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范亚飞托福基础班词汇讲义2011寒假版


范亚飞

托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

托福基础词汇
--------范亚飞

mikerstone2010@126.com
第一章 第二章 第三章 第四章 第五章 第六章 词汇速记解惑 常见前缀 常见后缀 常见词跟 高频学术词汇 高频考试词汇 第二章 常见英语前缀

1. a-/an- == no; without; lack, 1) amateur: an amateur is someone

who

does

something as a hobby and not as a job. 不 熟练的,业余的 He was an amateur singer until the age of 40, when he turned professional. 2) anonymous 匿名的, 3) asocial 不好社交的, 4) anechoic 消声的, 5) anharmonic 不和谐的, 6) anarchism 无政府主义,

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7) acentric 无中心的, 8) amoral 非道德性的, 9) asexual 无性别的 2. a- == in; on; at; by; with; to, 1) asleep 在熟睡中, 2) ahead 向前,在前头, 3) abreast 肩并肩地, 4) aside 在一边, 5) abed 在床上, 6) abloom 开花 3. a-/an- == 加强意义, aloud 高声地, aright 正确地, awake 唤醒,

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aweary 疲倦的, annotate 注释, announce 宣布,通告 4. ab- == from; away from, abnormal 不正常的, abroad 国外的, abuse 滥用, absorb 吸去, abaxial 离开轴心的, abend 异常终止 5. ac- == at; to,或表示加强意义, accustom 使习惯, account 计算,算帐, accelerate

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accredit 信任, accompany 陪伴, acclaim 欢呼,喝彩, accomplish 完成 6. ad- == to; toward; forward, advice 建议, advocate 倡导, adjoin 临近 adjust 调整, admixture 混杂, adventure 冒险
7. af- == at; to,或表示加强意义, affright 震惊,恐惧, affix 附加,贴上, affirm 肯定,确实 8. ag- == at; to,或表示加强意义, aggrandize 增大, aggravate 加重, aggrieve 使悲痛

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9. amphi- == 两、双, amphicar 水陆两用车, amphibian 水陆两栖的, amphitheatre 两边都可观看的剧场,圆形剧场 10. ante- == before, antecedent 先前的,先行的, antetype 先型,原型, anteport 前港,外港, anteroom 前室,接待室, antedate 比实际早的日期, antestomach 前胃

11. anti- == against, antipathy 反感, antifreeze 防冻, antiwar 反战的, anti-imperlialist 反帝的, antiageing 防衰老的, antitank 反坦克
12. ap- == 加强或引伸意义, appoint 指定,任命, appraise 评价, appease 平息,绥靖 13. ap-/apo- == 离开, apogee 远地点(远离地球之处), apostasy 脱党,叛教, aphelion (天文)远日点

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14. ar- == at; to,或表示加强及引伸意义, arrange 安排,布置, arrect 直立的, arrear 在后,拖延

15. arch- == 1)big; chief. 2)ancient, archbishop 大主教, archaeology 考古学, archaic 古体的,古风的 architecture architect
16. as == to; forward, assign 派出, assent 同意, assort 分类, assimilate 同化,吸收, assure 使确信,担保, associate 联合,结合 17. at- == at; to,或表示加强及引伸意义, attrap 使入陷阱, attest 证明, attract 吸引 18. auto- == self; personally, automation 自动化, autograph 亲笔, autoalarm 自动报警器, autocriticism 自我批评, autorotation 自动旋转, autobiography 自传 19. be- == make or cause to be,

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befog 使迷糊, befit 适宜, belittle 贬低, befriend 以朋友相待, becalm 使镇静, befool 欺骗,愚弄 20. be- == 加以...,饰以...,用...(做某事), bepowder 在...上撒粉, bejewel 饰以珠宝, becloud 遮蔽 21. be- == 在, beside 在...旁, below 在...下面, before 在...之前 22. be- == 加强及引伸意义, befall 降临,发生, bespatter 溅污, belaud 大加赞扬

23. bene- == well; good, benign 和善的, benevolent 乐善好施的, benefit 好处, benediction 祝福, benefaction 恩惠,善行, beneficent 行善的

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24. bi- == two, bicycle 自行车, bilateral 双方, bimonthly 双月刊, biweekly 双周刊, bicolor 两色的, bilingual 两种语言的
25. by- == 旁、侧、非正式、副, byroad 小路,僻径, bywork 业余工作, byname 别名,绰号

26. circu- == around, circulate 流通, circumnavigate 环球航行, circumspect 考虑周到的, circumplanetary 环绕行星的, circumpolar 在两极周围的,

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circumaviate 环球飞行 27. co- == together, coaction 共同行动, cooperate 合作, coeducation 男女同校 28. col- == together, collaboration 协作,勾结, collingual 用同一种语言的, collocate 并置,并列 29. com- == together, compatriot 同胞,同国人, combine 联合,结合, commiserate 同情

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30. com- == 加强或引伸意义, commove 使动乱, compress 压缩, commemorate 纪念 31. con- == together, concolorous 同色的, connatural 同性质的, contemporary 同时代的 32. con- == 加强或引伸意义, conclude 结束,终结, confirm 使坚定, consolidate 巩固,加强 33. contra- == against,

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contradiction 矛盾, controversial 可能引起争议的, contraclockwise 逆时针方向的, contra-missile 反导弹导弹, contraposition 对照,针对, contraband 走私,违法交易
34. cor- == together, correlation 相互关系, corradiate 使(光线)共聚于一点, correspond 符合,相应 35. cor- == 加强或引伸意义, correct 改正,纠正, corrupt 腐败,败坏, corrugate 使起皱纹 36. counter- == opposite, counterrevolutionary 反动的, countermeasure 对策,应策, countercurrent 逆流, countermarch 反方向行进, counterattack 反攻,反击, countercharge 反控,反告

37. de- == down from, deplane 下飞机,

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dethrone 使离王位, derail 使(火车)脱轨 38. de- == 向下、降低、减少, depress 压低,压下, depopulation 人口减少, devalue 贬值 39. de- == 使成...,作成...,或仅作加强意义, delimit 划定界限, denude 使裸露, depicture 描绘,描述 40. de- == not, denationalize 非国有化, demilitarize 使非军事化,

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demobilize 复员 41, de- == 除去、取消、毁, desalt 除去盐份, deforest 砍伐森林, decontrol 取消管制 42. dec(a)- == ten, decade 十年, decimal 十进位制的, decathlon 十项全能
43. deci- == 十分之一, decigram 十分之一克, decimeter 十分之一米, decilitre 十分之一升

44. demi- == 半, =semi=hemi demigod 半神半人,

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demi-fixed 半固定的, demiwolf 半似狼之犬
45. di- == 二、双, diatomic 二原子的, disyllable 双音节的, dichromatic 两色的 45. dia- == through; between; across , diameter 直径, dialogue 对话, diagnosis 诊断 46. dif- == 1)apart. 2)not; opposite , diffluence 分流, diffident 不自信的, diffuse 散开,散布

47. dis- == 不、无、相反, dislike 不喜欢, disagree 不同意, discontinue 中断, disorder 混乱, disbelieve 不信, disproof 反证,

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dishonest 不诚实的, dispraise 贬损,非难, disappear 消失, disremember 忘记, discomfort 不舒服, disability 无能,无力 48. dis- == 取消、除去、毁, disorganize 瓦解, disroot 根除, discourage 使失去勇气, disrobe 脱衣, disarm 解除武装,裁军, dishearten 使失去信心, disburden 解除负担,

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discolor 使褪色, dismember 解体 49. dis- == 加在含有"分开"、"否定"等意义 的单词前,作加强意义, dispart 分离,裂开, dissever 分裂,切断, dissemination 散布,传播 50. dis- == 分开、离、散, dissect 切开, dissolve 分离,溶解, distract 分心,转移, dispense 分配, dispel 驱散,

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dissipate 驱散,浪费 51. dis- == 有时作 di-,, dispirit 使气馁,使沮丧, divorce 离婚, digress 离正题,入歧路
52. dys- == 不良、恶、困难, dysfunction (医)机能失调,功能紊乱, dysphonia 发音困难, dyspepsia 消化不良, dyspathy 反感, dysgenesis 生殖力不良, dysopsy 弱视 53. e- == 加强或引伸意义, evaluate 评价, elongate 使延长,拉长, estop 阻止,禁止, estrange 使疏远, evanish 消失, elaborate 精心制作,详细描述 54. e- == 出、外, eject 投出,掷出, emigrate 移居国外, elect 选出, emerge 浮出,出现, erupt 喷出, evade 逃出 55. ef- == 出、离去, effluence 流出,

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effable 能被说出的, effoliation 落叶 56. em- == 表示"置于...之内"、"上...", embay 使(船)入湾, embus 上车,装入车中, embosom 藏于胸中,怀抱, emplane 乘飞机, embed 安置, embog 使陷于泥沼中 57. em- == 表示"用...做某事"、"饰以..."、"配以...", embalm 涂以香料(防腐剂), embank 筑堤防护, embar 上门闩,囚禁 58. em- == 表示"使成某种状态"、"致使..."、"使之如..."、"作成...", embow 使成弓形, empower 使有权力,授权, empurple 使发紫, embody 体现,使具体化, embitter 使受苦, embrown 使成褐色 59. eco- == ecological, ecosphere 生态圈, ecosystem 生态系统, ecocide 生态灭绝 60. en- == 表示"置于..之中"、"登上..."、"使上...", entrain 乘火车, encage 关入笼中, encase 装入, enplane 乘飞机, encave 藏于洞中, enroll 登记,记入名册中, enthrone 使登基, enshrine 藏于神龛中, enfold 包进、拥抱 61. en- == make or cause to be,"使成某种状态"、"致使..."、"使之如..."、"作成...", enable 使能够, endanger 使受危险, enlighten 启发,启蒙,

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enlarge 扩大,放大, enrich 使富足, enslave 使成奴隶,奴役 62. en- == "用...来做某事"、"饰以..."、"配以...", enchain 用链锁住, enlace 用带缚, entrap 诱陷 63. en- == 家在动词之前,表示"in",或只作加强意义, enclose 围入,关进, entrust 信任,委托, enforce 强制执行, enkindle 点火, enwrap 包入,卷入, enhearten 鼓舞,振奋 64. endo- == 内, endoparasite 体内寄生虫, endogamy (同族)内部通婚, endogen 内生植物 65. eu- == good; well; easy, eugenica 优生学, eulogize 赞美, emphemism 委婉语, euphonic 声音优美的, eupepsia 消化良好, euthenics 优境学 66. ex- == out; out of, exclusive 不包括...的, expose 揭露, emit 发射出, export 出口,输出, exclude 排外,排斥, excavate 挖出,挖掘, exit 出口, extract 抽出,拔出, exhume 掘出 67. ex- == 前任的、以前的, ex-president 前任总统, ex-Nazis 前纳粹分子,

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ex-mayor 前任市长, ex-chancellor 前任大学校长, ex-premier 前任总理, ex-wife 前妻 68. ex- == 表示"使"、"做",或作加强意义, expurgate 使清洁, exalt 使升高,增高, excruciate 施刑,使苦恼 69. exo- == 外、外部, exobiology 外空生物学, exogamy 异族通婚, exosphere 外大气圈 70. extra- == 以外、超过, extrapolitical 政治外的,超政治的, extraofficial 职权以外的, extracurriculum 课外的, extraordinary 格外的, extra-special 特别优秀的, extralegal 法律权力以外的, extraprofessional 职业以外的, extrasolar 太阳系以外的, extraessential 离开本质的、非主要的 71. fore- == ahead, forehead 前额, forecast 预测, foreword 前言,序言, foretell 预言, foresee 预见, foreword 序言,前言, forearm 前臂, foreknow 先知, foretime 以往,过去, foreground 前景, forefather 前人,祖先, forerun 先驱 72. hecto- == 百, hectogram 百克, hectowatt 百瓦, hectoampere 百安培

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73. hemi- 半, hemisphere 半球, hemicycle 半圆形, hemicrania 偏头疼 hepta- == 七(在母音前作 hept-), heptagon 七角形, heptode 七极管, heptahedron 七面体 74. hetero- == 异, heteropolar 异极的, heterosexual 异型的, heterodoxy 异教,异端
75. hexa- == 六(在母音前作 hex-), hexagon 六角形, hexode 六极管, hexameter 六韵步诗

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76. holo- == 全, hologram 全息图, holography 全息照相术, holophone 声音全息记录器, holocrystalline 全结晶的, holohedron 全面体, holophote 全射镜

77. homo- == of the same, homosexual 同性恋的, homograph 同形异义词, homotype 同型, homopolar 同极的, homophone 同音异义字, homocentric 同中心的, homothermic 同温的, homogeneous 同族的, homostasis 同态 78. hyper- == above; excessive; too much, hypercritical 吹毛求疵的,

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hypertension 高血压, hypersensitive 过敏的, hypermilitant 极度好战的, hyperslow 极慢的, hypersuspicious 过分多疑的, hypersexual 性欲极强的, hyperverbal 说话太多的, hyperactive 活动过度的, hypersonic 极超音速的, hyperacid 胃酸过多的, hypercorrection 矫枉过正
79. hypo- == 下、低、次、少, hyposensitize 减弱...的敏感度, hypodermic 皮下的, hypoglossal 舌下的, hypothermia 体温过低, hypotension 低血压, hypochlorite 次氯酸盐 80. il- == (用在 l 之前)不、无、非, illegal 非法的,

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illogical 不合逻辑的, illiterate 文盲, illimitable 无限的, illocal 不只一处的,无所不在的, illiberal 吝啬的,粗鄙的 81. il- == (用在 l 之前)加强或引伸意义, illustrate 举例说明,图解, illuminate 照明 82. im- == (用在 b,p,m 之前)into, immigrate 移民, inspect 视察, ingress 入侵, import 进口,输入, imprison 入狱, imbibe 吸收, immission 注入,允许进入, immerge 浸入,没入 83. im- == (用在 b,p,m 之前)不、无、非, impossible 不可能的, immemorial 古老的,无法记忆的, imperfect 不完美的, impolite 无礼的, immoral 不道德的, impassive 冷漠的,无表情的, impure 不纯的, impersonal 非个人的, imbalance 不平衡的 84. im- == (用在 b,p,m 之前)加强意义,或表示"使成..."、"饰以..."、"加以...", impulse 冲动, 刺激, immanacle 加以手铐, impel 推动,驱使, imbrute 堕落,使成禽兽, imperil 危害,使处于危险, impearl 使成珍珠,饰以珍珠 85. in- == 不、无、非, inglorious 不光彩的,不名誉的, incapable 无能力的, incorrect 错误的, incomparable 无以伦比的,

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incomplete 不完全的, insensible 无知觉的,麻木不仁的, inhuman 野蛮的,不人道的, injustice 不公正, informal 非正式的 86. in- == 内、入, inside 内部,里面, inbreak 入侵, indoor 室内的, intake 入口,输入量,摄入, inland 内地的,国内的, inbreathe 吸入, inject 注射,注入, inrush 涌入 87. in- == 加强意义,或表示"使..."、"作...", inspirit 激励, inflame 燃烧, intrench 用壕沟围绕,使起皱纹, intone 吟诵, invigorate 鼓舞, ingraft 接枝 88. infra- == below, infrared 红外线的, infrastructure 下部结构, infrasonic 低于声频的, infrahuman 类人猿的,低于人类的, infrasound 次声,亚音速, infraorbital 眼眶下的 89. inter- == 在...之间、...之际, intercontinental 洲际的, interlay 插入中间, international 国际的, interline 插写进去,写于行间, interoceanic 大洋间的, intergroup 团体之间的, intercity 城市间的, interject 插嘴,突然插入, interpersonal 人与人之间的 90. inter- == 相互,

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interchange 交换, interview 接见, interact 相互作用, interweave 混纺,交织, interdependence 相互依赖, intermix 混合,混杂, intercourse 交往,交流, interconnect 使相互连接, intermarry 通婚,近亲结婚 91. intra- == 在内、内部, intraparty 党内的, intrapersonal 内心的, intracity 市内的, intraregional 地区内的, intraday 当天的, intracompany 公司内部的, intracollegiate 大学内的, intra-trading 内部贸易, intracloud 云间的 92. intro- == within, introduce 介绍, introspect 反省, introverted 内向, introflection 向内弯曲, intromit 插入, introvision 内有 93. ir- == (用在 r 之前)不、无, irregular 不规则的, irresistible 不可抵抗的, irremovable 无法移动的, irrelative 无关系的, irrational 不合理的,无理性的, irresolute 犹豫不决的 94. ir- == (用在 r 之前)向内、入, irruption 侵入,急速增加, irrigate 灌溉 95. iso- == 等、同, isogen 等角多角形, isotope 同位素,

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

isotherm 等温线 96. kilo- == one thousand, kilogram 千克, kilometer 公里, kiloton 千吨 97. macro- == big, macroworld 宏观世界, macroclimate 大气候, macroscale 大规模, macrocosm 宏观世界, macrochange 大变动, macrobian 长寿的(人) 98. mal- == wrong, maltreat 虐待, malnutrition 营养不良, malministration 管理不善, malcontent 不满的, malpractice 玩忽职守,不法行为, malformation 畸形, malfunction 机能失常,故障, malodour 恶臭, malediction 诅咒 99. meta- == 超, metaphysical 超自然的,形而上学的, metaculture 超级文化, metamaterialist 超唯物论者 100. meta- == 变化, metamorphosis 变形,变态,退化, metagenesis 世代交替, metachromatism 变色反应 101. micro- == small, microscope 显微镜, microprocessor 微处理机, microcomputer 微型电脑, microbiology 微生物学, microelement 微量元素, microworld 微观世界, microskirt 超短裙,

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

microwave 微波, microprint 缩影相片 102. milli- == one thousandth, milliohm 毫欧, millimeter 毫米, millilitre 毫升 103. milli- == thousand, millipede 千足虫, milliennial 一千年的, millifold 千倍的 104. mini- == small, ministate 小国, minicrisis 短暂危机, miniskirt 迷你裙、超短裙

105. mis- == wrong; wrongly; unfavorable, misuse 乱用, mistake 错误, misfortune 不幸, misspell 拼错, misdoing 恶行、坏事, misunderstand 误解, misrule (施)暴证, misstep 失足,

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

mispolicy 失策 106. mono- == one; alone, monarch 独裁者, monotonous 单调的, monopoly monologue monodrama 单人剧
107. multi- == many, multinational 多国的, multilateral 多边的, multiparty 多党的, multi-purpose 多种用途的, multilingual 使用多种语言的, multiracial 多民族的

108. neo- == 新, neorealism 新现实主义, neonatal 新生的、初生的, neogamist 新婚者, neolithic 新石器时代,

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

neofascism 新法西斯主义, neoimpressionism 新印象派
109. non- == 非, nonfiction 非小说类文学作品, nonhuman 非人类的, nonperiodic 非周期的, nonmetal 非金属, nonage 未成年, nonwhite 非白人 110. non- == 不, nonsmoker 不抽烟的人, nonaligned 不结盟的, nonaggression 不侵略不侵略, nonexistent 不存在的, nonstop 不断的, noncooperation 不合作 111. non- == 无, noneffective 无效的, nonpayment 无力支付, nonparty 无党派, nonsexual 无性别的, nonelastic 无弹性的, nonreader 无阅读能力的人 112. octa- == 八(亦作 octo-与 oct), octagon 八角形, octosyllable 八音节字(诗句), octolateral 八边的, October 十月(古罗马八月), octocentenary 八百周年纪, octachord 八弦琴 113. omni- == 全、总、公、都, omnipresent 无所不在的, omnipotent 全能的, omniform 式样齐全的,

