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【免费】2011新东方考研英语完形填空讲义


新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com ] 2011 考研英语网络课堂电子教材系列

2011 考研英语基础班写作网络课堂讲义
主讲:张销民

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第一节课程
完型填空的命题思路分析 完型填空的命题形式 完型填空的基本命题形式是给考生一篇短文 (按照新大纲的规定在 240-280 字左 右) ,出题者有目的地在每隔一定数量的词语后去除一处词语,形成总共 20 处词 语空缺,然后在相应的空缺处设置(包括三个干扰项在内)的四个备选答案,需 要考生从四选中选出一个最佳(the best)的答案。 从命题形式分析命题思路: 从完型填空的命题形式来看,20 个填空不是孤立存 在的,而是处在一整篇文章的大背景之中的。 从这个角度,完型文章实际上是由两部分信息构成: 基本解题思路: 通过已知“猜”未知

未知信息 (即 20 处填空) +

已知信息 (即 20 处填空之外的原文信

一篇完整的 完型文章

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完型填空

既然未知信息与已知信息整合在一起就组成了一篇完整的完型文章, 这就说明未 知信息与已知信息之间绝不是互相孤立存在的,而是有着各种各样、千丝万缕的 关系,未知信息与已知信息之间存在着直接的紧密的互动关系。

官方的命题思路: 大纲将完型填空的命题思路概述为: “完型填空主要测试考生结合上下文的综合 理解能力和语言运用能力,即在阅读理解的基础上把握英语知识运用的能力” 根据上述分析,我们可以把完型的基本命题思路概括为以下几点:

先对原文进行阅读 先对整体环境进行把握和理解 先对已知信息进行把握和理解

解题 解决具体问题 破解未知信息

更进一步: 每一个未知信息点都处于整篇文章包含的庞大的已知信息体系之中, 所以对于一个具体的填空来说, 并不是整篇文章包含的所有已知信息都与其有关 系,解出一个具体完型填空的关键是要找出与这个填空所有相关联的已知信息 (线索) 。

完型解题的基本方法(理论)可以概括为:

相关已知信息(提示线索)定位分析法 – 线索填字法
通过定位、查找与每一个具体未知填空所有相关联的已知信息, 通过对定位出来的这些相关联的已知信息点的分析总结 从而在 4 个选项中定位出未知填空的答案

总体解题理论 – 细化为具体的、可操作的解题方法 “线索填字理论”下细化出的“完型的十二种具体解题方法”
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完型填空

从词性的角度 1、动词 2、形容词 3、副词 4、名词

5、无关词排除法 6、同现结构法 7、复现结构法 8、关联结构法

从题型的角度 9、总分结构法 10、对应成分分析法 11、时间、数字线索法 12、逻辑关系定位法

相关已知信息点(提示线索)的分布规律 与一个未知填空相关联的已知信息点一般分布在文章的三个层次: 1、句子内部之中 — 每个具体的未知填空都是处于一个具体的句子之中,因此 与这个未知填空相关联的已知信息往往处在这个句子之中, 也就是说这个未知填 空的附近左右: 例题:2000 年考研英语完型试题的 44 题 “ as a commodity which he must sell in order to implements .” (A) replace (B) purchase (C) supplement (D) dispose 44 old agricultural

分析:44 题受到 3 个相关已知信息点的限制,这 3 个相关已知信息点基本上分 布在其所在的句子之中。第一,44 题所要选的动词首先必须是“He”这个主语 能够作出的动作(即主谓搭配) ;第二,44 题左面的相关已知信息“in order to” 决定了这个动词的动作必须是“sell”的目的所在;第三,44 题右边是另一个 相关已知信息点:这个动词的宾语(动宾搭配) ;也就是说所选的动词必须同时 满足这三个信息点,才为正确答案。

2、上下句之中 — 由于完型文章的上下文之间往往有着明显的逻辑关系,因此 一些与这个未知填空相关联已知信息也会分布在该未知填空所在的句子的上下 举之中: 例题:2000 年考研英语完型试题的 43 题
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“When the work is well done, a

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of accident-free operations is established”

[A]regulation [B]climate [C]circumstance [D]requirement 分析:与本题相关联的已知信息除了本题所在句子包含的信息外,还一定要看前 边那一句,因为前后两句为主从举关系。从句 When the work is well done 可以看 出该句实际上划定了一个前提条件,即当安全工作做好的时候,后边的才能被建 立起来;因此, [A]regulation(规章)和[D]requirement(要求)明显不正确, 因为此两者的被建立不依赖前边的条件。选项[C]circumstance 只有是复数时 才能表示“环境”的意思。所以 [B]climate(气候、氛围)是最佳答案。

3、整个意群、段落、文章的结构之中 — 除了看未知填空所在的句子、其所在 句子的上下句之外, 还有一些相关联已知信息需要从填空所处的整个意群、 段落、 文章的结构和文章的核心中心主线所包含的信息中去查找:

例题:2002 年考研英语完型试题的 21 题 Comparisons were drawn between the development of television in the 20th century and the diffusion of printing in the 15th and 16th centuries. Yet much had happened 21 . As was discussed before, it was not ( 22 ) the 19th century that the

newspaper became the dominant pre-electronic ( 23 ) , following in the wake of the pamphlet and the book and in the ( 24 ) of the periodical. It was during the same time that the communications revolution ( 25 ) up, beginning with transport, the railway, and leading ( 26 ) through the telegraph, the telephone, radio, and motion pictures ( 27 ) the 20th-century world of the motor car and the air plane. Not everyone sees that process in ( 28 ) . It is important to do so. 

[A]between

[B]before

[C]since

[D]later

分析:解除本题所考查的介词的关键是分析清楚文章的结构,把握文章的中心主 线,从中定位找出本题的相关线索:

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完型填空

文章结构分析 — 本文的结构是非常明了的总分对照结构, 并且文章的头两句就 是整个文章总述句:

15、16 世纪
印刷述的推广

Comparisons

20 世纪
电视的发展

总述
Yet much had happened 21

分述

19 世纪出现了(许多)信息产物 — 证明总述中的 much had happened: newspaper, pamphlet, book, periodical, transport, railway, telegraph, telephone, radio, motion pictures,motor car,air plane,computer,

根据文章的上述对照结构,我们看出 19 世纪所代表的“much”发生在 15、16 世纪和 20 世纪这两个时间段的之间,因此本题的答案 between。 完型填空解题公理:

这也就决定了考生在做完型题时最不应该犯的错误: ▇ 只见树木、不见森林: ▇ 鼠目寸光

这也就决定了考生在做完型题时应该时刻记在心中的“解题公理” : ▇ 胸怀大局 ▇ 瞻前顾后
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完型填空

我们提出这个完型填空“解题公理”是基于完型填空的命题原理和规律,这种原 理和规律要求我们解题必须予以尊重,我们可以举例说明:

例题:1998 年考研英语完型试题的 41 题: Until recently most historians spoke very critically of the Industrial Revolution. They for the 41 that in the long run industrialization greatly raised the standard of living 42 man. But they insisted that its 43 results during the period 44 of the

from 1750 to 1850 were widespread poverty and misery for the English population. 41.A)admitted B)believed C)claimed D)predicted

完型文章的布局和结构特点 总体特点 – 主线控制全文的文章 ▇ 完型文章一般都有明确的中心主线 整个文章的中心主线包括鲜明的主题(FOUCS) ,同时文章往往又具有很强的 导向性或者作者态度具有倾向性; 这个主题以及这种导向性或倾向性其实就构成 了完型文章的中心主线,成为从整体上把握完型文章的关键点。中心主线贯穿全 文,即整篇文章就是围绕着中心主线展开。 ▇ 完型文章往往采用总分对照结构 从文章结构的角度来看, 能够将文章的中心主线非常简洁地表达清晰的结构 往往是总分对照的结构。所以,我们通过大量的总结个分析后发现考研英语的完 型文章在文章结构上经常采用总分对照的形式, 这就为我们迅速从整体上把握一 篇完型文章提供了非常便利条件。

总分对照结构是由总述部分和分述部分构成,总述是对分述的总结和概括, 而分述是对总述的展开和祥述,两者之间有着明确的互相支持,互相印证的对照 关系。

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* 分析 2001 年考研英语完型填空文章的布局和结构 The government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up people involved in prominent cases 31 the trial of Rosemary West. In a significant   32   of legal controls over the press. Lord Irvine, the Lord Chancellor, will introduce a   33   bill that will propose making payments to witnesses   34   and will strictly control the amount of   35   that can be given to a case   36   a trial begins. In a letter to Gerald Kaufman, chairman of the House of Commons media select committee. Lord Irvine said he   37   with a committee report this year which said that self regulation did not   38   sufficient control. 39   of the letter came two days after Lord Irvine caused a   40   of media protest when he said the   41   of privacy controls contained in European legislation would be left to judges   42   to Parliament. The Lord Chancellor said introduction of the Human Rights Bill, which 43   the European Convention on Human Rights legally   44   in Britain, laid down that everybody was   45   to privacy and that public figures could go to court to protect themselves and their families. "Press freedoms will be in safe hands   46   our British judges," he said. Witness payments became an   47   after West was sentenced to 10 life sentences in 1995. Up to 19 witnesses were   48   to have received payments for telling their stories to newspapers. Concerns were raised   49   witnesses might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories in court to   50   guilty verdicts. 32. [A]tightening [B]intensifying [C]focusing [D]fastening 34. [A]illogical [B]illegal [C]improbable [D]improper 文章布局分析: 此篇文章的中心主线相当明确, 而且中心主线就在文章的首句 — The government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up people involved in prominent cases 31 the trial of Rosemary West.(政府将要禁止报 界向证人付钱以期买通那些卷入诸如罗丝玛丽审判等著名案件的证人) 。此中心 主线可以用下列图表表示出来:

