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包装对食品发展的影响
消费者对某个产品的第一印象来说包装是至关重要的,包括沟通的可取性, 可接受性,健康饮食形象等。食品能够提供广泛的产品和包装组合,传达自己加 工的形象感知给消费者,例如新鲜包装/准备,冷藏,冷冻,超高温无菌,消毒 (灭菌) ,烘干产品。 食物的最重要的质量属性之一,是它的味道,其影响人类的感官知觉,即味 觉和嗅觉。味道可以很大程度作退化的处理和/或扩展存储。其他质量属性,也 可能受到影响,包括颜色,质地和营养成分。食品质量不仅取决于原材料,添加 剂,加工和包装的方法,而且其预期的货架寿命(保质期)过程中遇到的运输和 储存条件的质量。越来越多的竞争当中,食品生产商,零售商和供应商;和质量 审核供应商有着显著的提高食品质量以及急剧增加包装食品的选择。 这些改进也 得益于严格的冷藏链中的温度控制和越来越挑剔的消费者。 保质期的一个定义是: 在规定的贮存温度条件下产品保持其质量和安全性的 时间。 在保质期内,产品的生产企业对该产品质量符合有关标准或明示担保的 质量条件负责,销售者可以放心销售这些产品,消费者可以安全使用。 保质期不是识别食物等产品是否变质的唯一标准,可能由于存放方式,环境 等变化物质的过早变质。 所以食物等尽量在保质期未到期就及时食用。包装产品 的质量和保质期的主题是在第3章中详细讨论。 包装为消费者提供有关产品的重要信息,在许多情况下,使用的包装和/或 产品,包括事实信息如重量,体积,配料,制造商的细节,营养价值,烹饪和开 放的指示,除了法律准则的最小尺寸的文字和数字,有定义的各类产品。消费者 寻求更详细的产品信息,同时,许多标签已经成为多语种。标签的可读性会是视 觉发现的一个问题,这很可能成为一个对越来越多的老年人口越来越重要的问 题。 食物的选择和包装创新的一个主要驱动力是为了方便消费者的需求。 这里有 许多方便的现代包装所提供的属性, 这些措施包括易于接入和开放, 处置和处理, 产品的知名度,再密封性能,微波加热性,延长保质期等。在英国和其他发达经 济体显示出生率下降和快速增长的一个相对富裕的老人人口趋势, 伴随着更加苛 刻的年轻消费者,他们将要求和期望改进包装的功能,如方便包开启(百货配送 研究所,IGD) 。 对零售商而言存在有一个高的成本,供应和服务的货架体系。没有储备足够 的产品品种或及时补充库存,特别是副食品,如鲜牛奶,可能导致客户不满和流 失到竞争对手的商店,这正需要保证产品供应。现代化的配送和包装系统,允许

消费者在购买食品时, 他们希望在他们想任何时间地点都能享用。近几年消费者 的选择已在急剧扩大。例如在英国,20 世纪 60 年代和 90 年代之间在一般超市 的产品线的数量从 2000 年左右上升到超过 18000 人(INCPEN) 。 自 20 世纪 70 年代以来, 食品卫生和安全问题已成为日益重要的关注和选择 食物的驱动力。 媒体所关注的一系列问题,如使用化学添加剂和食品污染事故已 警示消费者,这些事件都是故意的,恶意篡改的,和在生产过程意外发生的。然 而,许多消费者都没有充分认识到包装在维护食品安全和质量过程中的重要作 用。通过更改后的包装产品迅速推广,不仅为了保护消费者,而且为了品牌的效 果,特别是许多预包装食品。另一个影响一直激励消费者注重保质保鲜、最小加 工和对产品的原产地(OECD)的标准给予更多的关注。 消费者直接通过他们的购买方式和它们所产生的包装废弃物对环境的影响。 消费者购买包装作为产品的一部分,包装的重量,多年来,所包含的产品,相对 下降。然而,消费模式产生了更大容量的包装,由于人口结构的变化和生活方式 的变化,这些情况使得包装体积,而不是包装的重量,正成为吸引公众关注的关 键。此外,朝预包装食品和食品包装服务的发展趋势,增加了塑料包装废弃物进 入固体废物流的金额。 零售商和制造商所使用的营销策略之一,是对环境的兼容性。然而,消费者 往往混淆或发现它很难界定什么是对环境负责的或友好的包装。 正是这种缺乏明 确的含义,至今无法利用,致使零售商和包装公司获得竞争优势。消费者需要明 确信息来指导他们的行动,这样不会使大多数的人差异化。包装链的各部门负责 阐述其职能和自身包装的好处,厂家销售好的包装,他们的客户,产品的厂家, 但这样的信息往往最终使顾客相对变少。 包装在现代快速消费品零售上的发展, 反过来成了促使以满足其需求的演变 的关键。 最重要的发展为食品包装行业已出现大型零售集团。这些群体产生巨大 的影响和控制生产什么, 如何介绍产品和它们是如何分配商店的。大型零售商处 理的包装食品杂货市场的主要份额对食品生产厂家相关的包装供应商施加相当 大的影响。因此,重要的包装供应商充分了解市场需求和快速响应变化。此外, 买方力量集中在零售层面是指制造商可能需要修改它们的分布和包装业务反应 的结构变化的零售。 多种零售食品包装的环境可以左右其在品牌竞争和零售物流中的作用。 是食 品销售流通中一个重要的关键, 一个品牌的成功,不仅仅是生存在一个高度竞争 的市场,包装起着至关重要的作用。包装设计创新存在于一线产品之间的竞争, 存在于一线品牌主要零售商和产品制造商中,近年来社会推动使零售增长,行业 激烈的竞争和日益复杂的消费者都使零售竞争激烈。 在个人品牌/产品的基础上, 产品的成功取决于产品制造商的快速的创新。 一个最有效的回应方式是通过独特