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

omnibus 公共汽车、合刊本, omniparity 一切平等, omniscient 无所不知的 114. out- == 外、出, outburst 爆发, outlet 出口, outdoor 户外的, out-party 在野党, outwork 户外工作, outtell 说出, outflow 外流, outbreak 突发, outrush 冲出 115. out- == 胜过、超过, outdo 胜过、超越, outrun 超过、比...跑得快, outdistance 远远超过(竞赛中), outgo 走得比...远、支出, ourbrave 以勇胜过, outlive 比...长命、比...耐久, outact 行动上胜过, outeat 吃得比...多, outnumber 数目超过 116. out- == 过度、太甚, outsize 特大号, outsit 坐得太久, outwear 穿旧、穿破 117. out- == 除去, outroot 除根, outlaw 剥夺法律权利, outgas 除去...的气 118. over- == 过度、太甚, overstudy 用功过度, overwork 过度劳累, overload 超负荷, overtalk 过分多言, overpraise 过奖, overuse 使用过度, overdrink 饮酒过量,

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

overproduction 生产过剩, overpay 付得过多 119. over- == 在上、在外、从上、越过, overbridge 天桥, oversea 海外的、国外的, overcoat 外套, overleap 越过, overshoe 套鞋, overlook 俯瞰 120. over- == 颠倒、反转, overturn 傾覆、推翻, overthrow 推翻, overset 推翻、颠覆

121. paleo- == 古、旧, paleozoology 古动物学, Paleolithic 旧石器时代, paleoclimate 史前气候
122. pan- == 全、泛, Pan-American 泛美的, pancosmism 泛宇宙论, pantropical 遍布于热带的, pantheism 泛神论, pansophic 全知的, omatic 全色的

123. para- == 半、类似、准, para-party 半政党组织,

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

paramilitary 准军事的, para-book 类似书籍的刊物, para-institution 半官方机构, parastatal 半官方的、半政府的, para-government 伪政府的 124. para- == 辅助、副, paralanguage 辅助语言, paraprofessional 专职人员的助手, paratyphoid 副伤寒 125. para- == 旁、靠近、外 parasite 寄生虫, paracentral 靠近中心的, parabiosphere 外生物圈的

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

126. para- == 错误、伪, parachronism 年代记录错误, paralogism 谬论, paradox 谬论、自相矛盾的话 para- == 降落伞、伞投、空降, parachute parabomb 伞投炸弹, paradrop 空投, parapack 空投包裹
127. pen- == almost (亦作 pene-), peninsula 半岛, penultimate 倒数第二的, peneplain 准平原 128. penta- == five, the Pentagon (美国国防部)五角大楼, pentathlon 五项全能, pentangular 五角的

129. per- == 贯穿、通、透、全、遍、自始

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

至终, permeate perspective 透视, perennial 全年的、常年的, pernocation 彻夜不眠, permanent 永久的, pervade 遍及, ;invade;evade perambulate 步行巡视、闲逛 130. per- == 加强意义, perplex 困惑, permute 改变顺序, perturb 扰乱, perfervid 非常热心的, percussion 敲击、打击乐,

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

persuade 劝说 131. per- == 过、高(用于化学名词), peroxide 过氧化物, peracid 过酸, permanganate 高锰酸
132. peri- == 周围、外层、靠近, pericentral 中心周围的, periphrasis 绕圈子的陈述, perilune 近月点, perimeter 周长,周边, periderm (植物)外皮, pericarp 果皮 133. poly- == 多, polyclinic 联合诊所、综合医院, polyfunctional 多功能的, polydirectional 多方向的 134. post- == after, postthumous 父亲死后出生的, postpone 推迟, postscript 编后记, postwar 战后, postgraduate 研究生、大学毕业后的, postmeridian 午后的 135. pre- == 前, prewar , prelude 前奏, premature 未成熟的, prehistory 史前的,

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

preposition 前置词, preschool 幼儿园、学龄前的, precondition 前提, predeparture 出发前的, preteen 13 岁以下的儿童, prefix 前缀, predawn 黎明前的, prehuman 人类存在以前的 136. pre- == 预先, preexamination 预试, prepay 预付, prebuilt 预制的, preheat 预热, prechoose 预先选择, predetermine 预定、预算 137. pro- == 向前、在前, progress 前进、发展, prospect 展望, prologue 前言, prolong 延长, protrude 突出、伸出, project 计划、发射, promote 促进、晋升, propel 推进、鼓励, protraction 伸长 138. pro- == 代理、代替, pronoun 代词, procurator 代理人, prolocutor 代言人 139. pro- == 拥护、亲、赞成, pro-British 亲英的, pro-Bolshevik 拥护布尔什维克派, proslavery 支持奴隶制度 140. proto- == 原始, protohuman 早期原始人, prototype 原型, protogenic 原生的 141. pseudo- == false(在母音前作 pseud-),

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

pseudoscience 伪科学, pseudo-democratic 假民主的, pseudonym 笔名, pseudomyopia 假性近视, pseudology 谎话, pseudography 冒名作品 142. quadri- == four(亦作 quadru-,在母音前作 quadr-), quadruple 四倍的,四重的, quadrilateral 四边的, quadrennial 四年的 143. quasi- == partly; seemingly; not real, quasihistorical 带有历史性的, quasi-official 半官方的, quasi-public 私营公用事业的 144. quinque- == 五(在母音前作 quinqu-), quinquangular 五角的, quinquennial 每五年的, quinquesection 五等分 145. re- == 回、向后, retreat 撤退、退休、降旗仪式, return 归回,收回, recollect 回忆,忆起, recall 召回、回忆, reflect 反射、反省, retract 缩回, regress 倒退、退化, reclaim 要求归还、回收, rebound 弹回、重新振作 146. re- == 再、重复、重新, reprint 重印、再版, reproduction 繁殖、复制, rearm 重新武装, rebuilt 重建, rebirth 再生、复活、复兴, reexamination 复试, remarry 再婚, restart 重新开始, reconsider 重新考虑

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

147. re- == 相反、反对, reaction 反应、反作用, reverse 相反的, resist 反抗、抵抗, revolt 反叛、造反, rebel 造反(者), resent 愤狠、不满 148. retro- == back; backward; behind, retrograde 退化, retrospect 回想,回顾, retrogress 倒退 149. se- == 离开、分开, seduce 引诱、拐骗, select 选择, seclude 使隔离, segregate 分离, secede 脱离, secern 区别 150. semi- == half, semifinal 半决赛, semiliterate 半文盲的, semiconductor 半导体, semiofficial 半官方的, semimonthly 半月刊, semi-colony 半殖民地 151. sept- == 七(亦作 septi-及 septem-), septangle 七角形, septennial 每七年的, septempartite 分七部分的 152. sex- == 六(亦作 sexi-), sexangle 六角形, sexcentenary 六百年的, sexdigitism 六指 153. Sino- == 中国, Sino-American 中美的, Sinomania 中国热, Sinology 汉学, Sinophile 赞成中国的(人),

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

Sinophobe 厌恶中国的(人), Sino-Tibetan 汉藏语系 154. step- == 后、继, stepfather 继父, stepchild 前夫或前妻的孩子, stepbrother 异父(母)兄弟 155. stereo- == 立体, stereosonic 立体声的, stereograph 立体照片, stereoproject 立体投影

156. sub- == 下, subway 地铁, substandard 标准以下的, sub-zero 零度以下的, submarine 水下的、潜水艇, subnormal 低于正常的, subsoil 底土、下层土
157. sub- == 次、亚、准, subcontinent 次大陆, subcollege 准大学程度的, subsonic 亚音速的, subtropics 亚热带, subfamily (生物)亚科, subatomic 亚原子的 158. sub- == 稍、略、微,

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

subacid 略酸的, subacute 略尖的, subangular 稍有棱角的, subconical 略作圆锥形的, subarid 略干燥的, subsylindrical 略成圆筒状的 159. sub- == 副、分支、下级, subhead 副标题, subworker 助手,副手, subbranch 分店,分支, subcommittee 小组委员会, subofficer 下级官员, subarea 分区, subdepartment 分部、分局, subeditor 副编辑, suboffice 分办事处 160. sub- == 接近, subcentral 接近中心的, subequal 接近相等的, subadult 接近成年的, subteen 十三岁左右少年的, subarctic 近北极圈的, subequatorial 近赤道的 161. sub- == 更进一层、再, subdivide 再分、细分, sublet 转租, subculture 再培养 162. sub- == 用于化学名词,表示化合物成分含量少的, suboxide 低氧化物, subcarbide 低碳化物, subchloride 低氯化物 163. super- == 超, superspeed 超高速的, superconductivity 超导, supersonic 超音速的, supersized 超大型的, supersecrecy 绝密, superpower 超级大国, supernatural 超自然的,

范亚飞

托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

superman 超人, superprofit 超额利润 164. super- == 上, superstructure 上层建筑, supervise 监督、管理, superimpose 叠覆, superstratum 上层, superaqueous 水上的, superterrene 地上的 165. super- == 过度、过多, superexitation 过度兴奋, superheat 过热, supercharge 负荷过大, supercool 过度冷却, supersensitive 过敏的, supernutrition 营养过多 166. supra- == 超、上, suprarenal 肾上腺的, supramundane 超越世俗的, supranational 超国家的

167. sur- == 上、外、超, surplant surface 表面, surrealism 超现实主义, surpass 超过, surcoat 外套、女外衣, surmount 在...顶上,

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

surtax 附加税, surprint 加印于...上, surround 包围、环境, surplus 剩余、盈余
168. sym- == 共同、相同, sympathy 同情, symphony 交响曲, symmetry 对称 169. syn- == 共同、相同, synactic 共同作用的, synonym 同义字, synchronize 使同步, synchronous 同时的, syntony 共振、谐振, synthesis 合成、综合
170. tetra- == 四(在母音前作 tetr), tetracycline 四环素, tetrode 四极管, tetragon 四角形

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

171. trans- == 越过、横过、超, transnational 超越国界的, transcontinental 横穿大陆的, transnormal 超出常规的, transpersonal 超越个人的, transmarine 横越海洋的、海外的, transfrontier 在国境外的 172. trans- ==转移、变换, transform 改变...之外形, transvest 换穿异性衣服, transposition 调换, transcode 译密码, transmigrate 移居, transplant 移植, transship 转船(车), transport 运输, translate 翻译 173. tri- == three, tripod 三角架, triangle 三角(形), trilogy 三部曲 174. twi- == 二, twiformed 有二形的, twifold 两倍, twiforked 有两叉的 175. ultra- == 超、以外, ultrasonic 超声的, ultrared 红外线的, ultramodern 超现代化的, ultramarine 海外的, ultra-violet 紫外线的, ultramontane 山那边的、教皇绝对权力主义者 176. ultra- == 极端, ultra-democracy , ultrapure , ultra-left 极左的 177. un- == 相反动作、取消、除去, unbind 解放,解开,

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

unlock 开锁, unpack 开包, undo 解开, unbutton 解开纽扣, uncap 脱帽、打开 178. un- == 不, unreal 不真实的, uncomfortable 不舒服的, unclear 不清楚的, unfriendly 不友善的, unwelcome 不受欢迎的, unfortunate 不幸的 179. un- == 无, uncondictional 无条件的, unmanned 无人的, unambitious 无野心的, unfathered 私生的, unbodied 无形体的, unaccented 无重音的 180. un- == 非, unjust 非正义的, unofficial 非官方的, unartificial 非人工的 181. un- == 未, uncorrected 未修正的, undecided 未定的, uncivilized 未开化的 182. un- == 由...中弄出, untomb 掘墓, unearth 从地下掘出, unhouse 赶出家去, unbosom 吐露心事, uncage 从笼中放出, uncase 从箱中取出 183. under- == 下, underworld 下流社会、黑社会, underfoot 在脚下、碍事, underline 下划线,

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

underside 下面、下側, underlay 垫起, underwrite 签在...下、签名同意收买、认购 184. under- == 内(用于衣服), underclothing 内衣, underthings 女子内衣裤, underskirt 衬裙, undervest 贴身内衣, underpants 内裤, underwear (总称)内衣 185. under- == 不足、少, underproduction 生产不足、供不应求, underpay 付资不足, underestimate 低估, undermanned 人员不足, underdress 穿得太少, underfed 营养不良、吃得不饱 186. under- == 副、次, underagent 副代理人, underking 副王, undersecretary 次长、副部长 187. uni- == one, unilateral 单方面的, unify 使统一, uniform 同样的 188. vice- == 副, vice-chairman 副主席, vice-govrernor 副总督, vice-consul 副领事 189. with- == 向后、相反, withdraw 收回、撤退, withstand 抵挡、反抗, withhold 阻止

第三章

常见英语后缀

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

1. -able. a. == inclined to be;likely to be done, acceptable 可接受的, readable 可读(认)的, adaptable 可适应的 2. -age. n. == the action,result or state of, shortage 缺乏,短缺, reportage 报告文学, parentage 出身,门第 3. -al. n. == the action of,the person of, refusal 拒绝, proposal 建议, approval 认可,rejection

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

criminal 犯罪分子,commit a crime rival 竞争者,component=competitor arrival 到达者 4. -al. a. == inclined to be;connected with; pertaining to, colonial 殖民的, natural 自然的, political 政治的 5. -ed.[过去分词作定语] == 1)filled with;having the characteristics of. 2)done by, spirited(heated) argument 热烈的讨论, honeyed word 甜言蜜语, distracted 心情纷乱

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

6. -ee. n. == one who receives, testee 考生,被测验者, trainee 运动员,受训练的人, payee 受款人 employee 7. -er/-ar/-ur/-eer/-ier. n. == doer; device for, fighter 战士,战斗机, radar 雷达, pioneer 先锋队员 8. -ic/ical. a. == relating to;resembling, scenic 风景的,-ics economics geometric 几何的, geographical 地理的

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

9. -ess/ine. n. == female, actress 女演员, heroine 女英雄, mayoress 女市长 10. -ful. a. == full of, handful 一把,一撮, mouthful 一口, cupful 一满杯 fulfill 11. -fy. v. == make;reinforce, intensify 强化,加强, purify 净化,pure clarify 澄清 amplify

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

12. -hood. n. == condition;state, childhood 儿童期, brotherhood 手足之情, bachelorhood 独身生活 13. -ile. a. == likely to be, hostile 敌意的,cold shoulder fragile 易碎的,=delicate=vulnerable versatile 多才多艺的 14. -ility. n. == quality of, feasibility 可 行 性 , feasible=practical ; impractical servility 奴性,卑屈, mobility 易动性

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

15. -ing. a. == having the quality of, disturbing 令人不安的, surprising 令人吃惊的, encouraging 振奋人心的

16. -ion/ation. n. == action of;process of, indication 指示, relaxation 放松, perfection 完美无缺

17. -ish. a. == having the quality of, childish 幼稚的, bookish 书生气的, devilish 魔鬼似的

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18. -ism. n. == doctrine;belief, capitalism 资本主义, adventurism 冒险主义, opportunism 机会主义 19. -ist. n. == 1)believer in. 2)expert of, romanticist 浪漫主义者, economist 经济学家, economy ; economic ; economics ; economical nationalist 民族主义者 20. -istic. a. == full of, realistic 现实的, artistic 艺术的, humanistic 人道的

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21. -ive. a. == inclined to; having the quality of, instructive 有教育意义的, offensive 进攻性的, constructive 建设性的 22. -ize. v. == make or cause to become, realize 实现, organize 组织, popularize 普及,推广 finalize 使...了结, economize 节省,节约, industrialize 工业化 23. -less. a. == without,

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jobless 失业的, tireless 不倦的, countless 数不清的 homeless 24. -let. n. == little, booklet 小册子, townlet 小镇, houselet 小房子 25. -like. a. == having the quality of, childlike 孩子般的, warlike 好战的, businesslike 事务式的 26. -logy/-ology. n. == study of, sociology 社会学,

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ecology 生态学, methodology 方法论 27. -ment. n. == 1)result of. 2)agency of. 3)state of, improvement 改良,进步, government 政府, disappointment 失望 28. -ness. n. == condition or quality of being, eagerness 渴望, carelessness 粗心, emptiness 空洞,空虚 29. -ous/-ious. a. having the quality of,

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famous 著名的, advantageous 有优势的,有利的, mysterious 神秘的 30. -ship. n. == state of, friendship 友谊, partnership 合作伙伴, fellowship 交情,伙伴关系 championship 31. -some. a. == full of, burdensome 累赘的,沉重的, troublesome 麻烦的, laboursome 费力的 32. -ty. n. == condition of being,

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security 保险, safety 安全, loyalty 忠诚 33. -ure. n. == 1)act or fact of. 2)result of being, culture 培养,cultivate;nurture failure 失败, closure 圈地 34. -y. a. == full of, clumsy 笨拙的, tricky 狡猾的, hairy 毛茸茸的 touchy picky choosy

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

35.形容词后缀 -d 单音节词的形容词后缀,是 id 的简写: 如:bold a. 大胆的,勇敢的;冒失的;黑 体的,粗体的

-en baren a. 贫瘠的;不育的;(植物)不结果的; 无用的 也是动词后缀: fasten v. 扎牢,使固定

-ic=-ique automatic, unique,

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anthropic, gigantic, domestic, antique

-id vivid lucid rigid splendid acid invalid 无效的

-al

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personal actual mutual oriental radical ;dramatic;drastic solemn 庄严的,隆重的

-mn

-ile facile 温和的 -ible negligible 微不足道的 -ive=-tive attractive

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thrive, comparative, objective 客观的,subjective cognitive motive 动机的 motivate;motivation; self-motivated -ite polite, 有礼貌的 finite 有限的 infinite ;affinity 姻亲关系

-ful awful respectful

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-est modest 谦虚的,中庸的

-ant reluctant predominant indignant ;dignity;insult;insane pregnant;fragrant giant -ate appropriate 恰当的 proper private 私人的 privacy; meet sb in private adequate 适当的,充足的

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ultimate a. 最后的,最终的;根本的 intricate 复 杂 的 ,错综 的 complicated ; complex -ute=ite=ate absolute acute;accurate;precise;concise; minute -ture mature 成熟的;immature mixture

-ary military extraordinary

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arbitrary 随意的 temporary boundary -ow shallow 浅的 -ent decent translucent efficient;deficit;deficient;sufficient turbulent prominent 杰出的 obedient 顺从的 coherent 一致的,协调的

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36.名词后缀 -o audio stereo piano radio video audio 独奏 -us virus,病毒 consensus, 共识 radius,半径;diameter genius,天才 prodigy abacus

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-um album, 唱片集;相册 vacuum, triumph auditorium museum stadium -ia media 媒体 bacteria 细菌 inertia 惯性 -ar,-er,-or-ur liar,

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei

altar,祭坛 scar, 伤疤 calendar, 日历 tractor, amateur 爱好者

-ue value colleague avenue -acy pharmacy 药房 drugstore;grocery accuracy n. 准确(性);精确; democracy 民主