Government
政府

Ban

Press
媒体

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Buy Up

Cases
案件

Tell

Witnesses
证人

文章的主题(FOCUS) :探讨媒体向证人付钱的法律问题; 文章的导向:政府对“媒体向证人付钱”持绝对的负态度; * 分析 2000 年考研英语完型填空文章的布局和结构 If a farmer wishes to succeed, he must try to keep a wide gap between his consumption and his production. He must store a large quantity of grain 41 consuming all his grain immediately. He can continue to support himself and his family 42 he produces a surplus. He must use this surplus in three ways: as seed for sowing, as an insurance 43 the unpredictable effects of bad weather and as a commodity which he must sell in order to 44 old agricultural implements and obtain chemical fertilizers to 45 the soil. He may also need money to construct irrigation 46 and improve his farm in other ways. If no surplus is available, a farmer cannot be 47 . He must either sell some of his property or 48 extra funds in form of loans. Naturally he will try to borrow money at a low 49 of interest, but loans of this kind are not 50 obtainable. 文章布局分析: 此篇文章的中心主线相当明确, 而且开门见山, 文章的首句 — If a farmer wishes to succeed, he must try to keep a wide gap between his consumption and his production.(如果一个农民想要成功的话,他必须在消费和生产之间保持 一个大的差额)— 使得整个文章的中心主线一目了然:

推测出文章的基本导向:Consumption 小于 Production

Consumption

Gap

Production

条件 To succeed

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本文的整体结构是明显的总-分对照结构 总述:If a farmer wishes to succeed, he must try to keep a wide gap between his consumption and his
production. (总述句使得文章开门见山, 直接概括出文章的中心主线: 农民想要成功,

生产 > 消费

分述一: 从正面支持 生产 > 消费
He must store a large quantity of grain……. He can continue to support himself and his family…… He must use this surplus in three ways…… He may also need money to construct irrigation……

and improve his farm in other ways 分述

分述二: 从反面支持 生产 > 消费
即: 总述: If no surplus is available, a farmer can not be self-sufficient 分述: …… sell some of his some of his properties……

…… loans…… ……borrow money at a low 49 of interest……

* 分析 2003 年考研英语完型填空文章的布局和结构
Teachers need to be aware of the emotional, intellectual, and physical changes that young adults experience. And they also need to give serious 21 to how they can be best 23 , but not just in ways that 22 such changes. Growing bodies need movement and emphasize competition. 24 they are adjusting to their new bodies and a whole host of new intellectual and emotional challenges, teenagers are especially self-conscious and need the 25 that comes from achieving success and knowing that their accomplishments are 26 by others. However, the typical teenage lifestyle is already filled with so much competition that it would be 27 to plan activities in which there are more winners than losers, 28 , publishing newsletters with many student-written book reviews, 29 student artwork, and sponsoring book discussion clubs. A variety of small opportunities for leadership, as well as for practice in clubs can provide 30 successful 31 dynamics. Making friends is extremely important to teenagers, and many shy students need the 32 of some kind of organization with a supportive adult 33 visible in the background.
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In these activities, it is important to remember that the young teens have 34 attention spans. A variety of activities should be organized 35 participants can remain active as long as they want and then go on to 36 else without feeling guilty and without letting the . this does not mean that adults must other participants 37 accept irresponsibility. 38 they can help students acquire a sense of commitment for roles that are within their 40 and their attention spans and by having by 39 clearly stated rules. 22. A. strengthen 25. A. assistance 26. A. claimed 27. A. improper B. accommodate B. guidance B. admired B. risky C. stimulate D. enhance D. tolerance D. surpassed D. wise

C. confidence C. ignored C. fair

* 分析 2006 年考研英语完型填空文章的布局和结构 The homeless make up a growing percentage of America's population. __1__, homelessness has reached such proportions that local government can' t possibly _____2____. To help homeless people _____3___ independence, the federal government must support job training programs, _____4_____ the minimum wage, and fund more low-cost housing. _____5____everyone agrees on the numbers of Americans who are homeless. Estimates ____6__ anywhere from 600,000 to 3 million. _____7__ the figure may vary, analysts do agree on another matter: that the number of the homeless is_____8____. One of the federal government's studies _____9__ that the number of the homeless will reach nearly 19 million by the end of this decade. Finding ways to __10__ this growing homeless population has become increasingly difficult. ___11__when homeless individuals manage to find a ___12__ that will give them three meals a day and a place to sleep at night, a good number still spend the bulk of each day__13__ the street. Part of the problem is that many homeless adults are addicted to alcohol or drugs. And a significant number of the homeless have serious mental disorders. Many others, ____14____not addicted or mentally ill, simply lack the everyday __15__ skills needed to turn their lives _____16__. Boston Globe reporter Chris Reidy notes that the situation will improve only when there are _17___programs that address the many needs of the homeless. _____18__ Edward Zlotkowski, director of community service at Bentley College in Massachusetts, ___19__it, "There has to be _____20___of programs. What we need is a package deal." 12.[A]lodging [B]shelter 13.[A]searching [B]strolling 15. [A]life [B]existence [C]dwelling [C]crowding [C]survival [D]house [D]wandering [D]maintenance

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完型文章布局和结构上这两个核心的特点也决定了完型文章往往表现出以下的 文章外在规律: ▇ 紧扣主题 ▇ 内在一致 ▇ 前后呼应 —(无关词排除法) —(同现结构) — (复现结构)

完型填空科学的解题程序 – 三步法 第一步:整体通读(PREVIEW) 目标:掌握整篇文章的中心主线,即文章

的主题(FOCUS)+ 文章的导向或者作者的态度倾向,通过整体通读建立起考生 对文章的整体把握; 第二步:具体解题 – 填空分类分析、应用十二种具体方法; 第三步:核查检验(REVIEW)

完型文章中常见的上下文(句)逻辑关系
并列关系 & 部分常用标志词和短语 and, and also, or, neither……nor, either……or, not only……but also, likewise, similarly, equally, in the same way, that is to say, as well as, same……as; 递进关系 & 部分常用标志词和短语 also, then, besides, additionally, in addition, furthermore, moreover, what is more; indeed; 因果关系 & 部分常用标志词和短语 because, for, since, as, thus, hence, therefore, so, so…..that, such…..that, in order that, consequently, accordingly, due to, thanks to, in response to, on account of, because of, considering that, seeing that, in that, now that, lest, as a result, for this reason; 转折关系 & 部分常用标志词和短语 but, however, yet, contrarily, on the contrary, by contrast, on the other hand, unfortunately;

让步关系 & 部分常用标志词和短语 although, though, even though, even if, even, nevertheless, despite, in spite of; regardless of; anyway, anyhow
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列举(顺序)关系 & 部分常用标志词和短语 first\second\last of all, in the first place\in the second place\finally, to begin with\ to continue, first……then, on one hand……on the other hand, for one thing……for another, one……another, some……others……still others; 对比关系 & 部分常用标志词和短语 while, whereas, as, / rather than, instead of, not….. but; 时间关系 & 部分常用标志词和短语 when, whenever, before, after, since, as, while, until, till, simultaneously, meanwhile, in the meantime, at the same time; 条件关系 & 部分常用标志词和短语 if, only if, if only, unless, otherwise, as soon as, as long as, in case, suppose that, supposing that, provided that, providing that, when, whenever, with; 举例关系 & 部分常用标志词和短语 such as, for example, for instance, of (these, those, them), among (these, those, them), to illustrate, as an illustration, to take an example, more specifically speaking, namely;

第二节课程
对完型的整体概括 方法体系 一个主线 一个结构 一个理论 十二种方法 宏观分析方法 + 微观解题方法 + 语法 完型的两个核心基础 词汇 两个基础

* 完型的语法基础(语法的复习参考范围) 各种从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、状语从句、定语从句、同位语从句) 主谓一致 虚拟语气 倒装结构 比较结构 分词结构(包括独立主格结构)
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完型填空

强调句型 * 完型的词汇基础(词汇的复习参考范围) 完型不靠偏词、难词:选项词汇在大纲规定的 5500 个词范围内 完型选项考查的高频词汇范围:1500-1600 个左右的核心词汇 完型对词汇的考察方向 – “深度” 完型词汇副词中常犯的错误: 只知其一、不知其它 举例:Gay,Expose 只知大概、不知具体 – 近义词 举例:ensure, assure, guarantee 只知认词,不知辨词 – 近型词 举例:adapt, adopt, adept 只知词义,不知使用 1994 年全国攻读硕士学位研究生入学考试英语试题完型填空分析 Part Ⅱ Cloze Test The first and smallest unit that can be discussed in relation to language is the word. In speaking, the choice of words is 41 the utmost importance. Proper selection will eliminate one source of 42 breakdown in the communication cycle. Too often, careless use of words 43 a meeting of the minds of the speaker and listener. The words used by the speaker may 44 unfavorable reactions in the listener 45 interfere with his comprehension; hence, the transmission-reception system breaks down .

46 , inaccurate or indefinite words may make 47 difficult for the listener to understand the 48 which is being transmitted to him. The speaker who does not have specific words in his working vocabulary may be 49 to explain or describe in a 50 that can be understood by his listeners.
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41. A. of

B. At C. for

D. on

42. A. inaccessible B. timely C. likely D. invalid 43. A. encourages B. prevents C. destroys D. offers 44. A. pass out B. take away C. back up D. stir up 45. A. who B. as C. which D. what 46. A. Moreover B. However C. Preliminarily D. Unexpectedly 47. A. that B. It C. so D. this 48. A. speech B. sense C. message D. meaning 49. A. obscure B. difficult C. impossible D. unable 50. A. case B. means C. method D. way

文章结构分析 本文采用了总-分对照结构,总述句由文章的头两句构成, “开门见山”地总 结出文章的中心主线,然后这个中心主线以分述的方式贯穿全文;总结一下分述 部分,就会发现作者使用了正/反两面的具体情况,支持了总述部分的中心主线, 具体分析如下: FOUCS (主题) :有关“用词”问题 中心主线 — 文章导向/作者态度倾向性:词很重要;如何选词是至关重要的

总述部分 —— 由文章的头两句构成,概述出文章的中心主线; Word - The first and smallest unit / The choice of words - the utmost importance. 分述部分 —— 分叙一: 首先选出一个正面的情况支持总述:Proper selection (正确的选词 会产生什麽好处) ; 分叙二: 在正面举例之后, 分述又通过几个排比句,列举出反面的情况,既 用词不准确会产生那些不好的影响. careless use of words…… unfavorable reactions …… interfere with his comprehension breaks down inaccurate or indefinite words …… difficult for the listener to understand。

标准填空题型一: 逻辑关系定位法的题 例题 1: 1994 年考研英语完型的第 46 题 – 递进关系
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46. A. Moreover