的包装, 这已经成为一个品牌成功关键因素。零售商自行设计品牌产品与制造商 的品牌在几乎每一个产品类别竞争激烈。品牌差异化可以提高创新的包装设计, 赋予审美和/或功能属性。 包装在预测零售商的形象, 赢得竞争优势方面起着重要的支撑作用。一般零 售商自己的品牌形象的目的是积极的消息,如高品质的,健康的饮食,新鲜,环 保意识还是物有所值的整体。例如,零售商是热衷于环保意识,推动部分为可生 物降解、可堆肥包装成长的利基市场,他们正在使用它作为与客户的沟通点。 包装与广告是密切相关的, 但它远远超过了广告,重点是因为它每天在家里 和在零售货架上向消费者介绍产品。商品显示,目前用一个有吸引力的或有趣的 方式和媒体广告与包装的形象一致的包装设计也有利于促进品牌。 品牌的拥有者 是经常负责采购操作, 促销活动的关键是通过利用有效的包装,存在多种返还优 惠的方式,如免费额外的产品,退返现金,特别版,新的改进产品,铝箔新鲜包 装。 零售商使用的条形码扫描信息,然后购买和销售的决策,对其产生了很大的 影响。他们的任务是更好地利用这一信息消费行为为目的,并建立品牌忠诚度。 零售商还可以使用此信息来评估新的包装设计有效性,返还促销和新产品销售。 包装的作用在多个零售物流配送和店内商品有严格的限制。 零售商是接受包 装,降低经营成本,增加存货周转率,转化为吸引力商品显示器 - 如预组装或 易于装配显示 - 满足物流服务水平 (可靠性, 响应速度和产品的可用性) 例如, 。 联合运输销售点包装节省商店劳动力通过更快货架载荷, 从而避免需要使用有潜 在危险的不安全的切割工具,提供方便的机会,并减少了污染源的可能。 总经销成本影响,通过对价格的影响(麦金农,1989)的需求总量。对于一些快 速移动商品型产品, 如巴氏杀菌奶, 分销及零售商品成本产品总成本占高达 50% 或更多的销售价格通常是一个相当大的比例。 包装材料和容器还增加了成本而设 计出最佳包装系统可以大大降低在零售连锁配送的成本。 发展全球食品供应链意 味着,许多生产点位置远离消费点,往往导致配送成本较高。 通过改善供应链运作效率,进行分销成本控制是一个零售商竞争优势关键。 零售商必须最大限度地发挥在分销渠道(西,1989 年)的运作效率。分配目标 是以最少的成本为客户提供必要的服务水平, 最具成本效益后勤包装标识变得更 加重要。配送成本领域,包括仓储,库存,运输,管理包装;仓储,库存,运输 和储存劳动是零售商的主要成本区而运输,仓储包装食品制造商主要成本区。 多种零售食品供应链效率依赖于零售商, 食品生产商和包装供应商之间密切 沟通。它还依赖于准确的订单预测可能的市场需求。信息技术大规模投资,使更 紧密的供应链的整合, 并通过电子数据交换 (EDI) 确保股票上刚刚在实时 , (JIT) 的基础上移动商店, 出售届满前条形码是一个代码,使全行业的零售产品单位鉴