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bureaucracy 官僚主义

-ity(实际上是复合合缀:it+y) facility utility solidarity celerity security -ine medicine gasoline doctrine 教条,理论还有动词 -iot 表人的名词后缀 如:

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patriot 爱国者 compatriot idiot 白痴 -dom freedom random;pick it at random
动词后缀

-ish cherish distinguish abolish accomplish 38.复合动词后缀 -inate(ine+ate) 如:dominate

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-itate(it+ate)如:hesitate

39.复合名词后缀 -itude=-itute 与度有关 (attitude -inant (ine-+-ant) predominant -idor (id+or) 如:corridor n. 走廊,通道
第四章 常见词根

词根 108 将
词根 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. act ag aster aud, audi bi,bio brev,brief,bridg cap, capt, cept, cip. ced, ceed, cess, cede centr cert cid, cis, cide, cise claim, clam clos, clud, clus cult cor, cord creed, cred cur(r.),curs 意义 行动,做 做,代理做 星 听 生命,生物 短 取,获 行,走 中心 确信 杀,切 叫喊,呼喊 闭合,关闭 耕耘,培养 心,一致 相信 跑,发生 基础词汇 Active, actor Agent, astronaut audience biology bridge except succeed center certain decide claim close culture record credit occur 关键词汇 Activate Agenda, disaster inaudible biography Brevity, brief concept proceed central certainly precise exclaim include agriculture accord discredit current 进阶词汇 reaction agitate asterisk audition microbe abridge emancipate ancestor concentrate certify concise acclaim recluse cultivate discord creed cursor tluc,特幸运 roc(k) 跪下 磕,磕死 舌头 死的 备注 cat Ag,阿哥 Star 奥迪 鼻孔 不热 帽子

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18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. cycl demn dic, dict doc, doct. duc,duct dur fac, f act, fect, fic fend fer fid fin firm form flect, flex flu forc, fort fus gen, gener gest grad gram, graph grat, gree gress ject, jet lect, leg,lig loc log, logu logy,ology man, manu mand,mend med,medi

托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei
圆,环 伤害,骂 说话,断言 教 引导,传导 持久,坚硬 做,制造, 打,击 搬运,拿 信心,信任 终,限制 坚固 形式,外形 弯曲 流,流动 力,强度 流,泻,泼 起源,生产,发生 拥挤 级,步,走,阶段 书写,画,记录 感激,高兴 行,走 投,抛 挑选,采集 场所,地方 词,说,演讲 科学 手,手法 命令 中间 记忆,记住的 少,小 派遣,送 移动 出生 捆扎,连接 记号,注意 新 部分的 感情,痛苦,疾病 脚,足 bicycle damage dictionary doctor produce during factory defend suffer confident finish firm formal reflect fluent force refuse gene suggest grade photograph agree progress project collect local dialog biology manage demand media memory minute mission mobile native next notice novel party passion pedal cycle damn predict document reduce endure fiction offend ferry fidelity define confirm perform flexible influence comfort confuse generous gesture graduate grammar grateful aggressive reject select location logic psychology manual command medium memorize minimize dismiss remove nature connect notify novelty apartment patient pedestrian cyclone condemn dictate docile abduct obdurate defect defendant defer diffident infinite infirmity reform inflexible fluid enforce infuse generate digest degrade autograph gracious retrogress dejected elegant relocate monologue geology manuscript mandatory immediate commemorate minority permit emotion innate annex notion neonate particular sympathy expedition 无间道怕死 step NEW net 迷你短裤 送小姐 干掉老鼠 grass 接客 来客 唠嗑 109 句话 说—WHY 人类的手 蛮的 MID 流感 佛法无边 象声 根 挤死他 制造做实事 缝的 考试拿分儿 我不是废的 鱼翅 筛口 妈的 切掉舌头 DARK 鸭子

mem, memor, member mini, min miss, mit mob, mot, mov nat nect, nex not neo, nov part path, pass,pat ped

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60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. ple pel, puls pend, pens phon, phone

托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei
加 推,驱赶 悬挂,花费 声音 放置 搬运,带 压,压制 第一,首要 实验,验证 寻找,探问 正,直 破坏,毁坏,断裂 scend,scens,scent 书写,记录 see 跟随 相似,类似 感觉,情感 服务,保持 坐,座 标记,符号 站立 结合,社交 放松 刺,突出 看,视 呼吸,生命 树立 建立 接触,碰 保持,握,容纳 遮蔽,掩盖 伸,倾向,伸张 扭,扭转 拖,拉,吸引 one— 用,使用 空,空虚 变化 来 旋转,反转 看见,观看 plenty pulse depend telephone position import pressure primary approve question correct bankrupt descend describe science issue similar sense service consider signal insist society solve distinguish respect spirit constant construct contact continue protect extend distort attract unit usual vacation various event universe television complete compel expend symphony postpone export impress prime probable request erect erupt transcend subscribe scenery consequence resemble nonsense servant president assign assist social solution distinct expect inspire instant instruct intact obtain detect intend torture contract uniform abuse avoid variance invent anniversary evident accomplish expel independent microphone opponent support express primitive reprove acquire direct interrupt ascend inscribe conscience persecute simulate sensitive conserve resident design persist associate resolute extinguish despise perspire outstanding destruct tangible entertain integrate pretend extort tractor unique misuse vacant variable adventure adverse preview 使它 in spy+act 感觉百分百 save 爬 呆板 PROVE 港口 声音 PLUS

pon, pos, put , poisit port press prim prob, prov quer, quest, quir, quis rect, rig rupt scend, scens, scent scrib, script sci sec, sequ, sue, semble, simil, simul sens, sent serv sid sign sist soci solv, solu, solut stin, sting, stig spec, spect, spis spir stand,stant,stic,stance,stitude struct tach, tact, tag, tang tain, tin tect, teg tend, tens, tent tor, tort tract un, uni us, ut vac, vacu, van, void vari, vary ven, vent

100. vers, vert 101. vid, vis, vey, view

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102. vin, vinct 103. vit, viv vig 104. vok, voc 105. volv 106. war, ward 107. way,voy, vey, 108. wis,wit

托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei
胜利 生活,生存 声音,呼唤 滚动,转 注意,保护 路 知道 victory survive voice involve aware away wise convince vivid vocal revolve wary voyage witty invincible vitamin advocate revolution steward convey witness WIN

it 表示“行走”exit 出口,出去 ambitious 有雄心的 initiate 开始;开创 initiative 起步的 lat 表示“拿出,带出”translate 翻译;转化 collate 校对,核对 dilate 膨胀,扩大 migr 表示“迁移”migrate 迁移 migrant 候鸟,迁移者 emigrate移居(外国)immigrate 移居;入境 mot“移动”motive 动机 motivate 推动;激励 promote 促进;提升 remote 遥远的 emotion感情, mobile neg 表示“否认”neglect 忽视,不顾 negligible 可以忽视的 negate 否认;取消 negative 否认的 nomin, Onym 表示“名称,名字”nominal 名义上的 nominee 被提名者 ignominy 不名誉;耻辱,synonym 同义词 Not=know,表示“知道,注意 notable 值得注意的 notify 布告,通知 denotation 指示;意义 nounce,nunci 表示“讲话,说出”announce 宣布,发表 pronounced 著名的,显著的 annunciate 报告 Secut,sequ 跟随 persecution 迫害 prosecute 起诉 consequence 后果,结果 subsequence 随后发生 Opt 表示“选择”optional 可任意选择的 adopt 采纳;收养 adoptable 可采纳的 Ori,orig 表示“升起,开始 oriental 东方的 orientation 定向,originate 起源 oboriginal 土著的, Ordin 表示“命令,顺序” ordinal 顺序的,次序的 ordinary 普通的 extraordinary 特别的,超常的 Pict 表示“描画”picture 图画,照片 pictograph 象形文字 depict 描述,描绘 plat 表示“平坦”plate 盘子 plateau 平顶;高原 platform 月台;讲台 platitude 陈词滥调 Pris 拿住,抓住 surprise 吃惊 enterprise 事业;进取心 imprison 监禁 vol 意志,意愿 volition意志力 voitive 意志的 benevolent 善心的 voluntary 志愿的,自愿 的 活动的 Muni,mun 表示“公共的”communize 共产化 communal 公共的 community 社区,社会 communicate 交流;

第五章 高频学术词汇
570 Must Academic Words for TOEFL & IELTS This list contains the head words of the families in the Academic Word List. The numbers indicate the sublist of the Academic Word List. For example, abandon and its family members are in Sublist 8 of the Academic Word List. Sublist 1 contains the most frequent words, and Sublist 10 the least frequent. 1. abandon (8) [?'b? nd?n] 放弃 【English Explanation】If you abandon a place, thing, or person, you leave the place, thing, or person permanently or for a long time, especially when you should not do so. 【Example】We had to abandon our attempt to climb the mountain. 【联想破解】ab 远离; get on 上车;不让上车,即“放弃” 2. abstract (6) ['? bstr? kt]

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【English Explanation】An abstract idea or way of thinking is based on general ideas rather than on real things and events. 【Example】Abstract art is an acquired taste. 【速记方法】ab 远离;远离普通的痕迹 3. academy (5) [?'k? d?mi] 【English Explanation】Academy is sometimes used in the names of schools and colleges, especially those specializing in particular subjects or skills, or private high schools in the United States. 【Example】Royal Academy of Music. 【速记方法】柏拉图建立的人类历史上第一个大学 4. access (4) ['? kses]

【English Explanation】 you have access to a building or other place, you are able or allowed to If go into it. 【Example】The facilities have been adapted to give access to wheelchair users. 【速记方法】常识速记 internet access 5. accommodate (9) [?'k?m??deit]

【English Explanation】If a building or space can accommodate someone or something, it has enough room for them. 【Example】The cottage could accommodate up to five people. 【速记方法】a common date 都提供食宿 6. accompany (8) [?'k?mp?ni] 【English Explanation】If you accompany someone, you go somewhere with them. (FORMAL) 【Example】Ken agreed to accompany me on a trip to Africa. 【速记方法】在一个 company 工作,上下班需要结伴同行

7. accumulate (8) [?'kju:mj??leit]

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【English Explanation】When you accumulate things or when they accumulate, they collect or are gathered over a period of time. 【Example】Dust and dirt soon accumulate if a house is not clean regularly. 【速记方法】形象记忆,故宫里的水钢 8. accurate(6) ['? kj?rit]

【English Explanation】Accurate information, measurements, and statistics are correct to a very detailed level. An accurate instrument is able to give you information of this kind. 【Example】The manager impressed on his office staff the importance of keeping accurate records. 【速记方法】要 cure,需要精湛的医术

9. achieve (2) [?'t?i:v] 【English Explanation】If you achieve a particular aim or effect, you succeed in doing it or causing it to happen, usually after a lot of effort. 【Example】His laziness makes it impossible for him to achieve success. 【速记方法】

10. acknowledge (6) [?k'n?lid?] 【English Explanation】If you acknowledge a fact or a situation, you accept or admit that it is true or that it exists. (FORMAL) 【Example】I was compelled to (ie I had to) acknowledge the force of his argument. 11. acquire (2) [?'kwai?] 【English Explanation】If you acquire something, you buy or obtain it for yourself, or someone gives it to you. (FORMAL) 【Example】How did he acquire his wealth? 12. adapt (7) [?'d? pt]

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【English Explanation】If you adapt to a new situation or adapt yourself to it, you change your ideas or behaviour in order to deal with it successfully. 【Example】You must adapt to the norms of the society you live in. 13. adequate (4) ['? d?kwit]

【English Explanation】If something is adequate, there is enough of it or it is good enough to be used or accepted. 【Example】The town is now counting the cost of its failure to provide adequate flood protection. 14. adjacent (10) [?'d?eis?nt] 【English Explanation】 one thing is adjacent to another, the two things are next to each other. If 【 Example 】 A surface forming a common boundary between adjacent regions, bodies, substances, or phases. 15. adjust (5) [?'d??st] 【English Explanation】When you adjust to a new situation, you get used to it by changing your behaviour or your ideas. 【Example】Over the years, we all learned to adjust, to become more comfortable with each other, and to adapt to our new family arrangement. 16. administrate (2) [?d'min??streit]

【English Explanation】 【Example】

17. adult (7) [?'d?lt] 【English Explanation】An adult is a mature, fully developed person. An adult has reached the age when they are legally responsible for their actions.

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【Example】Children unaccompanied by an adult will not be admitted. 18. advocate (7) [? dv?kit] 【English Explanation】If you advocate a particular action or plan, you recommend it publicly. (FORMAL) 【Example】I don't really believe in capital punishment, I'm just playing the devil's advocate. 19. affect (2) [?'fekt] 【English Explanation】If something affects a person or thing, it influences them or causes them to change in some way. 【Example】He was much affected by the sad news.

20. aggregate (6) ['? gri?geit] 【English Explanation】An aggregate amount or score is made up of several smaller amounts or scores added together. 【Example】The tax increases will, in the aggregate, cause much hardship. 21. aid (7) [eid] 【English Explanation】Aid is money, equipment, or services that are provided for people, countries, or organizations who need them but cannot provide them for themselves. 【Example】Aid to the Third World is at present little more than a drop in the ocean.

22. albeit (10) [?:l'bi:it] 【English Explanation】 use albeit to introduce a fact or comment which reduces the force or You significance of what you have just said. (FORMAL) 【Example】I hate him albeit he helped me.

23. allocate (6) ['? l??ket] 【English Explanation】If one item or share of something is allocated to a particular person or

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for a particular purpose, it is given to that person or used for that purpose. 【Example】A system used to allocate a scarce commodity, such as food, only to those capable of deriving the greatest benefit from it. 24. alter (5) ['?lt?r]

【English Explanation】If something alters or if you alter it, it changes. 【Example】I'll have to alter the diagram. I've made a mistake.

25. alternative (3)

[?:l't?:n?tiv]

【English Explanation】If one thing is an alternative to another, the first can be found, used, or done instead of the second. 【Example】Disillusioned voters want an alternative to the two main parties. 26. ambiguous (8) [? m'bigju?s] 【English Explanation】If you describe something as ambiguous, you mean that it is unclear or confusing because it can be understood in more than one way. 【Example】The Foreign Secretary's remarks clarify an ambiguous statement issued earlier this week. 27. amend (5) [?'mend]

【English Explanation】If you amend something that has been written such as a law, or something that is said, you change it in order to improve it or make it more accurate. 【Example】Please amend your copy of the contract accordingly.

28. analogy (9) [?'n? l?d?i] 【English Explanation】If you make or draw an analogy between two things, you show that they are similar in some way. 【Example】Other executives think the Japanese influence will be less dramatic and dismiss the automobile analogy, saying that manufacturing cars is a far cry from the creative nature of Hollywood's endeavors.

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29. analyse (1) ['? n?l?aiz] 【English Explanation】If you analyse something, you consider it carefully or use statistical methods in order to fully understand it. 【Example】He analysed the food and found that it contained poison. 30. annual (4) ['? nju?l] 【English Explanation】Annual events happen once every year. 【Example】A wage rise of 5% represents an annual increase of 250 for the lowest-paid workers.

31. anticipate (9) [? n'tis??peit] 【English Explanation】If you anticipate an event, you realize in advance that it may happen and you are prepared for it. 【Example】In business, you've got to anticipate how your competitors will act. 32. apparent (4) [?'p? r?nt]

【English Explanation】If something is apparent to you, it is clear and obvious to you. 【Example】She had many good qualities despite her apparent rudeness. 33. append (8) [?'pend] 【English Explanation】When you append something to something else, especially a piece of writing, you attach it or add it to the end of it. (FORMAL) 【Example】 Many of us append half our time wishing for things we could have if we didn't spend half our time wishing. 34. appreciate (8) [?'pri:?i?eit] 【English Explanation】If you appreciate something, for example a piece of music or good food, you like it because you recognize its good qualities. 【Example】We all appreciate a holiday after a year of hard working.

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35. approach (1) [? ut? 'pr? ] 【English Explanation】When you approach something, you get closer to it. 【Example】The time is approaching when we must think about buying a new house. 36. appropriate (2) [? upri? 'pr? eit]

【English Explanation】Something that is appropriate is suitable or acceptable for a particular situation. 【Example】Upon reaching an appropriate age, children are encouraged, but not forced, to "leave the nest". 37. approximate (4) [? 'pr?ks? mit]

【English Explanation】 approximate number, time, or position is close to the correct number, An time, or position, but is not exact. 【Example】The color of the curtains approximates that of the rug. 38. arbitrary (8) ['ɑ:b? ?treri]

【English Explanation】If you describe an action, rule, or decision as arbitrary, you think that it is not based on any principle, plan, or system. It often seems unfair because of this. 【Example】Most presidents in this African country are arbitrary rulers. 39. area (1) ['eri? ] 【English Explanation】An area is a particular part of a town, a country, a region, or the world. 【Example】This area has not been covered by the communication net. 40. aspect (2) ['? spekt] 【English Explanation】An aspect of something is one of the parts of its character or nature. 【Example】The historical aspect formed the main theme of her essay. 41. assemble (10) [? 'semb? l] 【English Explanation】When people assemble or when someone assembles them, they come together in a group, usually for a particular purpose such as a meeting.

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【Example】If the fire-alarm goes, staff should assemble outside the building. 42. assess (1) [? 'ses] 【English Explanation】 When you assess a person, thing, or situation, you consider them in order to make a judgement about them. 【Example】Meanwhile, I am arranging for Mr. Smith, one of our inspectors, to call and assess the damage. 43. assign (6) [? 'ses] 【English Explanation】If you assign a piece of work to someone, you give them the work to do. 【Example】All the students are assigned to suitable jobs. 44. assist (2) [? 'ses] 【English Explanation】If you assist someone, you help them to do a job or task by doing part of the work for them. 【Example】A team of nurses assisted the doctor in performing the operation. 45. assume (1) [? 'sju:m] 【English Explanation】If you assume that something is true, you imagine that it is true, sometimes wrongly. 【Example】She was in arrogance to assume she would win every time. 46. assure (9) [? '? u? ] 【English Explanation】If you assure someone that something is true or will happen, you tell them that it is definitely true or will definitely happen, often in order to make them less worried. 【Example】I can assure you that your son will be happy here. 47. attach (6) [? 't? t? ] 【English Explanation】If you attach something to an object, you join it or fasten it to the object. 【Example】He attached a label to his baggage.

范亚飞 48. attain (9)

托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei [? 'tein]

【English Explanation】If you attain something, you gain it or achieve it, often after a lot of effort. (FORMAL) 【Example】She pulls every string to attain the end. 49. attitude (4) [? 'tein]

【English Explanation】Your attitude to something is the way that you think and feel about it, especially when this shows in the way you behave. 【Example】As you get older your attitude towards death changes. 50. attribute (4) [? 'tribjut] 【English Explanation】If you attribute something to an event or situation, you think that it was caused by that event or situation. 【Example】They attribute their success to their teacher's encouragement. 51. author (6) ['? :θ? ] 【English Explanation】The author of a piece of writing is the person who wrote it. 【Example】The author should be the last man to talk about his work. 52. authority (1) [? 'θ? r? ti] 【English Explanation】The authorities are the people who have the power to make decisions and to make sure that laws are obeyed. 【Example】The government is the highest authority in the country. 53. automate (8) ['? :t? ?meit]

【English Explanation】To automate a factory, office, or industrial process means to put in machines which can do the work instead of people. 【Example】This part of the assembly process is now fully automated. 54. available (1) [? 'veil? b? l] 【English Explanation】If something you want or need is available, you can find it or obtain it.