B. However

C. Preliminarily

D. Unexpectedly

例题 2: 1998 年考研英语完型的第 47 题 – 转折关系 Until recently most historians spoke very critically of the Industrial Revolution. They 41 that in the long run industrialization greatly raised the standard of living for the 42 man. But they insisted that its 43 results during the period from 1750 to 1850 were widespread poverty and misery for the 44 of the English population. 45 contrast, they saw in the preceding hundred years from 1650 to 1750, when England was still a 46 agricultural country, a period of great abundance and prosperity. This view, 47 ,is generally thought to be wrong. Specialists 48 history and economics, have 49 two things: that the period from 1650 to 1750 was 50 by great poverty, and that industrialization certainly did not worsen and may have actually improved the conditions for the majority of the populace. 47.A)however B)meanwhile C)therefore D)moreover

例题 3: 1999 年考研英语完型的第 47 题 – 列举关系 Industrial safety does not just happen. Companies _41__ low accident rates plan their safety programs, work hard to organize them, and continue working to keep them 42 and active. When the work is well done, a 43 of accident-free operations is established _44__ time lost due to injuries is kept at a minimum. Successful safety programs may 45 greatly in the emphasis placed on certain aspects of the program. Some place great emphasis on mechanical guarding. Others stress safe work practices by _46__ rules or regulations._47_ others depend on an emotional appeal to the worker. But, there are certain basic ideas that must be used in every progr8m if maximum results are to be obtained. There can be no question about the value of a safety program. From a financial stand-point alone, safety _48__. The fewer the injury 49, the better the workman's insurance rate. This may mean the difference between operating at _50__or at a loss. 47. [A]Some [B]Many [C]Even [D]Still

例题 4: 2004 年考研英语完型的第 34 题 – 因果关系
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Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency (crimes committed by young people) focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence. Theories (21) ____ on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior (22) ____ they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through (23) ____ with others. Theories focusing on the role of society that children commit crimes in (24) ____ to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status (25) ____ as a rejection of middle-class values. Most theories of juvenile delinquency have focused on children from disadvantaged families, (26) ____ the fact that children from wealthy homes also commit crimes. The latter may commit crimes (27) ____ lack of adequate parental control. All theories, however, are tentative and are (28) ____ to criticism. Changes in the social structure may indirectly (29) ____ juvenile crime rates. For example, changes in the economy that (30) ____ to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment (31) ____ make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. The resulting discontent may in (32) ____ lead more youths into criminal behavior. Families have also (33) ____ changes these years. More families consist of one parent households or two working parents, (34) ____, children are likely to have less supervision at home (35) ____ was common in the traditional family (36) ____. This lack of parental supervision is thought to be an influence on juvenile crime rates. Other (37) ____ causes of offensive acts include frustration or failure in school, the increased (38) ____ of drugs and alcohol, and the growing (39) ____ of child abuse and child neglect. All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act, 34. [A] contrarily [B] consequently C] similarly [D] simultaneously

例题 5: 1997 年考研英语完型的第 42 题 – 对比逻辑关系 Manpower Inc., with 560,000 workers, is the world's largest temporary employment agency. Every morning, its people 41 into the offices and factories of America, seeking a day's work for a day's pay. One day at a time. 42 industrial giants like General Motors and IBM struggle to survive 43 reducing the number of employees, Manpower, based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is booming. 44 its economy continues to recover, the US is increasingly becoming a nation of part timers and temporary workers. This "45" work force is the most important 46 in American business today, and it is 47 changing the relationship between people and their jobs. The phenomenon provides a way for companies to remain globally
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competitive 48 avoiding market cycles and the growing burdens 49 by employment rules, healthcare costs and pension plans. For workers it can mean an end to the security, benefits and sense of 50 that came from being a loyal employee. 42. A)For B)Because C)As D)Since

例题 6: 1997 年考研英语完型的第 48 题 – 对比逻辑关系 Manpower Inc., with 560,000 workers, is the world's largest temporary employment agency. Every morning, its people 41 into the offices and factories of America, seeking a day's work for a day's pay. One day at a time. 42 industrial giants like General Motors and IBM struggle to survive 43 reducing the number of employees, Manpower, based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is booming. 44 its economy continues to recover, the US is increasingly becoming a nation of part timers and temporary workers. This "45" work force is the most important 46 in American business today, and it is 47 changing the relationship between people and their jobs. The phenomenon provides a way for companies to remain globally competitive 48 avoiding market cycles and the growing burdens 49 by employment rules, healthcare costs and pension plans. For workers it can mean an end to the security, benefits and sense of 50 that came from being a loyal employee. C)and D)whereas 48. A)but B)while

例题 7: 2000 年考研英语完型的第 41 题 – 对比逻辑关系 If a farmer wishes to succeed, he must try to keep a wide gap between his consumption and his production. He must store a large quantity of grain 41 consuming all his grain immediately. He can continue to support himself and his family 42 he produces a surplus. He must use this surplus in three ways: as seed for sowing, as an insurance 43 the unpredictable effects of bad weather and as a commodity which he must sell in order to 44 old agricultural implements and obtain chemical fertilizers to 45 the soil. He may also need money to construct irrigation 46 and improve his farm in other ways. If no surplus is available, a farmer cannot be 47 . He must either sell some of his property or 48 extra funds in form of loans. Naturally he will try to borrow money at a low 49 of interest, but loans of this kind are not 50 obtainable. 41.[A]other than [B]as well as [C]instead of [D]more than 表达(特殊)对比逻辑关系的三大标志词 instead of rather than
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not……but……

例题 8: 大纲样题第 20 题 – 对比逻辑关系 they will take home not the problems of science and technology, benefit. 20.[A] except [B] nor [C] or [D] but 20 the

例题 9: 2001 年考研英语完型的第 31 题 – 举例关系 The government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up people involved in prominent cases 31 the trial of Rosemary West. 31. [A]as to [B]for instance [C]in particular[D]such as

例题 10: 2005 年考研英语完型的第 20 题 – 举例关系 The brain finds it best to keep smell receptors signals 20 19 for unfamiliar and emergency

the smell of smoke, which might indicate the danger of fire. [B] such as [C] along with [D] aside from

20. [A] similar to

例题 11: 2003 年考研英语完型的第 28 题 – 举例关系
Teachers need to be aware of the emotional, intellectual, and physical changes that young adults experience. And they also need to give serious 21 to how they can be 23 , but not just in best 22 such changes. Growing bodies need movement and ways that emphasize competition. 24 they are adjusting to their new bodies and a whole host of new intellectual and emotional challenges, teenagers are especially self-conscious and need the 25 that comes from achieving success and knowing that their accomplishments are 26 by others. However, the typical teenage lifestyle is already filled with so much competition that it would be 27 to plan activities in which there are more winners than losers, 28 , publishing newsletters with many student-written book reviews, 29 student artwork, and sponsoring book discussion clubs. A variety of small clubs can provide 30 opportunities for leadership, as well as for practice in successful 31 dynamics. Making friends is extremely important to teenagers, and many
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shy students need the 32 of some kind of organization with a supportive adult 33 visible in the background.

28. A. in effect

B. as a result C. for example

D. in a sense

例题 12: 1996 年考研英语完型的第 50 题 – 让步关系 48 enough vitamins is essential to life, although the body has no nutritional use for 49 vitamins. Many people, 50 , believe in being on the "safe side" and thus take extra vitamins. However, a well- balanced diet will usually meet all the body' s vitamin needs. 50. (A) nevertheless 如何区分转折与让步 转折:后面直接推翻前面 让步:后面没有直接推翻前面,而是出现了与前面正常预期相反的结果 最大的区别:对立推翻的对象不一样 例题 13: 2005 年考研英语完型的第 1 题 – 转折关系 The human nose is an underrated tool. Humans are thought to be insensitive smellers compared with animals, 1 this is largely because, 3 2 animals, (B) therefore (C) moreover (D) meanwhile

we stand upright. This means that our noses are which float through the air, 4

to perceiving those smells

the majority of smells which stick to surfaces.

1. [A] although

[B] as

[C] but

[D] while

历年真题中考察逻辑关系的题目汇总(题号如下) : 2007 年:9、12 2006 年:1、7、11、14、18 2005 年:1、5、6、9、16、20 2004 年:22、25、27、34、40 2003 年:24、28、35、38 2002 年:22、29、31 2001 年:31、36、42、46
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2000 年:41、42 1999 年:47 1998 年:47 1997 年:42、44、48 1996 年:46、50 1995 年:50 1994 年:46

注明:请将从此处开始(01:07:59)到本节课后面的录音删除! 即《2010 年基础班完型填空部分第二节》 (上)从(01:07:59)到本节课(上) 后面的录音删除,第二节(下)部分不在内;

标准填空题型二: 动词 例题:1994 年完型:43、44、45

The first and smallest unit that can be discussed in relation to language is the word. In speaking, the choice of words is 41 the utmost importance. Proper selection will eliminate one source of 42 breakdown in the communication cycle. Too often, careless use of words 43 a meeting of the minds of the speaker and listener. The 44 unfavorable reactions in the listener 45

words used by the speaker may

interfere with his comprehension; hence, the transmission-reception system breaks down .

46 , inaccurate or indefinite words may make 47 difficult for the listener to understand the 48 which is being transmitted to him. The speaker who does not have specific words in his working vocabulary may be 49 to explain or describe in a 50 that can be understood by his listeners.