定通过一个独特的参考号码,主要应用在零售结帐电子销售系统(EPOS) 。小学, 中学和大专院校包装使用鉴定的条形码,使有效的分配管理和库存控制。

附件 2:外文原文 FOOD PACKING TECHNOLOGY Packaging is critical to a consumer’s first impression of a product, communicating desirability, acceptability, healthy eating image etc. Food is available in a wide range of product and pack combinations that convey their own processed image perception to the consumer e.g. freshly packed/prepared, chilled, frozen, ultra-heat treated (UHT) aseptic, in-can sterilised and dried products. One of the most important quality attributes of food, affecting human sensory perception, is its flavour, i.e. taste and smell. Flavour can be significantly degraded by processing and/or extended storage. Other quality attributes that may also be affected include colour, texture and nutritional content. The quality of a food depends not only on the quality of raw ingredients, additives, methods of processing and packaging, but also on distribution and storage conditions encountered during its expected shelf life. Increasing competition amongst food producers, retailers and packaging suppliers; and quality audits of suppliers have resulted in significant improvements in food quality as well as a dramatic increase in the choice of packaged food. These improvements have also been aided by tighter temperature control in the cold chain and a more discerning consumer. One definition of shelf life is: the time during which a combination of food processing and packaging can maintain satisfactory eating quality under the particular system by which the food is distributed in the containers and the conditions at the point of sale. Shelf life can be used as a marketing tool for promoting the concept of freshness. Extended or long shelf life products also provide the consumer and/or retailer with the time convenience of product use as well as a reduced risk of food wastage. The subject of Packaged product quality and shelf life is discussed in detail in Chapter 3. Packaging provides the consumer with important information about the product and, in many cases, use of the pack and/or product. These include facts such as weight, volume, ingredients, the manufacturer’s details, nutritional value, cooking and opening instructions. In addition to legal guidelines on the minimum size of lettering and numbers, there are definitions

for the various types of product. Consumers are seeking more detailed nformation about products and, at the same time, many labels have become multilingual. Legibility of labels is an issue for the visually impaired and this is likely to become more important with an increasingly elderly population.. A major driver of food choice and packaging innovation is the consumer demand for convenience. There are many convenience attributes offered by modern packaging. These include ease of access and opening, disposal and handling, product visibility, resealability, microwaveability, prolonged shelf life etc. Demographic trends in the age profile of the UK and other advanced economies reveal a declining birth rate and rapid growth of a relatively affluent elderly population. They, along with a more demanding young consumer, will require and expect improved pack functionality, such as ease of pack opening (The Institute of Grocery Distribution, IGD). There is a high cost to supplying and servicing the retailer’s shelf. Failure to stock a sufficient variety of product or replenish stock in time, especially for staple foods such as fresh milk, can lead to customer dissatisfaction and defection to a competitor’s store, where product availability is assured. Modern distribution and packaging systems allow consumers to buy food when and where they want them. Consumer choice has expanded dramatically in recent years. In the UK, for example, between the 1960s and 1990s the number of product lines in the average supermarket rose from around 2000 to over 18 000. . Since the 1970s, food health and safety have become increasingly major concerns and drivers of food choices. Media attention has alerted consumers to a range of issues such as the use of chemical additives and food contamination incidents. These incidents have been both deliberate, by malicious tampering, and accidental, occurring during the production process. However, many consumers are not fully aware of the importance of packaging in maintaining food safety and quality. One effect has been the rapid introduction of tamper evident closures for many pre-packaged foods in order to not only protect the

consumer but also the brand. Another impact has been to motivate consumers to give more attention to the criteria of freshness/shelf life, minimum processing and the products oringin.. Consumers have direct environmental impact through the way they purchase and the packaging waste they generate. Consumers purchase packaging as part of the product and, over the years, the weight of packaging has declined relative to that of the product contained. However, consumption patterns have generated larger volumes of packaging due to changing demographics and lifestyles. It is the volume of packaging rather than the weight of packaging that is attracting critical public attention. In addition, the trend toward increased pre-packaged foods and food service packaging has increased the amount of plastics packaging waste entering the solid waste stream. Packaging has been a key to the evolution of modern fast-moving consu goods retailing that in turn has spurred on packaging developments to meet its requirements. The most significant development for the food packaging supply industries has been the emergence of large retail groups. These groups exert enormous influence and control over what is produced, how products are presented and how they are distributed to stores. The large retailers handle a major share of the packaged grocery market and exert considerable influence on food manufacturers and associated packaging suppliers. It is, therefore, import ant for packaging suppliers to be fully aware of market demand and respond quickly to changes. In addition, the concentration of buyer power at the retail level means that manufacturers may have to modify their distribution and packaging operations in response to structural changes in retailing. Packaging for fast-moving consumer goods (f.m.c.g.) has been referred to as part of the food retail marketing mix and thus closely affects all the other marketing variables i.e. product, price, promotion, and place (Nickels & Jolsen,