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【Example】Several cars are available within this price range. 55. aware (5) [? 'w? ? ]

【English Explanation】If you are aware of something, you know about it. 【Example】Their sudden attack made us more aware of the danger around us. 56. behalf (9) [bi'hɑ:f] 【English Explanation】If you do something on someone's behalf, you do it for that person as their representative. 【Example】I intervened on her behalf to try to get the decision changed. 57. benefit (1) ['ben? fit] 【English Explanation】The benefit of something is the help that you get from it or the advantage that results from it. 【Example】I have benefited a lot from extensive reading. 58. bias (8) ['bai? s] 【English Explanation】 is a tendency to prefer one person or thing to another, and to favour Bias that person or thing. 【Example】He has a bias against Japanese products. 59. bond (6) [b? nd] 【English Explanation】A bond between people is a strong feeling of friendship, love, or shared beliefs and experiences that unites them. 【Example】A bond of sympathy developed between members of the group. 60. brief (6) [b? nd] 【English Explanation】Something that is brief lasts for only a short time. 【Example】I hold no brief for those who say that violence can be justified. 61. bulk (9) [b? lk]

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【English Explanation】You can refer to something's bulk when you want to emphasize that it is very large. (WRITTEN) 【Example】The war still bulks large in the memories of those who fought in it. 62. capable (6) ['keip? b? l] 【English Explanation】If a person or thing is capable of doing something, they have the ability to do it. 【Example】Only human beings are capable of speech. 63. capacity (5) [k? 'p? siti] 【English Explanation】Your capacity for something is your ability to do it, or the amount of it that you are able to do. 【Example】I do not believe in equality of capacity, but I do believe in equality of opportunity. 64. category (2) ['k? t? ?g? uri] 【English Explanation】If people or things are divided into categories, they are divided into groups in such a way that the members of each group are similar to each other in some way. 【Example】Designer wedding dresses make wedding fashion a separate category from mainstream fashion. 65. cease (9) [si:s] 【English Explanation】If something ceases, it stops happening or existing. (FORMAL) 【Example】As suddenly as it began, the rain ceased. 66. challenge (5) ['t? ? lind? ] 【English Explanation】A challenge is something new and difficult which requires great effort and determination. 【Example】They had challenged and beaten the best team in the world. 67. channel (7) ['t? ? n? l] 【English Explanation】A channel is a television station.

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【Example】This channel comes on the air every morning at 7 am. 68. chapter (2) ['t? ? n? l]

【English Explanation】 chapter is one of the parts that a book is divided into. Each chapter has A a number, and sometimes a title. 【Example】Half-way through the chapter I realized I hadn't taken anything in. 69. chart (8) ['t? ? n? l] 【English Explanation】A chart is a diagram, picture, or graph which is intended to make information easier to understand. 【Example】The chart below shows our top 10 choices. 70. chemical (7) ['kemik? l] 【English Explanation】Chemical means involving or resulting from a reaction between two or more substances, or relating to the substances that something consists of. 【Example】The government has banned the use of chemical weapons. 71. circumstance (3) ['s? :k? m'stɑ:ns] 【English Explanation】The circumstances of a particular situation are the conditions which affect what happens. 【Example】Due to circumstances beyond our control the lecture was cancelled. 72. cite (6) [sait] 【English Explanation】If you cite something, you quote it or mention it, especially as an example or proof of what you are saying. (FORMAL) 【Example】The lawyer cite a previous case to support his argument. 73. civil (4) ['siv? l] 【English Explanation】You use civil to describe events that happen within a country and that involve the different groups of people in it. 【Example】We were tired of being pushed around by officious civil servants.

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74. clarify (8) ['kl? r? ?fai] 【English Explanation】To clarify something means to make it easier to understand, usually by explaining it in more detail. (FORMAL) 【Example】I hope that what I say will clarify the situation. 75. classic (7) ['kl? sik] 【English Explanation】A classic example of a thing or situation has all the features which you expect such a thing or situation to have. 【Example】This church is a classic example of medieval architecture. 76. clause (5) [kl? :z] 【English Explanation】A clause is a section of a legal document. 【Example】A clever lawyer might find ways of getting round that clause. 77. code (4) [k? ud]

【English Explanation】A code is a set of rules about how people should behave or about how something must be done. 【Example】The new code of conduct lays down the ground rules for management-union relations. 78. coherent (9) [k? u'hir? nt] 【English Explanation】If something is coherent, it is well planned, so that it is clear and sensible and all its parts go well with each other. 【Example】The views of party leaders coalesced to form a coherent policy. 79. coincide (9) [?k? uin'said] 【English Explanation】If one event coincides with another, they happen at the same time. 【Example】The demonstration had been carefully stage-managed to coincide with the Prime Minister's visit. 80. collapse (10) [k? 'l? ps]

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【English Explanation】If a building or other structure collapses, it falls down very suddenly. 【Example】Most of the deaths were caused by landslides and collapsing buildings. 81. colleague (10) ['k? li:g] 【 English Explanation 】 Your colleagues are the people you work with, especially in a professional job. 【Example】It was more in sorrow than in anger that he criticized his former colleague. 82. commence (9) [k? 'mens] 【English Explanation】When something commences or you commence it, it begins. (FORMAL) 【Example】The second term commences in March. 83. comment (3) ['k? ment] 【English Explanation】 you comment on something, you give your opinion about it or you give If an explanation for it. 【Example】He made several favorable comments about their candidate. 84. commission (2) [k? 'mi? ? n] 【English Explanation】If you commission something or commission someone to do something, you formally arrange for someone to do a piece of work for you. 【Example】He commissioned a statue of his wife. 85. commit (4) [k? 'mit] 【English Explanation】If someone commits a crime or a sin, they do something illegal or bad. 【Example】One cannot commit crimes with impunity. 86. commodity (8) [k? 'm? diti] 【English Explanation】A commodity is something that is sold for money. (TECHNICAL) 【Example】The country is heavily dependent on its exports of agricultural commodities.

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托福基础词汇 博客:新东方石头 http://blog.sina.com.cn/fanyafei (4) [k? 'mju:nikeit]

87. communicate

【English Explanation】If you communicate with someone, you share or exchange information with them, for example by speaking, writing, or using equipment. You can also say that two people communicate. 【Example】I can't communicate with them, the radio doesn't work. 88. community (2) [k? 'mju:niti] 【English Explanation】The community is all the people who live in a particular area or place. 【Example】More state help is needed for the disadvantaged sections of the community. 89. compatible (9) [k? m'p? t? bl] 【English Explanation】If things, for example systems, ideas, and beliefs, are compatible, they work well together or can exist together successfully. 【Example】Marriage and the life I live just don't seem compatible. 90. compensate (3) ['k? mpenseit] 【English Explanation】To compensate someone for money or things that they have lost means to pay them money or give them something to replace that money or those things. 【Example】Nothing can compensate for the loss of one's health. 91. compile (10) [k? m'pail] 【English Explanation】 When you compile something such as a report, book, or programme, you produce it by collecting and putting together many pieces of information. 【Example】It takes years of hard work to compile a good dictionary. 92. complement (8) ['k? mplim? nt]

【English Explanation】If one thing complements another, it goes well with the other thing and makes its good qualities more noticeable. 【Example】This wine complements the food perfectly. 93. complex (2) ['k? mpleks]

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【English Explanation】Something that is complex has many different parts, and is therefore often difficult to understand. 【Example】The army is an extremely complex organism. 94. component (3) [k? m'p? un? nt] 【English Explanation】The components of something are the parts that it is made of. 【Example】Each component is carefully checked before assembly. 95. compound (5) [k? m'paund] 【English Explanation】A compound is an enclosed area of land that is used for a particular purpose. 【Example】All prisoners were frog-marched (out) into the compound. 96. comprehensive (7) [?k? mpri'hensiv]

【English Explanation】Something that is comprehensive includes everything that is needed or relevant. 【 Example 】 The boys' and girls' schools have (been) amalgamated to form a new comprehensive. 97. comprise (7) [k? m'praiz] 【English Explanation】If you say that something comprises or is comprised of a number of things or people, you mean it has them as its parts or members. (FORMAL) 【Example】Fifteen separate republics comprised the Soviet Union. 98. compute (2) [k? m'pju:t] 【English Explanation】To compute a quantity or number means to calculate it. 【Example】Scientists have computed the probable course of the rocket. 99. conceive 10 [k? m'pju:t]

【English Explanation】If you cannot conceive of something, you cannot imagine it or believe it.

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【Example】I cannot conceive (ie do not believe) that he would wish to harm us. 100. concentrate (4) [k? m'pju:t]

【English Explanation】If you concentrate on something, or concentrate your mind on it, you give all your attention to it. 【Example】The threat of going bankrupt is very unpleasant but it certainly concentrates the mind. 101. concept (1) ['k? nsept] 【English Explanation】A concept is an idea or abstract principle. 【Example】This concept is at the very core of her theory. 102. conclude (2) [k? n'klu:d] 【English Explanation】 you conclude that something is true, you decide that it is true using the If facts you know as a basis. 【Example】From his appearance we may safely conclude that he is a chain smoker. 103. concurrent (9) [k? n'k? r? nt] 【English Explanation】Concurrent events or situations happen at the same time. 【Example】Concurrent with her acting career, Bron has managed to write two books of her own. 104. conduct (2) [k? n'd? kt]

【English Explanation】When you conduct an activity or task, you organize it and carry it out. 【Example】I think he conducted himself admirably, considering the difficult circumstances. 105. confer (4) [k? n'f? :]

【English Explanation】When you confer with someone, you discuss something with them in order to make a decision. You can also say that two people confer. 【Example】And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had need have more cunning, to

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seem to know that he doth not. 106. confine (9) [k? n'fain] 【English Explanation】To confine something to a particular place or group means to prevent it from spreading beyond that place or group. 【Example】The thief was confined in a prison. 107. confirm (7) [k? n'f? :m] 【English Explanation】If something confirms what you believe, suspect, or fear, it shows that it is definitely true. 【Example】He looked around to confirm that he was alone. 108. conflict (5) ['k? nflikt] 【 English Explanation 】Conflict is serious disagreement and argument about something important. If two people or groups are in conflict, they have had a serious disagreement or argument and have not yet reached agreement. 【Example】Something is bound to happen one way or another to end the conflict or solve the problem. 109. conform (8) ['k? nflikt] 【English Explanation】If something conforms to something such as a law or someone's wishes, it is of the required type or quality. 【Example】The Night Rider lamp has been designed to conform to new British Standard safety requirements. 110. consent (3) [k? n'sent] 【English Explanation】If you give your consent to something, you give someone permission to do it. (FORMAL) 【Example】Her father reluctantly consented to the marriage. 111. consequent (2) ['k? nsi?kwent] 【English Explanation】Consequent means happening as a direct result of an event or situation. (FORMAL)

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【Example】The warming of the Earth and the consequent climatic changes affect us all. 112. considerable (3) [k? n'sid? r? bl]

【English Explanation】Considerable means great in amount or degree. (FORMAL) 【Example】The strength of the dollar is causing considerable disquiet on the stock exchange.

113. consist (1) [k? n'sist] 【English Explanation】Something that consists of particular things or people is formed from them. 【Example】The beauty of Venice consists largely in the style of its ancient buildings. 114. constant (3) ['k? nst? nt] 【English Explanation】You use constant to describe something that happens all the time or is always there. 【Example】This has been a timely reminder of the need for constant care. 115. constitute (1) ['k? nstitju:t]

【English Explanation】If something constitutes a particular thing, it can be regarded as being that thing. 【Example】The defeat constitutes a major set-back for our diplomacy. 116. constrain (3) [k? n'strein] 【English Explanation】To constrain someone or something means to limit their development or force them to behave in a particular way. (FORMAL) 【Example】Cold weather constrains the plant's growth. 117. construct (2) ['k? nstr? kt] 【English Explanation】If you construct something such as a building, road, or machine, you build it or make it. 【Example】Mindful of the need to maintain efficient communication, the board of directors

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decided to construct a new communication network. 118. consult (5) [k? n's? lt] 【English Explanation】If you consult an expert or someone senior to you or consult with them, you ask them for their opinion and advice about what you should do or their permission to do something. 【Example】You had better consult a doctor soon. 119. consume (2) [k? n'sju:m] 【English Explanation】If you consume something, you eat or drink it. (FORMAL) 【Example】Each year Americans consume a high percentage of the world's energy. 120. contact (5) ['k? nt? kt] 【English Explanation】Contact involves meeting or communicating with someone, especially regularly. 【Example】I finally made contact with her in Paris. 121. contemporary (8) [k? n'temp? r? ri]

【English Explanation】Contemporary things are modern and relate to the present time. 【Example】She writes a lot of contemporary music for people like Whitney Houston. 122. context (1) ['k? ntekst] 【English Explanation】The context of an idea or event is the general situation that relates to it, and which helps it to be understood. 【Example】The determination of the meaning of a word is often difficult without a context. 123. contract (1) ['k? ntr? kt]

【English Explanation】A contract is a legal agreement, usually between two companies or between an employer and employee, which involves doing work for a stated sum of money. 【Example】I'm not a permanent employee, I'm working here on a fixed-term contract. 124. contradict (8) ['k? ntr? kt]

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【English Explanation】 you contradict someone, you say that what they have just said is wrong, If or suggest that it is wrong by saying something different. 【Example】The report contradicts what we heard yesterday. 125. contrary (7) ['k? ntr? ri]

【English Explanation】Ideas, attitudes, or reactions that are contrary to each other are completely different from each other. 【Example】My sister's taste in dresses is contrary to my own. 126. contrast (4) ['k? ntr? ri]

【English Explanation】A contrast is a great difference between two or more things which is clear when you compare them. 【Example】The black furnishings provide an interesting contrast to the white walls. 127. contribute (3) ['k? ntr? ri] 【English Explanation】If you contribute to something, you say or do things to help to make it successful. 【Example】I believe that each of us can contribute to the future of the world. 128. controversy (9) ['k? ntr? v? :si] 【English Explanation】Controversy is a lot of discussion and argument about something, often involving strong feelings of anger or disapproval. 【Example】The mayor will try to accord the controversy over the housing scheme. 129. convene (3) [k? n'vi:n] 【English Explanation】 someone convenes a meeting or conference, they arrange for it to take If place. You can also say that people convene or that a meeting convenes. (FORMAL) 【Example】People were convened here for an emergency meeting. 130. converse (9) ['k? nv? :s] 【English Explanation】If you converse with someone, you talk to them. You can also say that

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two people converse. (FORMAL) 【Example】Would you give me half an hour to converse with you? 131. convert (7) ['k? nv? :t] 【English Explanation】If one thing is converted or converts into another, it is changed into a different form. 【Example】The solar cell can convert the energy of sunlight into electric energy. 132. convince (10) [k? n'vins] 【English Explanation】If someone or something convinces you of something, they make you believe that it is true or that it exists. 【Example】Your argument is too weak to convince me. 133. cooperate (6) [k? u'? p? reit] 【English Explanation】 【Example】I advise you not to cooperate with that deceitful businessman. 134. coordinate (3) [k? u'? :dneit] 【English Explanation】 【Example】An anchor coordinate a newscast in which several correspondent give report. 135. core (3) [k? ] 【English Explanation】The core of a fruit is the central part of it. It contains seeds or pips. 【Example】He ate the plum, and threw the core away. 136. corporate (3) ['k? :p?rit] 【English Explanation】Corporate means relating to business corporations or to a particular business corporation. 【Example】Learned to read between the lines of corporate annual reports to discern areas of fiscal weakness.

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137. correspond (3) [? ris'p? nd] k? 【English Explanation】If one thing corresponds to another, there is a close similarity or connection between them. You can also say that two things correspond. 【Example】Your account of events corresponds with hers. 138. couple (7) ['k? pl] 【English Explanation】If you refer to a couple of people or things, you mean two or approximately two of them, although the exact number is not important or you are not sure of it. (INFORMAL) 【Example】Across the street from me there are a couple of police officers standing guard. 139. create (1) [kri'eit] 【English Explanation】To create something means to cause it to happen or exist. 【Example】This decision creates a dangerous precedent. 140. credit (2) ['kredit]

【English Explanation】If you are allowed credit, you are allowed to pay for goods or services several weeks or months after you have received them. 【Example】You can ask a dealer for a discount whether you pay cash or buy on credit. 141. criteria (3) [krai'ti?ri?] 【English Explanation】 【Example】Success in making money is not always a good criterion of success in life. 142. crucial (8) ['kru:? ?l] 【English Explanation】If you describe something as crucial, you mean it is extremely important. 【Example】We have succeeded in one crucial regard: making this scandal public. 143. culture (2) ['k? lt? ?] 【English Explanation】Culture consists of activities such as the arts and philosophy, which are considered to be important for the development of civilization and of people's minds.

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【Example】The culture areas are essentially coincident with language areas. 144. currency (8) ['k? r?nsi] 【English Explanation】The money used in a particular country is referred to as its currency. 【Example】The president proclaimed that a new currency would be issued. 145. cycle (4) ['k? r?nsi] 【English Explanation】If you cycle, you ride a bicycle. 【Example】I am unable to cycle to school because my bicycle is broken.

146. data (1) ['deit?] 【English Explanation】You can refer to information as data, especially when it is in the form of facts or statistics that you can analyse. In American English, data is usually a plural noun. In technical or formal British English, data is sometimes a plural noun, but at other times, it is an uncount noun. 【Example】The data should be updated once a week. 147. debate (4) [di'beit]

【English Explanation】A debate is a discussion about a subject on which people have different views. 【Example】Her resignation caused much public debate. 148. decade (7) ['dekeid] 【English Explanation】A decade is a period of ten years, especially one that begins with a year ending in 0, for example 1980 to 1989. 【Example】I believed that this struggle is going to go on and it might well be decided in the next decade. 149. decline (5) [di'klain] 【English Explanation】If something declines, it becomes less in quantity, importance, or strength.

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【Example】He spent his declining years in the country. 150. deduce (3) [di'dju:s] 【English Explanation】If you deduce something or deduce that something is true, you reach that conclusion because of other things that you know to be true. 【Example】If you saw a doctor left a house, you may deduce the fact that someone in the house be ill.

151. define (1) [di'fain] 【English Explanation】If you define something, you show, describe, or state clearly what it is and what its limits are, or what it is like. 【Example】Definitions should not be more difficult to understand than the words they define. 152. definite (7) [di'fain]

【English Explanation】If you define something, you show, describe, or state clearly what it is and what its limits are, or what it is like. 【Example】Definitions should not be more difficult to understand than the words they define. 153. demonstrate (3) ['dem?nstreit]

【English Explanation】If one thing denotes another, it is a sign or indication of it. (FORMAL) 【Example】Please demonstrate how the machine works. 154. denote (8) [di'n?ut]

【English Explanation】If one thing denotes another, it is a sign or indication of it. (FORMAL) 【Example】A smile often denotes pleasure and friendship. 155. deny (7) [di'nai]

【English Explanation】When you deny something, you state that it is not true. 【Example】No one can deny the fact that fire burns.