43. A. encourages B. prevents C. destroys D. offers 44. A. pass out B. take away C. back up D. stir up
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45. A. who B. as C. which D. what 例题:2001 年考研英语完型 32、39、37、45、48 The government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up people involved in prominent cases 31 the trial of Rosemary West. In a significant   32   of legal controls over the press. Lord Irvine, the Lord Chancellor, will introduce a   33   bill that will propose making payments to witnesses   34   and will strictly control the amount of   35   that can be given to a case   36   a trial begins. In a letter to Gerald Kaufman, chairman of the House of Commons media select committee. Lord Irvine said he   37   with a committee report this year which said that self regulation did not   38   sufficient control. 39   of the letter came two days after Lord Irvine caused a   40   of media protest when he said the   41   of privacy controls contained in European legislation would be left to judges   42   to Parliament. The Lord Chancellor said introduction of the Human Rights Bill, which 43   the European Convention on Human Rights legally   44   in Britain, laid down that everybody was   45   to privacy and that public figures could go to court to protect themselves and their families. "Press freedoms will be in safe hands   46   our British judges," he said. Witness payments became an   47   after West was sentenced to 10 life sentences in 1995. Up to 19 witnesses were   48   to have received payments for telling their stories to newspapers. Concerns were raised   49   witnesses might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories in court to   50   guilty verdicts. 32. [A]tightening [B]intensifying [C]focusing [D]fastening 37. [A]sided [B]shared [C]complied [D]agreed 39. [A]Release [B]Publication [C]Printing [D]Exposure 48. [A]stated [B]remarked [C]said [D]told 所属关系 32 题:OF 结构表示的两大类意思 动宾关系 (of 前面的填空按照动词来做)

总结:动词解题方法(相关线索点)
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线索 1、主语 (主谓搭配的一致) 考点: 主语的人还是物 例子:doubt 怀疑(主语应是人) ; be impressed by 被留下深刻印象(主语应是人) be moved into tears 感动的热泪盈眶(主语应是人) manifest 表明 (主语应是物) 线索 2、宾语 (动宾搭配的一致性) 考点:三大一致原则 - 物理性抽象性一致 褒贬一致 语气一致 线索 3、介词: 线索 4、及物和不及物 线索 5、副词 线索 6、 不定式中的已知动词定位与其先联动的未知动词, 保证两个动词在时态、 语态、逻辑上的一致; 例题:2001 年的 48 题 例题: 1995 年的 42 题 - but REM sleep is 42 to serve some restorative function of the brain. 42 . (A) intended ( B)required ( C) assumed ( D) inferred

第三节课程
标准填空题型三: 形容词 例题:1994 年完型 The first and smallest unit that can be discussed in relation to language is the word. In speaking, the choice of words is 41 the utmost importance. Proper selection will eliminate one source of 42 breakdown in the communication cycle. Too often, careless use of words 43 a meeting of the minds of the speaker and listener. The words used by the speaker may 44 unfavorable reactions in the listener 45 interfere with his comprehension; hence, the transmission-reception system breaks down . 46 , inaccurate or indefinite words may make 47 difficult for the listener to understand the 48 which is being transmitted to him. The speaker who does not have specific words in his working vocabulary may be 49 to explain or describe in a 50 that can be understood by his listeners. 42. A. inaccessible B. timely C. likely D. invalid 49. A. obscure B. difficult C. impossible D. unable
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例题:2001 年完型:33、34、 The government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up people involved in prominent cases 31 the trial of Rosemary West. In a significant   32   of legal controls over the press. Lord Irvine, the Lord Chancellor, will introduce a   33   bill that will propose making payments to witnesses   34   and will strictly control the amount of   35   that can be given to a case   36   a trial begins. In a letter to Gerald Kaufman, chairman of the House of Commons media select committee. Lord Irvine said he   37   with a committee report this year which said that self regulation did not   38   sufficient control. 39   of the letter came two days after Lord Irvine caused a   40   of media protest when he said the   41   of privacy controls contained in European legislation would be left to judges   42   to Parliament. The Lord Chancellor said introduction of the Human Rights Bill, which 43   the European Convention on Human Rights legally   44   in Britain, laid down that everybody was   45   to privacy and that public figures could go to court to protect themselves and their families. "Press freedoms will be in safe hands   46   our British judges," he said. Witness payments became an   47   after West was sentenced to 10 life sentences in 1995. Up to 19 witnesses were   48   to have received payments for telling their stories to newspapers. Concerns were raised   49   witnesses might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories in court to   50   guilty verdicts. 33. [A]sketch [B]rough [C]preliminary [D]draft 34. [A]illogical [B]illegal [C]improbable [D]improper

标准填空题型四: 无关词排除法 (2001 年的 34 题) 例题:2001 年 35 题 In a significant   32   of legal controls over the press. Lord Irvine, the Lord Chancellor, will introduce a   33   bill that will propose making payments to witnesses   34   and will strictly control the amount of   35   that can be given to a case   36   a trial begins.

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35. [A]publicity [B]penalty [C]popularity [D]peculiarity 例题:2006 年 12、13、15 题 The homeless make up a growing percentage of America's population. __1__, homelessness has reached such proportions that local government can' t possibly _____2____. To help homeless people _____3___ independence, the federal government must support job training programs, _____4_____ the minimum wage, and fund more low-cost housing. _____5____everyone agrees on the numbers of Americans who are homeless. Estimates ____6__ anywhere from 600,000 to 3 million. _____7__ the figure may vary, analysts do agree on another matter: that the number of the homeless is_____8____. One of the federal government's studies _____9__ that the number of the homeless will reach nearly 19 million by the end of this decade. Finding ways to __10__ this growing homeless population has become increasingly difficult. ___11__when homeless individuals manage to find a ___12__ that will give them three meals a day and a place to sleep at night, a good number still spend the bulk of each day__13__ the street. Part of the problem is that many homeless adults are addicted to alcohol or drugs. And a significant number of the homeless have serious mental disorders. Many others, ____14____not addicted or mentally ill, simply lack the everyday __15__ skills needed to turn their lives _____16__. Boston Globe reporter Chris Reidy notes that the situation will improve only when there are _17___programs that address the many needs of the homeless. _____18__ Edward Zlotkowski, director of community service at Bentley College in Massachusetts, ___19__it, "There has to be _____20___of programs. What we need is a package deal." 12.[A]lodging [B]shelter 13.[A]searching [B]strolling 15. [A]life [B]existence 例题:2003 年 21 题 Teachers need to be aware of the emotional, intellectual, and physical changes to how they that young adults experience. And they also need to give serious 21 can be best 22 such changes. Growing bodies need movement and 23 , but not just in ways that emphasize competition. 24 they are adjusting to their new bodies and a whole host of new intellectual and emotional challenges, teenagers are especially self-conscious and need the 25 that comes from achieving success and knowing that their accomplishments are 26 by others. However, the typical teenage lifestyle is already filled with so much competition that it would be 27 to plan activities in which there are more winners than losers, 28 , publishing newsletters with many student-written book reviews, 29 student artwork, and sponsoring book discussion clubs. A variety of small clubs can opportunities for leadership, as well as for practice in provide 30
24

[C]dwelling [C]crowding [C]survival

[D]house [D]wandering [D]maintenance

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successful 31 dynamics. Making friends is extremely important to teenagers, and many shy students need the 32 of some kind of organization with a supportive adult 33 visible in the background. In these activities, it is important to remember that the young teens have 34 attention spans. A variety of activities should be organized 35 participants can remain active as long as they want and then go on to 36 else without feeling guilty and without letting the other participants 38 they can 37 . this does not mean that adults must accept irresponsibility. help students acquire a sense of commitment by 39 for roles that are within their 40 and their attention spans and by having clearly stated rules. 21. A. thought B. idea C. opinion D. advice

总结:形容词解题方法(相关线索点) 总原则:形容词的参照线索就是被其修饰的成分 两大考点(搭配原则) ① 褒贬不错位 ② 具有同质性 具体线索总结: 线索 1:形容词作表语,被修饰成分是主语 线索 2:形容词+名词的形式(已知名词是参照线索) 线索 3:形容词+名词+ 定语从句/同位语从句/分词短语等补充成分是参照线索 线索 4:形容词做补语(前面的宾语是被修饰成分,即参照线索) 线索 5:副词

标准填空题型五: 副词 总结:副词解题方法(相关线索点) 总原则:副词的参照线索就是被其修饰的成分(动词、形容词、副词、短语、句 子) 两大考点(搭配原则) ③ 褒贬不错位 ④ 具有同质性 例题:Most buzzing, _____, is agreeable to the ear A. fortunately B. unfortunately
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标准填空题型六: 名词 总结:名词解题方法(相关线索点) 线索 1:名词做主语时,谓语动词或表语形容词是相关提示线索,即通过已知的 谓语动词判断主谓搭配的一致性, 或者通过已知的表语形容词判断主表搭配的一 致性; 线索 2:名词做及物谓语动词的宾语时,谓语动词是相关提示线索,即通过已知 的谓语动词判断动宾搭配的一致;

线索 3:名词出现被形容词修饰的情况时,此形容词是相关提示线索,即通过已 知的形容词根据形容词和名词修饰搭配关系判断名词;

例题:1995 年 46 题 For example, it has long been known that total sleep 46 is 100 percent fatal to rats, yet ,47 examination of the dead bodies , the animals look completely normal . A researcher has now 48 the mystery of why the animals die. The rats 49 bacterial infections of the blood ,50 their immune systems--the self-protecting mechanism against disease--had crashed. 46 . (A) reduction ( B) destruction (C) deprivation (D) restriction

线索 4:介词(即出现介词 + 名词的结构,此介词是相关提示线索,即通过已 知的介词根据介词和名词的习惯搭配关系判断名词) ;

例题:1994 年 50 题 The speaker who does not have specific words in his working vocabulary may be 49 to explain or describe in a 50 that can be understood by his listeners.