The discussion on packaging in the multiple food retail environment may be considered in terms of its role in brand competition and retail logistics.

The role of packaging in brand competition. role in

Packaging plays a vital

food marketing representing a significant key to a brand’s success or mere survival in a highly competitive marketplace. Packaging innovation and design are in the front line of competition between the brands of both major retailers and product manufacturers, having been driven in recent years by dramatic retail growth, intense industry competition and an increasingly demanding and sophisticated consumer. On an individual product/brand basis, success is dependent on the product manufacturer’s rapid innovative response to major trends. One of the most effective ways to respond is through distinctive packaging, and this has become one key factor in the success of a brand. The retailers’ own brand products compete intensely with manufacturers’ brands in virtually every product category. Brand differentiation can be enhanced by drive the growing niche market for biodegradable and compostable packaging. They are using it as a point of communication with their customers. Packaging is closely linked to advertising but it is far more focused than advertising because it presents the product to the consumer daily in the home and on the retail shelf. Merchandising displays that present the pack design in an attractive or interesting way and media advertising consistent with the pack’s image also serve to promote the brand. The brand owner is frequently responsible for the merchandising operation. A key to promotional activities is through effective use of packaging and there exist many kinds of on-pack promotions such as free extra product, money-off, special edition, new improved Bar code scanning information linked to the use of retailers’ loyalty card schemes has made a big impact on buying and marketing decision-making by retailers. Their task is to make better use of this information on consumer behaviour for promotional purposes and to build store brand loyalty. Retailers can also use this information to evaluate the effectiveness of new pack designs, on-pack promotions and the sales appeal of new products. The role of packaging in multiple retail logistics. There are tight constraints

on physical distribution and in-store merchandising. The retailer is receptive to packaging that reduces operating costs, increases inventory turnover, transforms to attractive merchandising displays – such as pre-assembled or easyto-assemble aisle displays – and satisfies logistics service levels (reliability, responsiveness and product availability). For example, combined transit and point-of-sale packaging saves store labour through faster shelf loading, provides ease of access to product thereby obviating the need to use potentially dangerous unsafe cutting tools, and presents an opportunity for source reduce. The total distribution cost affects the total volume of demand through its influence on price (McKinnon, 1989). For some fast-moving commodity type products, such as pasteurised milk, the cost of distribution and retail merchandising is usually a sizeable proportion of total product cost representing up to 50 per cent or more of the sales price. The cost of packaging materials and containers also adds slightly to the cost but design of the optimal packaging system can significantly reduce cost in the retail distribution chain. The development of global food supply chains has meant that many points of production have located further away from the points of consumption, often resulting in higher distribution cost.

Controlling distribution cost through improved operational efficiency in the supply chain is a key to competitive advantage for a retailer. The retailer must maximise operational efficiency in the distribution channel (West, 1989). The goal of distribution is to deliver the requisite level of service to customers at the least cost. The identification of the most cost-effective logistical packaging is becoming more crucial. Cost areas in distribution include storage, inventory, transport, administration and packaging. Storage, inventory, transport and store labour are major cost areas for the retailer while transport, storage and pac ka gi n g ar e t he m ai n cost a re as fo r t h e f ood m an uf ac t ure r. The efficiency of the multiple retail food supply chain relies on close communication between retailers, food manufacturers and packaging suppliers. It

also relies on accurate order forecasting of likely demand. Massive investment in information technology has enabled closer integration of the supply chain and, through electronic data interchange (EDI), has ensured that stock moves to stores on a just-in-time (JIT) basis, and is sold well before the expiry date. The bar code is a code that allows the industry-wide identification of retail product units by means of a unique reference number, the major application being the electronic point of sale (EPoS) system at the retail checkout. The use of the bar code for identification of primary, secondary and tertiary packaging has enabled efficient distribution management and stock c ontrol.


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