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lecture 4 Word-Formation II


Word-formation II: Minor Processes
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Clipping or shortening Abbreviation and Acronym Blending Back-formation Analogy Onomatopoeia Word-formation of Chinese Characters

1. Clipping or Shortening
? Definition ? Clipping or shortening is a method of shortening a word without changing its meaning. ? gas

1. Clipping or Shortening
? Clipping is an important device of forming new words in Modern English. It is used widely in scientific writing and journalistic style. This method is of a character of using words precisely and conveniently

1. Clipping or Shortening
? . In Modern English not only single words but phrases can be replaced by the use of clipping. Such as, the pharse prefabricated structure or prefabricated house is now replaced by the word prefab.

1. Clipping or Shortening
? Types of clipping Front clipping Back clipping Front and back clipping Middle clipping Phrase clipping Journalist clipping Back clipping +suffix

1. Clipping or Shortening
? Front clipping ? This shortening may occur at the beginning of the word: phone ---- telephone Plane ---- airphone, aeroplane chute ---- parachute Bus ---omnibus Copter or heli ---- helicopter Varsity ---- university

1. Clipping or Shortening
Back clipping This shortening may occur at the end of the word. Such as: Ad: advertisement Photo: photograph Taxi: taxicab Demo: demonstration French fries: French fried potatoes Lab: laboratory

1. Clipping or Shortening
? Back clipping Lib: liberation Mike: microphone Memo: memorandum Prof.: professor Lit: literature Exam: examination

1. Clipping or Shortening
? Front and back clipping ? The shortening may occur at both ends of the words, Flu: influenza Tec: detective Fridge: refrigeretor Script: prescription

1. Clipping or Shortening
? Middle clipping ? The shortening may occur at the middle of the word, such as: bike: bicycle Curtsy: courtesy Maths: mathematics Specs: spectacles Gents: gentlemen’s=gentlemen’s lavatory

1. Clipping or Shortening
? Phrase clipping ? A number of phrases have been made into one word in this way, such as: Pub: public house Prefab: prefabricated house Pop-singer: popular song singer Jet: jet-propelled plane Lube: lubricating oil Three-D: three- dimensional film

1. Clipping or Shortening
? Journalist clipping ? Many journalist clipping can be seen in newspapers, such as: Dept.: department Cwlth: commonwealth H.K.: Hong Kong

1. Clipping or Shortening
? Back-clipping +suffix ? This type is formed by clipping plus the suffix-y, or the ending –o,e,g. e.g.: Hanky or hankie: handkerchief Comfy: comfortable Aggro or agro: aggressiveness or aggression

2. Acronym and Abbreviation
? The definition ? They are the combination of initial letters of a noun phrase but they are different mainly in formation and pronunciation.

2.1 Abbreviation
? Abbreviations (also known as initialisms) are pronounced letter by letter as UN and VIP. There are two kinds of abbrevations. ? First, the letters represent full words: C.O.D.: cash on delivery or Concise Oxford Dictionary EEC: European Economic Community MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology DIY: do it yourself FBI, CIA, WHO, CPC, PLA,

Abbreviations
? ABC: American Broadcasting Corporation or Amerian Born Chinese ? AOL: American On-line ? Asap: as soon as possible ? ATM, BBC, CCTV, CD, CEO, CFO, DVD, EMS, GDP, GPS, GSM, IBM, IMF, IQ, ISBN, ISDN, ISO, LCD, LG, MBA, MVP, UFO, VOA, WPS, WTO.

Abbreviation
? Second, the letters represent elements in a compound or just parts of a word: TV: television TB: Tuberculosis ID: identification card

Abbreviation
R.A.F.: Royal Air Force T.U.C.: Trade Union Congress NSC: National Security Council NSF: National Science Foundation AFL-CIO: American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organization

Abbreviation
NS: nuclear ship SST: supersonic transport ICBM: intercontinental ballistic missile ERTS: Earth Resources Technology Satellites

Abbreviation
VTOL: vertical take-off and landing DP: data processing or durable press TLP: transient lunar phenomena PLSS: portable life-support systems PNdB or PNdb: perceived noise decibel Pa: pascal ABD: all but dissertation (a doctorial candidate who has completed the required course work and examination but not the dissertation

Abbreviation
TESL: teaching English as a second language TEFL: teaching English as a foreign language TESOL: teachers of English to speakers of other languages ESP: English for special purposes TA: teaching assistant ESL: English as a second language AI: artificial intelligence

Abbriviation
BA: Bachelor of Arts MA or M.A.: Master of Arts PhD: Doctor of Philosophy DA: Doctor of Arts EE or E.E.: Electrical Engineer PA: personal assistant

Acronyms
? Acronyms are pronounced like an ordinary word as laser(lightwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) and dinky. In order to make the word pronounceable, some words might be omitted like the formation of laser and sometimes two letters might be taken from one word like the formation of radar(radio detecting and ranging).