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156. depress (10) [di'pres] 【English Explanation】If someone or something depresses you, they make you feel sad and disappointed. 【Example】The threat of war has depressed business activity. 157. derive (1) [di'pres]

【English Explanation】If you derive something such as pleasure or benefit from a person or from something, you get it from them. (FORMAL) 【Example】But, oh, how much I must miss, and how much pleasure you seeing ones can derive from watching and hearing the interplay of speech and movement in the unfolding of a dramatic performance! 158. design (2) [di'zain] 【English Explanation】When someone designs a garment, building, machine, or other object, they plan it and make a detailed drawing of it from which it can be built or made. 【Example】The gloves were designed for extremely cold climates. 159. despite (4) [di'spait] 【English Explanation】You use despite to introduce a fact which makes the other part of the sentence surprising. 【Example】Despite all our efforts we still lost the game. 160. detect (8) [di'spait] 【English Explanation】To detect something means to find it or discover that it is present somewhere by using equipment or making an investigation. 【Example】Most skin cancers can be cured if detected and treated early. 161. deviate (8) ['di:vieit] 【English Explanation】To deviate from something means to start doing something different or not planned, especially in a way that causes problems for others. 【Example】If the multitude ever deviate into the right, it is always for the wrong reason.

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162. device (9) [di'vais] 【English Explanation】A device is an object that has been invented for a particular purpose, for example for recording or measuring something. 【Example】The device will be in production by the end of the year. 163. devote (9) [di'v?ut] 【English Explanation】If you devote yourself, your time, or your energy to something, you spend all or most of your time or energy on it. 【Example】He started to study ecology and decided to devote his whole life to the science. 164. differentiate (7) [? dif?'ren? i? eit]

【English Explanation】If you differentiate between things or you differentiate one thing from another, you recognize or show the difference between them. 【Example】One character is not clearly differentiated from another. 165. dimension (4) [di'men? ?n] 【English Explanation】A particular dimension of something is a particular aspect of it. 【Example】There is another dimension to this problem which you haven't considered. 166. diminish (9) [di'men? ?n] 【English Explanation】When something diminishes, or when something diminishes it, it becomes reduced in size, importance, or intensity. 【Example】As he turned the knob, the sound diminished. 167. discrete (5) [di'skri:t] 【English Explanation】Discrete ideas or things are separate and distinct from each other. (FORMAL) 【Example】A discrete part or portion of a work, such as a painting, building, or decorative object, especially when considered in isolation. 168. discriminate (6) [di'skrimineit]

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【English Explanation】If you can discriminate between two things, you can recognize that they are different. 【Example】People should not be discriminated against.

169. displace (8)

[k?n'sist]

【English Explanation】If one thing displaces another, it forces the other thing out of its place, position, or role, and then occupies that place, position, or role itself. 【Example】The indigenous population was soon displaced by the settlers. 170. display (6) [di'splei]

【English Explanation】If you display something that you want people to see, you put it in a particular place, so that people can see it easily. 【Example】The cabinets display seventeenth-century blue-and-white porcelain. 171. dispose (7) [di'sp?uz] 【English Explanation】 【Example】 job is not only to dispose of problems but (also) to meet unexpected challenges. His 172. distinct (2) [di'sti?kt] 【English Explanation】If something is distinct from something else of the same type, it is different or separate from it. 【Example】Those two ideas are quite distinct from each other. 173. distort (9) [dis't? :t] 【English Explanation】If you distort a statement, fact, or idea, you report or represent it in an untrue way. 【Example】The government was accused of having systematically distorted the protester's case. 174. distribute (1) [di'stribjut]

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【English Explanation】If you distribute things, you hand them or deliver them to a number of people. 【Example】The books in the library were distributed according to subjects. 175. diverse (6) [dai'v?:s] 【English Explanation】If a group or range of things is diverse, it is made up of a wide variety of things. 【Example】They are the people from diverse cultures. 176. document (3) ['d? kjum?nt] 【English Explanation】 document is one or more official pieces of paper with writing on them. A 【Example】This document carries the royal seal. 177. domain (6) [d?'mein] 【English Explanation】A domain is a particular field of thought, activity, or interest, especially one over which someone has control, influence, or rights. (FORMAL) 【Example】As soon as you create an account for the user, the user can participate in a secure domain. 178. domestic (4) [domest] 【English Explanation】 Domestic political activities, events, and situations happen or exist within one particular country. 【 Example 】 Opportunities will improve as the company expands domestically and internationally. 179. dominate (3) [domest] 【English Explanation】To dominate a situation means to be the most powerful or important person or thing in it. 【Example】She dominated the meeting by sheer force of character. 180. draft (5) [dr? ft]

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【English Explanation】A draft is an early version of a letter, book, or speech. 【Example】I rewrote his rough draft, which was published under my name. 181. drama (8) ['drɑ:m?] 【English Explanation】A drama is a serious play for the theatre, television, or radio. 【Example】The Elizabethan period was the golden age of English drama. 182. duration (9) [dju'rei? ?n] 【English Explanation】The duration of an event or state is the time during which it happens or exists. 【Example】Let's hope the gunmen will hold off for the duration of the cease-fire. 183. dynamic (7) [dai'n? mik] 【English Explanation】If you describe someone as dynamic, you approve of them because they are full of energy or full of new and exciting ideas. 【Example】He seemed a dynamic and energetic leader. 184. economy (1) [i'k? n?mi]

【English Explanation】An economy is the system according to which the money, industry, and trade of a country or region are organized. 【Example】The determinate factor of our economy is to control inflation. 185. edit (6) ['edit] 【English Explanation】If you edit a text such as an article or a book, you correct and adapt it so that it is suitable for publishing. 【 Example 】 Throughout the editing of this book, we have had much support and encouragement. 186. element (2) ['elim?nt]

【English Explanation】The different elements of something are the different parts it contains.

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【Example】The children are really in their element playing on the beach. 187. eliminate (7) [i'limineit] 【English Explanation】To eliminate something, especially something you do not want or need, means to remove it completely. (FORMAL) 【Example】This new process has eliminated the need for checking the products by hand. 188. emerge (4) [i'm?:d? ] 【English Explanation】To emerge means to come out from an enclosed or dark space such as a room or a vehicle, or from a position where you could not be seen. 【Example】The sun emerged from behind the clouds. 189. emphasis (3) [i'm?:d? ] 【English Explanation】Emphasis is special or extra importance that is given to an activity or to a part or aspect of something. 【Example】Our English course places great emphasis on conversational skills. 190. empirical (7) [em'pirik?l] 【English Explanation】Empirical evidence or study relies on practical experience rather than theories. 【Example】There is no empirical evidence to support his thesis. 191. enable (5) [i'neibl] 【English Explanation】If someone or something enables you to do a particular thing, they give you the opportunity to do it. 【Example】I gave him full directions to enable him to find the house. 192. encounter (10) [in'kaunt?] 【English Explanation】If you encounter problems or difficulties, you experience them. 【Example】Every day of our lives we encounter major and minor stresses of one kind or another.

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193. energy (5)

['en?d? i]

【English Explanation】Energy is the ability and strength to do active physical things and the feeling that you are full of physical power and life. 【Example】Young people usually have more energy than the old. 194. enforce (5) ['en?d? i] 【English Explanation】If people in authority enforce a law or a rule, they make sure that it is obeyed, usually by punishing people who do not obey it. 【Example】Until now, the government has only enforced the ban with regard to American ships. 195. enhance (6) [in'hɑ:ns] 【 English Explanation 】 To enhance something means to improve its value, quality, or attractiveness. 【Example】He made many efforts to enhance his reputation. 196. enormous (10) [i'n? :m?s] 【English Explanation】Something that is enormous is extremely large in size or amount. 【Example】They overlooked the enormous risks involved. 197. ensure (3) [in'? u?] 【English Explanation】To ensure something, or to ensure that something happens, means to make certain that it happens. (FORMAL) 【Example】We must ensure the purity of drinking water. 198. entity (5) ['entiti] 【English Explanation】An entity is something that exists separately from other things and has a clear identity of its own. (FORMAL) 【Example】 North and South will remain separate entities within a commonwealth until the year 2000.

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199. environment (1) [in'vai?r?nm?nt] 【English Explanation】Someone's environment is all the circumstances, people, things, and events around them that influence their life. 【Example】We are required by environment protecting department to use anthracite. 200. equate (2) [i'kweit] 【English Explanation】 you equate one thing with another, or if you say that one thing equates If with another, you believe that they are strongly connected. 【Example】Nowadays, many people equate passing examinations with being educated. 201. equip (7) [i'kwip] 【English Explanation】 you equip a person or thing with something, you give them the tools or If equipment that are needed. 【Example】Please equip yourself with a sharp pencil and a rubber for the exam. 202. equivalent (5) [i'kwiv?l?nt] 【English Explanation】If one amount or value is the equivalent of another, they are the same. 【Example】A dime is equivalent to ten pennies. 203. erode (9) [i'r?ud] 【English Explanation】If rock or soil erodes or is eroded by the weather, sea, or wind, it cracks and breaks so that it is gradually destroyed. 【Example】The sea have erode the cliff face over the years. 204. error (4) ['er?]

【English Explanation】An error is something you have done which is considered to be incorrect or wrong, or which should not have been done. 【Example】He overlooked a spelling error on the first page. 205. establish (1) [i'st? bli? ] 【English Explanation】If someone establishes something such as an organization, a type of

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activity, or a set of rules, they create it or introduce it in such a way that it is likely to last for a long time. 【Example】Our company was established in 1994. 206. estate (6) [is'teit] 【English Explanation】An estate is a large area of land in the country which is owned by a person, family, or organization. 【Example】He invited us to his country estate for a weekend shoot. 207. estimate (1) ['estimeit] 【English Explanation】 you estimate a quantity or value, you make an approximate judgement If or calculation of it. 【Example】They estimated the number of visitors at 10 million. 208. ethic (9) ['eθik] 【English Explanation】Ethics are moral beliefs and rules about right and wrong. 【Example】Our professional ethic enjoins us to stay uncommitted and report the facts. 209. ethnic (4) ['eθnik] 【English Explanation】Ethnic means connected with or relating to different racial or cultural groups of people. 【Example】The bringing of people of different racial or ethnic groups into unrestricted and equal association, as in society or an organization 210. evaluate (2) [i'v? ljueit] 【English Explanation】If you evaluate something or someone, you consider them in order to make a judgement about them, for example about how good or bad they are. 【Example】The school has only been open for six months, so it's too early to evaluate its success. 211. eventual (8) [i'ventju?l] 【English Explanation】 use eventual to indicate that something happens or is the case at the You

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end of a process or period of time. 【Example】I fervently believe in our eventual victory. 212. evident (1) [i'ventju?l] 【English Explanation】If something is evident, you notice it easily and clearly. 【Example】The purpose may not be immediately evident. 213. evolve (5) [i'v? lv] 【English Explanation】When animals or plants evolve, they gradually change and develop into different forms. 【Example】Many Victorians were shocked by the notion that Man had evolved from lower forms of life. 214. exceed (6) [i'v? lv]

【English Explanation】If something exceeds a particular amount or number, it is greater or larger than that amount or number. (FORMAL) 【Example】Many Victorians were shocked by the notion that Man had evolved from lower forms of life. 215. exclude (3) [iks'klu:d] 【English Explanation】If you exclude someone from a place or activity, you prevent them from entering it or taking part in it. 【Example】We cannot exclude the possibility that he killed his wife. 216. exhibit (8) [iks'klu:d] 【English Explanation】If someone or something shows a particular quality, feeling, or type of behaviour, you can say that they exhibit it. (FORMAL) 【Example】She exhibited great powers of endurance during the climb. 217. expand (5) [iks'p? nd]

【English Explanation】If something expands or is expanded, it becomes larger.

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【Example】Our foreign trade has expanded during recent years. 218. expert (6) ['eksp?:t]

【English Explanation】An expert is a person who is very skilled at doing something or who knows a lot about a particular subject. 【Example】Our foreign trade has expanded during recent years. 219. explicit (6) [iks'plisit] 【English Explanation】Something that is explicit is expressed or shown clearly and openly, without any attempt to hide anything. 【Example】They gave explicit reasons for leaving. 220. exploit (8) [iks'pl? it] 【English Explanation】 you say that someone is exploiting you, you think that they are treating If you unfairly by using your work or ideas and giving you very little in return. 【Example】Critics claim he exploited black musicians for personal gain. 221. export (1) ['eksp? :t] 【English Explanation】To export products or raw materials means to sell them to another country. 【Example】Prohibition was laid on the export of coal. 222. expose (5) [ik'sp?uz]

【English Explanation】An expose is a film or piece of writing which reveals the truth about a situation or person, especially something involving shocking facts. 【Example】The reporter was killed because he tried to expose a plot. 223. external (5) [eks't?:nl] 【English Explanation】External is used to indicate that something is on the outside of a surface or body, or that it exists, happens, or comes from outside. 【Example】This news program only covers external events.

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224. extract (7)

['ekstr? kt]

【English Explanation】To extract a substance means to obtain it from something else, for example by using industrial or chemical processes. 【Example】Citric acid can be extracted from the juice of oranges, lemons, limes or grapefruit.

225. facilitate (5) [f?'siliteit] 【English Explanation】To facilitate an action or process, especially one that you would like to happen, means to make it easier or more likely to happen. 【Example】Equipping an office or plant with computers to facilitate or automate procedures. 226. factor (1) ['f? kt?] 【English Explanation】A factor is one of the things that affects an event, decision, or situation. 【Example】The injury to their key player could be a decisive factor in the game. 227. feature (2) [fi:t? ?] 【 English Explanation 】 A feature of something is an interesting or important part or characteristic of it. 【Example】The personification of evil as a devil is a feature of medieval painting. 228. federal (6) [fi:t? ?] 【English Explanation】A federal country or system of government is one in which the different states or provinces of the country have important powers to make their own laws and decisions. 【Example】Expenditures by the Federal Government have been steadily pared. 229. fee (6) [fi:] 【English Explanation】A fee is a sum of money that you pay to be allowed to do something. 【Example】Tickets are issued only against payment of the full fee. 230. file (7) [fail]

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【English Explanation】A file is a box or a folded piece of heavy paper or plastic in which letters or documents are kept. 【Example】Put this letter in the main file. 231. final (2) ['fainl] 【English Explanation】In a series of events, things, or people, the final one is the last one. 【Example】The World Cup final is being transmitted live to over fifty countries. 232. finance (1) [fai'n? ns] 【English Explanation】 When someone finances something such as a project or a purchase, they provide the money that is needed to pay for them. 【Example】He is an well-known expert in finance. 233. finite (7) ['fainait] 【English Explanation】Something that is finite has a definite fixed size or extent. (FORMAL) 【Example】Only a finite number of situations can arise. 234. flexible (6) ['fleks?bl] 【English Explanation】A flexible object or material can be bent easily without breaking. 【Example】This tube is flexible but tough. 235. fluctuate (8) ['fl? ktjueit] 【English Explanation】If something fluctuates, it changes a lot in an irregular way. 【Example】The cotton index fluctuate narrowly on the liverpool(England) future market. 236. focus (2) ['f?uk?s] 【English Explanation】If you focus on a particular topic or if your attention is focused on it, you concentrate on it and think about it, discuss it, or deal with it, rather than dealing with other topics. 【Example】You should focus your attention on your work.

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237. format (9) ['f?uk?s] 【English Explanation】The format of something is the way or order in which it is arranged and presented. 【Example】The book has been styled in a modern format. 238. formula (1) ['f? :mjul?] 【English Explanation】A formula is a plan that is invented in order to deal with a particular problem. 【Example】It's the formula for converting gallons into liters. 239. forthcoming (10) [? :θ'k? mi?] f? 【English Explanation】A forthcoming event is planned to happen soon. 【Example】The forthcoming talks hold out the hope of real arms reductions. 240. foundation (7) [faun'dei? ?n] 【English Explanation】If an event shakes the foundations of a society or a system of beliefs, it causes great uncertainty and makes people question their most deeply held beliefs. 【Example】The rumor was without foundation. 241. found (9) [faund] 【English Explanation】Found is the past tense and past participle of find. 【Example】She found it difficult to establish a new routine after retirement. 242. framework (3) [faund] 【English Explanation】A framework is a particular set of rules, ideas, or beliefs which you use in order to deal with problems or to decide what to do. 【Example】All the cases can be considered within the framework of the existing rules. 243. function (1) [faund] 【English Explanation】 The function of something or someone is the useful thing that they do or

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are intended to do. 【Example】His brain seems to be functioning normally. 244. fund (3) [f? nd] 【English Explanation】Funds are amounts of money that are available to be spent, especially money that is given to an organization or person for a particular purpose. 【Example】A fund will be set up for the dead men's families. 245. fundamental (5) [f? nd] 【English Explanation】 use fundamental to describe things, activities, and principles that are You very important or essential. They affect the basic nature of other things or are the most important element upon which other things depend. 【Example】A knowledge of economics is fundamental to any understanding of this problem. 246. furthermore (6) ['f?:??'m? :]

【English Explanation】Furthermore is used to introduce a piece of information or opinion that adds to or supports the previous one. (FORMAL) 【Example】Furthermore, the computer is the most obedient and diligent "house-keeper" or "servant" of housewives; It is also a game expert admired by children. 247. gender (6) ['d? end?]

【English Explanation】A person's gender is the fact that they are male or female. 【Example】The male and female genders are equal. 248. generate (5) ['d? en?reit]

【English Explanation】To generate something means to cause it to begin and develop. 【Example】The Employment Minister said the reforms would generate new jobs. 249. generation (5) [? en?'rei? ?n] d? 【English Explanation】A generation is all the people in a group or country who are of a similar age, especially when they are considered as having the same experiences or attitudes.

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【Example】One generation blows bubbles, and the next breaks them. 250. globe (7) [gl?ub] 【English Explanation】You can refer to the world as the globe when you are emphasizing how big it is or that something happens in many different parts of it. 【Example】Her travels had taken her to every quarter of the globe. 251. goal (4) [g?ul] 【English Explanation】In games such as soccer, netball or hockey, the goal is the space into which the players try to get the ball in order to score a point for their team. 【Example】That last goal was a beauty. 252. grade (7) [greid] 【English Explanation】If something is graded, its quality is judged, and it is often given a number or a name that indicates how good or bad it is. 【Example】He's not in the first grade as a musician. 253. grant (4) [grɑ:nt] 【English Explanation】A grant is an amount of money that a government or other institution gives to an individual or to an organization for a particular purpose such as education or home improvements. 【Example】The government has rescued the firm from bankruptcy by giving them a grant. 254. guarantee (7) [? r?n'ti:] g? 【English Explanation】If one thing guarantees another, the first is certain to cause the second thing to happen. 【Example】Blue skies are not a guarantee of continuing fine weather. 255. guideline (8) ['gaidlain] 【English Explanation】If an organization issues guidelines on something, it issues official advice about how to do it.