50. A. case B. means C. method D. way

线索 5:名词 + 其他修饰名词的成分(如定语从句/同位语从句/后置起修饰作 用的分词短语等)的搭配结构,此时的其他修饰名词的成分实际上是相关提示线 索,通过补充提示暗示出名词;
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例题:2003 年完型 25 题 teenagers are especially self-conscious and need the 25 that comes from achieving success and knowing that their accomplishments are 26 by others. 25. A. assistance 小结: 从词性的角度 1、动词 2、形容词 3、副词 4、名词 B. guidance C. confidence D. tolerance

5、无关词排除法 6、同现结构法 7、复现结构法 8、关联结构法

从题型的角度 9、总分结构法 10、对应成分分析法 11、时间、数字线索法 12、逻辑关系定位法

标准填空题型七: 对应成分分析法 例题:1996 年完型 45 题 Vitamins are organic compounds necessary in small amounts in the diet for the normal growth and maintenance of life of animals, including man. They do not provide energy, 41 do they construct or build any part of the body. They are needed for 42 foods into energy and body maintenance. There are thirteen or more of them, and if 43 is missing a deficiency disease becomes 44 . Vitamins are similar because they are made of the same elements-usually carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and 45 nitrogen. They are different 46 their elements are arranged differently, and each vitamin 47 one or more specific functions in the body. 48 enough vitamins is essential to life, although the body has no nutritional use for 49 vitamins. Many people, 50 , believe in being on the "safe side" and thus take extra vitamins. However, a well- balanced diet will usually meet all the body' s vitamin needs. 45. (A) mostly (B) partially (C) sometimes (D) rarely

usually + carbon, hydrogen , oxygen , and 45 + nitrogen 频度副词 三种构成维生素的成分 副词 另外一种构成维生素的成分 对应关系
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对应关系

总结:对应成分分析法 - 由于完型文章的上下文之间,以及句子内部之间往往 有着一定的逻辑关系,从而句子的各个成分之间往往形成一定的对应关系,考生 可以根据这种对应关系找出与未知填空相对应已知成分作为线索, 通过对应的已 知成分从而推断出未知填空的答案。 两个应用层面 (1)应用于句子内部 例题:Misunderstanding is often 41 A. filling but sometimes serious

B. surprising C. anxious D. amusing

例题:2003 年完型 37 题 In these activities, it is important to remember that the young teens have 34 attention spans. A variety of activities should be organized 35 participants can remain active as long as they want and then go on to 36 else without feeling guilty and without letting the other participants 37 . this does not mean that adults must accept irresponsibility. 38 they can help students acquire a sense of commitment by 39 for roles that are within their 40 and their attention spans and by having clearly stated rules. 37. A. off B. down C. out D. alone

例题:2003 年完型 29 题 However, the typical teenage lifestyle is already filled with so much competition that it would be 27 to plan activities in which there are more winners than losers, 28 , publishing newsletters with many student-written book reviews, 29 student artwork, and sponsoring book discussion clubs. A variety of small clubs can provide 30 opportunities for leadership, as well as for practice in successful 31 dynamics. Making friends is extremely important to teenagers, and many shy 33 students need the 32 of some kind of organization with a supportive adult visible in the background.

(2) 应用于上下句之间
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例题:1996 年完型第 46 题 “Vitamins are similar because they are made of the same elements-usually carbon, hydrogen , oxygen , and 45 nitrogen. They are different 46 their elements are arranged differently” 46. (A) in that (B) so that (C) such that (D) except that

Vitamins are similar They(指代 Vitamins)are different

because 46

they are made of the same elements their elements are arranged differently

例题:1996 年完型第 49 题 48 enough vitamins is essential to life, although the body has no nutritional use for 49 vitamins.” 49. (A) exceptional (B) exceeding (C) excess (D) external

分析如下:本题需要选出一个修饰 vitamins 的形容词,我们发现前边的从句中也 有一个修饰 vitamins 的形容词 enough, 而且前后两句有着明确的逻辑关系 — 让 步关系的主从句。 enough vitamins 对立 49 vitamins + + essential to life (好) 对立 no nutritional use(不好)

让步

通过上述分析,可以非常明确地看出 49 题与上句中的 enough 形成对应成份,而 且两者为对立的关系,所以本题的答案就是去 4 个选项中找一个 enough 对立的 选项即可,(C) excess 是 enough 的对立选项,故为正确答案。

例题:2004 年完型第 24、25 题 Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency (crimes committed by young people) focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence. Theories (21) on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior (22) _ they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through (23)_ with others. Theories focusing on the role of society that children commit crimes in (24) to their failure to
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rise above their socioeconomic status (25) _ as a rejection of middle-class values. 21.[A] acting [B] relying [C] centering [D] cementing 22.[A] before [B] unless [C] until [D] because 23. [A] interactions [B] assimilation [C] cooperation [D] consultation 24. [A] return [B] reply [C] reference [D] response 25. [A] or [B] but rather [C] but [D] or else

标准填空题型八: 关联结构法 例题:1999 年完型真题的 42 题 “Companies (41with) low accident rates plan their safety programs, work hard to organize them, and continue working to keep them 42 and active.”

[A]alive [B]vivid [C]mobile [D] diverse

例题:2003 年真题 23 题 “Growing bodies need movement and 23. A. care B. nutrition 23 , ” D. leisure

C. exercise

总结: 关联是完型文章中经常出现的一种结构,即将两个或两个以上的同类别词 语,比如两个动词、两个形容词,以连续排比性的结构出现。在这种情况下,两 个关联词汇在句子中的语法地位一样,且常常起一样的语法作用,之间又明显具 有某种逻辑关系。关联的解题意义在于:出题人一般会将一个关联词语设置成已 知信息,另一个是未知的,这样那个已知的词语成为破解未知词语的关键线索, 而且关联成分之间是高度相近的成分。

标准填空题型九: 总分结构对照法 例题:1999 年真题 45 题 “Successful safety programs may 45 greatly in the emphasis placed on certain

aspects of the program. Some place great emphasis on mechanical guarding. Others stress safe work practices by (46 observing) rules or regulations. (47 Still) others
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depend on an emotional appeal to the worker. But, there are certain basic ideas that must be used in every program if maximum results are to be obtained.” [A]alter [B]differ [C] shift [D] distinguish

分析: 总述 Successful safety programs 成功的安全制度 45 aspects of the program 侧重点

分述

Some Others Others

place great emphasis on stress depend on

mechanical guarding safe work practices emotional appeal

三个主语都是成 功的安全制度

都将重点侧重于

侧重于的重点是 不相同的

例题:2003 年真题 22 题

Teachers need to be aware of the emotional, intellectual, and physical changes that young adults experience. And they also need to give serious 21 to how they can be best 22 such changes. Growing bodies need movement and 23 , but not just in ways that emphasize competition. 24 they are adjusting to their new bodies and a whole host of new intellectual and emotional challenges, teenagers are especially self-conscious and need the 25 that comes from achieving success and knowing that their accomplishments are 26 by others. However, the typical teenage lifestyle is already filled with so much competition that it would be 27 to plan activities in which there are more winners than losers, 28 , publishing newsletters with many student-written book reviews, 29 student artwork, and sponsoring book discussion clubs. A variety of small clubs can provide 30 opportunities for leadership, as well as for practice in successful 31 dynamics. Making friends is extremely important to teenagers, and many shy students need the 32 of some kind of organization with a supportive adult 33 visible in the background. In these activities, it is important to remember that the young teens attention spans. A variety of activities should be 34 35 participants can remain active as long as they want and then go on
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to 36 else without feeling guilty and without letting the other participants 37 . this does not mean that adults must accept irresponsibility. 38 they can help students for roles that are within their 40 and acquire a sense of commitment by 39 their attention spans and by having clearly stated rules. 22. A. strengthen B. accommodate C. stimulate D. enhance

例题:2003 年真题 34 题
“ In these activities, it is important to remember that the young teens 35 participants have 34 attention spans. A variety of activities should be organized can remain active as long as they want and then go on to 36 else without feeling guilty and without letting the other participants 37 . this does not mean that adults must accept irresponsibility. 38 they can help students acquire a sense of commitment for roles that are within their 40 and their attention spans and by having by 39 clearly stated rules. ” 34. A. similar B. long C. different D. short

标准填空题型十: 同现结构法(与主旨导向一致解题法) 例题:1995 年真题 43 题 “Sleep is divided into periods of so-called REM sleep, characterized by rapid eye movements and dreaming, and longer periods of non-REM sleep. 41 Neither) ( kind of sleep is at all well-understood , but REM sleep is 42 to serve some restorative function of the brain. The purpose of non-REM sleep is even more 43 .”

(A) subtle

(B)obvious

(C)mysterious

(D)doubtful

总结: 同现就是完型文章的上下文中分布的一组具有相同倾向性的词语,这些词 语所表现的倾向性往往与中心主线中的导向要一致, 或者说这些同现词语的任务 就是对文章的导向进行展开支持。因此,文章的整体导向这个已知线索可以成为 解出这些同现词语的关键信息。 ▇ 内在一致 —(同现结构)

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标准填空题型十一: 复现结构法 例题:大纲样题 15 题 During the 1980s, unemployment and underemployment in some countries was as high as 90 per cent. Some countries did not 1 enough food; basic needs in housing and clothing were not 2 . Many of these countries looked to the industrial processes of the developed nations 3 solutions. 4 , problems cannot always be solved by copying the industrialized nations. Industry in the developed nations is highly automated and very 5 . It provides fewer jobs than labor-intensive industrial processes, and highly 6 workers are needed to 7 and repair the equipment. These workers must be trained, 8 many nations do not have the necessary training institutions. Thus, the 9 of importing industry becomes higher. Students must be sent abroad to 10 vocational and professional training. 11 , just to begin training, the students must 12 learn English, French, German, or Japanese. The students then spend many years abroad, and 13 do not return home. All nations agree that science and technology 14 be shared. The point is: countries 15 the industrial processes of the developed nations need to look care-fully 16 the costs, because many of these costs are 17 . Students from these nations should 18 the problems of the industrialized countries closely. 19 care, they will take home not the problems of science and technology, 20 the benefits. 15.[A] adopting [B] conducting [C] receiving [D] adjusting

总结: 复现是完型文章中词汇的一种衔接手段,即表达相同意思的词汇在文章的 不同地方出现。复现可以是相同的词重复出现(原词复现) ,也可以是用不同的 词表达相同的意思(近义词复现) 。 复现的解题意义在于: 如果判断出一个未知填空与上下文的那些已知词汇有复现 关系,只要从选项中选出与那些词汇同样意义的就是正确答案。 例题:1995 年真题的 43 题 Sleep is divided into periods of so-called REM sleep, characterized by rapid eye movements and dreaming, and longer periods of non-REM sleep. 41 kind of sleep is at all well-understood , but REM sleep is 42 to serve some restorative function of the brain. The purpose of non-REM sleep is even more 43 .The new experiments, such as these 44 for the first time at a recent meeting of the Society for Sleep Research in
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Minneapolis, suggest fascinating explanations 45 of non-REM sleep .

For example, it has long been known that total sleep 46 is 1OO percent fatal to rats, yet ,47 examination of the dead bodies , the animals look completely normal . A researcher has now 48 the mystery of why the animals die. The rats 49 bacterial infections of the blood ,50 their immune systems--the self-protecting mechanism against disease--had crashed.