Acronym
NATO: the North Atlantic Treaty Organization UNESCO: the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization

2. Acronym
? Toefl ? Ielts ? aids

Acronym and Abbreviation
? Semi-acronyms N-bomb: nuclear bomb H-bomb: hydrogen bomb D Notice: Defence Notice G-man: Government man T-bone or T-bone steak: a thinly cut piece of meat with a T-shaped bone in. C.B.radio: citizen band radio

Acronym and Abbreviation
Different interpretation of acronyms or abbreviation: Sars=Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or Smile and Retain Smile CB, CBC, ICBC, ABC, TCL Marlboro KFC BMW

3. Blending
? Blends are words formed by combining elements of two stems, either part of both words or part of one with the whole of the other. Though not all blends become standard language, most of them have been more or less acceptable in the English language.

3. Blending
? There are four types of blending according to their morphological structures. ? First, the front part of the first word + the back part of the second word. ? Brunch: breakfast+ lunch ? Oxbridge: Oxford + Cambridge ? Eurovision: European + television ? Heliport: helicopter + airport ? Telecast: television + broadcast

3. Blending
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Spork: spoon + fork Positron: positive + electron Autocide: automobile + suicide Motel: motor + hotel Airtel: air + hotel Botel: boat + hotel Smog: smoke + fog Chinglish: Chinese + English Japlish: Japanese + English Spanglish: Spanish + English

3. Blending
? Second, the first word + the back part of the second word. ? Lunarnaut: lunar + astronaut ? Workfare: work + welfare ? Nixonomics: Nixon + economics ? Profitward: profit + toward ? Spaceplane: space + ariplane ? Breathalyzer: breath + analyzer

3. Blending
? Third, the front part of the first word + the second word. ? Lansign: language + sign ? Astrospace: astronautical + space ? Astropolicy: astronautical + policy ? Medicare: medical + care ? Medicaid: medical + aid ? Hi-rise: high + rise ? Eurasia: European + Asia

3. Blending
? Fourth, the front parts of the first and the second word. ? Hi-fi: high + fidelity ? Amerind: American + Indian ? Satcom: satellite + communication center ? Interpol: international + police ? Moped: motor + pedal-cycle

3. Blending
? conclusion: ? Most blends are newly coined words in Modern English. Their appearance has greatly enriched the English vocabulary. These words may be now used not only as scientific terms but as journalistic terms. Satcom and Nixonnomics are good examples to illustrate this. In the course of the development of the vocabulary some blends were originally slang, then they were included in the dictionary and become common English words, such as smog, motel, brunch, etc. blending is also a common process of simplifying language in Modern English.

4. Back-formation
Back-formation is an abnormal type of wordformation where a shorter word is derived by deleting an imagined affix from an already longer word in the dictionary. The existence of suffixation suggests that a complex noun presupposes a verb. That is, since a suffix can be attached to a verb to create a noun, conversely by removing the suffix a noun can be changed back into a verb.

4. Back-formation
? Affixation and back-formation are two contrary processes of word-formation. The former is a method of forming new words by means of affixes while the latter by cutting imagined affixes.

4. Back-formation
? The difference between back-clipping and back-formation lies in the fact that in the former what is deleted can be any sequence of a word whereas in the latter what is deleted is normally identical with a suffix.

4. Back-formation
? The types of back-formation ? According to its origin back-formation may be formed from the following parts of speech. ? A. from nouns ending in –er, -ar, -or, -sion, etc ? B. from nouns ending in other forms ? C. from noun compound ? D. from adjectives

4. Back-formation
? From nouns ending in –er, -ar, -or, -sion, etc Original word New word
Laser lase

beggar
editor emotion television automation

beg
edit emote televise automate

4. Back-formation
? From nouns ending in other forms
Original word New word typewriter vampire enthusiasm diagnosis typewrite vamp enthuse diagnose

4. Back-formation
? From noun compounds
Original word Baby-sitter caretaker Self-actualization daydreamer housekeeper firebomber Mass-production
Lip-reading

New word Baby-sit caretake Self-actualize daydream housekeep firebomb Mass-produce
Lip-read

4. Back-formation
? From adjectives
Original word New word

lazy gloomy greedy

laze gloom greed

4. Back-formation
? Conclusion ? Back-formation words or words created by back-formation can be used to enhance different styles or writing: some in political or scientific style, and some in colloquial or journalistic style. In Modern English a number of back-formation words have become a part of the common core in the English vocabulary, such as, edit, beg, automate, air-condition, televise, etc.