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【Example】One of the reforms allows the local education department to choose their own textbooks based upon the national teaching guideline. 256. hence (4) [hens] 【English Explanation】You use hence to indicate that the statement you are about to make is a consequence of what you have just said. (FORMAL) 【Example】Handmade and hence expensive. 257. hierarchy (7) ['hai?rɑ:ki] 【English Explanation】A hierarchy is a system of organizing people into different ranks or levels of importance, for example in society or in a company. 【Example】It's not as if he was very important in the company hierarchy. 258. highlight (8) ['hailait] 【English Explanation】If someone or something highlights a point or problem, they emphasize it or make you think about it. 【Example】It is one of the highlight of the match. 259. hypothesis (4) [hai'p? θisis] 【English Explanation】 hypothesis is an idea which is suggested as a possible explanation for a A particular situation or condition, but which has not yet been proved to be correct. (FORMAL) 【Example】Science continued to throw up discoveries which further backed up his hypothesis. 260. identical (7) [ai'dentik?l] 【English Explanation】Things that are identical are exactly the same. 【Example】This is the identical hotel we stayed at last year. 261. identify (1) [? aidi'? l?d? i] 【English Explanation】If you can identify someone or something, you are able to recognize them or distinguish them from others. 【Example】I found it hard to identify with any of the characters in the film.

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262. ideology (7)

[? aidi'? l?d? i]

【English Explanation】An ideology is a set of beliefs, especially the political beliefs on which people, parties, or countries base their actions. 【Example】His attitude to ownership is rooted in communist ideology. 263. ignorance (6) ['ign?r?ns]

【English Explanation】Ignorance of something is lack of knowledge about it. 【Example】Knowledge makes humble; ignorance makes proud. 264. illustrate (3) ['il?streit] 【English Explanation】If you say that something illustrates a situation that you are drawing attention to, you mean that it shows that the situation exists. 【Example】Our textbook is very well illustrated. 265. image (5) ['imid? ] 【English Explanation】If you have an image of something or someone, you have a picture or idea of them in your mind. 【Example】This company is concerned about its corporate image. 266. immigrate (3) ['imigreit] 【English Explanation】If someone immigrates to a particular country, they come to live or work in that country, after leaving the country where they were born. 【Example】People from many countries immigrated to the United States and Canada. 267. impact (2) ['imp? kt] 【English Explanation】The impact that something has on a situation, process, or person is a sudden and powerful effect that it has on them. 【Example】The plane flew into a mountain and disintegrated on impact. 268. implement (4) ['implim?nt]

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【English Explanation】If you implement something such as a plan, you ensure that what has been planned is done. 【Example】It is not the proper way to implement a policy by force. 269. implicate (4) ['implikeit] 【English Explanation】 implicate someone means to show or claim that they were involved in To something wrong or criminal. 【Example】His enemies tried to implicate him in the murder. 270. implicit (8) [im'plisit] 【English Explanation】Something that is implicit is expressed in an indirect way. 【Example】Her attitude was implicit in the answer she gave us. 271. imply (3) [im'plisit] 【English Explanation】If you imply that something is the case, you say something which indicates that it is the case in an indirect way. 【Example】I think freedom does imply responsibility. 272. impose (4) [im'p?uz] 【English Explanation】 you impose something on people, you use your authority to force them If to accept it. 【Example】They are threatening to impose a blockade on the country. 273. incentive (6) [in'sentiv] 【English Explanation】If something is an incentive to do something, it encourages you to do it. 【Example】They don't try very hard if there is no incentive. 274. incidence (6) ['insid?ns] 【English Explanation】The incidence of something bad, such as a disease, is the frequency with which it occurs, or the occasions when it occurs.

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【Example】The incidence of breast cancer increases with age. 275. incline (10) ['inklain] 【English Explanation】If you incline to think or act in a particular way, or if something inclines you to it, you are likely to think or act in that way. (FORMAL) 【Example】I'm inclined to believe him innocent. 276. income (1) ['in? m] k? 【English Explanation】A person's or organization's income is the money that they earn or receive, as opposed to the money that they have to spend or pay out. 【Example】The money I got was a useful supplement to my ordinary income. 277. incorporate (6) [in'k? :p?reit] 【English Explanation】If one thing incorporates another thing, it includes the other thing. (FORMAL) 【Example】Many of your suggestions have been incorporated in the new plan. 278. index (6) ['indeks] 【English Explanation】If one thing incorporates another thing, it includes the other thing. (FORMAL) 【Example】The index is arranged in alphabetical order. 279. indicate (1) ['indikeit] 【English Explanation】If one thing indicates another, the first thing shows that the second is true or exists. 【Example】Research indicates that men find it easier to give up smoking than women. 280. individual (1) [? indi'vidju?l] 【English Explanation】Individual means relating to one person or thing, rather than to a large group. 【Example】The needs of the community must take precedence over (ie must be met before)

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individual requirements.

281. induce (8) [in'dju:s] 【English Explanation】To induce a state or condition means to cause it. 【Example】Too much food induces sleepiness. 282. inevitable (8) [in'evit?bl] 【English Explanation】If something is inevitable, it is certain to happen and cannot be prevented or avoided. 【Example】If the case succeeds, it is inevitable that other trials will follow. 283. infer (7) [in'f?:] 【English Explanation】If you infer that something is the case, you decide that it is true on the basis of information that you already have. 【Example】He infer from the letter that the accused know the murder victim. 284. infrastructure (8) ['infr?'str? kt? ?]

【English Explanation】The infrastructure of a country, society, or organization consists of the basic facilities such as transport, communications, power supplies, and buildings, which enable it to function. 【 Example 】 Our city offer overseas in vesture fair service for production aside from infrastructure. 285. inherent (9) [in'hi?r?nt] 【English Explanation】The inherent qualities of something are the necessary and natural parts of it. 【Example】He has an inherent distrust of foreigners. 286. inhibit (6) [in'hibit] 【English Explanation】If something inhibits an event or process, it prevents it or slows it down. 【Example】A chemical substance used to destroy or inhibit the growth of plants, especially

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287. initial (3) [i'ni? ?l] 【English Explanation】You use initial to describe something that happens at the beginning of a process. 【Example】The government underwrote the initial costs of the operation. 288. initiate (6) [i'ni? ieit] 【English Explanation】If you initiate something, you start it or cause it to happen. 【Example】The trip was initiated by the manager of the community centre. 289. injure (2) ['ind? ?] 【English Explanation】If you injure a person or animal, you damage some part of their body. 【Example】Don't injure yourself with that tool. 290. innovate (7) ['in?uveit] 【English Explanation】If you injure a person or animal, you damage some part of their body. 【Example】What sets Rice apart from most engineers is his constant desire to innovate and experiment. 291. input (6) ['input] 【English Explanation】Input consists of information or resources that a group or project receives. 【Example】I have inputted the data into a computer. 292. insert (7) [in's?:t] 【English Explanation】If you insert an object into something, you put the object inside it. 【Example】Insert the key in the lock. 293. insight (9) ['insait] 【English Explanation】If you gain insight or an insight into a complex situation or problem, you

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gain an accurate and deep understanding of it. 【Example】In this new book he hits off the American temperament with amazing insight. 294. inspect (8) [in'spekt] 【English Explanation】If you inspect something, you look at every part of it carefully in order to find out about it or check that it is all right. 【Example】Police were called out to keep at the airport, and inspect the arriving planes. 295. instance (3) ['inst?ns] 【English Explanation】You use for instance to introduce a particular event, situation, or person that is an example of what you are talking about. 【Example】Let your child make some of the small decisions concerning his daily routine. For instance, allow him to choose what clothes he wears at the weekend. 296. institute (2) ['institju:t] 【English Explanation】An institute is an organization set up to do a particular type of work, especially research or teaching. You can also use institute to refer to the building the organization occupies. 【Example】A database supplied by American Geological Institute and dealing with earth sciences. 297. instruct (6) [in'str? kt] 【English Explanation】If you instruct someone to do something, you formally tell them to do it. (FORMAL) 【Example】It does not pertain to the young to instruct their elders. 298. integral (9) ['intigr?l] 【English Explanation】Something that is an integral part of something is an essential part of that thing. 【Example】Rituals and festivals form an integral part of every human society. 299. integrate (4) ['intigreit]

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【English Explanation】If someone integrates into a social group, or is integrated into it, they behave in such a way that they become part of the group or are accepted into it. 【Example】He didn't integrate successfully into the Italian way of life. 300. integrity (10) [n'tegriti] 【English Explanation】If you have integrity, you are honest and firm in your moral principles. 【Example】The collapse of popular respect for the integrity of world leaders. 301. intelligence (6) [in'telid? ?ns] 【English Explanation】 【Example】She has more intelligence than we suspected her to possess. 302. intense (8) [in'tens] 【English Explanation】Intense is used to describe something that is very great or extreme in strength or degree. 【Example】Under his intense gaze she felt uncomfortable. 303. interact (3) [in'tens] 【English Explanation】An intermediate stage, level, or position is one that occurs between two other stages, levels, or positions. 【Example】While the other children interacted and played together, Ted ignored them. 304. intermediate (9) [? int?'mi:di?t]

【English Explanation】An intermediate stage, level, or position is one that occurs between two other stages, levels, or positions. 【Example】You should consider breaking the journey with intermediate stopovers at airport hotels. 305. internal (4) [in't?:n?l] 【English Explanation】Internal is used to describe things that exist or happen inside a country or organization.

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【Example】I think the present armed clash on the border was a diversion to make their people forget the internal difficult economic situation. 306. interpret (1) [in't?:prit] 【English Explanation】If you interpret something in a particular way, you decide that this is its meaning or significance. 【Example】We interpreted his silence as a refusal. 307. interval (6) ['int?v?l] 【English Explanation】An interval between two events or dates is the period of time between them. 【Example】The continuation of the play after the tea interval was ruined by rain. 308. intervene (7) [? int?'vi:n]

【English Explanation】If you intervene in a situation, you become involved in it and try to change it. 【Example】I am powerless to intervene in the matter. 309. intrinsic (10) [in'trinsik] 【English Explanation】If something has intrinsic value or intrinsic interest, it is valuable or interesting because of its basic nature or character, and not because of its connection with other things. (FORMAL) 【Example】The intrinsic value of a coin is the value of the metal it is made of. 310. invest (2) [in'vest] 【English Explanation】If you invest in something, or if you invest a sum of money, you use your money in a way that you hope will increase its value, for example by paying it into a bank, or buying shares or property. 【Example】I'm thinking of investing in a new car. 311. investigate (4) [in'vestigeit] 【English Explanation】If someone, especially an official, investigates an event, situation, or

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claim, they try to find out what happened or what is the truth. 【Example】The company hired a detective to investigate the accident. 312. invoke (10) [in'v?uk] 【English Explanation】If you invoke a law, you state that you are taking a particular action because that law allows or tells you to. 【Example】The government has invoked the official secret act in having the book banned. 313. involve (1) [in'v?uk] 【English Explanation】 a situation or activity involves something, that thing is a necessary part If or consequence of it. 【Example】Giving advice at the right time has to involve a great deal of intelligence. 314. isolate (7) ['ais?leit] 【English Explanation】To isolate a person or organization means to cause them to lose their friends or supporters. 【Example】Scientists have isolated the virus causing the epidemic. 315. issue (1) ['i? ju:] 【English Explanation】An issue is an important subject that people are arguing about or discussing. 【 Example 】 The government adopted an uncompromising posture on the issue of independence. 316. item (2) ['ait?m] 【English Explanation】An item is one of a collection or list of objects. 【Example】Gone forever are the days when this item sold well. 317. job (4) [d? ? b] 【English Explanation】A job is the work that someone does to earn money. 【Example】It's the job of the church to help people lead better lives.

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318. journal (2) ['d? ?:nl] 【English Explanation】A journal is a magazine, especially one that deals with a specialized subject. 【Example】The article in the Wall Street Journal leans heavily on modern cliches. 319. justify (3) ['d? ? stifai] 【English Explanation】To justify a decision, action, or idea means to show or prove that it is reasonable or necessary. 【Example】Such action can be justified on the grounds of greater efficiency. 320. label (4) ['leibl] 【English Explanation】A label is a piece of paper or plastic that is attached to an object in order to give information about it. 【Example】Someone has sticked a label on the crate. 321. labour (1) ['leib?] 【English Explanation】Someone who labours works hard using their hands. 【Example】It takes a lot of labour to build a railway. 322. layer (3) ['lei?] 【English Explanation】A layer of a material or substance is a quantity or piece of it that covers a surface or that is between two other things. 【Example】There is a fine layer of dust on the desk. 323. lecture (6) ['lekt? ?] 【English Explanation】A lecture is a talk someone gives in order to teach people about a particular subject, usually at a university or college. 【Example】She ran over her notes before giving the lecture. 324. legal (1) ['li:g?l]

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【English Explanation】Legal is used to describe things that relate to the law. 【Example】The sale of firearms is subject to many legal restrictions. 325. legislate (1) ['led? isleit] 【English Explanation】When a government or state legislates, it passes a new law. (FORMAL) 【Example】It has been proved necessary to legislate against unequal treatment of women is employment. 326. levy (10) ['levi] 【English Explanation】A levy is a sum of money that you have to pay, for example as a tax to the government. 【Example】The government levies a fine against the factories for polluting the air with smoke. 327. liberal (5) ['lib?r?l] 【English Explanation】Someone who has liberal views believes people should have a lot of freedom in deciding how to behave and think. 【Example】Her liberal views were soon revealed as mere posturing. 328. licence (5) ['lib?r?l] 【English Explanation】A licence is an official document which gives you permission to do, use, or own something. 【Example】Always keep your driving licence in a safe place. 329. likewise (10) ['laikwaiz] 【English Explanation】You use likewise when you are comparing two methods, states, or situations and saying that they are similar. 【Example】Watch him and do likewise. 330. link (3) [li?k] 【English Explanation】If there is a link between two things or situations, there is a relationship between them, for example because one thing causes or affects the other.

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【Example】All kinds of human experience testify to the close link between love and fear. 331. locate (3) [l?u'keit] 【English Explanation】If you locate something or someone, you find out where they are. (FORMAL) 【Example】The company wished to locate its new factory beside the river. 332. logic (5) ['l? d? ik] 【English Explanation】Logic is a method of reasoning that involves a series of statements, each of which must be true if the statement before it is true. 【Example】There's no logic in spending money on things you don't need. 333. maintain (2) [mein'tein] 【English Explanation】If you maintain something, you continue to have it, and do not let it stop or grow weaker. 【Example】Mankind have been trying every means to maintain the balance of nature. 334. major (1) ['meid? ?] 【English Explanation】You use major when you want to describe something that is more important, serious, or significant than other things in a group or situation. 【Example】The major factor in the decision to stay or to leave was usually professional. 335. manipulate (8) [m?'nipjuleit] 【English Explanation】If you say that someone manipulates people, you disapprove of them because they skilfully force or persuade people to do what they want. 【Example】A clever politician know how to manipulate public opinion. 336. manual (9) ['m? nju?l] 【English Explanation】Manual work is work in which you use your hands or your physical strength rather than your mind. 【Example】Work done by machines has replaced manual labour.

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337. margin (5) ['mɑ:d? in] 【English Explanation】A margin is the difference between two amounts, especially the difference in the number of votes or points between the winner and the loser in an election or other contest. 【Example】The Sunday Times remains the brand leader by a huge margin. 338. mature (9) [m?'tju?] 【English Explanation】When a child or young animal matures, it becomes an adult. 【Example】As they mature, many young radicals mellow into a more tolerant attitude towards life and society. 339. maximize (3) ['m? ksimaiz] 【English Explanation】If you maximize something, you make it as great in amount or importance as you can. 【Example】We must maximize profits. 340. mechanism (4) ['mek?niz?m] 【English Explanation】In a machine or piece of equipment, a mechanism is a part, often consisting of a set of smaller parts, which performs a particular function. 【Example】The mechanism that revolves the turntable is broken. 341. media (7) ['mi:di?] 【English Explanation】You can refer to television, radio, newspapers, and magazines as the media. 【Example】The actress revels in all the attention she gets from the media. 342. mediate (9) ['mi:dieit] 【English Explanation】If someone mediates between two groups of people, or mediates an agreement between them, they try to settle an argument between them by talking to both groups and trying to find things that they can both agree to. 【Example】 United Nations officials have mediated a series of peace meetings between the two

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343. medical (5) ['medik?l] 【English Explanation】Medical means relating to illness and injuries and to their treatment or prevention. 【Example】The rapid spread of the disease is alarming the medical authorities. 344. medium (9) ['mi:di?m] 【English Explanation】If something is of medium size, it is neither large nor small, but approximately half way between the two. 【Example】My gloves are size medium. 345. mental (5) ['mentl] 【English Explanation】 【Example】Ageing is accompanied by a slow degeneration of his mental faculties. 346. method (1) ['meθ?d] 【English Explanation】 【Example】She has a very scientific method of dealing with political problems. 347. migrate (6) ['maigreit] 【English Explanation】If people migrate, they move from one place to another, especially in order to find work or to live somewhere for a short time. 【Example】In some developing countries more and more people migrate to urban area. 348. military (9) ['milit?ri] 【English Explanation】Military means relating to the armed forces of a country. 【Example】They are making further efforts to decrease military spending. 349. minimal (9) ['min?m?l]

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【English Explanation】Something that is minimal is very small in quantity, value, or degree. 【Example】Singapore, the world the minimal and one of the most advanced nation, celebrated the nation independent of 30 anniversaries in last week. 350. minimize (8) ['minimaiz] 【English Explanation】If you minimize a risk, problem, or unpleasant situation, you reduce it to the lowest possible level, or prevent it increasing beyond that level. 【Example】He minimized the value of her contribution to his research so that he got all the praise. 351. minimum (6) ['minim?m] 【English Explanation】You use minimum to describe an amount which is the smallest that is possible, allowed, or required. 【Example】Expenditure on road repairs has been cut to an irreducible minimum. 352. ministry (6) ['ministri] 【English Explanation】In Britain and some other countries, a ministry is a government department which deals with a particular thing or area of activity, for example trade, defence, or transport. 【Example】The Ministry of Transport made a searching enquiry to discover the cause of the plane crash. 353. minor (3) ['main?] 【English Explanation】You use minor when you want to describe something that is less important, serious, or significant than other things in a group or situation. 【Example】You should be thankful that you have escaped with only minor injuries. 354. mode (7) [m?ud] 【English Explanation】A mode of life or behaviour is a particular way of living or behaving. (FORMAL) 【Example】Living separately from parents after marriage is all the mode today.