43 (A) subtle

(B)obvious

(C)mysterious

(D)doubtful

例题:1995 年真题的 45 题 Sleep is divided into periods of so-called REM sleep, characterized by rapid eye movements and dreaming, and longer periods of non-REM sleep. 41 kind of sleep is at all well-understood , but REM sleep is 42 to serve some restorative function of the brain. The purpose of non-REM sleep is even more 43 . The new experiments, such as these 44 for the first time at a recent meeting of the Society for Sleep Research of non-REM sleep .

in Minneapolis, suggest fascinating explanations 45

45. (A)in the light

(B)by virtue

(C)with the exception

(D)for the purpose

例题:2006 年真题第 8 题 The homeless make up a growing percentage of America's population. __1__, homelessness has reached such proportions that local government can' t possibly _____2____. To help homeless people _____3___ independence, the federal government must support job training programs, _____4_____ the minimum wage, and fund more low-cost housing. _____5____everyone agrees on the numbers of Americans who are homeless. Estimates ____6__ anywhere from 600,000 to 3 million. _____7__ the figure may vary, analysts do agree on another matter: that the number of the homeless is ___8___. One of the federal government's studies _____9__ that the number of the homeless will reach nearly 19 million by the end of this decade.

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8. [A]inflating

[B]expanding

[C]increasing

[D]extending

标准填空题型十二: 时间、数字线索法 例题:2002 年完型试题的第 30 题 “It is generally recognized, ( 29 however ) , that the introduction of the computer in the early 20th century, 30 by the invention of the integrated circuit during the

1960s, radically changed the process”

[A]brought

[B]followed

[C]stimulated

[D]characterized

the introduction of the computer 时间:early 20th century

followed by

the invention of the integrated circuit

早出现

晚出现

例题:1998 年完型试题的 43 题

“But they insisted that its (指工业革命) 43

results during the period from 1750

to 1850 were widespread poverty and misery for the 44 of the English population.

43. A) momentary

B) prompt

C) instant

D) immediate

大总结:破解完型的十二种标准方法(完型的十二种标准填空) 从词性的角度 从题型的角度 1、动词 5、无关词排除法 9、总分结构法 2、形容词 6、同现结构法 10、对应成分分析法 3、副词 7、复现结构法 11、时间、数字线索法 4、名词 8、关联结构法 12、逻辑关系定位法

完型的方法体系概括
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一个主线 一个结构 一个理论 十二种方法

宏观分析方法 + 微观解题方法

第四节课

填空式阅读 (新题型) 部分

三种备选题型

7选5 排序 匹配

从命题形式看命题原理 - 一篇填空式阅读的文章也是由两大信息板块组成的: 已知信息 -(原文在空缺之外的没有被挖掉的信息) 未知(待选信息) -(就是后面的待选选项中的信息,而这些信息实际上也不 是未知的,也是考生通过阅读可以把握的信息,所以称为待选信息更合适)

这个题型也是在考生对这两个信息板块之间互动关系的把握

测试点分析 判断和把握两个信息板块之间“相近性”的能力 判断和把握两个信息板块之间“衔接性”的能力

做题大原则 – 就近原则、衔接原则

最终的评判原则: 连贯性 – 把握了衔接原则 一致性 – 把握了就近原则
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推荐的解题步骤 根据填空式阅读的命题形式,建议考生按照以下步骤来解题: ① 先阅读原文文章的首段; ② 阅读后面的备选选项; ③ 再阅读原文的信息,进行解题; ④ 最后,通读全文; 解题方法的基本设计思路 - “由点入面、以点串面“

破解新题型的八大解题方法体系: 方法 1:复现结构定位法 方法 2:上下文逻辑关系定位法 方法 3:总分/分总结构法 方法 4:举例定位法 方法 5:时间、地点、数字、人名等客观线索衔接关系定位法 方法 6:排比结构衔接法 方法 7:无关词排除法 方法 8:代词指代关系定位法

大纲样题解析
Directions: In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps .Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) Long before Man lived on the Earth, there were fishes, reptiles, birds, insects, and some mammals. Although some of these animals were ancestors

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of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is, they have no descendants alive now. 41

Very occasionally the rocks show impression of skin, so that, apart from color, we can build up a reasonably accurate picture of an animal that died millions of years ago. That kind of rock in which the remains are found tells us much about the nature of the original land, often of the plants that grew on it, and even of its climate. 42___ Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocks formed by water action, and most of these are of animals that lived in or near water. Thus it follows that there must be many kinds of mammals, birds, and insects of which we know noting. 43 There were also crablike creatures, whose bodies were covered

with a horny substance. The body segments each had two pairs of legs, one pair for walking on the sandy bottom, the other for swimming. The head was a kind of shield with a pair of compound eyes, often with thousands of lenses. They were usually an inch or two long but some were 2 feet. 44___ Of these, the ammonites are very interesting and important. They have a shell composed of many chambers, each representing a temporary home of the animal. As the young grew larger it grew a new chamber and sealed off the previous one. Thousands of these can be seen in the rocks on the Dorset Coast. 45___ About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over and most of the groups died out. The mammals quickly developed, and we can trace the evolution of many familiar animals such as the elephant and horse. Many of the later mammals though now extinct, were known to primitive man and were featured by him in cave paintings and on bone carvings.
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[A]The shellfish have a long history in the rock and many different kinds are known. [B]Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because their bones and shells have been preserved in the rocks as fossils. From them we can tell their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate. [C]The first animals with true backbones were the fishes, first known in the rocks of 375 million years ago. About 300 million years ago the amphibians, the animals able to live both on land and in water, appeared. They were giant, sometimes 8 feet long, and many of them lived in the swampy pools in which our coal seam, or layer, or formed. The amphibians gave rise to the reptiles and for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms of life on land, in the sea, and in the air. [D]The best index fossils tend to be marine creature. There animals evolved rapidly and spread over large over large areas of the world. [E]The earliest animals whose remains have been found were all very simple kinds and lived in the sea. Later forma are more complex, and among these are the sea-lilies, relations of the star-fishes, which had long arms and were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rocks. [F]When an animal dies, the body, its bones, or shell, may often be carried away by streams into lakes or the sea and there get covered up by mud. If the animal lived in the sea its body would probably sink and be covered with mud. More and more mud would fall upon it until the bones or shell become embedded and preserved. [G]Many factors can influence how fossils are preserved in rocks. Remains of an organism may be replaced by minerals, dissolved by an acidic solution to leave only their impression, or simply reduced to a more stable form.
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41 题分析 – 逻辑关系定位法 / 复现结构定位法 42 题分析 – 复现结构定位法

43 题分析 – 复现结构定位法

44 题分析 – 举例定位法 出题方式一: 被例子所指的信息 设定在原文信息中 例子信息 设定在待选信息中

出题方式二: 被例子所指的信息 设定在待选信息中

例子信息 设定在原文信息中

例题: The main problem in discussing American popular culture is also one of its main characteristics: it won’t stay American. no matter what it is, whether it is films, food and fashion, music, casual sports or slang, it’s soon at home elsewhere in the world. There are several theories why American popular culture has had this appeal. One theory is that is has been “advertised” and marketed through American films, popular music, and more recently, television. 41 They are, after all, in competition with those produced by other countries. Another theory, probably a more common one, is that American popular culture is internationally associated with something called “the spirit of America.” 42___ The final theory is less complex: American popular culture is popular because a lot of people in the world like it. Regardless of why its spreads, American popular culture is usually quite rapidly adopted and then adapted in many other countries. 43____ Black leather jackets worn by many heroes in American movies could be found, a generation later, on all those young men who wanted to make this manly-look their own.
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Two areas where this continuing process is most clearly seen are clothing and music. Some people can still remember a time. When T-shirts, jogging clothes, tennis shoes, denim jackets, and blue jeans were not common daily wear everywhere. Only twenty years ago, it was possible to spot an American in Paris by his or her clothes. No longer so: those bright colors, checkered jackets and trousers, hats and socks which were once made fun in cartoons are back again in Paris as the latest fashion. 44____. The situation with American popular music is more complex because in the beginning, when it was still clearly American, it was often strongly resisted. Jazz was once thought to be a great danger to youth and their morals, and was actually outlawed in several countries. Today, while still showing its rather American roots, it has become so well established. Rock “n” roll and all its variations, country & western music, all have more or less similar histories. They were first resisted, often in America as well, as being “low-class,” and then as “a danger to our nation’s youth.” 45____ And then the music became accepted and was extended and was extended and developed, and exported back to the U.S. [A] As a result, its American origins and roots are often quickly forgotten. “happy birthday to you,” for instance ,is such an everyday song that its source, its American copyright, so to speak , is not remembered. [B] But this theory fails to explain why American films, music, and television, programs are so popular in themselves. [C] American in origin, informal clothing has become the world’s first truly universal style. [D] The BBC, for example, banned rock and roll until 1962. [E] American food has become popular around the world too. [F] This spirit is variously described as being young and free, optimistic and confident, informal and disrespectful. [G] It is hardly surprising that the public concern contributes a lot to the spread of the culture.

45 题分析 - 时间、地点、数字、人名等客观线索衔接关系定位法

例题:2006 年考研英语 PART B 部分 41 题
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On the north bank of the Ohio river sits Evansville, Ind., home of David Williams, 52, and of a riverboat casino (a place where gambling games are played). During several years of gambling in that casino, Williams, a state auditor earning $35,000 a year, lost approximately $175,000. He had never gambled before the casino sent him a coupon for $20 worth of gambling. He visited the casino, lost the $20 and left. On his second visit he lost $800. The casino issued to him, as a good customer, a "Fun Card", which when used in the casino earns points for meals and drinks, and enables the casino to track the user’s gambling activities. For Williams, those activities become what he calls "electronic heroin". (41) ________. In 1997 he lost $21,000 to one slot machine in two days. In March 1997 he lost $72,186. He sometimes played two slot machines at a time, all night, until the boat docked at 5 a.m., then went back aboard when the casino opened at 9 a.m. Now he is suing the casino, charging that it should have refused his patronage because it knew he was addicted. It did know he had a problem. In March 1998 a friend of Williams’s got him involuntarily confined to a treatment center for addictions, and wrote to inform the casino of Williams’s gambling problem. The casino included a photo of Williams among those of banned gamblers, and wrote to him a “cease admissions” letter. Noting the medical/psychological nature of problem gambling behavior, the letter said that before being readmitted to the casino he would have to present medical/psychological information demonstrating that patronizing the casino would pose no threat to his safety or well-being. (42) ________. The Wall Street Journal reports that the casino has 24 signs warning: “Enjoy the fun... and always bet with your head, not over it.” Every entrance ticket lists a toll-free number for counseling from the Indiana Department of Mental Health. Nevertheless, Williams’s suit charges that the casino, knowing he was “helplessly addicted to gambling,” intentionally worked to “lure” him to “engage in conduct against his will.” Well. (43) ________. The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders says “pathological gambling” involves persistent, recurring and uncontrollable pursuit less of money than of thrill of taking risks in quest of a windfall. (44) ________. Pushed by science, or what claims to be science, society is reclassifying what once were considered character flaws or moral failings as personality disorders akin to physical disabilities.