5. Analogy
? Definition

? The process of analogical creation is one of the tendencies in English word-formation. A new word or a new phrase is coined by an analogy between a newly created one and an existing corresponding one. The word marathon, for instance, is an existing word which appeared at the Olympic Games. Through analogy Modern English has the following new words derived from it: telethon, talkathon, etc.

5. Analogy
? There are two types of analogically coined words: one is single words, the other is phrases. ? Single words ? moonrise and earthrise ? Starquake and youthquake. ? moonscape

5. Analogy
? ? ? ? Chairperson, chairwoman and chairone Househusband Hertory huwoman

5. Analogy
? cheeseburger, beefburger, shrimpburger ? washeteria, candyteria, lunchateria

5. Analogy
? white-collar, gray-collar, pink-collar, goldcollar, red-collar ? First Lady, First Dog ? zipgate, Iran-gate, information-gate

5. Analogy
? Phrases ? The phrase environmental pollution appeared first in the English vocabulary. As the language develops, so a number of new phrases are coined by analogy. ? sound pollution, air pollution, cultural pollution, visual pollution, etc. ? off-the-job

5. Analogy
? Forming new words by analogy is a productive device of word-formation. Analogically created words in Modern English are often used in colloquial and journalistic styles, sometimes in scientific style. People like to use these words since their application is vivid and forceful not only in speech but in writing.

6. Onomatopoeia
? Onomatopoeia is the oldest device of word-formation used to name a thing or an action by a vocal imitation of the sound associated with it. In other words, onomatopoeic words are echoic words whose sound suggests sense. In Modern English people often coin new words for the purpose of vividness and imagination.

6. Onomatopoeia
? Echoic words can be classified into three types according to their functions. ? First, echoic words in connection with the sound made by animals, such as: ? Coo: to make the low soft cry of a dove or pigeon, or a sound like this. ? Cuckoo: a bird whose sound is like its name, and the call of this bird. ? Crow: the loud high cry of a cock. ? Meow, mew, miaow

6. Onomatopoeia
? ? ? ? Bark Croak Buzz Quack

6. Onomatopoeia
? Second, echoic words in connection with the sound made by persons, such as: ? Murmur: to make a soft sound, esp. to speak or say in a quiet voice, and a soft low sound. ? Giggle: a form of laughter which is repeated by young girls, and to make a giggle. ? Boo: a shout of disapproval or strong disagreement. ? Hurrah or hurray: a shout of joy or approval ? Titter: to laugh very quickly from

6. Onomatopoeia
? Third, echoic words in connection with the sound made by things, such as: ? Bang: to strike sharply, and a sudden loud noise. ? crash: a sudden loud noise as made by a violent blow, fall, break, etc. ? Thump: to strike with a heavy blow, and a heavy blow or the dull sound produced by this. ? Thud: a dull sound as caused by a heavy object striking something soft, and to make a thud by beating, striking, landing, falling, etc.

7. Word-fromation of Chinese
? 一曰指事:指事者,视而可识,察而可见, 上下是也。 ? 含有绘画较抽像中的东西 ? 上、下、刃

? 二曰象形,象形者,画成其物,随体诘诎, 日月是也。用线条或笔画,把要表达物体 的外形特征,具体地勾画出来。 ? 指事和象形属于独体造字法 ? 日、月、草、马、鱼

? 三曰形声,形声者以事为名,去譬相成, 江河是也。 ? 形声字由两部份组成:形旁(又称“义符”) 和声旁(又称“音符”)。形旁是指示字的意 思或类属,声旁则表示字的相同或相近发 音。

? 四曰会意,会意者比类合谊,以见指撝 (hui),武信是也。 ? 会意字由两个或多个独体字组成,以所组 成的字形或字义,合并起来,表达此字的 意思。 ? 解、鸣、酒

? 五曰转注,转注者建类一首,同意相受, 考老是也。 ? 不同地区因为发音有不同,以及地域上的 隔阂,以至对同样的事物会有不同的称呼。 当这两个字是用来表达相同的东西,词义 一样时,它们会有相同的部首或部件。

? 六曰假借,假借者本无其字,依声托事, 令长是也。 ? 口语里有的词,没有相应的文字对应。于 是就找一个和它发音相同的同音字来表示 他的含义。


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