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355. modify (5) ['m? difai] 【English Explanation】If you modify something, you change it slightly, usually in order to improve it. 【Example】He'll have to modify his views if he wants to be elected. 356. monitor (5) ['m? nit?] 【English Explanation】If you monitor something, you regularly check its development or progress, and sometimes comment on it. 【Example】You need feedback to monitor progress. 357. motive (6) ['m?utiv] 【English Explanation】Your motive for doing something is your reason for doing it. 【Example】The police have excluded robbery as a motive for the murder. 358. mutual (9) ['mju:t? u?l] 【English Explanation】You use mutual to describe a situation, feeling, or action that is experienced, felt, or done by both of two people mentioned. 【Example】Negotiations between unions and management are made more difficult by mutual distrust. 359. negate (3) [ni'geit] 【English Explanation】If one thing negates another, it causes that other thing to lose the effect or value that it had. (FORMAL) 【Example】These facts negate your theory. 360. network (5) ['netw?:k] 【English Explanation】A network of lines, roads, veins, or other long thin things is a large number of them which cross each other or meet at many points. 【Example】She gave me a diagram of railway network. 361. neutral (6) ['nju:tr?l]

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【English Explanation】If a person or country adopts a neutral position or remains neutral, they do not support anyone in a disagreement, war, or contest. 【Example】That country remained neutral in the war. 362. nevertheless (6) [? nev???'les] 【English Explanation】You use nevertheless when saying something that contrasts with what has just been said. (FORMAL) 【Example】The experiment failed. It was, nevertheless, worth making. 363. nonetheless (10) [? nev???'les] 【English Explanation】Nonetheless means the same as nevertheless. (FORMAL) 【Example】His face is serious but nonetheless very friendly. 364. norm (9) [n? :m] 【English Explanation】Norms are ways of behaving that are considered normal in a particular society. 【Example】Criminal behaviour seem to be the norm in this neighbourhood. 365. normal (2) ['n? :m?l] 【English Explanation】Something that is normal is usual and ordinary, and is what people expect. 【Example】It was several days before the floodwater sank and life returned to normal. 366. notion (5) ['n?u? ?n] 【English Explanation】A notion is an idea or belief about something. 【Example】Statecontrol is a very un-American notion. 367. notwithstanding (10) ['n? twiθ'st?ndi?] 【English Explanation】If something is true notwithstanding something else, it is true in spite of that other thing. (FORMAL)

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【Example】Notwithstanding her naughtiness, I love my little girl. 368. nuclear (8) ['nju:kli?] 【English Explanation】Nuclear means relating to the nuclei of atoms, or to the energy released when these nuclei are split or combined. 【Example】The most terrifying aspect of nuclear bombing is radiation. 369. objective (5) [?b'd? ektiv] 【English Explanation】Your objective is what you are trying to achieve. 【Example】Our ultimate objective is the removal of all nuclear weapons. 370. obtain (2) [?b'tein] 【English Explanation】To obtain something means to get it or achieve it. (FORMAL) 【Example】The leech hangs about other people hoping to obtain money. 371. obvious (4) ['? bvi?s] 【English Explanation】If something is obvious, it is easy to see or understand. 【Example】The embassy is an obvious target for terrorist attacks. 372. occupy (4) ['? kjupai] 【English Explanation】The people who occupy a building or a place are the people who live or work there. 【Example】There were over 40 tenants, all occupying one wing of the hospital. 373. occur (1) [?'k?:] 【English Explanation】When something occurs, it happens. 【Example】That plane crash occurred only minutes after take-off. 374. odd (10) [? d] 【English Explanation】If you describe someone or something as odd, you think that they are

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strange or unusual. 【Example】It's very odd that she didn't reply to our letter. 375. offset (8) ['? :fset] 【English Explanation】 one thing is offset by another, the effect of the first thing is reduced by If the second, so that any advantage or disadvantage is cancelled out. 【Example】He raised his prices to offset the increased cost of materials. 376. ongoing (10) ['? n? g?ui?] 【English Explanation】An ongoing situation has been happening for quite a long time and seems likely to continue for some time in the future. 【Example】He interrupted the ongoing discussion and announced a notice. 377. option (4) ['? n? g?ui?] 【English Explanation】 option is something that you can choose to do in preference to one or An more alternatives. 【Example】Don't take the job now keep your options open until you leave university. 378. orient (5) ['? n? g?ui?] 【English Explanation】When you orient yourself to a new situation or course of action, you learn about it and prepare to deal with it. (FORMAL) 【Example】You will need the time to orient yourself to your new way of eating. 379. outcome (3) ['autk? m] 【English Explanation】The outcome of an activity, process, or situation is the situation that exists at the end of it. 【Example】The outcome of the election is a foregone conclusion. 380. output (4) ['autput]

【English Explanation】Output is used to refer to the amount of something that a person or thing produces.

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【Example】Due to low investment, our industrial output has remained stagnant. 381. overall (4) [?uv?'r? :l] 【English Explanation】You use overall to indicate that you are talking about a situation in general or about the whole of something. 【Example】Overall, the tone of the book is satirical. 382. overlap (9) ['?uv?'l? p] 【English Explanation】If one thing overlaps another, or if you overlap them, a part of the first thing occupies the same area as a part of the other thing. You can also say that two things overlap. 【Example】There is no question of overlap between the two courses. 383. overseas (6) ['?uv?'si:z] 【English Explanation】You use overseas to describe things that involve or are in foreign countries, usually across a sea or an ocean. 【Example】Over the years, hundreds of overseas students have studied at that university. 384. panel (10) ['p? nl] 【English Explanation】A panel is a small group of people who are chosen to do something, for example to discuss something in public or to make a decision. 【Example】The advisory panel disagreed with the decision. 385. paradigm (7) ['p? r?daim] 【English Explanation】A paradigm is a clear and typical example of something. (FORMAL) 【Example】By the time the war was over he had become the paradigm of the successful man. 386. paragraph (8) ['p? r?grɑ:f] 【English Explanation】A paragraph is a section of a piece of writing. A paragraph always begins on a new line and contains at least one sentence. 【Example】This point has been dealt with in the preceding paragraph.

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387. parallel (4) ['p? r?lel] 【English Explanation】If something has a parallel, it is similar to something else, but exists or happens in a different place or at a different time. If it has no parallel or is without parallel, it is not similar to anything else. 【Example】The railway lines run parallel to the road. 388. parameter (4) [p?'r? mit?]

【English Explanation】 Parameters are factors or limits which affect the way that something can be done or made. (FORMAL) 【Example】We have to work within the parameters of time and budget. 389. participate (2) [pɑ:'tisipeit] 【English Explanation】If you participate in an activity, you take part in it. 【Example】They expected him to participate in the ceremony. 390. partner (3) ['pɑ:tn?] 【English Explanation】The partners in a firm or business are the people who share the ownership of it. 【Example】He has a practical partner who organizes everything for him. 391. passive (9) ['pɑ:tn?] 【English Explanation】If you describe someone as passive, you mean that they do not take action but instead let things happen to them. 【Example】His passive attitude made things easier for me. 392. perceive (2) [p?'si:v] 【English Explanation】 you perceive something, you see, notice, or realize it, especially when it If is not obvious. 【Example】The patient was perceived to have difficulty in standing and walking. 393. percent (1) [p?'si:v]

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【English Explanation】 【Example】The company's market share is 48 percent in the marketplace. 394. period (1) ['pi?ri?d] 【English Explanation】A period is a length of time. 【Example】He was on his feet again after such a long period in hospital. 395. persist (10) [p?'sist] 【English Explanation】If something undesirable persists, it continues to exist. 【Example】The cold weather will persist for the rest of the week. 396. perspective (5) [p?'spektiv] 【English Explanation】A particular perspective is a particular way of thinking about something, especially one that is influenced by your beliefs or experiences. 【Example】He says the death of his father 18 months ago has given him a new perspective on life. 397. phase (4) [feiz] 【English Explanation】A phase is a particular stage in a process or in the gradual development of something. 【Example】The child is going through a difficult phase. 398. phenomenon (7) [f?'nɑ:min?n] 【English Explanation】A phenomenon is something that is observed to happen or exist. (FORMAL) 【Example】But their so-called prosperity is only a temporary phenomenon. 399. philosophy (3) [fi'l? s?fi] 【English Explanation】Philosophy is the study or creation of theories about basic things such as the nature of existence, knowledge, and thought, or about how people should live.

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【Example】He holds the chair of philosophy at Oxford. 400. physical (3) ['fizik?l] 【English Explanation】Physical qualities, actions, or things are connected with a person's body, rather than with their mind. 【Example】Staying up late makes him at his worst in terms of physical situation. 401. plus (8) [pl? s] 【English Explanation】You say plus to show that one number or quantity is being added to another. 【Example】We paid 1000 dollars for the shop, plus 200 dollars for goodwill. 402. policy (1) ['p? lisi] 【English Explanation】A policy is a set of ideas or plans that is used as a basis for making decisions, especially in politics, economics, or business. 【Example】They expressed their dissent from official policy. 403. portion (9) ['p? :? ?n] 【English Explanation】A portion of something is a part of it. 【Example】You may find the information you need in the first portion of the book. 404. pose (10) ['p? :? ?n] 【English Explanation】 something poses a problem or a danger, it is the cause of that problem If or danger. 【Example】Heavy traffic poses a problem in many old towns.

405. positive (2) ['p? zitiv] 【English Explanation】 you are positive about things, you are hopeful and confident, and think If of the good aspects of a situation rather than the bad ones. 【Example】Be positive about your future and get on with living a normal life.

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406. potential (2) [p?'ten? ?l] 【English Explanation】You use potential to say that someone or something is capable of developing into the particular kind of person or thing mentioned. 【Example】The firm has identified 60 potential customers at home and abroad. 407. practitioner (8) [pr? k'ti? ?n?] 【 English Explanation 】 Doctors are sometimes referred to as practitioners or medical practitioners. (FORMAL) 【Example】A licensed practitioner of psychoanalysis. 408. precede (6) [pri:'si:d] 【English Explanation】If one event or period of time precedes another, it happens before it. (FORMAL) 【Example】He preceded his speech with a few words of welcome the special guests. 409. precise (5) [pri'sais] 【English Explanation】You use precise to emphasize that you are referring to an exact thing, rather than something vague. 【Example】I am not clear about the precise bearing of the word in this passage. 410. predict (4) [pri'dikt] 【English Explanation】If you predict an event, you say that it will happen. 【Example】I can predict something with great accuracy. 411. predominant (8) [pri'd? min?nt] 【English Explanation】If something is predominant, it is more important or noticeable than anything else in a set of people or things. 【Example】Her predominant characteristic is honesty. 412. preliminary (9) [pri'limin?ri]

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【English Explanation】Preliminary activities or discussions take place at the beginning of an event, often as a form of preparation. 【Example】There are a lot of preliminaries to be gone through before you can visit a foreign country. 413. presume (6) [pri'zju:m] 【English Explanation】If you presume that something is the case, you think that it is the case, although you are not certain. 【Example】The law presumes innocence until guilt is proved. 414. previous (2) ['pri:vj?s] 【English Explanation】A previous event or thing is one that happened or came before the one that you are talking about. 【Example】She has a teenage daughter from a previous marriage. 415. primary (2) ['praim?ri]

【English Explanation】 You use primary to describe something that is very important. (FORMAL) 【Example】That's the primary reason the company's share price has held up so well. 416. prime (5) [praim] 【English Explanation】You use prime to describe something that is most important in a situation. 【Example】The police will see me as the prime suspect! 417. principal (4) ['prins?p?l] 【English Explanation】Principal means first in order of importance. 【Example】My principal concern is my family's welfare. 418. principle (1) ['prins?pl] 【English Explanation】A principle is a general belief that you have about the way you should behave, which influences your behaviour.

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【Example】We adhere to the principle that everyone should be treated fairly. 419. prior (4) ['prai?] 【English Explanation】You use prior to indicate that something has already happened, or must happen, before another event takes place. 【Example】I fear that a prior engagement will prohibit me from joining you in dinner. 420. priority (7) [prai'? riti] 【English Explanation】 something is a priority, it is the most important thing you have to do or If deal with, or must be done or dealt with before everything else you have to do. 【Example】Your trouble is you've got your priorities back to front! 421. proceed (1) [pr?'si:d]

【English Explanation】If you proceed to do something, you do it, often after doing something else first. 【Example】He paused to consult his notes, and then proceeded with his questions. 422. process (1) ['prɑ:ses] 【English Explanation】 process is a series of actions which are carried out in order to achieve a A particular result. 【Example】I started moving the china ornaments but dropped a vase in the process. 423. professional (4) [pr?'fe? ?n?l] 【English Explanation】Professional means relating to a person's work, especially work that requires special training. 【Example】Don't wear those clothes to work, try to look more professional! 424. prohibit (7) [pr?'hibit] 【English Explanation】If a law or someone in authority prohibits something, they forbid it or make it illegal. (FORMAL) 【Example】Smoking is prohibited here.

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425. project (4)

[pr?'d? ekt]

【English Explanation】A project is a task that requires a lot of time and effort. 【Example】The project became so expensive that we had to pull out. 426. promote (4) [pr?'m?ut] 【English Explanation】If people promote something, they help or encourage it to happen, increase, or spread. 【Example】We must promote commerce with neighbouring countries. 427. proportion (3) [pr?'p? :? ?n] 【English Explanation】A proportion of a group or an amount is a part of it. (FORMAL) 【Example】We are trying to reduce the problem to manageable proportions. 428. prospect (8) ['pr? spekt] 【English Explanation】If there is some prospect of something happening, there is a possibility that it will happen. 【Example】I see little prospect of an improvement in his condition. 429. protocol (9) ['pr?ut?k? l] 【English Explanation】Protocol is a system of rules about the correct way to act in formal situations. 【Example】He has become something of a stickler for the finer observances of royal protocol. 430. psychology (5) [sai'k? l?d? i] 【English Explanation】Psychology is the scientific study of the human mind and the reasons for people's behaviour. 【Example】We need some male subjects for a psychology experiment. 431. publication (7) [? bli'kei? ?n] p? 【English Explanation】The publication of a book or magazine is the act of printing it and

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sending it to shops to be sold. 【Example】Her last novel ran into three reprints in its first year of publication. 432. publish (3) [? bli'kei? ?n] p? 【English Explanation】When a company publishes a book or magazine, it prints copies of it, which are sent to shops to be sold. 【Example】He has published quite a lot of articles. 433. purchase (2) ['p?:t? ?s] 【English Explanation】When you purchase something, you buy it. (FORMAL) 【Example】They purchased life at the expenses of honor. 434. pursue (5) [p?'sju] 【English Explanation】If you pursue an activity, interest, or plan, you carry it out or follow it. (FORMAL) 【Example】She had come to England to pursue an acting career. 435. qualitative (9) ['kw? l?? teitiv] 【English Explanation】 Qualitative means relating to the nature or standard of something, rather than to its quantity. (FORMAL) 【Example】There are qualitative differences in the way children of different ages and adults think. 436. quote (7) [kw?ut] 【English Explanation】If you quote someone as saying something, you repeat what they have written or said. 【Example】He quotes the Bible to support his beliefs. 437. radical (8) ['r? dik?l] 【English Explanation】Radical changes and differences are very important and great in degree. 【Example】I don't belong to the school of thought that favours radical change.

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438. random (8) ['r? nd?m] 【English Explanation】A random sample or method is one in which all the people or things involved have an equal chance of being chosen. 【Example】The survey used a random sample of two thousand people across England and Wales. 439. range (2) [reind? ] 【English Explanation】 【Example】Several cars are available within this price range. 440.ratio (5) ['rei? i?u]

【English Explanation】The ratio of something is the relationship between two things when it is expressed in numbers or amounts. For example, if there are ten boys and thirty girls in a room, the ratio of boys to girls is 1:3, or one to three. 【Example】The ratios of 1 to 5 and 20 to 100 are the same. 441. rational (6) ['r? ? ?n?l] 【English Explanation】Rational decisions and thoughts are based on reason rather than on emotion. 【Example】No rational person would go to work in his pyjamas. 442. react (3) [ri'? kt] 【English Explanation】When you react to something that has happened to you, you behave in a particular way because of it. 【Example】She reacted to the insult by turning her back on him. 443. recover (6) [ri'k? v?]

【English Explanation】When you recover from an illness or an injury, you become well again. 【Example】He's now fully recovered from his stroke. 444. refine (9) [ri'fain]

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【English Explanation】When a substance is refined, it is made pure by having all other substances removed from it. 【Example】Oil is refined to remove naturally occurring impurities. 445. regime (4) [rei'? i:m] 【English Explanation】If you refer to a government or system of running a country as a regime, you are critical of it because you think it is not democratic and uses unacceptable methods. 【Example】The overthrow of the regime was followed by a period of anarchy. 446. region (2) ['ri:d? ?n] 【English Explanation】A region is a large area of land that is different from other areas of land, for example because it is one of the different parts of a country with its own customs and characteristics, or because it has a particular geographical feature. 【Example】These small spiced cakes are a peculiarity of the region. 447. register (3) ['red? ist?] 【English Explanation】A register is an official list or record of people or things. 【Example】He signed the register at the hotel. 448. regulate (2) ['regju? leit] 【English Explanation】 regulate an activity or process means to control it, especially by means To of rules. 【Example】 powers of the European Commission to regulate competition in the Community The are increasing. 449. reinforce (8) [? ri:in'f? :s] 【English Explanation】If something reinforces a feeling, situation, or process, it makes it stronger or more intense. 【Example】This evidence reinforces my view that he is a spy. 450. reject (5) [ri'd? ekt]

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【English Explanation】If you reject something such as a proposal, a request, or an offer, you do not accept it or you do not agree to it. 【Example】I absolutely reject the management's line on this. 451. relax (9) [ri'l? ks] 【English Explanation】If you relax or if something relaxes you, you feel more calm and less worried or tense. 【Example】The music will help to relax you. 452. release (7) [ri'li:s]

【English Explanation】If a person or animal is released from somewhere where they have been locked up or looked after, they are set free or allowed to go. 【Example】The terrorists will only release their hostages on certain conditions. 453. relevant (2) ['reliv?nt] 【English Explanation】Something that is relevant to a situation or person is important or significant in that situation or to that person. 【Example】We have passed all relevant information on to the police. 454. reluctance (10) [ri'l? kt?ns] 【English Explanation】 【Example】I felt a certain reluctance to tell her the news. 455. rely (3) [ri'lai] 【English Explanation】If you rely on someone or something, you need them and depend on them in order to live or work properly. 【Example】They have to rely on the river for their water. 456. remove (3) [ri'mu:v]

【English Explanation】If you remove something from a place, you take it away. (WRITTEN)

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【Example】When the meat is boiling, remove the scum. 457. require (1) [ri'kwai?]

【English Explanation】If you require something or if something is required, you need it or it is necessary. (FORMAL) 【Example】All passengers are required to show their tickets. 458. research (1) [ri's?:t? ]

【English Explanation】 Research is work that involves studying something and trying to discover facts about it. 【Example】The book was the result of ten years of assiduous research. 459. reside (2) [ri'zaid]

【English Explanation】If someone resides somewhere, they live there or are staying there. (FORMAL) 【Example】This family has resided in this city for 60 years. 460. resolve (4) [ri'z? lv] 【English Explanation】To resolve a problem, argument, or difficulty means to find a solution to it. (FORMAL) 【Example】Intensive efforts are being made to resolve the dispute. 461. resource (2) [ri's? :s] 【English Explanation】 resources of an organization or person are the materials, money, and The other things that they have and can use in order to function properly.【Example】If I may refer back to the problem we discussed, I think we shall stress on the conservation of our natural resource. 462. respond (1) [ri'sp? nd] 【English Explanation】When you respond to something that is done or said, you react to it by doing or saying something yourself.