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(45) ________. Forty-four states have lotteries, 29 have casinos, and most of these states are to varying degrees dependent on -- you might say addicted to -- revenues from wagering. And since the first Internet gambling site was created in 1995, competition for gamblers’ dollars has become intense. The Oct. 28 issue of Newsweek reported that 2 million gamblers patronize 1,800 virtual casinos every week. With $3.5 billion being lost on Internet wagers this year, gambling has passed pornography as the Web’s most profitable business. [A]Although no such evidence was presented, the casino’s marketing department continued to pepper him with mailings. And he entered the casino and used his Fun Card without being detected. [B]It is unclear what luring was required, given his compulsive behavior. And in what sense was his will operative? [C]By the time he had lost $5,000 he said to himself that if he could get back to even, he would quit. One night he won $5,500, but he did not quit. [D]Gambling has been a common feature of American life forever, but for a long time it was broadly considered a sin, or a social disease. Now it is a social policy: the most important and aggressive promoter of gambling in America is the government. [E]David Williams’s suit should trouble this gambling nation. But don’t bet on it. [F]It is worrisome that society is medicalizing more and more behavioral problems, often defining as addictions what earlier, sterner generations explained as weakness of will. [G]The anonymous, lonely, undistracted nature of online gambling is especially conducive to compulsive behavior. But even if the government knew how to move against Internet gambling, what would be its grounds for doing so?

2005 年考研英语新题型真题分析 41、42 题 Canada’s premiers (the leaders of provincial government ), if they have any breath left after complaining about Ottawa at their late July annual meeting, might spare a moment to do something, to reduce health-care costs. They’re all groaning about soaring health budgets, the fastest-growing components of which are pharmaceutical costs.
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41. What to do? Both the Romanow commission and the Kirby committee on health care-to say nothing of reports from other experts — recommended the creation of a national drug agency. Instead of each province having its own list of approved drugs, bureaucracy, procedures and limited bargaining power, all would pool resources, work with Ottawa, and create a national institution. 42. But “national” doesn’t have to mean that “National” could mean interprovincial — provinces combining efforts to create one body. Either way, one benefit of a “national” organization would be to negotiate better prices, if possible, with drug manufacturers. Instead of having one province — or a series of hospitals within a province — negotiate a price for a given drug on the provincial list, the national agency would negotiate on behalf of all provinces. Rather than, say, Quebec, negotiating on behalf of seven million people, the national agency would negotiate on behalf of 31 million people. Basic economics suggests the greater the potential consumers, the higher the likelihood of a better price. 43. A small step has been taken in the direction of a national agency with the creation of the Canadian Co-ordinating office for Health technology assessment, funded by Ottawa and the provinces. Under it, a Common Drug Review recommends to provincial lists which new drugs should be included Predictably and regrettably, Quebec refused to join. A few premiers are suspicious of any federal-provincial deal-making. They (particularly Quebec and Alberta) just want Ottawa to fork over additional billions with few, if any strings attached. That’s one reason why the idea of a national list hasn’t gone anywhere, while drug costs keep rising fast. 44. Premiers love to quote Mr. Romanow’s report selectively, especially the parts
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about more federal money. Perhaps they should read what he had to say about drugs: “A national drug agency would provide governments more influence on pharmaceutical companies in order to try to constrain the ever-increasing cost of drugs.” 45. So when the premiers gather in Niagara Falls to assemble their usual complaint list, they should also get cracking about something in their jurisdiction that would help their budgets and patients. A: Quebec’s resistance to a national agency is provincialist ideology. One of the first advocates for a national list was a researcher at Laval University. Quebec’s Drug Insurance Fund has seen its costs skyrocket with annual increases from 14.3percent to 26.8per cent!

B: Or they could read Mr.Kirby’s report: “The substantial buying power of such an agency would strengthen the public prescription-drug insurance plans to negotiate the lowest possible purchase prices from drug companies. ”

C: What does “notional” mean? Roy Romanow and Senator Michael Kirby recommended a federal-provincial body much like the recently created National Health Council.

D: The problem is simple and stark health-care costs have been, are, and will continue to increase faster than government revenues.

E: According to the Canadian Institute for Health Information, prescription drug costs have risen. Since 1997 at twice the rate of overall health-care spending .Part of the increase comes from drugs being used to replace other kinds of treatment. Part of it arises from new drugs costing more than older kinds. Part of it is higher prices.

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F: So, if the provinces want to run the health-care show, they should prove they can run it, starting with an interprovincial health list that would end duplication, save a dministrative costs, prevent one province from being played off against another, and bargain for better drug prices.

G: Of course, the pharmaceutical companies will scream. They like divided buyers, they can lobby better that way. They can use the threat of removing jobs from one province to another. They can hope that, if one province includes a drug on its list, the pressure will cause others to include it on theirs. They wouldn’t like a national agency, but self-interest would lead them to deal with it.

排比结构衔接法 例题分析:43、45 题 English has become the world’s number one language in the 20th century. In every country where English is not the native language,especially in the Third World,people must strive to learn it to the best of their abilities,if they want to participate fully in the development of their countries. 41 .

42__. Nonetheless,a world full of different languages will disappear if the present trend in many countries to use English to replace the national or official languages in education,trade and even politics continues. 43

The Third World countries that are now using English as a medium of instruction are depriving 75 per cent of their future leaders of a proper education. According to many studies,only around 20 to 25 per cent of students in these countries can manage to learn the language of instruction (English)as well as basic subjects at the same time. Many leaders of these Third World countries are obsessed with English and for them English is

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everything. They seem to believe that if the students speak English,they are already knowledgeable. 44

All the greatest countries of the world are great because they constantly use their own languages in all national development activities,including education. From a psychological point of view, those who are taught in their own language from the start will develop better self-confidence and self-reliance. From a linguistic point of view,the best brains can only be produced if students are educated in their own language from the start. 45 There is nothing wrong,however,in learning a foreign language at advanced levels of education. But the best thing to do is to have a good education in one’s native language first,then go abroad to have a university education in a foreign language. [A] If this situation continues,the native or official languages of these countries will certainly die within two or three generations. This phenomenon has been called linguistic genocide. A language dies if it is not fully used in most activities,particularly as a medium of instruction in schools. [B] Those who are taught in a foreign language from the start will tend to be imitators and lack self-confidence. They will tend to rely on foreign consultants. [C] Suppose you work in a big firm and find English very important for your job because you often deal with foreign businessmen. Now you are looking for a place where you can improve your English,especially your spoken English. [D] But many people are concerned that English’s dominance will destroy native languages.

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[E] These leaders speak and write English much better than their national languages. If these leaders deliver speeches anywhere in the world they use English and they feel more at home with it and proud of their ability as well. The citizens of their countries do not understand their leaders’ speeches because they are made in a foreign language. [F] Here are some advertisements about English language training from newspapers. You may find the information you need. [G] A close examination reveals a great number of languages have fallen casualty to English. For example,it has wiped out Hawaiian,Welsh,Scotch Gaelic,Irish,native American languages,and many others. Luckily,some of these languages are now being revived,such as Hawaiian and Welsh,and these languages will live again,hopefully,if dedicated people continue their work of reviving them. 例题:2005 年考研英语新题型真题之 45 题 Canada’s premiers (the leaders of provincial government ), if they have any breath left after complaining about Ottawa at their late July annual meeting, might spare a moment to do something, to reduce health-care costs. They’re all groaning about soaring health budgets, the fastest-growing components of which are pharmaceutical costs. 41. What to do? Both the Romanow commission and the Kirby committee on health care-to say nothing of reports from other experts — recommended the creation of a national drug agency. Instead of each province having its own list of approved drugs, bureaucracy, procedures and limited bargaining power, all would pool resources, work with Ottawa, and create a national institution. 42. But “national” doesn’t have to mean that “National” could mean interprovincial
48

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— provinces combining efforts to create one body. Either way, one benefit of a “national” organization would be to negotiate better prices, if possible, with drug manufacturers. Instead of having one province — or a series of hospitals within a province — negotiate a price for a given drug on the provincial list, the national agency would negotiate on behalf of all provinces. Rather than, say, Quebec, negotiating on behalf of seven million people, the national agency would negotiate on behalf of 31 million people. Basic economics suggests the greater the potential consumers, the higher the likelihood of a better price. 43. A small step has been taken in the direction of a national agency with the creation of the Canadian Co-ordinating office for Health technology assessment, funded by Ottawa and the provinces. Under it, a Common Drug Review recommends to provincial lists which new drugs should be included Predictably and regrettably, Quebec refused to join. A few premiers are suspicious of any federal-provincial deal-making. They (particularly Quebec and Alberta) just want Ottawa to fork over additional billions with few, if any strings attached. That’s one reason why the idea of a national list hasn’t gone anywhere, while drug costs keep rising fast. 44. Premiers love to quote Mr. Romanow’s report selectively, especially the parts about more federal money. Perhaps they should read what he had to say about drugs: “A national drug agency would provide governments more influence on pharmaceutical companies in order to try to constrain the ever-increasing cost of drugs.” 45. So when the premiers gather in Niagara Falls to assemble their usual complaint list, they should also get cracking about something in their jurisdiction that would help their budgets and patients.
49

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A: Quebec’s resistance to a national agency is provincialist ideology. One of the first advocates for a national list was a researcher at Laval University. Quebec’s Drug Insurance Fund has seen its costs skyrocket with annual increases from 14.3percent to 26.8per cent!

