it eventually touches the outside of the channel--the part where the heat exchange takes place. In the future, therefore, a combination of microchannels and either thermoelectrics or paraelectrics might cool computers. The old, as it were, hand in hand with the new. (830 words) Questions 1-5 Complete each of the following statements with the scientist or company name from the box below. Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet. A. B. C. D. E. F. Apple IBM Intel Alex Mischenko Ali Shakouri Rama Venkatasubramanian

1. ...and his research group use paraelectric film available from the market to produce cooling. 2. ...sold microprocessors running at 60m cycles a second in 1993.

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3. ...says that he has made refrigerators which can cool the hotspots of computer chips by 10℃. 4. ...claims to have made a refrigerator small enough to be built into a computer chip. 5. ...attempts to produce better cooling in personal computers by stirring up liquid with tiny jets to make sure maximum heat exchange.

Questions 6-9 Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage? In boxes 6-9 on your answer sheet write TRUE FALSE if the statement is true according to the passage if the statement is false according to the passage if the information is not given in the passage

NOT GIVEN

6. Paraelectric materials can generate a current when electrodes are attached to them. 7. Dr. Mischenko has successfully applied his laboratory discovery to manufacturing more efficient referigerators. 8. Doubling the frequency of logical operations inside a microprocessor doubles the heat output. 9. IBM will achieve better computer cooling by combining microchannels with paraelectrics. Question 10 Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in box 10 on your answer sheet. 10. Which method of disposing heat in computers may have a bright prospect? A. B. C. D. Tweaking the processors?heat sinks. Tweaking the fans that circulate air over the processor 抯 heat sinks. Shifting from single-core processors to systems of subunits. None of the above.

Questions 11-14 Complete the notes below.
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Choose one suitable word from the Reading Passage above for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 11-14 on your answer sheet. Traditional refrigerators use...11...pumps to drop temperature. At present, scientists are searching for other methods to produce refrigeration, especially in computer microprocessors....12...materials have been tried to generate temperature drops five times bigger than any previously recorded. ...13...effect has also been adopted by many researchers to cool hotspots in computers. A miniature version of a car ...14... may also be a system to realize ideal computer cooling in the future. Key and Explanations: 1. D

See Paragraph 3: ...Alex Mischenko, of Cambridge University. Using commercially available paraelectric film, he and his colleagues have generated temperature drops... 2. C See Paragraph 5: The first Pentium chips sold by Dr Moore's company, Intel, in 1993, ran at 60m cycles a second. 3. F See Paragraph 8: ...Rama Venkatasubramanian, of Nextreme Thermal Solutions in North Carolina, claims to have made thermoelectric refrigerators that can sit on the back of computer chips and cool hotspots by 10℃. 4. E See Paragraph 8: Ali Shakouri, of the University of California, Santa Cruz, says his are even smaller 梥 o small that they can go inside the chip. 5. B See Paragraph 9: To improve on this, IBM's research laboratory in Zurich is experimenting with tiny jets that stir the liquid up and thus make sure all of it eventually touches the outside of the channel--the part where the heat exchange takes place. 6. TRUE See Paragraph 2: ...paraelectric materials. These act like batteries when they undergo a temperature change: attach electrodes to them and they generate a current. 7. FALSE

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See Paragraph 3 (That may be enough to change the phenomenon from a laboratory curiosity to something with commercial applications. ) and Paragraph 4 (As to what those applications might be, Dr Mischenko is still a little hazy. He has, nevertheless, set up a company to pursue them. He foresees putting his discovery to use in more efficient domestic fridges? 8. FALSE See Paragraph 5: Heat is released every time a logical operation is performed inside a microprocessor, so the faster the processor is, the more heat it generates. Doubling the frequency quadruples the heat output. 9. NOT GIVEN See Paragraph 9: In the future, therefore, a combination of microchannels and either thermoelectrics or paraelectrics might cool computers. 10. D See Paragraph 6: Tweaking the processor's heat sinks ?has reached its limit. So has tweaking the fans that circulate air over those heat sinks. And the idea of shifting from single-core processors to systems?also seems to have the end of the road in sight. 11. heat See Paragraph 1: Today's high-tech world, however, demands high-tech refrigeration. Heat pumps are no longer up to the job. The search is on for something to replace them. 12. paraelectric See Paragraph 3: Using commercially available paraelectric film, he and his colleagues have generated temperature drops five times bigger than any previously recorded. 13. thermoelectric See Paragraph 7: ...the thermoelectric effect. Like paraelectric materials, this generates electricity from a heat source and produces cooling from an electrical source. Unlike paraelectrics, a significant body of researchers is already working on it. 14. radiator See Paragraph 9: The last word in computer cooling, though, may go to a system even less techy than a heat pump--a miniature version of a car radiator.

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