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【Example】I invited her to dinner but she did not respond. 463. restore (8) [ri'st? :]

【English Explanation】To restore a situation or practice means to cause it to exist again. 【Example】The government ordered the police out to restore order in the streets. 464. restrain (9) [ri'strein] 【English Explanation】If you restrain someone, you stop them from doing what they intended or wanted to do, usually by using your physical strength. 【Example】If I don't restrain my dog, it chases the cat. 465. restrict (2) [ri'strikt] 【English Explanation】If you restrict something, you put a limit on it in order to reduce it or prevent it becoming too great. 【Example】In a move to restrict imports, the government raised custom duties. 466. retain (4) [ri'tein] 【English Explanation】To retain something means to continue to have that thing. (FORMAL) 【Example】Other countries retained their traditional and habitual ways of doing things.

467. reveal (6)

[ri'vi:l]

【English Explanation】To reveal something means to make people aware of it. 【Example】Government employees swear an oath not to reveal official secrets. 468. revenue (5) ['revinju:] 【English Explanation】 Revenue is money that a company, organization, or government receives from people. 【Example】Oil revenue have rise with the rise in the dollar. 469. reverse (7) [ri'v?:s]

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【English Explanation】When someone or something reverses a decision, policy, or trend, they change it to the opposite decision, policy, or trend. 【Example】He reversed the coin and examined it carefully. 470. revise (8) [ri'vaiz] 【English Explanation】If you revise the way you think about something, you adjust your thoughts, usually in order to make them better or more suited to how things are. 【Example】You should revise your idea about him. 471. revolution (9) [? rev?'lu:? ?n]

【English Explanation】 revolution is a successful attempt by a large group of people to change A the political system of their country by force. 【Example】The industrial revolution had taken place in England first. 472. rigid (9) ['rid? id] 【English Explanation】Laws, rules, or systems that are rigid cannot be changed or varied, and are therefore considered to be rather severe. 【Example】The caste refers to social system based on rigid distinctions of birth, rank, wealth, etc. 473. role (1) [r?ul] 【English Explanation】If you have a role in a situation or in society, you have a particular position and function in it. 【Example】The Panama Canal has played a very important role in transportation. 474. route (9) [ru:t] 【English Explanation】A route is a way from one place to another. 【Example】The route was once much travelled but has fallen into disuse. 475. scenario (9) [si'nɑ:ri?u] 【English Explanation】If you talk about a likely or possible scenario, you are talking about the

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way in which a situation may develop. 【Example】In the worst-case scenario, you could become a homeless person. 476. schedule (8) ['sked? ul]

【English Explanation】A schedule is a plan that gives a list of events or tasks and the times at which each one should happen or be done. 【Example】His busy schedule made him completely inaccessible to his students. 477. scheme (3) [ski:m]

【English Explanation】A scheme is a plan or arrangement involving many people which is made by a government or other organization. 【Example】His busy schedule made him completely inaccessible to his students. 478. scope (6) [sk?up] 【English Explanation】 there is scope for a particular kind of behaviour or activity, people have If the opportunity to behave in this way or do that activity. 【Example】He believed in giving his staff scope for initiative. 479. section (1) ['sek? ?n] 【English Explanation】A section of something is one of the parts into which it is divided or from which it is formed. 【Example】The last section sums up all the arguments on either side. 480. sector (1) ['sekt?] 【English Explanation】A particular sector of a country's economy is the part connected with that specified type of industry. 【Example】All sector of the economy suffer from the fall in the exchange rate. 481. secure (2) [si'kju?]

【English Explanation】If you secure something that you want or need, you obtain it, often after a lot of effort. (FORMAL)

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【Example】It may be many years before the new company can gain a secure foothold in the market. 482. seek (2) [si:k]

【English Explanation】If you seek something such as a job or a place to live, you try to find one. (FORMAL) 【Example】Older people may seek their own friends rather than become too emotionally dependent on their children. 483. select (2) [si'lekt] 【English Explanation】If you select something, you choose it from a number of things of the same kind. 【Example】She selected a diamond ring from the collection. 484. sequence (3) ['si:kw?ns] 【English Explanation】 sequence of events or things is a number of events or things that come A one after another in a particular order. 【Example】Put the mixed historical facts in sequence. 485. series (4) ['si?ri:z] 【English Explanation】A series of things or events is a number of them that come one after the other. 【Example】The business cycle is a series of peaks and troughs. 486. sex (3) [seks] 【English Explanation】The two sexes are the two groups, male and female, into which people and animals are divided according to the function they have in producing young. 【Example】an entertainment star who appeals to all ages and both sexes. 487. shift (3) [? ift] 【English Explanation】If you shift something or if it shifts, it moves slightly.

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【Example】The tools shift around in the car boot every time we turn a corner. 488. significant (1) [sig'nifik?nt] 【English Explanation】 significant amount or effect is large enough to be important or affect a A situation to a noticeable degree. 【Example】It is the first drug that seems to have a very significant effect on this disease. 489. similar (1) ['simil?] 【English Explanation】If one thing is similar to another, or if two things are similar, they have features that are the same. 【Example】The two buildings are similar on the whole. 490. simulate (7) ['simjuleit] 【English Explanation】 you simulate an action or a feeling, you pretend that you are doing it or If feeling it. 【Example】He shook a sheet of metal to simulate the noise of thunder. 491. site (2) [sait] 【English Explanation】 site is a piece of ground that is used for a particular purpose or where a A particular thing happens. 【Example】The site is being developed by a London property company. 492. so-called (10) ['s?u'k? :ld] 【English Explanation】You use so-called to indicate that you think a word or expression used to describe someone or something is in fact wrong. 【Example】More and more companies have gone 'green' and started producing so-called environmentally-friendly products. 493. sole (7) [s?ul] 【English Explanation】The sole thing or person of a particular type is the only one of that type. 【Example】The sole redeeming feature of this job is the salary.

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494. somewhat (7) ['s? mw? t] 【English Explanation】You use somewhat to indicate that something is the case to a limited extent or degree. (FORMAL) 【Example】The sole redeeming feature of this job is the salary. 495. source (1) [s? :s] 【English Explanation】The source of something is the person, place, or thing which you get it from. 【Example】We shall take full advantage of our rich source of human beings. 496. specific (1) [spi'sifik] 【English Explanation】You use specific to refer to a particular fixed area, problem, or subject. 【Example】There is a specific tool for each job. 497. specify (3) ['spesifai] 【English Explanation】If you specify something, you give information about what is required or should happen in a certain situation. 【Example】He has not specified what action he would like them to take. 498. sphere (9) [sfi?] 【English Explanation】A sphere is an object that is completely round in shape like a ball. 【Example】He has not specified what action he would like them to take. 499. stable (5) ['steibl] 【English Explanation】If something is stable, it is not likely to change or come to an end suddenly. 【Example】This ladder isn't very stable. 500. statistic (4) [st?'tistik] 【English Explanation】Statistics are facts which are obtained from analysing information

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expressed in numbers, for example information about the number of times that something happens. 【Example】I happen to have the official statistics with me. 501. status (4) ['steit?s] 【English Explanation】Your status is your social or professional position. 【Example】He only bought the yacht as a status symbol, he hates sailing. 502. straightforward (10) [streit'f? :w?d] 【English Explanation】If you describe something as straightforward, you approve of it because it is easy to do or understand. 【Example】The question seemed straightforward enough. 503. strategy (2) ['str? tid? i] 【English Explanation】 strategy is a general plan or set of plans intended to achieve something, A especially over a long period. 【Example】I think we should work out a strategy to deal with this situation. 504. stress (4) [stres]

【English Explanation】 you stress a point in a discussion, you put extra emphasis on it because If you think it is important. 【Example】I must stress that what I say is confidential. 505. structure (1) ['str? kt? ?] 【English Explanation】The structure of something is the way in which it is made, built, or organized. 【Example】The two halves of the structure didn't marry up. 506. style (5) [stail] 【English Explanation】 style of something is the general way in which it is done or presented, The which often shows the attitudes of the people involved.

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【Example】The two halves of the structure didn't marry up. 507. submit (7) [s?b'mit] 【English Explanation】If you submit a proposal, report, or request to someone, you formally send it to them so that they can consider it or decide about it. 【Example】Please submit your application form in quadruplicate. 508. subordinate (9) [s?'b? :dineit] 【English Explanation】If someone is your subordinate, they have a less important position than you in the organization that you both work for. 【Example】He was always friendly to his subordinates. 509. subsequent (4) ['s? bsikw?nt] 【English Explanation】You use subsequent to describe something that happened or existed after the time or event that has just been referred to. (FORMAL) 【Example】He confessed to other crimes subsequent to the bank robbery. 510. subsidy (6) ['s? bsidi] 【English Explanation】A subsidy is money that is paid by a government or other authority in order to help an industry or business, or to pay for a public service. 【Example】It's the old and the poor who suffer worst when subsidies are cut. 511. substitute (5) ['s? bstitju:t] 【English Explanation】If you substitute one thing for another, or if one thing substitutes for another, it takes the place or performs the function of the other thing. 【Example】We substituted a red ball for blue to see if the baby would notice. 512. successor (7) [s?k'ses?] 【English Explanation】Someone's successor is the person who takes their job after they have left. 【Example】The chairman has designated Christina as his successor.

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513. sufficient (3) [s?'fi? ?nt] 【English Explanation】If something is sufficient for a particular purpose, there is enough of it for the purpose. 【Example】The money I have saved is sufficient for buying a car. 514. sum (4) [s? m] 【English Explanation】In mathematics, the sum of two numbers is the number that is obtained when they are added together. 【Example】The sum of 5 and 3 is 8. 515. summary (4) [s? m] 【English Explanation】You use in summary to indicate that what you are about to say is a summary of what has just been said. 【Example】Your summary will need fleshing out before you present it. 516. supplement (9) ['s? plim?nt] 【English Explanation】If you supplement something, you add something to it in order to improve it. 【Example】She gives private lessons to supplement her income. 517. survey (2) [s?:'vei]

【English Explanation】If you carry out a survey, you try to find out detailed information about a lot of different people or things, usually by asking people a series of questions. 【Example】Only children under five are excepted from this survey. 518. survive (7) [s?'vaiv] 【English Explanation】If a person or living thing survives in a dangerous situation such as an accident or an illness, they do not die. 【Example】You need to be tough to survive in the jungle. 519. suspend (9) [s?s'pend]

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【English Explanation】If you suspend something, you delay it or stop it from happening for a while or until a decision is made about it. 【Example】The policeman was suspended while the complaint was investigated. 520. sustain (5) [s?s'tein] 【English Explanation】If you sustain something, you continue it or maintain it for a period of time. 【Example】Hope alone sustained him in his struggle. 521. symbol (5) ['simb?l] 【English Explanation】Something that is a symbol of a society or an aspect of life seems to represent it because it is very typical of it. 【Example】The dove is the symbol of peace. 522. tape (6) [teip] 【English Explanation】 【Example】He told the newspapermen about the conversation, but would not play them the actual tape of it. 523. target (5) ['tɑ:git] 【English Explanation】A target is something at which someone is aiming a weapon or other object. 【Example】He won't hit the target at that distance. 524. task (3) [tɑ:sk] 【English Explanation】 team is a group of people who play a particular sport or game together A against other similar groups of people. 【Example】She used the day to catch up with administrative tasks. 525. team (9) [tɑ:sk] 【English Explanation】 task is an activity or piece of work which you have to do, usually as part A

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of a larger project. 【Example】The team failed to qualify for the African Nations Cup finals. 526. technical (3) ['teknik?l] 【English Explanation】Technical means involving the sorts of machines, processes, and materials that are used in industry, transport, and communications. 【Example】Don't use all that technical lingo, try and explain in plain English. 527. technique (3) [tek'ni:k] 【English Explanation】A technique is a particular method of doing an activity, usually a method that involves practical skills. 【Example】In many sports physical fitness is not as important as technique. 528. technology (3) [tek'n? l?d? i] 【English Explanation】Technology refers to methods, systems, and devices which are the result of scientific knowledge being used for practical purposes. 【Example】Anyone who tries to resist the spread of new technology is fighting a losing battle.

529. temporary (9) ['temp?reri] 【English Explanation】Something that is temporary lasts for only a limited time. 【Example】Most adolescent problems are temporary. 530. tense (8) [tens] 【English Explanation】A tense situation or period of time is one that makes people anxious, because they do not know what is going to happen next. 【Example】After three very tense weeks he phoned again. 531. terminate (8) ['t?:mineit] 【English Explanation】 When you terminate something or when it terminates, it ends completely. (FORMAL)

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【Example】Your contract has been terminated. 532. text (2) [tekst] 【English Explanation】The text of a book is the main part of it, rather than the introduction, pictures, or notes. 【Example】The text is accompanied by illustration. 533. theme (8) [θi:m] 【English Explanation】A theme in a piece of writing, a talk, or a discussion is an important idea or subject that runs through it. 【Example】Peace was the dominant theme of the conference. 534. theory (1) ['θi?ri]

【English Explanation】A theory is a formal idea or set of ideas that is intended to explain something. 【Example】In this way they can better apply theory to practice. 535. thereby (8) ['?? ?'bai]

【English Explanation】You use thereby to introduce an important result or consequence of the event or action you have just mentioned. (FORMAL) 【Example】He became a citizen, thereby gaining the right to vote. 536. thesis (7) ['θi:sis] 【English Explanation】A thesis is an idea or theory that is expressed as a statement and is discussed in a logical way. 【Example】This thesis does not stand up to close inspection. 537. topic (7) ['t? pik] 【English Explanation】A topic is a particular subject that you discuss or write about. 【Example】This essay is so short that it can only scratch the surface of the topic.

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538. trace (6) [treis] 【English Explanation】If you trace the origin or development of something, you find out or describe how it started or developed. 【Example】The cause of the fire was traced to a faulty fuse-box. 539. tradition (2) [tr?'di? ?n] 【English Explanation】A tradition is a custom or belief that has existed for a long time. 【Example】The story of King Arthur became part of oral tradition. 540. transfer (2) [tr? ns'f?] 【English Explanation】 you transfer something or someone from one place to another, or they If transfer from one place to another, they go from the first place to the second. 【Example】He intends to transfer the property to his son. 541. transform (6) [tr? ns'f? :m]

【English Explanation】 transform something into something else means to change or convert To it into that thing. 【Example】His plans were transformed overnight into reality. 542. transit (5) ['tr? nsit] 【English Explanation】If people or things are in transit, they are travelling or being taken from one place to another. 【Example】You must allow for five per cent wastage in transit. 543. transmit (7) [tr? nz'mit] 【English Explanation】When radio and television programmes, computer data, or other electronic messages are transmitted, they are sent from one place to another, using wires, radio waves, or satellites. 【Example】The World Cup final is being transmitted live to over fifty countries. 544. transport (6) [tr? ns'p? :t]

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【English Explanation】Transport refers to any vehicle that you can travel in or carry goods in. 【Example】Which type of transport do you prefer? 545. trend (5) [trend] 【English Explanation】 trend is a change or development towards something new or different. A 【Example】The runaway inflation would seem to put the brakes on such a trend. 546. trigger (9) ['trig?]

【English Explanation】The trigger of a gun is a small lever which you pull to fire it. 【Example】A man pointed a gun at them and pulled the trigger. 547. ultimate (7) ['? ltimit] 【English Explanation】You use ultimate to describe the final result or aim of a long series of events. 【Example】He said it is still not possible to predict the ultimate outcome. 548. undergo (10) [? nd?'g?u] ? 【English Explanation】If you undergo something necessary or unpleasant, it happens to you. 【Example】This city underwent great changes. 549. underlie (6) [? nd?'lai] ? 【English Explanation】If something underlies a feeling or situation, it is the cause or basis of it. 【Example】Try to figure out what feeling underlies your anger. 550. undertake (4) [? nd?'teik] ?

【English Explanation】When you undertake a task or job, you start doing it and accept responsibility for it. 【Example】She undertook the arduous task of monitoring the elections. 551. uniform (8) ['ju:nif? :m]

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【English Explanation】A uniform is a special set of clothes which some people, for example soldiers or the police, wear to work in and which some children wear at school.【Example】 Soldiers wear a distinctive uniform. 552. unify (9) ['ju:nifai] 【English Explanation】 someone unifies different things or parts, or if the things or parts unify, If they are brought together to form one thing. 【Example】Is it possible to unify such scattered islands into a nation? 553. unique (7) [ju:'ni:k] 【English Explanation】Something that is unique is the only one of its kind. 【Example】The elephant's trunk is a unique form of appendage. 554. utilise (6) ['ju:tilaiz] 【English Explanation】 【Example】It is hoped that in her new job her talents will be better utilised than before. 555. valid (3) ['v? lid] 【English Explanation】A valid argument, comment, or idea is based on sensible reasoning. 【Example】They put forward many valid reasons for not exporting. 556. vary (1) ['veri] 【English Explanation】If things vary, they are different from each other in size, amount, or degree. 【Example】As they're handmade, each one varies slightly. 557. vehicle (8) ['vi:ikl]

【English Explanation】A vehicle is a machine with an engine, for example a bus, car, or truck, that carries people or things from place to place. 【Example】She disclaimed ownership of the vehicle.

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558. version (5) ['v?:? ?n] 【English Explanation】 version of something is a particular form of it in which some details are A different from earlier or later forms. 【Example】This dictionary is available in electronic version. 559. via (8) ['vai?] 【English Explanation】If you go somewhere via a particular place, you go through that place on the way to your destination. 【Example】This flight is routed to Chicago via New York.

560. violate (9) ['vai?leit] 【English Explanation】If someone violates an agreement, law, or promise, they break it. (FORMAL) 【Example】The country violated the international agreement. 561. virtual (8) ['v?:tju?l] 【English Explanation】You can use virtual to indicate that something is so nearly true that for most purposes it can be regarded as true. 【Example】Our deputy manager is the virtual head of the business. 562. visible (7) ['viz?bl] 【English Explanation】If something is visible, it can be seen. 【Example】The body was visible below the surface of the lake. 563. vision (9) ['vi? ?n] 【English Explanation】Your vision of a future situation or society is what you imagine or hope it would be like, if things were very different from the way they are now. 【Example】We need someone with real vision to lead the party. 564. visual (8) ['vizju?l]

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【English Explanation】Visual means relating to sight, or to things that you can see. 【Example】Her designs have a strong visual appeal. 565. volume (3) ['v? ljum] 【English Explanation】The volume of something is the amount of it that there is. 【Example】The volume of this container is 20 cubic meters. 566. voluntary (7) ['v? l?nt?ri]

【English Explanation】Voluntary actions or activities are done because someone chooses to do them and not because they have been forced to do them. 【Example】He made a voluntary statement to the police. 567. welfare (5) ['welf? ?]

【English Explanation】The welfare of a person or group is their health, comfort, and happiness. 【Example】The welfare of the individual is bound up with the welfare of the community. 568. whereas (5) [hw? ?r'? z]

【English Explanation】You use whereas to introduce a comment which contrasts with what is said in the main clause. 【Example】Wise men love truth, whereas fools shun it. 569. whereby (10) [w? ?'bai] 【English Explanation】A system or action whereby something happens is one that makes that thing happen. (FORMAL) 【Example】He devised a plan whereby he might escape. 570. widespread (8) ['waidspred] 【English Explanation】 Something that is widespread exists or happens over a large area, or to a great extent. 【Example】The Government acted quickly to relieve the widespread distress caused b

托福阅读基础班讲义下载【基础版】

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