B: Or they could read Mr.Kirby’s report: “The substantial buying power of such an agency would strengthen the public prescription-drug insurance plans to negotiate the lowest possible purchase prices from drug companies. ”

C: What does “notional” mean? Roy Romanow and Senator Michael Kirby recommended a federal-provincial body much like the recently created National Health Council.

D: The problem is simple and stark health-care costs have been, are, and will continue to increase faster than government revenues.

E: According to the Canadian Institute for Health Information, prescription drug costs have risen. Since 1997 at twice the rate of overall health-care spending .Part of the increase comes from drugs being used to replace other kinds of treatment. Part of it arises from new drugs costing more than older kinds. Part of it is higher prices.

F: So, if the provinces want to run the health-care show, they should prove they can run it, starting with an interprovincial health list that would end duplication, save a dministrative costs, prevent one province from being played off against another, and bargain for better drug prices.

G: Of course, the pharmaceutical companies will scream. They like divided buyers, they can lobby better that way. They can use the threat of removing jobs from one province to another. They can hope that, if one province includes a drug on its list,
50

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the pressure will cause others to include it on theirs. They wouldn’t like a national agency, but self-interest would lead them to deal with it. 无关词排除法 例题: In 1959 the average American family paid $989 for a year’s supply of food. In 1972 the family paid$1,311.That was a price increase of nearly one-third. Every family has had this sort of experience. Everyone agrees that the cost of feeding a family has risen sharply. But there is less agreement when reasons for the rise are being discussed. Who is really responsible? Many blame the farmers who produce the vegetables,fruit,meat,eggs, and cheese that stores offer for sale. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture,the farmer’s share of the$1,311spent by the family in 1972 was $521.This was 31 per cent more than the farmer had received in1959. But farmers claim that this increase was very small compared to the increase in their cost of living. Farmers tend to blame others for the sharp rise in food prices. They particularly blame those who process the farm products after the products leave the farm. These include truck drivers,meat packers, manufacturers of packages and other food containers,and the owners of stores where food is sold. 41

Of the $1,311family food bill in1972,middlemen received$790,which was 33 per cent more than they had received in 1959.It appears that the middlemen’s profit has increased more than farmer’s. But some economists claim that the middleman’s actual profit was very low. According to economists at the First National City Bank,the profit for meat packers and food stores amounted to less than one per cent. During the same period all other manufacturers were making a profit of more than 5 per cent.
51

42____

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43 Vegetables and chicken cost more when they have been cut into pieces by someone other than the one who buys it. A family should expect to pay more when several “TV dinners” are taken home from the store. These are fully cooked meals,consisting of meat,vegetables,and sometimes desert, all arranged on a metal dish. The dish is put into the oven and heated while the housewife is doing something else. Such a convenience costs money. 44____ Economists remind us that many modern housewives have jobs outside the home. They earn money that helps to pay the family food bills. The housewife naturally has less time and energy for cooking after a day’s work. She wants to buy many kinds of food that can be put on her family’s table easily and quickly. 45____

It appears that the answer to the question of rising prices is not a simple one. Producers, consumers, and middlemen all share the responsibility for the sharp rise in food costs. [A] Thus,as economists point out: “Some of the basic reasons for widening food price spreads are easily traceable to the increasing use of convenience foods,which transfer much of the time and work of meal preparation from the kitchen to the food processor’s plant.” [B] They are among the “middlemen” who stand between the farmer and the people who buy and eat the food. Are middlemen the ones to blame for rising food prices? [C] “If the housewife wants all of these ” the economists say,“that is her privilege,but she must be prepared to pay for the services of those who make her work easier.”
52

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[D] Who then is actually responsible for the size of the bill a housewife must pay before she carries the food home from the store? The economists at First National City Bank have an answer to give housewives,but many people will not like it. These economists blame the housewife herself for the jump in food prices. They say that food costs more now because women don’t want to spend much time in the kitchen. Women prefer to buy food which has already been prepared before it reaches the market. [E] However,some economists believe that controls can have negative effects over a long period of time. In cities with rent control,the city government sets the maximum rent that a landlord(房主)can charge for an apartment. [F] Economists do not agree on some of the predictions. They also do not agree on the value of different decisions. Some economists support a particular decision while others criticize it. [G] By comparison with other members of the economic system both farmers and middlemen have profited surprisingly little from the rise in food prices.

例题:42 题 – 组合使用复现结构定位法 + 无关词排除法 Fields across Europe are contaminated with dangerous levels of the antibiotics given to farm animals. The drugs, which are in manure sprayed onto fields as fertilizers, could be getting into our food and water, helping to create a new generation of antibiotic-resistant “superbugs”. The warning comes from a researcher in Switzerland who looked at levels of the drugs in farm slurry. 41

Some 20,000 tons antibiotics are used in the European Union and the US each year. More than half are given to farm-animals to prevent disease and promote growth. 42
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Most researchers assumed that humans become infected with the resistant strains by eating contaminated meat. But far more of the drugs end up in manure than in meat products, says Stephen Mueller of the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology in Dubendorf. 43 With millions of tons animals manure spread onto fields of cops such as wheat and barley each year, this pathway seems an equally likely route for spreading resistance, he said. The drugs contaminate the crops, which are then eaten. 44

Mueller is particularly concerned about a group of antibiotics called sulphonamides. 45 This concentration is high enough to trigger the

development of resistance among bacteria. But vets are not treating the issue seriously. There is growing concern at the extent to which drugs, including antibiotics, are polluting the environment. Many drugs given to humans are also excreted unchanged and broken down by conventional sewage treatment. [A] They do not easily degrade or dissolve in water. His analysis found that Swiss farm manure contains a high percentage of sulphonamides; each hectare of field could be contaminated with up to 1 kilogram of the drugs. [B] And manure contains especially high levels of bugs that are resistant to antibiotics, he says. [C] Animal antibiotics is still an area to which insufficient attention has been paid.

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[D] But recent research has found a direct link between the increased use of these farmyard drugs and the appearance of antibiotic-resistant bugs that infect people. [E] His findings are particularly shocking because Switzerland is one of the few countries to have banned antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed. [F] They could also be leaching into tap water pumped from rocks beneath fertilized fields. [G] There is no doubt that the food and drink is always important to the health.

代词指代关系定位法 例题: 41 They distribute materials to agencies, such as journals,

brochures and advertising projects. 出题人在出这种涉及代词的题时,同举例定位法一样,也有两种有关代词出现位 置的设置方式:

代词 设置在原文信息中

被指代的人或事物 设置在待选选项的信息中

代词 设置在待选选项的信息中

被指代的人或事物 设置在原文信息中

无论代词是被设置在原文信息中还是在后面的待选选项的信息中, 此类题的最好 切入点都是从代词入手,因为代词容易被辨认出来,通过先定位代词,再顺藤摸 瓜查找出哪个信息板块包含指代的人或事物。
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例题: In 1959 the average American family paid $989 for a year’s supply of food. In 1972 the family paid$1,311.That was a price increase of nearly one-third. Every family has had this sort of experience. Everyone agrees that the cost of feeding a family has risen sharply. But there is less agreement when reasons for the rise are being discussed. Who is really responsible? Many blame the farmers who produce the vegetables,fruit,meat,eggs, and cheese that stores offer for sale. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture,the farmer’s share of the$1,311spent by the family in 1972 was $521.This was 31 per cent more than the farmer had received in1959. But farmers claim that this increase was very small compared to the increase in their cost of living. Farmers tend to blame others for the sharp rise in food prices. They particularly blame those who process the farm products after the products leave the farm. These include truck drivers,meat packers, manufacturers of packages and other food containers,and the owners of stores where food is sold. 41

Of the $1,311family food bill in1972,middlemen received$790,which was 33 per cent more than they had received in 1959.It appears that the middlemen’s profit has increased more than farmer’s. But some economists claim that the middleman’s actual profit was very low. According to economists at the First National City Bank,the profit for meat packers and food stores amounted to less than one per cent. During the same period all other manufacturers were making a profit of more than 5 per cent. 43 Vegetables and chicken cost more when they have been cut into pieces by someone other than the one who buys it. A family should expect to pay
56

42____

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more when several “TV dinners” are taken home from the store. These are fully cooked meals,consisting of meat,vegetables,and sometimes desert, all arranged on a metal dish. The dish is put into the oven and heated while the housewife is doing something else. Such a convenience costs money. 44____ Economists remind us that many modern housewives have jobs outside the home. They earn money that helps to pay the family food bills. The housewife naturally has less time and energy for cooking after a day’s work. She wants to buy many kinds of food that can be put on her family’s table easily and quickly. 45____

It appears that the answer to the question of rising prices is not a simple one. Producers, consumers, and middlemen all share the responsibility for the sharp rise in food costs. [A] Thus,as economists point out: “Some of the basic reasons for widening food price spreads are easily traceable to the increasing use of convenience foods,which transfer much of the time and work of meal preparation from the kitchen to the food processor’s plant.” [B] They are among the “middlemen” who stand between the farmer and the people who buy and eat the food. Are middlemen the ones to blame for rising food prices? [C] “If the housewife wants all of these ” the economists say,“that is her privilege,but she must be prepared to pay for the services of those who make her work easier.” [D] Who then is actually responsible for the size of the bill a housewife must pay before she carries the food home from the store? The economists at First National City Bank have an answer to give housewives,but many people will
57

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not like it. These economists blame the housewife herself for the jump in food prices. They say that food costs more now because women don’t want to spend much time in the kitchen. Women prefer to buy food which has already been prepared before it reaches the market. [E] However,some economists believe that controls can have negative effects over a long period of time. In cities with rent control,the city government sets the maximum rent that a landlord(房主)can charge for an apartment. [F] Economists do not agree on some of the predictions. They also do not agree on the value of different decisions. Some economists support a particular decision while others criticize it. [G] By comparison with other members of the economic system both farmers and middlemen have profited surprisingly little from the rise in food prices. 破解新题型的八大解题方法体系: 方法 1:复现结构定位法 方法 2:上下文逻辑关系定位法 方法 3:总分 / 分总结构法 方法 4:举例定位法 方法 5:时间、地点、数字、人名等客观线索衔接关系定位法 方法 6:排比结构衔接法 方法 7:无关词排除法 方法 8:代词指代关系定位法

由点入面 以点串面 点面结合 三位一体 — 三种备选题型均可应用

58


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